The Health Safety Handbook – A practical guide to health and safety law, management policies and procedures

The Health Safety Handbook – A practical guide to health and safety law, management policies and procedures
اسم المؤلف
JEREMY STRANKS
التاريخ
23 أكتوبر 2023
المشاهدات
253
التقييم
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The Health Safety Handbook – A practical guide to health and safety law, management policies and procedures
JEREMY STRANKS
Contents
Abbreviations vi
1 Principles of health and safety law 1
Introduction 1; Civil law 2; Criminal law 3; Courts and tribunals 4;
Employment tribunals 7; Statutes, regulations, approved codes of practice
and HSE guidance notes 8; Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974 9;
Enforcement procedures 12; Statements of health and safety policy 18;
Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations (MHSWR) 1999 19;
Health and safety manuals and employee instructions 24; Employers’
liability insurance 24
2 Health and safety management 27
Health and safety management 27; Accident prevention 35; Safety
monitoring 39; Hazard identification and risk assessment 42; Safe systems of
work 47; Competent persons 50; Emergency procedures 50; Vulnerable
groups 51; Accident and ill-health reporting and recording requirements 52;
The investigation of accidents and incidents 60; The costs of accidents, incidents
and ill health 61; The provision of information, instruction and training 63; Joint
consultation and health and safety 64; Safety propaganda 66
3 The working environment 68
Introduction 68; The workplace requirements 68; Safety signs and signals in
the workplace 72; Management systems 744 Engineering safety 80
Introduction 80; Machinery hazards 80; Hand tools 83; Provision and Use of
Work Equipment Regulations 1998 83; Work equipment risk assessment 93;
Machinery guarding 93; Safety devices 96; Safety mechanisms 98; Secondhand, hired and leased work equipment 98; Mobile handling equipment 99;
Mechanical handling equipment 100; Lifting Operations and Lifting
Equipment Regulations (LOLER) 1998 102; Schedule 1: Information to
be contained in a report of a thorough examination 105; Safe lifting
operations 106; Pressure vessels 107; Simple Pressure Vessels (Safety)
Regulations 1991 108; Pressure systems 111; Internal transport 112
5 Fire prevention and protection 114
Introduction 114; Principles of combustion 115; Heat transmission 115;
Sources of ignition 115; Fire spread control 116; Classification of fires 117;
Fire extinction 118; Fire alarm systems 120; Fire instructions 121; Fire drills
and sounding of alarms 121; Flammable substances 121; Fire safety law 122;
Fire risk assessment 129
6 Electrical safety 132
Introduction 132; The principal hazards 132; Electric shock 132; First aid 133;
Legal requirements 134; The risk of fire 138; Precautions against electric
shock 138; Portable electrical appliances 140; Electric storage batteries 142
7 Health and safety in construction operations 144
Introduction 144; Construction activities – the principal hazards 144; Clients
and contractors – civil and criminal liability 148; Construction safety law 150;
Construction activities – the principal precautions 158
8 Occupational health 165
Introduction 165; What is occupational health? 165; Occupational health
practitioners 166; Classification of occupational health risks 168; Reportable
diseases 169; Prescribed diseases 169; The principal occupational diseases and
conditions 170; Occupational health practice 173; First aid 175; Manual
handling operations 176; Noise 176; Display screen equipment 177; Stress at
work 178; A healthy lifestyle 180; Occupational health-related legislation 180
9 Personal protective equipment 188
Introduction 188; Classification of personal protective equipment 188;
Personal Protective Equipment at Work Regulations 1992 189
Contents
iv10 Human factors 192
Introduction 192; People at work 192; The perceptual, physical and mental
capabilities of people 193; Human error 195; The influence of equipment and
system design on human performance 197; Organizational characteristics
which influence safety-related behaviour 198; Communication 199; Health
and safety training 200; Ergonomics 201; The total working system 202;
Anthropometric studies 204; The right safety culture 204; The role of the
supervisor 206; Atypical workers 206; Lone working 208; Vulnerable groups
at work 209
11 Hazardous substances 212
Introduction 212; Classification of hazardous substances 212; Safety data for
hazardous substances 213; The physical state of hazardous substances 213;
Principles of toxicology 216; Occupational exposure limits 218; Control of
Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) Regulations 2002 220; Health risk
assessments 222
Index 226
Index227
Index
civil law 2, 3, 5
civil liability 1, 128, 148–49
cleaning procedures 76, 77
cleanliness of workplaces 70, 156
clients and contractors 148–50
clients’ duties 152
clothing storage requirements 72, 156
cofferdams 155, 157
collapses of excavations 145
combustion, principles of 115
comfort factors 203
common law 1
communication 198, 199, 200, 208, 209
competent persons 21, 37, 50, 104, 112, 125, 157, 162, 163
conduction 115
conductors 136
confined spaces 148
Confined Spaces Regulations 1997 148
Construction (Design and Management) Regulations
1994 149, 151–54
Construction (Head Protection) Regulations 1989 150,
151
Construction (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations
1996 149, 154–57
construction hazards 144–48
construction operations 144–64
construction phase 152
construction safety law 150–57
construction work, definition 151, 152
consultation procedures 19, 64–66, 149, 150, 154
contact hazards 82
contractor 148, 149
contractors’ duties 154
contractors’ safety regulations 150
Control of Asbestos at Work Regulations 2002 147, 186
Control of Lead at Work Regulations 147
Control of Substances hazardous to Health (COSHH)
Regulations 147, 220–22
control recommendations 28
controllers of premises 9
controllers of construction sites 151
controls 202
convection 115
conveyors 100–02
cooling (fire) 117
co-operation and co-ordination 149
corporate liability 128
corrosion (boilers) 108
corrosive, classification 214
counselling 174, 175
County Courts 5
Court of Appeal 6
court structure in England and Wales 7
courts and tribunals 4–8
cranes 106, 107
criminal courts 6
criminal law 3, 4, 5
criminal liability 1, 2, 149
critical task analysis 198
Crown Court 2, 6
current 133
daily personal noise exposure 183
danger areas 21
danger zone (machinery), definition 86
dangerous for the environment, classification 215
dangerous locations 73
dangerous occurrences 57
dangerous substance, definition 71
Dangerous Substances (Notification and Marking of
Sites) Regulations 1990 74
day persons and night persons 207
decision-making 198
demolition precautions 155, 163
depression 179
dermatitis 172
design ergonomics 202
designated persons 84, 92
designers’ duties 153
desynchronization of body rhythms 207
direct contact (electricity) 138
direct costs of accidents 62
disabled person, definition 69
disabled workers 52, 72, 210
disease, definition 53
dismissal, actual or constructive 8
display screen equipment 177
displays 202
distance guards 95
doors and gates 71, 155
dose 218
dose–response relationship 218
double-insulated Class 2 appliances 142
drinking water 72, 156
drive shafts 90
drivers, requirements for 78, 99, 100
drowning, risk of 155
dry chemical powder appliances 119
dusts 216
duties, hierarchy of 3, 4
duty holders 134
ear protection zone, definition 184
ear protectors 184, 189
earth bond test 141
earth faults 139
earth leakage circuit breakers 139
earth leakage test 142
earthed Class 1 appliances 142
earthing 136, 138, 139
EC certificate of conformity 110
EC declaration of conformity 104
EC mark and other specified inscriptions 110
EC verification certificate 110
ejection 82
elderly workers 52, 210
electric shock 132, 133, 138, 139
electric storage batteries 142
electrical equipment 135, 140–42
electrical equipment, definition 134
electrical hazards 132, 133
electrical resistance 133
electrical safety 132–43228
Index
electrical system, definition 135
Electricity at Work Regulations 1989 134–37
emergency procedures 39, 50, 51
emergency routes, exits and doors 125, 156
emergency services 125
employees’ duties 11, 23, 126, 135, 185, 186, 191, 222
employers’ duties 2, 9, 10, 12, 25
Employers’ Liability (Compulsory Insurance) Act
1969 3, 24, 25
Employers’ Liability (Compulsory Insurance)
Regulations 1999 3, 25
employers’ liability insurance 24–26
Employment Tribunals 7, 8
enforcement authorities 2
enforcement notice 127
enforcement procedures 12–18, 127
engineering safety 80–113
engines, vehicle emissions and hot surfaces 116
entanglement 82
environmental factors 48, 198, 203
environmental monitoring 77
equipment and devices 78
equipment and system design 197, 198
equipment made dead 136
ergonomic (work-related) agents 168, 173
ergonomic design factors 198
ergonomics 201–04
escalators 71
essential requirements (work equipment) 85
European Court of Justice 7
excavation collapses 145, 155
evacuation from buildings 74
evacuation from construction sites 156
excavations 157, 162
excess current 136
exhaust ventilation systems 186
explosions 134
explosive charges 155
explosive, classification 214
external services, contact with 21
extremely flammable, classification 214
eye and eyesight tests 185
eye injuries 134
eye protection 188
face protection 188
fail-safe operation (safety mechanisms) 98
fall arrest equipment 161
falling objects 70
falls from a height 70, 145, 154
falls from pitched roofs or through fragile roofs 145
falls from working platforms 145
falls of materials 145
falls through openings 145
Family Division 5
fatal accident procedure 19
fatigue 204
feedback strategies 39
fire alarm systems 120, 121
fire appliances 118, 119
fire classification 117, 118
fire, definition 114
fire drills and sounding of alarms 121
fire fighting equipment 125, 156
fire hazards 129, 146
fire instructions 121
fire prevention and protection 114–31
fire risk assessment 124, 129, 130
fire risks (electrical equipment) 138
fire safety law 122–28
fire spread control 116, 117
fire triangle 115
fires involving electrical equipment 118
First Aid 133, 134, 175, 176, 180
first aid kits 182
first aid requirements 180–82
first aid rooms 181
five steps to risk assessment (HSE) 44–47
fixed cranes 106
fixed guards 93, 94
flammable, classification 214
flammable substances 121, 122
Flash Point 122
flash test 141
floors in workplaces 70
foam appliances 119
fogs 216
fragile roofs 145, 161, 162
Framework Directive 19
friction 116
fumes 216
fuse test 142
fuses 139
gangways 78
gas incidents 56, 57
gases 216
general effects 217
general fire precautions, definition 123, 124
general principles of prevention 23, 24
grooving 108
guards and protection devices 86
Guidance Notes (HSE) 9
hand and arm protection 189
hand signals for mechanical handling 73
hand tools 83
harmful, classification 214
hazard, definition 42, 45
hazard identification 42, 43
hazard identification and risk assessment 42–47
hazard reporting 43, 74, 75
hazardous substances 146, 147, 212–25
head protection 188
head protection requirements 150, 151
Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974 1, 9–12
Health and Safety Commission 12, 13
Health and Safety Executive 2, 13
Health and Safety (Consultation with Employees)
Regulations 1996 66
Health and Safety (Display Screen Equipment)
Regulations 1992 185, 186229
Index
health and safety management 27–35
health and safety manuals and employee instructions
24
health and safety plans 153
Health and Safety (First Aid) Regulations 1981 175,
176, 180, 181
Health and Safety (Safety Signs and Signals)
Regulations 1996 72–74
health and safety training 200, 201
health records 186, 222
health risk assessment 221, 223, 224
health surveillance 21, 22, 173, 174, 211
hearing damage 177
heat transmission 115
High Court 5, 6
highly flammable, classification 214
hired and leased equipment 98
hose reel appliances 119, 120
hot work processes 116
House of Lords 7
housekeeping 146
human capability 22, 193–95, 199
human characteristics 203
human error 195–97
human factors 192–211
human factors, definition 192, 193
human–machine interface 203
IEE Regulations for Electrical Installations 137
ignition sources 115, 116
improvement notices 7, 14, 15
inadequate design 195
inadequate information 195
indirect contact (electricity) 138
indirect costs of accidents 62
induction training 64, 200
information, instruction and training 21, 22, 63, 64,
84, 92, 126, 184, 186, 190, 199, 208, 209, 210, 222
information, provision of 152, 153, 154, 183, 200
ingestion 219
inhalation 217
injection, implantation and inoculation 218
injury, definition 135
in-running nips 81, 82, 101
in-situ fire fighting equipment 119, 120
inspection of work equipment 92
inspectors, powers of 13–18
instruction, provision of 200
insulation test 141
insurance 3, 24–26,
interface design 204
interlocking guards 93, 94
internal transport 112, 113
investigation systems 34
ionizing radiation 171
irritant, classification 214
isolation 136
joints and connections 136
knowledge-based errors 197
lack of understanding 195
ladders 144, 145, 160, 161
lapses of attention 195
Law Reports 1
Leadership 199
leg and foot protection 189
legal routes following an accident at work 26
lifestyle recommendations 180
lift trucks 100
lifting operations 106, 107
Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations
1998 102–106
lighting, work equipment 89
lighting of workplaces 70, 137, 156
lightning 116
liquids 216
load test 141
local authorities 2
local effects 217
lone working 208, 209
long-term exposure limits 219
luminous tube signs 127
machine, definition 80
machinery guards and safety devices 93–98
machinery hazards 80–83, 87
machinery and powered hand tools 146
machinery-related injuries 81
Magistrates Court 6
maintenance requirements 69, 84, 89, 135
major injury, definition 53
Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations
1999 3, 4, 19–24
management requirements 20
managerial stress 179
mandatory signs 73
manual handling injuries 176
manual handling operations 147, 176
Manual Handling Operations Regulations 1992 147,
176, 182, 183
manual handling risk assessments 182, 183
manufacturers, designers, etc – duties of 10, 11
manufacturers’ instructions 108
master and servant relationship 3
maximum exposure limits 219, 220
meals, facilities for taking 72
measuring performance 30, 33, 34
mechanical handling equipment 100–02
medical supervision 167
medical suspension payment 8
Memorandum of Guidance (Electricity at Work
Regulations 1989) 137, 140
mental match 195
micro-organism, definition 220
microwave apparatus 134
misperceptions 196
mistaken actions 196
mistaken priorities 196
mistakes 196
mists 216
mobile (movable) access equipment 160230
Index
mobile cranes 106
mobile handling equipment 99, 100
mobile pressure systems 112
mobile work equipment 89, 90
monitoring exposure of employees 186
monitoring recommendations 28, 29
motivation 193, 194
moving walkways 71
mutagenic, classification 215
negligence 2, 3
new or expectant mothers 20, 23, 52, 210
noise 176, 177
noise assessment 183
Noise at Work Regulations 1989 183–85
noise-induced hearing loss 170, 171
noise nuisance 176, 177
noise sources 177
non-infective dermatitis 172
non-ionizing radiation 171
non-occupational disease 175
non-operational parts, machinery 81
notifiable projects 152
occupational cancers 173
occupational deafness 170
occupational dermatitis 172
occupational diseases and conditions 170–73
occupational exposure limits 218, 219
occupational exposure standards 219, 220
occupational health 165–87
occupational health nurses 167
occupational health practice 165, 166, 173–75
occupational health practitioners 166–68
occupational health-related legislation 180–86
occupational health risks 168
occupational hygiene, definition 167
occupational hygienists 167, 168
occupational physicians 166, 167
occupiers 148
Occupiers Liability Act 1957 149
offences 127, 128
open flame sources 116
operation test 141
operational parts, machinery 81
operator abuse and misuse 98
operator, display screen equipment 185
organization and arrangements 18, 19
organizational characteristics which influence safetyrelated behaviour 198, 199
organizational recommendations 28, 29, 32
orientation training 64, 200
outdoor workplaces 156
overcurrent devices 139
overhead travelling cranes 107
overheating, of boilers 108
overloading, of electrical systems 138
ownership of health and safety 205
oxidizing, classification 214
pedestrian safety 71, 155
people at work 48
perception 194
perception of risk 194
perceptual, physical and mental capabilities of
people 193–95
Permit to Work systems 48–50, 139, 148
personal hygiene 38
personal protective devices 209
personal protective equipment 37, 146, 163, 186,
188–91, 221, 222
Personal Protective Equipment at Work Regulations
1992 37, 189–91
personal protective equipment risk assessment 190
personal protective equipment, suitability of 190
pervasion 217, 218
physical agents 168, 169
physical match 194
physical state of hazardous substances 213, 216
physical stressors 178
pipework marking 73
placing people in suitable work 174
planned motivation 194
planned preventive maintenance 76, 92
planning recommendations 27, 30, 32, 33
planning supervisors 152, 153
pneumoconiosis 170
policy recommendations 29
portable appliance testing (PAT) 141, 142
portable electrical appliances 140–142
portable fire-fighting appliances 118, 119
post-accident strategies 38, 39
posture 203
power presses 90–92
powered hand tools 146
‘practicable’ duties 4
pre-accident strategies 36–38
precedent 1
precise operation, safety mechanisms 98
pre-demolition survey 163
pregnant women and nursing mothers 72
preparation, definition 212, 220
presbyacusis 171
prescribed diseases 169, 170
pressure-related conditions 172
pressure systems 111, 112
Pressure Systems Safety Regulations 2000 111, 112
pressure vessels 107–11
preventive and protective measures, definition 20
primary irritants 172, 218
primary monitoring 174
prime mover 81
principal contractors’ duties 153, 154
prohibition notice 7, 16, 17, 127
prohibition signs 73
projects 152
prosecution 2, 16, 18
Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations
1998 83–92
public, dealing with the 210
Queen’s Bench 5231
Index
radiation 115, 171, 172
reactive monitoring systems 33, 35
reasonable care 2
‘reasonably practicable’ duties 4
reciprocating trap 81
reduced voltage 139
refresher training 200
regulations 2, 8
Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005-09-29
122–28
relevant enforcing authority, definition 104
relevant person 122, 123, 127
relevant statutory provisions 11, 12, 19, 44
relevant transport system, definition 53
reliability, of safety mechanisms 98
repetitive strain injury 173
report of a gas incident (form 2508G) 57
report of an injury or dangerous occurrence (form
2508) 54, 55
reportable diseases 56, 57, 60, 169
reportable gas incidents 56
reportable injuries 56
reporting and response systems 34
Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous
Occurrences Regulations (RIDDOR) 1995 52–60
reporting requirements 53, 56, 57
representatives of employee safety 66
residual current devices 139
resistance 133
respirable dust, definition 220
respirator zones 186
respiratory protective equipment 186, 188, 222
responses to current/voltage 133
responsibilities 19
responsible person, definition 123
responsible persons 53, 56, 124–26, 127
rest facilities 72, 156
review recommendations 29
reviewing performance 34
risk, definition 42
risk analysis 177
risk avoidance 175
risk assessment 20, 43–47, 92, 93, 124, 128, 129, 158,
186, 197, 209, 221
roadways 78
roller conveyors 101
roof work 161
routine observation 42, 43
rule-based errors 197
rules and operating instructions 197
safe access and egress 37
safe condition signs 73
safe equipment 36
safe materials 36, 37, 48
‘safe person’ strategies 37, 38
‘safe place’ strategies 36, 37
safe premises 36
safe processes 36
safe systems of work 36, 47–50, 100, 139, 209
safety assessment 92
safety audits 40
safety clearance 110
safety climate 199
safety committees 65, 66
safety culture 199, 204, 205
safety data 37, 213
safety devices, for machinery 96, 97
safety incentive schemes 194
safety inspections 39, 74–76, 158
safety mechanisms, for machinery 98
safety method statements 158, 163
safety monitoring 39–41, 43
safety posters 66, 67, 199
safety propaganda 66, 67
safety representatives 8, 65
Safety Representatives and Safety Committees
Regulations 1977 65, 66
safety sampling exercises 40, 41
safety signs and signals 72–74
safety surveys 40
safety tours 40
safety videos 199
sanitary conveniences 71, 156
scaffolding requirements 159, 160
screen breaks 185
screw conveyors 101
seats, provision of 70
secondary cutaneous sensitizers 172, 218
secondary monitoring 174
second-hand equipment 98
Secretary of State for Employment 1
sensitizing, classification 214
series manufacture, definition 108
shared workplaces 21, 126, 149
shearing traps 81
shift working 206–08
short circuits 138
short-term exposure limits 219
showers 71
Simple Pressure Vessels (Safety) Regulations 1991
108–11
site transport 155
skill-based errors 197
‘skin’ annotation 219
skin protection 189
slat conveyors 101
sleep needs and problems 207, 208
slings 107
smokes 216
smoking 116
Social Security Act 1975 169
Social Security (Industrial Injuries) (Prescribed
Diseases) Regulations 1985 169
sociocusis 171
solids 213
space requirements 70, 137
sparking 138
special corrective appliances 185
special technical and organizational measures,
definition 123, 124
spontaneous combustion 116232
Index
spontaneous ignition 116
sprinkler systems 120
stability and solidity of workplaces 69
stability of structures 155
starvation 116
Statements of Health and Safety Policy 18, 19, 31, 32
Statement of Intent 18
static electricity 116
statute law 1, 2
statutes 1, 2, 8
steam boilers 107–11
stock bar, definition 86
stress at work 178–180
stress management 180, 208
stressors, classification 178, 179
sub-policies 19
substance, definition 212, 221
substance hazardous to health, definition 221
substances for use at work 11
successful health and safety management [HS(G)65]
29–35
suitable persons, for First Aid 181
supervision requirements 37
supervisors, role of 206
Supreme Court of Judicature 6
systematic training 200
systemic effect 217
tanks and pits 71
target organs and target systems 216, 217
task design 198
temperature in workplaces 69, 70, 156
temperature-related conditions 170
thorough examination, of lifting equipment 105, 106
threshold limits 218
torts 2
total inhalable dust, definition 221
Total Working System 202–04
tower cranes 106
toxic, classification 214
toxic for reproduction, classification 215
toxicology 216–18
training, definition 64, 200
training evaluation 201
training needs 200, 208
training plan and programme 201
traffic management 77, 78
traffic route, definition 69
traffic route requirements 70, 71
training, definition 200
transmission machinery 81
transport accidents 145
traps, for machinery 81, 101
treatment services 174
trip devices 97
ultraviolet radiation 134
underground services 147, 155
unintentional error 197
use (work equipment), definition 83
user (display screen equipment), definition 185
vaporizing liquid appliances 119
vapours 216
vehicle movements 112, 113, 155, 156
ventilation of workplaces 69, 156
ventricular fibrillation 133
vessel, definition 109
vessels, requirements for 109, 110
vibration-induced injury 171
vicarious liability 3
violations 196
vision requirements 203
visitors 19
visual perception 194
voltage 133
vulnerable groups 38, 52, 79, 175, 209–11
warnings and warning devices 89
washing facilities 71, 186
warning signs 73
wastage 108
waste materials 70
water appliances 118
water, work over and transport across 146
wheelchair users 113
wilfulness 196
windows and skylights 71
windows, transparent and translucent surfaces 71
Wiring Regulations 137
women of child-bearing age 22
work above ground level 159–61
work activities 135
work away from base 210
work below ground level 162
work equipment 48, 135
work equipment controls and control systems 87, 88
work equipment, definition 83
work equipment inspection 84
work equipment isolation 88
work equipment requirements 83–92, 157
work equipment selection 83
work patterns 198
working environment 198
working period, definition 91
working platforms 157, 160
workplace, definition 69
Workplace (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations
1992 68–72
workplace inspection requirements 157
workplace requirements 68–72
workplaces 48
work-related upper limb disorders 173
works of an equivalent nature 9
workstation (display screen equipment), definition
185
workstation requirements 70, 203
workstation risk analysis 177, 185
written plans (asbestos) 186
young persons 20, 23, 52, 210
zoonoses 168

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