The Elements of Machine Design Part I

The Elements of Machine Design Part I
اسم المؤلف
W. Cawthorne Unwin, F.r.s.
التاريخ
19 ديسمبر 2021
المشاهدات
519
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The Elements of Machine Design Part I
General Principles, Fastenings, and Transmissive Machinery
By
W. Cawthorne Unwin, F.r.s.
B.sc., Mbm. Inst. Civil Engineers, Hon. Mem. Inst. Mechanical Engineers
Hon. Mem. Am. Soc. Mechanical Engineers
Foreign Hon. Mem. Am. Academy Op Arts and Sciences
Professor Op Engineering at the Central Technical College
Kensington ; Formerly Professor Op Hydraulic and
Mechanical Engineering at the Royal Indian
Engineering College
New Impression
(New Edition, Revised and Enlarged Xgox)
L O N G M a N S, G R E E N, a N D C O.
39 Paternoster Row, London
New York and Bombay
Text-books of Science
F. D.
Abney’s Photography. 134 Illustrations

Anderson’s the Strength of Materials and Struc

Tures. 66 Ihostratians
Ball’s Elements of Astronomy. 130 Illustration*
Barry’s Railway Appliances. Az8 Illustrations
Bauerman’s Systematic Mineralogy. 373 Illustrations 6 O
Bauerman’s Descriptive Mineralogy. 936 Illustrations 6 O
Glazebrook Ft Shaw’s Practical Physics. 134
Illustrations 7 6
Glazebrook’s Physical Optics. X83 Illustrations
Gore’s Art of Electro-metallurgy. 56 Illustrations… 6 O
Gribble’s Preliminary Survey. X33 Illustrations
Notas and Solutions 3 6
Griffin’s Algebra and Trigonometry
Holmes’s the Steam Engine, Axa Illustrations
Huntington Ft Mcmillan’s Metals: Their Proprrtirs
And Treatment. Xaa Illustrations
Jenkin’s Electricity and Magnetism. X77 Illustrations 3 6
Maxwell’s Theory of Heat. 38 Illustrations
Merrifield’s Arithmetic and Mensuration
Miller’s Introduction to the Study of Inorganic
Chemistry. 7a Illustrations 3 *
Preece Ft Sivewrights Telegraphy. 967 Illustrations 6 O
Rutley’s the Study of Rocks. 6 Plates And88 Illustrations 4 6
Shelley’s Workshop Appliances. 33 Illustrations … 5 O Thomfi Ft Bennett’s Structural and Physiological Botany. 600 Illustrations Thorpe’s Quantitative Chemical Analysis. 88 Illustrations Thorpe Ft Muir’s Qualitative Chemical Analysis. 57 Illustrations Tilden’s Chemical Philosophy, Xx Illustrations With Answers to Problems Unwin’s Elements of Machine Design: Part I. General Principles. 345 Illustrations Part Ii. Chiefly on Engine Details. 959 Illustrations Watson’s Plane and Solid Geometry Longmans, Green, Ft Co. 39 Paternoster Row, London New York and Bombay. Iindex ACC A CCELERATION curve, 41 Achard, 506, 520, 524 Adamson, 103, 256 Allen, 502 Alloys, 20 Aluminium, 18; bronze, 19 Angle iron, moment of inertia, 71 ; proportions, 153 Angus Smith’s process, 22 Annealing, 39 Arc of contact, 368 Areas, table of, 66 Arms of wheels, 416 ; of pulleys, 483 Axle-boxes, 320 Axles, 258, 263 ; journals of, 323 CAR 471; cotton, 475 ; chain, 476 ; twisted, 478 ; guide pulleys for, 479 Bending, 56; table of bending moments, 62 ; distribution of, 79 ; of crank shafts, 281 Bevil gearing, 391; cutting teeth of, 393 ; strength of, 411 Boiler flues, 100, 104 ; stays, 163 | Boilers, strength of, 140, 159 ; plating, 155 ; taper of plates, 161 ; staying, 167 ; bridge stays, 168 Bolted joints, 206 ; steam tight. T93 Bolts and nuts, 172 ; straining action on, 182 ; friction of, 184 ; strain due to tightening, 188 ; strength, 189 ; strength of screw thread, ; proportions, 197 ; table of, ; forms of, 201 ; locking ar- 1 195 ABBITT metal, 18 198 ; Bach, 145 rangements, 204 Ball bearings, 334 , Box couplings, 286 Band. (See Belt.) , Brackets for shafts, 315 BarfFs process, 22 Brass, 17 Bauschinger, 37 Breaking strength, 27, 33, 45 ; table Beams, symmetrical and unsym- of, 46 metrical sections, 76 ; of uniform Bridge stays, 168 strength, 85 Briggs, 439 Bearing resistance of rivets, 131 BritishAssociation screw thread, 178 Bearings, 227 Bronze, 15 Belt gearing, velocity ratio, 451 Bullivant, 503 Belts, material of, 4« ; endless, Butt riveting, 120 453; resistance to slipping, 459 ; strength of, 465; working tension, 466 ; horse-power, 467 ; centri- ABLE (See Chain) ; fugal tension, 470 ; single, double, 532 and combined, 471; joints of, Carboid bearings, 331 B of hemp,552 Machine Design CAS Case-hardening, 11 Cast iron, 3, 4, 6 Catenary, £12 Caulking riveted joints, 118 Centrifugal tension in belts, 470 ; in pulley rims, 482 ; of ropes, GKA Delta metal, 17 Diagram, stress strain, 30 Drawing, 23 Ductility of wrought iron, u ; of steel, is Dunkerley, 278 ‘ pCONOMICAL beam sections. cl Clarke ^^, D, KT.. 488 ‘ 8 1 E•,1.|“}?“c s,frength of maleria,s’ 45 •
C^tifon4722 fenfofeSlicity o°frigidity’ 90, 971 45 ;°ffric table- sssrr 350
Collapse Collar HoldSfcW bearings , resistance , 255.to 3.8100 ; rings, II Ex I^,LSon _ _’fi <^uplings ^, 294 P-ure. 43 ;
Columns, strength of, 94 ! pACTOR of safety, 27. 33
Compound stress, compression and Fairbaim, on repetition of
bending, 92 ; tension and bend- stress, 35 ; on collapse, 101
ing, 109 ; twisting and bending, Fastener for belts, 474
IIO Fatigue of materials, 39, 262
Compression, resistance to, 53 , Fencing of shafts, 279
Cone keys, 214 1 Fitting, 24
Cone vice coupling, 290 1 Flange coupling, 288
Continuous beams, 73 Hanged beam sections, 71, 73, 75
Copper Contraction , 15 ;ofeffect castings of ,temperature 5, 6 I|Flint ‘^at ,plates 435 , strength of, m
on strength, 19 I Hues, collapseof, tco; rules for, 105
Corrosion, 22 Fluidity, pressure of, 54
Corrugated flues, 107 I Footsteps. 320. 323; of glass, 327
Cotters, 217 ; strength of, 220 ; ar- Forging, 24
rangement of, 223 Foundation bolt, 219
Cotton belting, 475 Fox. furnace tubes, 107
Couplings for shafting, 286 ; dis- Friction coupling, 298; gearing,
engaging, 295 337. 35» : f°r variable speed, 357
Crane hook, 534 Friction, of riveted joints, 117, 141 ;
Cranked shafts, 269, 280; diagram of screw threads, 184; of journals,
of stress, 281 «8 ; of toothed gearing, 413; of.
Crank-pin journals, 254 screw gearing, 433 ; of lu lls, 460,
Crank-shaft journals, 253 J 4^9 1 ropes, 493
Cutting wheel teeth, 360, 393, 447 j
Cycloidal teeth, 374 ALVANISING, 22
Cylinders, strength of, 55, 140, 159 [ V_I Gam, 327
Gas threads, 178
T’\EFI.F.CTION, tableof, 62 ; of I Gearing chains, 539; strength of,
springs, 97
1
i I
54»Index 553
OTT
T ANG system of laying ropes,
JL* 501
Lap riveting, 120
Last’s method, 372, 383, 447
Leather, 475
Leather belts, strength of, 465 ;
working tension, 466 ; horsepower of, 467 ; limits of stress,
468
Lewis, W., 413, 435, 465, 468
Lignum vitae bearings, 322, 325
Links, forms of eyes, 538
Load, live and -dead 28, 33 ; impulsive, 42
Lobed wheels,
Locking arrangements for bolts,
204 ; for cotters, 225
Longridge, 360, 407, 423
Lubrication, 234 ; forced, 238, 327
GEE
Gee’s gearing, 380
Geyclin, 327
Gib and cotter, 225
Gibson, 396, 448
Gordon, 93, 96
Goss, 352
Grashof, na
Guest, on compound stress, 108
Guide pulleys, 479
Gunmetal, 15
Gusset stays, 166
Gyration, radius of, table, 66
I TANGERS, 316
JL 1 Hardness of metals, 51 349
Hartnell, 99
Heaviness of materials, 52
Helical gearing, 420
Hildebrand’s coupling, 297
Hindiey worm, 436
Him, C. F., 230, 504, 523
Hodgkinson, 93
Hooke’s joint, 300
Hopkinson, 546
Horse – power of belts, 467 ; of
rope gearing, 495 ; of wire ropes,
Ti /T ACBR1DE, 188
1V1 Malleable cast iron, 9
Manganese bronze, 17
Margin of riveted joints, 120, 130
Meneely bearing, 333
Metric screw threads, 177
1 Mill shafting, 273
| Milton, 268, 269, 281
Modulus of section, 60 ; table of,
66 ; of flanged beams, 76 ; for
torsion, 92
Moment of inertia, 60; table of, 66 ;
about parallel axes, 72
Morcom, 238
Morin, 228
Mortice wheels, 360
Moulding cast iron, 5, 24
526
Hyperboloidal gearing, 341
T NDENTATION, 51
X India-rubber, elasticity of, 295
Inertia, stress due to, 40
Involute teeth, 384
ENKIN. Fleeming, 356
Joint pins, 210
Journals, 227 ; friction of, 230 ;
pressure of seizing, 237 ; proportions, 240 ; strength, 243; limitg bearing pressure, 246, 248 ;
subjected to bending and torsion, 252 ; for carnage axles,
323
Junctions of riveted plates, 150
j
AVE of pulley, 487 ; of wheel,
Naville, 506
Nest gearing, 356
Neutral axis, 59
Newall, 393
Nuts, 199
in
JX ELLER, 516, 518, 543
Jtv. Kennedy, A. B. W.,
Keys, 2x 2 ; proportions, 216
Knuckle gearing, 391
Kynoch, roller bearing, 333
/””VIL bath lubrication. 232
Oil tempering, 14, 262
Oldham coupling, 294
Ott, Karl von, 549
. 37i554 Machine Design
PAT STA
ous rope, 497 ; relative merits of
rope and toothed gearing, 500
Ropes, strength of, 492 ; weight of,
493 ; friction of, 493; comparison
of hemp and chain cables, 532
Ropes, wire. (See Wire Ropes, )
Rymering, 116
O CREW gearing, velocity ratio,
O 424, 427 ; efficiency of, 430,
434 ; power transmitted, 432 ;
proportions, 433; form erf teeth
and threads, 437 ; worm and
rack, 448 ; strength, 450
Screw threads, 172 ; special forms,
181 ; straining action on, 182 ;
friction of, 184 ; strain due to
screwing up, 188 ; strength, 189 ;
bearing pressure on,190; strength
of, 195
Screws transmitting motion. 190
Sections, table of areas, moments
of inertia and moduli, 66
Sellers, it6, 243, 413, 434 ; screwthread, 175; coupling, 290 ;
pedestal, 310 ; hanger, 316 ;
collar bearing, 330 ; worm and
rack, 448
Redtenbacher, 276 Set screw, 203
Renold, Hans, 546, 547 Shading, sectional, 25
Repetition of stress, 33 Shafting, 258; angle of twist, 259;
Resilience, 42 working stress, 260 ; examples
Reuleaux, 257, 512, 518 of designing, 263; transmitting
Reynolds, Osborne, 231 power, 266 ; tables of, 270 ; for
Rivets, forms of, 114, 119 ; size of, mills, 273; of varying diameter,
121 275 ; span of, 276
Riveted joints, 114 ; lap and butt, Shearing action, 58 ; distribution
120; proportionsof, 123; double I of, 79; in beams, table of, 62
and treble, 128 ; strength of, 129 ; j Shearing stress, 45, 53 ; table of,
single riveted joints, 142 ; double 1 46 ; in beams, 58 ; resistance to
riveted joints, 143 ; treble riveted 88 ; on planes at right angles,
joints, 144 ; joints designed for , 90 ; of rivets, 133, 136, 139
frictional resistance, 144 ; graphic Shop processes, 23
method of designing, 146 ; junc- Silicium bronze, 16
tions of plates, 152 j Silicon in cast iron, 3
Roller bearings, 332 I Skew bevils, 345
Rolled joists, strength of, 71 Sliding contact , 338, 358
Rolling circle, 377 Slip of belts, 468
Rolling contact, 338 ; variable velo- Spanners, 199
city ratio, 345 Speed cones, 455
Rope gearing, 491 ; centrifugal ten- Split pins, 224
sioti, 494 ; driving tension. 494 ; Springs, strength and deflection o4
horse-power of, 495 ; subdivision 97 ; plate and helical, 98
of power by, 497 ; with continu- Stahl, 506
PATTERNS for casting,
JL Pearce, Brothers, 493
Pedestals, 303; proportions, 308 ;
weight of, 309 ; self-lubricating,

  1. 23
    311
    Phosphor bronze, 16
    Physical constants, 44
    Pins, 214
    Pipe flanges, 207
    Pitch, of rivets, iao ; of wheels, 361
    Pitch chains, 546 ; table of, 548 ;
    wheel for, 548
    Pivot, 255 ; bearing, 325; with
    discs, 330
    Planished shafting, 276
    Plasticity, 29
    Poisson’s ratio, 54
    Propeller shaft coupling, 290
    Proportionality, limit of, 31
    Pulleys, guide, 479 ; for belts, 482 ;
    arms of, 483 ; split, 487 ; wrought
    iron, 488 ; for rope gearing, 498 ;
    for wire ropes, 523
    Punching, 115
    TJ AFFARD coupling, 295
    ± v Rankine, formula for struts,
    96Index 555
    STA ZIE
    Toothed gearing, 358 ; material of,
    359 ; limiting velocity, 408 ; wear,
    41a ; friction of, 413;
    and proportions of, 414
    Torsion, resistance to, 90 ; of shafts,
    Staking on, 213
    Stays, 163 ; diagonal and gusset,
    166 ; for tanks, 209
    Stayed surfaces, 112
    Steel, 12 ; castings, 13 ; tenacity
    of, 13, 136; relation of composition and strength, 14 ; forgings,
    strength of, 263
    Stepped wheels, 420
    Steps for journals, 306
    Strain and stress, 29
    Straining action, 26 ; due to power !
    transmitted, 40 ; due to variation 1
    of velocity, 40 ; due to change of
    direction, 42
    Strength, clastic and ultimate, of
    materials, 44
    Strength, of cast iron, 6 ; of
    wrought iron, 11; of steel, 13;
    of copper, 15 ; of bronze, 16 ; of
    brass, 17 ; of aluminium, 19 ; of
    metals at different temperatures,
    19 ; general table of, 46 ; of riveted
    joints, 129 ; of iron and steel for
    riveted work, 135 ; of drilled and
    punched plates, 137 ; of boilers,
    140, 158, 160 ; of bolts, 189 ; of [
    joint pins, 211 ; of keys, 215 ; 1
    of wheel teeth, 401 ; of screw j
    gearing, 450 ; of leather belts,
    465 ; of ropes, 492 ; of chains,
    530, 532 ; of pitch chains, 548
    Stribeck, 335
    Stud, 203
    Suspension bearings, 327
    Sutclfffe, 317
    construction
    266
    Tower, Beauchamp, 230, 234, 236,
    238, 241, 256
    Towne, 533, 536
    Tullis, 474, 476
    Twisting moment, 91
    WA
    Wear of wheels, 412
    Webb, 118, 171
    Wedge gearing, 355
    Weight of materials,
    wheels, 419 ; of pulleys, 488 ; of
    ropes, 493 ; of wire ropes, 503,
    512 ; of chains, 532
    Welds, strength 0C528
    Welding, 9, 13
    Weston coupling, 300
    Weyrauch, 35
    Whirling of shafts
    White metal alloys, 17
    Whitworth screw thread, 173
    Willis, 380, 437
    Wire, strength of, 21, 502
    Wire ropes, 501 ; strength of, 502,
    52 ; of toothed
    . 277
    5°5
    Wire rope transmission, 501 ;
    stresses in, 507 ; centrifugal tension, 510 ; driving effort, 511
    Wohler’s experiments, 34, 48
    Work of deformation, 42 ; of compression and tension, 54
    Working stress, 32, 44, 48 ; tables
    of, 49 ; m boilers, 159 ; in shafting, 261
    Worm and rack, 448
    Worm and wheel, 428 ; efficiency of,
    432 ; proportions of, 433 ; thrust
    of, 435 ; form of teeth, 437 ; designing, 442 ; strength of, 450
    Wrought iron, 9; qualities and
    forms of, 10 ; strength of, 11, 136
    T’
    ‘AYLOR, 468, 469
    JL Teeth of wheels, proportions,
    363 ; form, 366 ; obliquity of
    action, 371 ; cycloidal, 374 ; in- j
    volute, 385 ; summary of curves,
    396
    Telodynamic transmission, 504 ; deflection, 519 ; simpler equations,
    520 ; efficiency, 522 ; cost of , 527
    Temperature, expansion due to, 43;
    effect on strehgth of metals, 19
    Tempering steel, 13
    Tension, resistance to, 53
    Tests of cast iron, 6
    Thomeycroft, 239
    Thrust bearings, 255
    Thwaite, 489 2IfcGLER, 522, 526

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