The Complete Practical Machinist

The Complete Practical Machinist
اسم المؤلف
Joshua Rose
8 أبريل 2019

The Complete Practical Machinist
Joshua Rose
Embracing Lathe Work, Vise Work, Drills and Drilling, Taps and Dies, Hardening and Tempering, the Making and Use of Tools, Tool Grinding, Marking Out Work, Machine Tools, Etc
Chapter I.
Cutting Tools for Lathes and Planing Machines.
Importance of the Lathe ; Steel of Which Cutting Tools
For Lathes, Planing Machines, Etc., Are Made ;
Classification of Lathe-cutting Tools
Classification of Slide-rest Tools ; the Forming of
Cutting Tools ; Illustration of the Manner in Which
A Lathe Tool Cuts the Metal ; Principal Consideration in Determining the Proper Shape of a Cutting
Strain Upon a Tool
Rake in Tools
Principles Determining the Proper Form of the Cutting
Edge of a Tool
Round-nosed Tools
Square-nosed Tools
Angles at Which Tools Become Cutters or Scrapers
Effect of the Diameter of the Work and the Rate of Tool
Feed on the Amount of Clearance by the Bottoir Rake
Or Side Rake of a Tool ; Bearing of the Height of the
Cutting Edge of a Tool, With Relation to the Work,
On Its Cutting Qualities
Practice of Sir Joseph Whitworth ; Positions in Which
All Tools Should Be Held
Cutting Off Parting or Grooving Tools
Side Tools for Iron
Front Tool for Brass Work
Side Tool for Brass Work
Special Forms of Lathe Tools
Tool Holders
Woodbridge’s Patent Tools and Tool Holder
Chapter Ii.
Cutting Speed and Feed.
Meaning of the Terms U Cutting Speed ” and 44 Feed ” ,
Planing Machines ; Great Importance of 14 Feed ”
And 44 Speed ” in Lathe Work
44 Feed ” and 44 Speed ” for Various Kinds of Work 65
Tables of Cutting Speeds and Feeds ; Tables for Steel ;
For Wrought-iron
For Cast-iron ; for Brass ; for Copper ; Speeds Where the
Cuts Are Unusually Long Ones
Chapter Iii.
Boring Tools for Lathe Work.
Standard Bits and Reamers ; the Shaping of Boring
Tools for Lathe Work .
Pressure on the Cutting Edge of a Tool, With Illustration of the Same
Effect of the Application of the Top Rake or Lip to a
Boring Tool
Shape for the Corner of the Cutting Edge
Illustrations of the Various Forms of Boring Tools for
Ordinary Use
Boring Tool for Heavy Duty on Wrought-iron
Boring Tool for Brass
Easing a Piece of Bored Brass or Cast-iron Work, Which
Fits Too Tight, With a Half Round Scraper
Boring Tools, With Illustrations
Boring Tool Holders
Screw-cutting Tools.
Cutting Surfaces of Lathe Tools for Cutting Screws;
Cutting the Pitch of a Screw Which Is Very Coarse.. 84
The Most Accurate Method of Cutting Small V Threads. 85
Tool for Cutting an Outside V Thread ; Stout Tool for
Cutting Coarse Square Threads on Wrought-iron or
Single Pointed Tool for Cutting an Internal Thread;
The Three Different Shapes of V Threads in the
United States—the Sharp V Thread, the United
States Standard, and the Whitworth Thread
Comparative Ease in Producing These Several Threads.. 88
Gauges for Testing the Angles of Threading Tools ; Measuring the Diameter With the Calipers
Testing the Pitcli of a Thread
Centre Gauge and Gauge for Grinding and Setting Screw
Experiments Upon Targets Representing Ship’s Armor
In Which the Bolts Were Found Unable to Resist the
Shock, and the Remedy for the Defect ; to Calculate
The Change Gear Wheels Necessary to Cut a Given
Pitch of Thread in a Lathe
A Simple or Single-geared Screw-cutting Lathe
Compound or Double-geared Screw-cutting Lathe
Rule by Which to Find the Number of Teeth in the
Wheels to Be Placed on the Feed Screw
Compound Gears Common in Small American Lathes… 100
Pitches of Threads Used in France, and the Method of
Finding the Necessary Change Gears; to Cut a Double
To Cut a Treble Screw
Hand Chasing
To Make a Chaser
Chaser Used on Wrought-iron ; an Inside Chaser
Views of an Inside Chaser Applied to a Piece of Work.. . Ill
Uses of an Inside Chaser ; Cutting Inside Threads
General Directions in Cutting Threads
Lathe Dogs, Carriers or Drivers.
The Bent-tailed Dog, Its Objectionable Feature, and How
It May Be Obviated ; the Clements Driver
Clamp Dog for Rectangularor Other Work, Not Cylindrical
At the Driving End ;form of Driver for Driving Bolts;
Adjustable Driver; Wood-turners’ Spur Centre
Screw Chuck for Short Wood Work ; Mandrils or Arbors. 120
Centring Lathe Work ; Centre-grinding Device
The Quickest Method of Centring Lathe Work
Centring Machine ; a Centre-drilling Attachment for
Lathe Work
Combined Drill and Countersink for Centre Drilling;
Combined Drill and Countersink, in Which a Small
Twist-drill Is Let Into the Countersink ; Centre Drilling by Hand
Work Requiring to Be Run Very True ; a Square Centre ;
To Recentre Work That Has Already Been Turned
Boughing Out Work Which Requires to Be Turned at Both
Ends ; Finishing Lathe Work
Emery Cloth and Paper
Grinding Clamps for Finishing Work to Gauge Diameter’s; Arbor for Grinding Out Bores
Lathe Chucks; the Three Classes of Chucks; Horton
Two-jawed Chuck ; Box Body Chuck ; Three and
Four-jawed Chucks
The Sweetland Chuck
Drill Chuck of the Russell Tool Co
Chuck Dogs
Turning Eccentrics.
Chucking an Eccentric Which Has a Hub or Boss on One
Side Only of Its Bore
Chucking an Eccentric Having a Large Amount of Throw
Upon It
Turning Crank
140contents. 17
To Chuck a Crosshead 141
Counterbalancing Work
Boring Links or Levers
Turning Pistons and Rods.
Piston Rings
Expanding Chuck for Holding Piston Rings or Similar
Hand Turning.
One of the Most Delicate and Instructive Branches of the
Machinist’s Art
Far More Instructive to a Beginner Than Any Other
Branch ; Chucking
Roughing Out ; the Graver .
Holding the Graver
The Heel Tool
Hand-turning—brass Work
Drilling in the Lathe.
Work in Hich the Lathe Is Resorted to for Drilling
Half-round Bits
Bit in Which a Segment Has Been Cut Out to Admit a
Cutter and Bar Designed for Piercing Holes Out of the
Solid and of Great Depth ; Flat Drill to Enlarge and
True Them Out
Method of Grinding a Reamer
Importance of Maintenance of the Reamer to Standard
Reamer Which May Be Adjusted to Size by Moving Its
Teeth ; Adjustable Reamer for Very Small Work
Shell Reamers
Chapter Ix.
Boring Bars.
Importance of the Boring Bar; Smaller Sizes of Boring
Bar Usually Simple Parallel Mandrils
Boring Bar Cutters Requiring to Be Adjustable
No Machine Using a Boring Bar Should Be Allowed to
Stop While the Finishing Cut Is Being Taken
A Rude Form of Head
Position Which Cutters Should Occupy Towards the Head
Or Body of the Bar
Small Boring Bars
Slotting Machine Tools.
Two Classes of Tools Used in Slotting Machines
Tool for Cutting a Half-round Groove, Holding Bar and
Short Tool
Knife Tool for Heavy Work
Twist Drills.
The Cutting Edges of Drills, With Various Examples…. 197
Testing Drills
The Flat Drill
To Increase the Keenness of a Flat Drill ; Feeding
Drills •
The Farmer Lathe Drill ; Experiments of Wra. Sellers
& Co. With a Flat Drill
Drilling Hard Metals
Slotting or Keyway Drills
Pin Drills
Countersipk Drills
Chapter Xii.
Tool Steel.
Cutting Tools for All Machines Should Be Made of
Hammered Steel
Forging Tools
Tool Hardening and Tempering.
Hardening; to Harden Springs
Case-hardening Wrought-iron .
The Wear of Metal Surfaces
Annealing or Softening
Mixtures of Metals
Taps and Hies.
Forging of Taps
The Nut Tap
Taps Having Taper in the Diameter of the Bottom of the
Thread ; Proper Taper for Hand and Machine
Taps Having Thread on the Small End of the Taper ;
Turning the Plain Part of a Tap; Taps for Use in
Holes to Be Tapped Deeply ; Finishing the Threads of
A Tap
Flutes of Small Taps ; United States Standard for
Threads, Adopted by the Franklin Institute
English or Whitworth Standard ; Hardening Taps
Taps of Three and of Four Flutes
The Whitworth, the Brown & Sharpe, and the Pratt &
Whitney Taps; the Position of the Square With Relation to the Cutting Edges in Hand Taps
Adjustable Hies
Hies for Use in Hand Stocks
Vise-work Tools.
Chisels; Flat Chisels 25620 Contents.
The Round-nosed Chisel ; the Oil-groove Chisel
The Diamond-point Chisel
The Side Chisel; Application of Chisels ; Calipers
The Square
The Scribing Block
Files and Filing ; Fitting Files to Their Handles ; Selecting a File; Half-round Files
Holding Files
Filing Out Templates
Scrapers and Scraping
Vise Clamps
Vise-work— Pening
Fitting Brasses to Their Boxes
Fitting Link Motions
Fitting Cylinders
Scraped Surfaces
To Make a Surface Plate
To Cut Hard Saw Blades ; to Refit Leaky Plugs to Their
Refitting Work by Shrinking It
Steam and Water Joints
Fitting Connecting Rods.
The Mode of Proceeding With the Work
To Get the Length of a Connecting Rod ; to Ascertain
When the Crank of a Horizontal Engine Is Upon Its
Exact Dead Centre
Fitting a Connecting Rod
The Oil-hole of a Connecting Rod ; the Brasses or Side
Drifts; Smooth and Toothed or Cutting Drifts
Reverse Keys
Setting Line-shafting in Line
Milling-machines and Milling-tools.
Importance of the Milling-machine
Cutting Out a Corrugated Surface
Advantage of Milling-tools; to Mill the Side Faces of
A Rod With Milling-bar and Cutters
Examples of Work With the Milling-machine
The Side Faces of the Cutters
Use of Milling-tools for Cutting the Thread on Taps;
Making the Milling-cutters
Finishing the Cutter in the Lathe With an Emery
The Teeth of Long Cutters
Grindstone and Tool Grinding.
Uses of Grindstones ; Various Kinds of Grindstones;
Dry Grinding
Qualities of Different Grindstones ; Treatment of Grindstones
To Make a Grindstone Run True ; Accurate Grinding ;
Truing Up a Grindstone for Tool Grinding
Objections to the Intermittent Truing of a Grindstone ;
Device for Keeping a Grindstone Continuously True 350
Face of a Grindstone for Flat Surfaces; Positions for
Holding Tools in Grinding
A Feather Edge on a Tool….
A Device Called a Rest
Lining or Marking Out Work.
Importance of Lining Out Work
Principles Involved in Marking Out Work ; Qualities
Necessary for a Marker Out
To Mark an Ellipse
To Find Points Through Which the Curve of an Ellipse
May Be Drawn
Tools Employed by a Marker Out
To Divide a Straight Line Into Two Equal Parts ; to Divide a Straight Line Into a Number of Equidistant
Measuring Work to Be Marked Out; Practice of Marking Out
To Mark Off an Engine Guide Bar
Use of the Compass Calipers in Marking Out Work. . . 376
Philosophy of Marking Out Holes in a Certain Manner. 377
Centrepunch Marks
To Mark Off the Distance Between the Centres of Two
Hubs of Unequal Height
Marking Holes at a Right Angle
To Line Out a Double Eye
Marking Out an Eccentric
Lining Out Connecting Rods
To Mark Off Cylinder Ports and Steam Valves
Valve Seats
To Mark Out a Cone Pulley
Machine Tools.
A Machine Tool a Machine That Operates a Cutting
Tool for Dressing the Work ; the Lathe Chief of All
Machine Tools; the Shaping Machine Being Superseded by the Milling Machine ; the Simplest Form
Of the Lathe, a Foot Lathe ; the Foot Lathe Illustrated and Described
A Slide Rest Illustrated and Described ; Some Objectionab]e Features of Slide-rests of This Class
A Slide-rest Which Obviates One of These Objectionable
Features ; a Foot-power Lathe by W. F. <fc John
Barnes Co., Rockford, Ill
The Ilendey-norton Lathe, Illustrated and Described
The Tool Post ; a Screw-cutting Engine Lathe Constructed
By the New Haven Manufacturing Co., of New
Haven, Conn., Illustrated and Described
Warner & Swasey’s Twenty-foilr Inch Universal Monitor
Lathe Illustrated and Described ; Friction Clutch of
This Lathe
A Lathe in Which the Spindle for the Dead-centre Is
Square and the Tail-stock Capable of Being Moved or
Fed Crosswise of the Lathe ; Turret Lathes ; Turret
Lathe Manufactured by the Gisholt Machine .co.,
Madison, Wis., Illustrated and Described
The Screw Machine ; a Special Lathe, in Which the Work
Is Cut Direct From the Bar Without Forging ; the Capacity of the Screw Machine Greater Than That of a
A Small Screw Machine Illustrated and Described
The Brown K Sharpe Manufacturing Co.’s Screw Machine Illustrated and Described ; the Cutting-off
Machine, a Form of Lathe Used to Cut Rods or Bars
Into Exact Lengths
A Cutting*off Machine Constructed by the Hurlburtrogers Machine Co. Illustrated and Described ;
Shapers and Planers Machines, in Which the Tools
Cut in a Straight Line ; a Shaping Machine Illustrated
And Described
The Tool-carrying Head of This Shaping Machine Illustrated and Described
Fox’s Pillar Shaping Machine Illustrated and Described ;
Tool-carrying Ram or Bar Traversed in a Slide or
Saddle, Applied in Traverse Shapers, Illustrated and
Pillar Shaper of the Hendey Machine Co. Illustrated
And Described
Morton’s Shaping Machine Illustrated and Described
The Iron Planing Machine, or Iron Planer, Illustrated and
A Planer of a Larger Size Illustrated and Described
The Detrick K Harvey Machine Co.’s Open Side Planer
Illustrated and Described
Milling Machines ; Brown K Sharpe No. 0 Plain Milling
Machine Illustrated and Described
Brown & Sharpe Universal Milling Machine, No. 3. Illustrated and Described
A Very Solid and Efficient Milling Machine of the Brown &
Sharpe Manufacturing Co. Illustrated and Described. 457
Drilling Machines
Quint’s Six-spindle Turret Drilling Machine, for Drilling
And Tapping Small Holes, Illustrated and Described ;
Slate’s Sensitive Drilling Machine Illustrated and
Drilling Machine of Prentice Bros., Worcester, Mass.,
Illustrated and Described ; the Feed Motions and How
A Radial Drill, or Radial Drilling Machine, Illustrated and
Described ; Keyway Cutting Machines or Keyway
The Morton Manufacturing Co.’s Keyway Cutter Illustrated and Described
The Slotting Machine
Slotting Machine of Wm. Sellers & Co., Philadelphia,
Illustrated and Described
Bolt Cutting Machines or Bolt Cutters
A National Bolt Cutter, in Which the Jaws for Holding
The Bolt Heads Are Operated by the Left-hand Hand
Wheel, and the Forward Motion Is Operated by the
Hand Wheels on the Right, Illustrated and Described.
Chapter Xx.
To Calculate the Speed of Wheels. Pulleys, Etc.
Chapter Xxl
How to Set a Slide Valve.
Considerations in Setting a Slide Valve
Practical Perations in Setting a Valve –
Chapter Xxii.
Suction Pumps
Force Pumps
Piston Pumps
A Plunger Pump
Efficiency of a Pump, How Increased
Causes of Loss of Efficiency in Pumps
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