The Chemistry and Technology of Petroleum

The Chemistry and Technology of Petroleum
اسم المؤلف
James G. Speight
التاريخ
2 مارس 2021
المشاهدات
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
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The Chemistry and Technology of Petroleum
Fourth Edition
James G. Speight
CD&W Inc.
Laramie, Wyoming
Table of Contents
Part I
History, Occurrence, and Recovery
Chapter 1
History and Terminology
1.1 Historical Perspectives
1.2 Modern Perspectives
1.3 Definitions and Terminology
1.4 Native Materials
1.4.1 Petroleum
1.4.2 Heavy Oil
1.4.3 Bitumen
1.4.4 Wax
1.4.5 Asphaltite
1.4.6 Asphaltoid
1.4.7 Bituminous Rock and Bituminous Sand
1.4.8 Kerogen
1.4.9 Natural Gas
1.5 Manufactured Materials
1.5.1 Wax
1.5.2 Residuum (Residua)
1.5.3 Asphalt
1.5.4 Tar and Pitch
1.5.5 Coke
1.5.6 Synthetic Crude Oil
1.6 Derived Materials
1.6.1 Asphaltenes, Carbenes, and Carboids
1.6.2 Resins and Oils
1.7 Oil Prices
1.7.1 Pricing Strategies
1.7.2 Oil Price History
1.7.3 Future of Oil
1.7.4 Epilog
References
Chapter 2
Classification
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Classification Systems
2.2.1 Classification as a Hydrocarbon Resource
2.2.2 Classification by Chemical Composition
2.2.3 Correlation Index
2.2.4 Density2.2.5 API Gravity
2.2.6 Viscosity
2.2.7 Carbon Distribution
2.2.8 Viscosity–Gravity Constant
2.2.9 UOP Characterization Factor
2.2.10 Recovery Method
2.2.11 Pour Point
2.3 Miscellaneous Systems
2.4 Reservoir Classification
2.4.1 Identification and Quantification
2.4.2 Future
References
Chapter 3
Origin and Occurrence
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Origin
3.2.1 Abiogenic Origin
3.2.2 Biogenic Origin
3.2.2.1 Deposition of Organic Matter
3.2.2.2 Establishment of Source Beds
3.2.2.3 Nature of the Source Material
3.2.2.4 Transformation of Organic Matter into Petroleum
3.2.2.5 Accumulation in Reservoir Sediments
3.2.2.6 In Situ Transformation of Petroleum
3.2.3 Differences between the Abiogenic Theory and the Biogenic Theory
3.2.4 Relationship of Petroleum Composition and Properties
3.3 Occurrence
3.3.1 Reserves
3.3.2 Conventional Petroleum
3.3.3 Natural Gas
3.3.4 Heavy Oil
3.3.5 Bitumen (Extra Heavy Oil)
References
Chapter 4
Kerogen
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Properties
4.3 Composition
4.4 Classification
4.5 Isolation
4.6 Methods for Probing Kerogen Structure
4.6.1 Ultimate (Elemental) Analysis
4.6.2 Functional Group Analysis
4.6.3 Oxidation
4.6.4 Thermal Methods
4.6.5 Acid-Catalyzed Hydrogenolysis
4.7 Structural Models4.8 Kerogen Maturation
References
Chapter 5
Exploration, Recovery, and Transportation
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Exploration
5.2.1 Gravity Methods
5.2.2 Magnetic Methods
5.2.3 Seismic Methods
5.2.4 Electrical Methods
5.2.5 Electromagnetic Methods
5.2.6 Radioactive Methods
5.2.7 Borehole Logging
5.3 Drilling Operations
5.3.1 Preparing to Drill
5.3.2 Drilling Rig
5.3.3 Drilling Rig Components
5.3.4 Drilling
5.4 Well Completion
5.5 Recovery
5.5.1 Primary Recovery (Natural Methods)
5.5.2 Secondary Recovery
5.5.3 Enhanced Oil Recovery
5.6 Products and Product Quality
5.7 Transportation
References
Chapter 6
Recovery of Heavy Oil and Tar Sand Bitumen
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Oil Mining
6.2.1 Tar Sand Mining
6.2.2 Hot-Water Process
6.2.3 Other Processes
6.3 Nonmining Methods
6.3.1 Steam-Based Processes
6.3.2 Combustion Processes
6.3.3 Other Processes
References
Part II
Composition and Properties
Chapter 7
Chemical Composition
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Ultimate (Elemental) Composition7.3 Chemical Components
7.3.1 Hydrocarbon Constituents
7.3.1.1 Paraffin Hydrocarbons
7.3.1.2 Cycloparaffin Hydrocarbons (Naphthenes)
7.3.1.3 Aromatic Hydrocarbons
7.3.1.4 Unsaturated Hydrocarbons
7.3.2 Nonhydrocarbon Constituents
7.3.2.1 Sulfur Compounds
7.3.2.2 Oxygen Compounds
7.3.2.3 Nitrogen Compounds
7.3.2.4 Metallic Constituents
7.3.2.5 Porphyrins
7.4 Chemical Composition by Distillation
7.4.1 Gases and Naphtha
7.4.2 Middle Distillates
7.4.3 Vacuum Residua (10508Fþ)
References
Chapter 8
Fractional Composition
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Distillation
8.2.1 Atmospheric Pressure
8.2.2 Reduced Pressures
8.2.3 Azeotropic and Extractive Distillation
8.3 Solvent Treatment
8.3.1 Asphaltene Separation
8.3.1.1 Influence of Solvent Type
8.3.1.2 Influence of the Degree of Dilution
8.3.1.3 Influence of Temperature
8.3.1.4 Influence of Contact Time
8.3.2 Fractionation
8.4 Adsorption
8.4.1 Chemical Factors
8.4.2 Fractionation Methods
8.4.2.1 General Methods
8.4.2.2 ASTM Methods
8.5 Chemical Methods
8.5.1 Acid Treatment
8.5.2 Molecular Complex Formation
8.5.2.1 Urea Adduction
8.5.2.2 Thiourea Adduction
8.5.2.3 Adduct Composition
8.5.2.4 Adduct Structure
8.5.2.5 Adduct Properties
8.6 Use of the Data
ReferencesChapter 9
Petroleum Analysis
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Petroleum Assay
9.3 Physical Properties
9.3.1 Elemental (Ultimate) Analysis
9.3.2 Density and Specific Gravity
9.3.3 Viscosity
9.3.4 Surface and Interfacial Tension
9.3.5 Metals Content
9.4 Thermal Properties
9.4.1 Volatility
9.4.2 Liquefaction and Solidification
9.4.3 Carbon Residue
9.4.4 Aniline Point
9.4.5 Specific Heat
9.4.6 Latent Heat
9.4.7 Enthalpy or Heat Content
9.4.8 Thermal Conductivity
9.4.9 Pressure–Volume–Temperature Relationships
9.4.10 Heat of Combustion
9.4.11 Critical Properties
9.5 Electrical Properties
9.5.1 Conductivity
9.5.2 Dielectric Constant
9.5.3 Dielectric Strength
9.5.4 Dielectric Loss and Power Factor
9.5.5 Static Electrification
9.6 Optical Properties
9.6.1 Refractive Index
9.6.2 Optical Activity
9.7 Spectroscopic Methods
9.7.1 Infrared Spectroscopy
9.7.2 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
9.7.3 Mass Spectrometry
9.8 Chromatographic Methods
9.8.1 Gas Chromatography
9.8.2 Simulated Distillation
9.8.3 Adsorption Chromatography
9.8.4 Gel Permeation Chromatography
9.8.5 Ion-Exchange Chromatography
9.8.6 High-Performance Liquid Chromatography
9.8.7 Supercritical Fluid Chromatography
9.9 Molecular Weight
9.10 Use of the Data
ReferencesChapter 10
Structural Group Analysis
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Methods for Structural Group Analysis
10.2.1 Physical Property Methods
10.2.1.1 Direct Method
10.2.1.2 Waterman Ring Analysis
10.2.1.3 Density Method
10.2.1.4 n.d.M. Method
10.2.1.5 Dispersion–Refraction Method
10.2.1.6 Density–Temperature Coefficient Method
10.2.1.7 Molecular Weight–Refractive Index Method
10.2.1.8 Miscellaneous Methods
10.2.2 Spectroscopic Methods
10.2.2.1 Infrared Spectroscopy
10.2.2.2 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
10.2.2.3 Mass Spectrometry
10.2.2.4 Electron Spin Resonance
10.2.2.5 Ultraviolet Spectroscopy
10.2.2.6 X-Ray Diffraction
10.2.3 Heteroatom Systems
10.2.3.1 Nitrogen
10.2.3.2 Oxygen
10.2.3.3 Sulfur
10.2.3.4 Metals
10.3 Miscellaneous Methods
References
Chapter 11
Asphaltene Constituents
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Separation
11.3 Composition
11.4 Molecular Weight
11.5 Reactions
11.6 Solubility Parameter
11.7 Structural Aspects
References
Chapter 12
Structure of Petroleum
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Molecular Species in Petroleum
12.2.1 Volatile Fractions
12.2.2 Resin Constituents
12.2.2.1 Composition
12.2.2.2 Resins (Structure)
12.2.2.3 Molecular Weight12.2.3 Nonvolatile Oils
12.2.3.1 Composition
12.2.3.2 Structure
12.2.3.3 Molecular Weight
12.3 Chemical and Physical Structure of Petroleum
12.4 Stability or Instability of the Crude Oil System
12.5 Effects on Recovery and Refining
12.5.1 Effects on Recovery Operations
12.5.2 Effects on Refining Operations
References
Chapter 13
Instability and Incompatibility
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Instability and Incompatibility in Petroleum
13.3 Factors Influencing Instability and Incompatibility
13.3.1 Elemental Analysis
13.3.2 Density and Specific Gravity
13.3.3 Volatility
13.3.4 Viscosity
13.3.5 Asphaltene Content
13.3.6 Pour Point
13.3.7 Acidity
13.3.8 Metals (Ash) Content
13.3.9 Water Content, Salt Content, and Bottom Sediment
and Water (BS&W)
13.4 Methods for Determining Instability and Incompatibility
13.5 Effect of Asphaltene Constituents
References
Part III
Refining
Chapter 14
Introduction to Refining Processes
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Dewatering and Desalting
14.3 Early Processes
14.4 Distillation
14.4.1 Historical Development
14.4.2 Modern Processes
14.4.2.1 Atmospheric Distillation
14.4.2.2 Vacuum Distillation
14.4.2.3 Azeotropic and Extractive Distillation
14.5 Thermal Methods
14.5.1 Historical Development
14.5.2 Modern Processes14.5.2.1 Thermal Cracking
14.5.2.2 Visbreaking
14.5.2.3 Coking
14.6 Catalytic Methods
14.6.1 Historical Development
14.6.2 Modern Processes
14.6.3 Catalysts
14.7 Hydroprocesses
14.7.1 Historical Development
14.7.2 Modern Processes
14.7.2.1 Hydrofining
14.8 Reforming
14.8.1 Historical Development
14.8.2 Modern Processes
14.8.2.1 Thermal Reforming
14.8.2.2 Catalytic Reforming
14.8.2.3 Catalysts
14.9 Isomerization
14.9.1 Historical Development
14.9.2 Modern Processes
14.9.3 Catalysts
14.10 Alkylation Processes
14.10.1 Historical Development
14.10.2 Modern Processes
14.10.3 Catalysts
14.11 Polymerization Processes
14.11.1 Historical Development
14.11.2 Modern Processes
14.11.3 Catalysts
14.12 Solvent Process
14.12.1 Deasphalting
14.12.2 Dewaxing
14.13 Refining Heavy Feedstocks
14.14 Petroleum Products
14.15 Petrochemicals
References
Chapter 15
Refining Chemistry
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Cracking
15.2.1 Thermal Cracking
15.2.2 Catalytic Cracking
15.2.3 Dehydrogenation
15.2.4 Dehydrocyclization
15.3 Hydrogenation
15.3.1 Hydrocracking
15.3.2 Hydrotreating
15.4 Isomerization
15.5 Alkylation15.6 Polymerization
15.7 Process Chemistry
15.7.1 Thermal Chemistry
15.7.2 Hydroconversion Chemistry
15.7.3 Chemistry in the Refinery
15.7.3.1 Visbreaking
15.7.3.2 Hydroprocessing
References
Chapter 16
Distillation
16.1 Introduction
16.2 Pretreatment
16.3 Atmospheric and Vacuum Distillation
16.3.1 Atmospheric Distillation
16.3.2 Vacuum Distillation
16.4 Equipment
16.4.1 Columns
16.4.2 Packings
16.4.3 Trays
16.5 Other Processes
16.5.1 Stripping
16.5.2 Rerunning
16.5.3 Stabilization and Light End Removal
16.5.4 Superfractionation
16.5.5 Azeotropic Distillation
16.5.6 Extractive Distillation
16.5.7 Process Options for Heavy Feedstocks
References
Chapter 17
Thermal Cracking
17.1 Introduction
17.2 Early Processes
17.3 Commercial Processes
17.3.1 Visbreaking
17.3.2 Coking Processes
17.3.2.1 Delayed Coking
17.3.2.2 Fluid Coking
17.3.2.3 Flexicoking
17.3.3 Process Options for Heavy Feedstocks
17.3.3.1 Aquaconversion
17.3.3.2 Asphalt Coking Technology (ASCOT) Process
17.3.3.3 Comprehensive Heavy Ends
Reforming Refinery (Cherry-P) Process
17.3.3.4 Decarbonizing
17.3.3.5 ET-II Process
17.3.3.6 Eureka Process
17.3.3.7 Fluid Thermal Cracking (FTC) Process
17.3.3.8 High Conversion Soaker Cracking (HSC) Process17.3.3.9 Mixed-Phase Cracking
17.3.3.10 Naphtha Cracking
17.3.3.11 Selective Cracking
17.3.3.12 Shell Thermal Cracking
17.3.3.13 Tervahl T Process
17.3.3.14 Vapor-Phase Cracking
References
Chapter 18
Catalytic Cracking
18.1 Introduction
18.2 Early Processes
18.3 Commercial Processes
18.3.1 Fixed-Bed Processes
18.3.2 Fluid-Bed Processes
18.3.2.1 Fluid-Bed Catalytic Cracking
18.3.2.2 Model IV Fluid-Bed Catalytic Cracking Unit
18.3.2.3 Orthoflow Fluid-Bed Catalytic Cracking
18.3.2.4 Shell Two-Stage Fluid-Bed Catalytic Cracking
18.3.2.5 Universal Oil Products (UOP) Fluid-Bed
Catalytic Cracking
18.3.3 Moving-Bed Processes
18.3.3.1 Airlift Thermofor Catalytic Cracking
(Socony Airlift TCC Process)
18.3.3.2 Houdresid Catalytic Cracking
18.3.3.3 Houdriflow Catalytic Cracking
18.3.3.4 Suspensoid Catalytic Cracking
18.3.4 Process Options for Heavy Feedstocks
18.3.4.1 Asphalt Residual Treating (ART) Process
18.3.4.2 Residue Fluid Catalytic Cracking (HOC) Process
18.3.4.3 Heavy Oil Treating (HOT) Process
18.3.4.4 R2R Process
18.3.4.5 Reduced Crude Oil Conversion (RCC) Process
18.3.4.6 Shell FCC Process
18.3.4.7 S&W Fluid Catalytic Cracking Process
18.4 Catalysts
18.4.1 Catalyst Treatment
18.4.1.1 Demet
18.4.1.2 Met-X
18.5 Process Parameters
18.5.1 Reactor
18.5.2 Coking
18.5.3 Catalyst Variables
18.5.4 Process Variables
18.5.5 Additives
ReferencesChapter 19
Deasphalting and Dewaxing Processes
19.1 Introduction
19.2 Commercial Processes
19.2.1 Deasphalting Process
19.2.2 Process Options for Heavy Feedstocks
19.2.2.1 Deep Solvent Deasphalting Process
19.2.2.2 Demex Process
19.2.2.3 MDS Process
19.2.2.4 Residuum Oil Supercritical Extraction
(ROSE) Process
19.2.2.5 Solvahl Process
19.2.2.6 Lube Deasphalting
19.3 Dewaxing Processes
References
Chapter 20
Hydrotreating and Desulfurization
20.1 Introduction
20.2 Process Parameters and Reactors
20.2.1 Hydrogen Partial Pressure
20.2.2 Space Velocity
20.2.3 Reaction Temperature
20.2.4 Catalyst Life
20.2.5 Feedstock Effects
20.2.6 Reactors
20.2.6.1 Downflow Fixed-Bed Reactor
20.2.6.2 Upflow Expanded-Bed Reactor
20.2.6.3 Demetallization Reactor (Guard Bed Reactor)
20.3 Commercial Processes
20.3.1 Autofining
20.3.2 Ferrofining
20.3.3 Gulf-HDS
20.3.4 Hydrofining
20.3.5 Isomax
20.3.6 Ultrafining
20.3.7 Unifining
20.3.8 Unionfining
20.3.9 Process Options for Heavy Feedstocks
20.3.9.1 Residuum Desulfurization and Vacuum
Residuum Desulfurization Process
20.3.9.2 Residfining Process
20.4 Catalysts
20.5 Biodesulfurization
20.6 Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Polishing
ReferencesChapter 21
Hydrocracking
21.1 Introduction
21.2 Commercial Processes
21.2.1 Process Design
21.2.1.1 Single-Stage and Two-Stage Options
21.2.2 Process Options for Heavy Feedstocks
21.2.2.1 Asphaltenic Bottom Cracking (ABC) Process
21.2.2.2 CANMET Hydrocracking Process
21.2.2.3 H-Oil Process
21.2.2.4 Hydrovisbreaking (HYCAR) Process
21.2.2.5 Hyvahl F Process
21.2.2.6 IFP Hydrocracking Process
21.2.2.7 Isocracking Process
21.2.2.8 LC-Fining Process
21.2.2.9 MAKfining Process
21.2.2.10 Microcat-RC Process
21.2.2.11 Mild Hydrocracking Process
21.2.2.12 MRH Process
21.2.2.13 RCD Unibon (BOC) Process
21.2.2.14 Residfining Process
21.2.2.15 Residue Hydroconversion (RHC) Process
21.2.2.16 Tervahl-H Process
21.2.2.17 Unicracking Process
21.2.2.18 Veba Combi Cracking Process
21.3 Catalysts
References
Chapter 22
Hydrogen Production
22.1 Introduction
22.2 Processes Requiring Hydrogen
22.2.1 Hydrotreating
22.2.2 Hydrocracking
22.3 Feedstocks
22.4 Process Chemistry
22.5 Commercial Processes
22.5.1 Heavy Residue Gasification and Combined
Cycle Power Generation
22.5.2 Hybrid Gasification Process
22.5.3 Hydrocarbon Gasification
22.5.4 Hypro Process
22.5.5 Pyrolysis Processes
22.5.6 Shell Gasification (Partial Oxidation) Process
22.5.7 Steam–Methane Reforming
22.5.8 Steam–Naphtha Reforming
22.5.9 Synthesis Gas Generation
22.5.10 Texaco Gasification (Partial Oxidation) Process22.6 Catalysts
22.6.1 Reforming Catalysts
22.6.2 Shift Conversion Catalysts
22.6.3 Methanation Catalysts
22.7 Hydrogen Purification
22.7.1 Wet Scrubbing
22.7.2 Pressure-Swing Adsorption Units
22.7.3 Membrane Systems
22.7.4 Cryogenic Separation
22.8 Hydrogen Management
References
Chapter 23
Product Improvement
23.1 Introduction
23.2 Reforming
23.2.1 Thermal Reforming
23.2.2 Catalytic Reforming
23.2.2.1 Fixed-Bed Processes
23.2.2.2 Moving-Bed Processes
23.2.2.3 Fluid-Bed Processes
23.3 Isomerization
23.3.1 Butamer Process
23.3.2 Butomerate Process
23.3.3 Hysomer Process
23.3.4 Iso-Kel Process
23.3.5 Isomate Process
23.3.6 Isomerate Process
23.3.7 Penex Process
23.3.8 Pentafining Process
23.4 Alkylation
23.4.1 Cascade Sulfuric Acid Alkylation
23.4.2 Hydrogen Fluoride Alkylation
23.5 Polymerization
23.5.1 Thermal Polymerization
23.5.2 Solid Phosphoric Acid Condensation
23.5.3 Bulk Acid Polymerization
23.6 Catalysts
23.6.1 Reforming Processes
23.6.2 Isomerization Processes
23.6.3 Alkylation Processes
23.6.4 Polymerization Processes
References
Chapter 24
Product Treating
24.1 Introduction
24.2 Commercial Processes
24.2.1 Caustic Processes
24.2.1.1 Dualayer Distillate Process24.2.1.2 Dualayer Gasoline Process
24.2.1.3 Electrolytic Mercaptan Process
24.2.1.4 Ferrocyanide Process
24.2.1.5 Lye Treatment
24.2.1.6 Mercapsol Process
24.2.1.7 Polysulfide Treatment
24.2.1.8 Sodasol Process
24.2.1.9 Solutizer Process
24.2.1.10 Steam Regenerative Caustic Treatment
24.2.1.11 Unisol Process
24.2.2 Acid Processes
24.2.2.1 Nalfining Process
24.2.2.2 Sulfuric Acid Treatment
24.2.3 Clay Processes
24.2.3.1 Alkylation Effluent Treatment
24.2.3.2 Arosorb Process
24.2.3.3 Bauxite Treatment
24.2.3.4 Continuous Contact Filtration Process
24.2.3.5 Cyclic Adsorption Process
24.2.3.6 Gray Clay Treatment
24.2.3.7 Percolation Filtration Process
24.2.3.8 Thermofor Continuous Percolation Process
24.2.4 Oxidative Processes
24.2.4.1 Bender Process
24.2.4.2 Copper Sweetening Process
24.2.4.3 Doctor Process
24.2.4.4 Hypochlorite Sweetening Process
24.2.4.5 Inhibitor Sweetening Process
24.2.4.6 Merox Process
24.2.5 Solvent Processes
24.2.5.1 Deasphalting
24.2.5.2 Solvent Refining
24.2.5.3 Dewaxing
References
Chapter 25
Gas Processing
25.1 Introduction
25.1.1 Gas Streams from Crude Oil
25.1.2 Gas Streams from Natural Gas
25.2 Gas Cleaning
25.3 Water Removal
25.3.1 Absorption
25.3.2 Solid Adsorbents
25.3.3 Use of Membranes
25.4 Liquids Removal
25.4.1 Extraction
25.4.2 Absorption
25.4.3 Fractionation of Natural Gas Liquids25.5 Nitrogen Removal
25.6 Acid Gas Removal
25.7 Enrichment
25.8 Fractionation
25.9 Claus Process
References
Chapter 26
Products
26.1 Introduction
26.2 Gaseous Fuels
26.2.1 Composition
26.2.2 Manufacture
26.2.3 Properties and Uses
26.3 Gasoline
26.3.1 Composition
26.3.2 Manufacture
26.3.3 Properties and Uses
26.3.4 Octane Numbers
26.3.5 Additives
26.4 Solvents (Naphtha)
26.4.1 Composition
26.4.2 Manufacture
26.4.3 Properties and Uses
26.5 Kerosene
26.5.1 Composition
26.5.2 Manufacture
26.5.3 Properties and Uses
26.6 Fuel Oil
26.7 Lubricating Oil
26.7.1 Composition
26.7.2 Manufacture
26.7.2.1 Chemical Refining Processes
26.7.2.2 Hydroprocessing
26.7.2.3 Solvent Refining Processes
26.7.2.4 Catalytic Dewaxing
26.7.2.5 Solvent Dewaxing
26.7.2.6 Finishing Processes
26.7.2.7 Older Processes
26.7.3 Properties and Uses
26.8 Other Oil Products
26.8.1 White Oil
26.8.2 Insulating Oil
26.8.3 Insecticides
26.9 Grease
26.9.1 Lime Soap
26.9.2 Soda Soap
26.9.3 Lithium and Barium Soap
26.9.4 Aluminum Soap
26.9.5 Cold Sett Grease26.10 Wax
26.10.1 Composition
26.10.2 Manufacture
26.10.3 Properties and Uses
26.11 Asphalt
26.11.1 Composition
26.11.2 Manufacture
26.11.3 Properties and Uses
26.12 Coke
26.13 Sulfonic Acids
26.14 Acid Sludge
26.15 Product Blending
References
Chapter 27
Petrochemicals
27.1 Introduction
27.2 Chemicals from Paraffins
27.2.1 Halogenation
27.2.2 Nitration
27.2.3 Oxidation
27.2.4 Alkylation
27.2.5 Thermolysis
27.3 Chemicals from Olefins
27.3.1 Hydroxylation
27.3.2 Halogenation
27.3.3 Polymerization
27.3.4 Oxidation
27.3.5 Miscellaneous
27.4 Chemicals from Aromatics
27.5 Chemicals from Acetylene
27.6 Chemicals from Natural Gas
27.7 Inorganic Petrochemicals
27.8 Synthesis Gas
References
Part IV
Environmental Issues
Chapter 28
Environmental Aspects of Refining
28.1 Introduction
28.2 Definitions
28.3 Environmental Regulations
28.3.1 Clean Air Act Amendments
28.3.2 Water Pollution Control Act (The Clean Water Act)
28.3.3 Safe Drinking Water Act
28.3.4 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
28.3.5 Toxic Substances Control Act28.3.6 Comprehensive Environmental Response,
Compensation, and Liability Act
28.3.7 Occupational Safety and Health Act
28.3.8 Oil Pollution Act
28.3.9 Hazardous Materials Transportation Act
28.4 Process Analysis
28.4.1 Gaseous Emissions
28.4.2 Liquid Effluents
28.4.3 Solid Effluents
28.5 Epilog
References
Chapter 29
Refinery Wastes
29.1 Introduction
29.2 Process Wastes
29.2.1 Desalting
29.2.2 Distillation
29.2.3 Thermal Cracking and Visbreaking
29.2.4 Coking Processes
29.2.5 Fluid Catalytic Cracking
29.2.6 Hydrocracking and Hydrotreating
29.2.7 Catalytic Reforming
29.2.8 Alkylation
29.2.9 Isomerization
29.2.10 Polymerization
29.2.11 Deasphalting
29.2.12 Dewaxing
29.2.13 Gas Processing
29.3 Types of Waste
29.3.1 Gases and Lower Boiling Constituents
29.3.2 Higher Boiling Constituents
29.3.3 Wastewater
29.3.4 Solid Waste
29.4 Waste Toxicity
29.5 Refinery Outlook
29.5.1 Hazardous Waste Regulations
29.5.2 Regulatory Background
29.5.3 Requirements
29.6 Management of Refinery Waste
References
Chapter 30
Environmental Analysis
30.1 Introduction
30.2 Petroleum and Petroleum Products
30.3 Leachability and Toxicity
30.4 Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons
30.4.1 Gas Chromatographic Methods
30.4.2 Infrared Spectroscopy Methods30.4.3 Gravimetric Methods
30.4.4 Immunoassay Methods
30.5 Petroleum Group Analysis
30.5.1 Thin Layer Chromatography
30.5.2 Immunoassay
30.5.3 Gas Chromatography
30.5.4 High-Performance Liquid Chromatography
30.5.5 Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry
30.6 Petroleum Fractions
30.7 Assessment of the Methods
References
Conversion Factors
Glossary
Conversion Factors
1 acre ¼ 43,560 sq. ft.
1 acre foot ¼ 7758.0 bbl
1 atmosphere ¼ 760 mm Hg ¼ 14.696 psi ¼ 29.91 in. Hg
1 atmosphere ¼ 1.0133 bars ¼ 33.899 ft. H2O
1 barrel (oil) ¼ 42 gal ¼ 5.6146 cu. ft.
1 barrel (water) ¼ 350 lb. at 608F
1 barrel per day ¼ 1.84 cu. cm=sec
1 Btu ¼ 778.26 ft.-lb.
1 centipoise 2.42 ¼ lb. mass=(ft.-h), viscosity
1 centipoise 0.000672 ¼ lb. mass=(ft.-sec), viscosity
1 cubic foot ¼ 28,317 cu. cm ¼ 7.4805 gal
Density of water at 608 F ¼ 0l.999 g=cm3 ¼ 62.367 lb.=cu. ft. ¼ 8.337 lb.=gal
1 gallon ¼ 231 cu. in. ¼ 3,785.4 cm3 ¼ 0.13368 cu. ft.
1 horsepower-hour ¼ 0.7457 kWh ¼ 2544.5 Btu
1 horsepower ¼ 550 ft.-lb.=sec ¼ 745.7 W
1 inch ¼ 2.54 cm
1 meter ¼ 100 cm ¼ 1000 mm ¼ 106 mm ¼ 1010 A˚ (D)
1 ounce ¼ 28.35 g
1 pound ¼ 453.30 g ¼ 7000 grains
1 square mile ¼ 640 acres
SI METRIC CONVERSION FACTORS
(E 5 EXPONENT; I.E. E 1 03 5 103)
Acre-foot 1.233482 E þ 03 ¼ meter cube
Barrels 1.589873 E  01 ¼ meter cube
Centipoises 1.00000 E  03 ¼ pascal seconds
Darcy 9.869233 E  01 ¼ micrometer square
Feet 3.048000 E  01 ¼ meters
Pounds=acre-foot 3.677332 E  04 ¼ kilograms=meter cube
Pounds=square inch 6.894757 E  00 ¼ kilopascals
Dyne=cm 1.000000 E þ 00 ¼ mN=m
Parts per million 1.000000 E þ 00 ¼ milligrams=kilogramsGlossary
The following list represents a selection of definitions that are commonly used with reference to refining
operations (processes, equipment, and products) and will be of use to the reader. Older names, as may
occur in many books, are also included for clarification.
ABN separation a method of fractionation by which petroleum is separated into acidic, basic, and
neutral constituents.
Absorber see Absorption tower.
Absorption gasoline gasoline extracted from natural gas or refinery gas by contacting the absorbed gas
with an oil and subsequently distilling the gasoline from the higher-boiling components.
Absorption oil oil used to separate the heavier components from a vapor mixture by absorption of the
heavier components during intimate contacting of the oil and vapor; used to recover natural
gasoline from wet gas.
Absorption plant a plant for recovering the condensable portion of natural or refinery gas, by absorbing
the higher-boiling hydrocarbons in an absorption oil, followed by separation and fractionation
of the absorbed material.
Absorption tower a tower or column which promotes contact between a rising gas and a falling liquid so
that part of the gas may be dissolved in the liquid.
Acetone–benzol process a dewaxing process in which acetone and benzol (benzene or aromatic naphtha)
are used as solvents.
Acid catalyst a catalyst having acidic character; the aluminas are examples of such catalysts.
Acid deposition acid rain; a form of pollution depletion in which pollutants, such as nitrogen oxides and
sulfur oxides, are transferred from the atmosphere to soil or water; often referred to as
atmospheric self-cleaning. The pollutants usually arise from the use of fossil fuels.
Acidity the capacity of an acid to neutralize a base, such as a hydroxyl ion (OH).
Acidizing a technique for improving the permeability (q.v.) of a reservoir by injecting acid.
Acid number a measure of the reactivity of petroleum with a caustic solution and given in terms of
milligrams of potassium hydroxide that are neutralized by one gram of petroleum.
Acid rain the precipitation phenomenon that incorporates anthropogenic acids and other acidic chemicals from the atmosphere to the land and water (see Acid deposition).
Acid sludge the residue left after treating petroleum oil with sulfuric acid for the removal of impurities; a
black, viscous substance containing the spent acid and impurities.
Acid treatment a process in which unfinished petroleum products, such as gasoline, kerosene, and
lubricating-oil stocks, are contacted with sulfuric acid to improve their color, odor, and other
properties.
Acoustic log see Sonic log.
Acre-foot a measure of bulk rock volume, where the area is one acre and the thickness is one foot.
Additive a material added to another (usually in small amounts) in order to enhance desirable properties
or to suppress undesirable properties.
Add-on control methods the use of devices that remove refinery process emissions after they are generated
but before they are discharged to the atmosphere.
Adsorption transfer of a substance, from a solution to the surface of a solid, resulting in relatively high
concentration of the substance at the place of contact; see also Chromatographic adsorption.Adsorption gasoline natural gasoline (q.v.) obtained by the adsorption process from wet gas.
Afterburn the combustion of carbon monoxide (CO) to carbon dioxide (CO2); usually in the cyclones of
a catalyst regenerator.
After flow flow from the reservoir into the wellbore that continues for a period after the well has been
shut in; after-flow can complicate the analysis of a pressure transient test.
Air-blown asphalt asphalt produced by blowing air through residua at elevated temperatures.
Air injection an oil recovery technique using air to force oil from the reservoir into the wellbore.
Airlift Thermofor catalytic cracking a moving-bed continuous catalytic process for conversion of heavy
gas oils into lighter products; the catalyst is moved by a stream of air.
Air pollution the discharge of toxic gases and particulate matter introduced into the atmosphere,
principally as a result of human activity.
Air sweetening a process in which air or oxygen is used to oxidize lead mercaptides to disulfides, instead
of using elemental sulfur.
Air toxics hazardous air pollutants.
Albertite a black, brittle, natural hydrocarbon possessing a conchoidal fracture and a specific gravity of
approximately 1.1.
Alicyclic hydrocarbon a compound containing carbon and hydrogen only, which has a cyclic structure
(e.g., cyclohexane); also collectively called naphthenes.
Aliphatic hydrocarbon a compound containing carbon and hydrogen only, which has an open-chain
structure (e.g., as ethane, butane, octane, butene) or a cyclic structure (e.g., cyclohexane).
Aliquot the quantity of material of proper size for measurement of the property of interest; test portions
may be taken from the gross sample directly, but often preliminary operations such as mixing or
further reduction in particle size are necessary.
Alkaline a high pH, usually of an aqueous solution; aqueous solutions of sodium hydroxide, sodium
orthosilicate, and sodium carbonate are typical alkaline materials used in enhanced oil recovery.
Alkaline flooding see EOR process.
Alkalinity the capacity of a base to neutralize the hydrogen ion (Hþ).
Alkali treatment see Caustic wash.
Alkali wash see Caustic wash.
Alkanes hydrocarbons that contain only single carbon–hydrogen bonds. The chemical name indicates
the number of carbon atoms and ends with the suffix ‘‘ane’’.
Alkenes hydrocarbons that contain carbon–carbon double bonds. The chemical name indicates the
number of carbon atoms and ends with the suffix ‘‘ene’’.
Alkylate the product of an alkylation (q.v.) process.
Alkylate bottoms residua from fractionation of alkylate; the alkylate product which boils higher than the
aviation gasoline range; sometimes called heavy alkylate or alkylate polymer.
Alkylation in the petroleum industry, a process by which an olefin (e.g., ethylene) is combined with a
branched-chain hydrocarbon (e.g., iso-butane); alkylation may be accomplished as a thermal or
as a catalytic reaction.
Alkyl groups a group of carbon and hydrogen atoms that branch from the main carbon chain or ring in a
hydrocarbon molecule. The simplest alkyl group, a methyl group, is a carbon atom attached to
three hydrogen atoms.
Alpha-scission the rupture of the aromatic carbon–aliphatic carbon bond that joins an alkyl group to an
aromatic ring.
Alumina (Al2O3) used in separation methods as an adsorbent and in refining as a catalyst.
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) the official organization in the United States for
designing standard tests for petroleum and other industrial products.
Amine washing a method of gas cleaning, whereby acidic impurities such as hydrogen sulfide and
carbon dioxide are removed from the gas stream by washing with an amine (usually an
alkanolamine).
Analytical equivalence the acceptability of the results obtained from the different laboratories; a range of
acceptable results.
Analyte the chemical for which a sample is tested, or analyzed.
Antibody a molecule having chemically reactive sites specific for certain other molecules.Aniline point the temperature, usually expressed in 8F, above which equal volumes of a petroleum
product are completely miscible; a qualitative indication of the relative proportions of paraffins
in a petroleum product which are miscible with aniline only at higher temperatures; a high
aniline point indicates low aromatics.
Antiknock resistance to detonation or pinging in spark-ignition engines.
Antiknock agent a chemical compound such as tetraethyl lead which, when added in small amount to the
fuel charge of an internal-combustion engine, tends to lessen knocking.
Antistripping agent an additive used in an asphaltic binder to overcome the natural affinity of an
aggregate for water, instead of asphalt.
API gravity a measure of the lightness or heaviness of petroleum which is related to density and specific
gravity.
API ¼ ð141:5=spgr @ 60FÞ 131:5
Apparent bulk density the density of a catalyst as measured; usually loosely compacted in a container.
Apparent viscosity the viscosity of a fluid, or several fluids flowing simultaneously, measured in a porous
medium (rock), and subject to both viscosity and permeability effects; also called effective
viscosity.
Aquifer a subsurface rock interval that will produce water; often the underlay of a petroleum reservoir.
Areal sweep efficiency the fraction of the flood pattern area that is effectively swept by the injected fluids.
Aromatic hydrocarbon a hydrocarbon characterized by the presence of an aromatic ring or condensed
aromatic rings; benzene and substituted benzene, naphthalene and substituted naphthalene,
phenanthrene and substituted phenanthrene, as well as the higher condensed ring systems;
compounds that are distinct from those of aliphatic compounds (q.v.) or alicyclic compounds
(q.v.).
Aromatization the conversion of nonaromatic hydrocarbons to aromatic hydrocarbons by: (1) rearrangement of aliphatic (noncyclic) hydrocarbons (q.v.) into aromatic ring structures; and
(2) dehydrogenation of alicyclic hydrocarbons (naphthenes).
Arosorb process a process for the separation of aromatics from nonaromatics by adsorption on a gel
from which they are recovered by desorption.
Asphalt the nonvolatile product obtained by distillation and treatment of an asphaltic crude oil; a
manufactured product.
Asphalt cement asphalt, especially prepared as to quality and consistency, for direct use in the manufacture of bituminous pavements.
Asphalt emulsion an emulsion of asphalt cement in water containing a small amount of emulsifying
agent.
Asphalt flux an oil used to reduce the consistency or viscosity of hard asphalt to the point required for
use.
Asphalt primer a liquid asphaltic material of low viscosity which, upon application to a nonbituminous
surface, waterproofs the surface and prepares it for further construction.
Asphaltene (asphaltenes) the brown to black powdery material produced by treatment of petroleum,
petroleum residua, or bituminous materials with a low-boiling liquid hydrocarbon, e.g., pentane
or heptane; soluble in benzene (and other aromatic solvents), carbon disulfide, and chloroform
(or other chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents).
Asphaltene association factor the number of individual asphaltene species which associate in nonpolar
solvents as measured by molecular weight methods; the molecular weight of asphaltenes in
toluene divided by the molecular weight in a polar nonassociating solvent, such as dichlorobenzene, pyridine, or nitrobenzene.
Asphaltic pyrobitumen see Asphaltoid.
Asphaltic road oil a thick, fluid solution of asphalt; usually a residual oil. See also Nonasphaltic road
oil.
Asphaltite a variety of naturally occurring, dark brown to black, solid, nonvolatile bituminous material
that is differentiated from bitumen, primarily by a high content of material insoluble in npentane (asphaltene) or other liquid hydrocarbons.Asphaltoid a group of brown to black, solid bituminous materials of which the members are differentiated from asphaltites by their infusibility and low solubility in carbon disulfide.
Asphaltum see Asphalt.
Associated molecular weight the molecular weight of asphaltenes in an associating (nonpolar) solvent,
such as toluene.
Atmospheric residuum a residuum (q.v.) obtained by distillation of a crude oil under atmospheric
pressure and which boils above 3508C (6608F).
Atmospheric equivalent boiling point (AEBP) a mathematical method of estimating the boiling point at
atmospheric pressure of nonvolatile fractions of petroleum.
Attainment area a geographical area that meets NAAQS criteria for air pollutants (see also Nonattainment area).
Attapulgus clay see Fuller’s earth.
Autofining a catalytic process for desulfurizing distillates.
Average particle size the weighted average particle diameter of a catalyst.
Aviation gasoline any of the special grades of gasoline suitable for use in certain airplane engines.
Aviation turbine fuel see Jet fuel.
Back mixing the phenomenon observed when a catalyst travels at a slower rate in the riser pipe than the
vapors.
BACT best available control technology.
Baghouse a filter system for the removal of particulate matter from gas streams; so called because of the
similarity of the filters to coal bags.
Bank the concentration of oil (oil bank) in a reservoir that moves cohesively through the reservoir.
Bari-Sol process a dewaxing process which employs a mixture of ethylene dichloride and benzol as the
solvent.
Barrel the unit of measurement of liquids in the petroleum industry; equivalent to 42 US standard
gallons or 33.6 imperial gallons.
Base number the quantity of acid, expressed in milligrams of potassium hydroxide per gram of sample
that is required to titrate a sample to a specified end-point.
Base stock a primary refined petroleum fraction into which other oils and additives are added (blended)
to produce the finished product.
Basic nitrogen nitrogen (in petroleum) which occurs in pyridine form
Basic sediment and water (bs&w, bsw) the material which collects at the bottom of storage tanks, usually
composed of oil, water, and foreign matter; also called bottoms, bottom settlings.
Battery a series of stills or other refinery equipment operated as a unit.
Baume´ gravity the specific gravity of liquids expressed as degrees on the Baume´ (8Be´) scale; for liquids
lighter than water:
Sp gr 60F ¼ 140=ð130 þ Be´Þ
For liquids heavier than water:
Sp gr 60F ¼ 145=ð145 Be´Þ
Bauxite mineral matter used as a treating agent; hydrated aluminum oxide formed by the chemical
weathering of igneous rock.
Bbl see Barrel.
Bell cap a hemispherical or triangular cover placed over the riser in a (distillation) tower to direct the
vapors through the liquid layer on the tray; see Bubble cap.
Bender process a chemical treating process using lead sulfide catalyst for sweetening light distillates by
which mercaptans are converted to disulfides by oxidation.
Bentonite montmorillonite (a magnesium–aluminum silicate); used as a treating agent.
Benzene a colorless aromatic liquid hydrocarbon (C6H6).
Benzin a refined light naphtha used for extraction purposes.
Benzine an obsolete term for light petroleum distillates covering the gasoline and naphtha range; see
Ligroine.Benzol the general term which refers to commercial or technical (not necessarily pure) benzene; also the
term used for aromatic naphtha.
Beta-scission the rupture of a carbon–carbon bond that is; two bonds removed from an aromatic ring.
Billion 1  109
Biocide any chemical capable of killing bacteria and biorganisms.
Biogenic material derived from bacterial or vegetation sources.
Biological lipid any biological fluid that is miscible with a nonpolar solvent. These materials include
waxes, essential oils, chlorophyll, etc.
Biological oxidation the oxidative consumption of organic matter by bacteria by which the organic
matter is converted into gases.
Biomass biological organic matter.
Biopolymer a high molecular weight carbohydrate produced by bacteria.
Bitumen a semisolid to solid hydrocarbonaceous material found filling pores and crevices of sandstone,
limestone, or argillaceous sediments.
Bituminous containing bitumen or constituting the source of bitumen.
Bituminous rock see Bituminous sand.
Bituminous sand a formation in which the bituminous material (see Bitumen) is found as a filling in veins
and fissures in fractured rock or impregnating relatively shallow sand, sandstone, and limestone
strata; a sandstone reservoir that is impregnated with a heavy, viscous black petroleum-like
material that cannot be retrieved through a well by conventional production techniques.
Black acid(s) a mixture of the sulfonates found in acid sludge which are insoluble in naphtha, benzene,
and carbon tetrachloride; very soluble in water, but insoluble in 30% sulfuric acid; in the dry, oilfree state, the sodium soaps are black powders.
Black oil any of the dark-colored oils; a term now often applied to heavy oil (q.v.).
Black soap see Black acid.
Black strap the black material (mainly lead sulfide) formed in the treatment of sour light oils with doctor
solution (q.v.) and found at the interface between the oil and the solution.
Blown asphalt the asphalt prepared by air blowing a residuum (q.v.) or an asphalt (q.v.).
Bogging a condition that occurs in a coking reactor when the conversion to coke and light ends is too
slow, causing the coke particles to agglomerate.
Boiling point a characteristic physical property of a liquid at which the vapor pressure is equal to that of
the atmosphere and the liquid is converted to a gas.
Boiling range the range of temperature, usually determined at atmospheric pressure in standard laboratory apparatus, over which the distillation of an oil commences, proceeds, and finishes.
Bottled gas usually butane or propane, or butane–propane mixtures, liquefied and stored under pressure
for domestic use; see also Liquefied petroleum gas.
Bottoms the liquid which collects at the bottom of a vessel (tower bottoms, tank bottoms) during
distillation; also the deposit or sediment formed during storage of petroleum or a petroleum
product; see also Residuum and Basic sediment and water.
Bright stock refined, high-viscosity lubricating oils, usually made from residual stocks by processes such
as a combination of acid treatment or solvent extraction with dewaxing or clay finishing.
British thermal unit see Btu.
Bromine number the number of grams of bromine absorbed by 100 g of oil which indicates the
percentage of double bonds in the material.
Brown acid oil-soluble petroleum sulfonates found in acid sludge which can be recovered by extraction
with naphtha solvent. Brown-acid sulfonates are somewhat similar to mahogany sulfonates, but
are more water-soluble. In the dry, oil-free state, the sodium soaps are light-colored powders.
Brown soap see Brown acid.
Brønsted acid a chemical species which can act as a source of protons.
Brønsted base a chemical species which can accept protons.
BS&W see Basic sediment and water.
BTEX benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and the xylene isomers.
Btu (British thermal unit) the energy required to raise the temperature of one pound of water by 18F.Bubble cap an inverted cup with a notched or slotted periphery to disperse the vapor in small bubbles
beneath the surface of the liquid on the bubble plate in a distillation tower.
Bubble plate a tray in a distillation tower.
Bubble point the temperature at which incipient vaporization of a liquid in a liquid mixture occurs,
corresponding with the equilibrium point of 0% vaporization or 100% condensation.
Bubble tower a fractionating tower so constructed that the vapors rising pass up through layers of
condensate on a series of plates or trays (see Bubble plate); the vapor passes from one plate to
the next above by bubbling under one or more caps (see Bubble cap) and out through the liquid
on the plate, where the less volatile portions of vapor condense, overflow to the next lower plate,
and ultimately back into the reboiler, thereby effecting fractionation.
Bubble tray a circular, perforated plates having the internal diameter of a bubble tower (q.v.), set at
specified distances in a tower to collect the various fractions produced during distillation.
Buckley–Leverett method a theoretical method of determining frontal advance rates and saturations
from a fractional flow curve.
Bumping the knocking against the walls of a still occurring during distillation of petroleum or a
petroleum product which usually contains water.
Bunker C oil see No. 6 Fuel oil.
Burner fuel oil any petroleum liquid suitable for combustion.
Burning oil an illuminating oil, such as kerosene (kerosine) suitable for burning in a wick lamp.
Burning point see Fire point.
Burning-quality index an empirical numerical indication of the likely burning performance of a furnace
or heater oil; derived from the distillation profile (q.v.) and the API gravity (q.v.), and generally
recognizing the factors of paraffin character and volatility.
Burton process a older thermal cracking process in which oil was cracked in a pressure still and any
condensation of the products of cracking also took place under pressure.
Butane dehydrogenation a process for removing hydrogen from butane to produce butenes and, on
occasion, butadiene.
Butane vapor-phase isomerization a process for isomerizing n-butane to iso-butane using aluminum
chloride catalyst on a granular alumina support and with hydrogen chloride as a promoter.
C1, C2, C3, C4, C5 fractions a common way of representing fractions containing a preponderance of
hydrocarbons having 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 carbon atoms, respectively, and without reference to
hydrocarbon type.
CAA Clean Air Act; this act is the foundation of air regulations in the United States
Calcining heating a metal oxide or an ore to decompose carbonates, hydrates, or other compounds often
in a controlled atmosphere.
Capillary forces interfacial forces between immiscible fluid phases, resulting in pressure differences
between the two phases.
Capillary number Nc, the ratio of viscous forces to capillary forces, and equal to viscosity times velocity
divided by interfacial tension.
Carbene the pentane- or heptane-insoluble material that is insoluble in benzene or toluene but which is
soluble in carbon disulfide (or pyridine); a type of rifle used for hunting bison.
Carboid the pentane- or heptane-insoluble material that is insoluble in benzene or toluene and which is
also insoluble in carbon disulfide (or pyridine).
Carbonate washing processing using a mild alkali (e.g., potassium carbonate) process for emission
control by the removal of acid gases from gas streams.
Carbon dioxide augmented waterflooding injection of carbonated water, or water and carbon dioxide, to
increase water flood efficiency; see immiscible carbon dioxide displacement.
Carbon dioxide miscible flooding see EOR process.
Carbon-forming propensity see Carbon residue.
Carbonization the conversion of an organic compound into char or coke by heat in the substantial
absence of air; often used in reference to the destructive distillation (with simultaneous removal
of distillate) of coal.
Carbon–oxygen log information about the relative abundance of elements such as carbon, oxygen,
silicon, and calcium in a formation; usually derived from pulsed neutron equipment.Carbon rejection upgrading processes in which coke is produced, e.g., coking.
Carbon residue the amount of carbonaceous residue remaining after thermal decomposition of petroleum, a petroleum fraction, or a petroleum product in a limited amount of air; also called the
coke- or carbon-forming propensity; often prefixed by the terms Conradson or Ramsbottom in
reference to the inventor of the respective tests.
CAS Chemical Abstract Service.
Cascade tray a fractionating device consisting of a series of parallel troughs arranged in stair-step
fashion, in which liquid from the tray above enters the uppermost trough and liquid thrown
from this trough by vapor rising from the tray below impinges against a plate and a perforated
baffle, and liquid passing through the baffle enters the next longer of the troughs.
Casinghead gas natural gas which issues from the casinghead (the mouth or opening) of an oil well.
Casinghead gasoline the liquid hydrocarbon product extracted from casinghead gas (q.v.) by one of three
methods: compression, absorption, or refrigeration; see also Natural gasoline.
Catagenesis the alteration of organic matter during the formation of petroleum that may involve
temperatures in the range of 508C (1208F) to 2008C (3908F); see also Diagenesis and Metagenesis.
Catalyst a chemical agent which, when added to a reaction (process) will enhance the conversion of a
feedstock without consumed in the process.
Catalyst selectivity the relative activity of a catalyst with respect to a particular compound in a mixture,
or the relative rate in competing reactions of a single reactant.
Catalyst stripping the introduction of steam, at a point where spent catalyst leaves the reactor, in order
to strip, i.e., remove, deposits retained on the catalyst.
Catalytic activity the ratio of the space velocity of the catalyst under test to the space velocity required
for the standard catalyst to give the same conversion as the catalyst being tested; usually
multiplied by 100 before being reported.
Catalytic cracking the conversion of high-boiling feedstocks into lower boiling products by means of a
catalyst which may be used in a fixed bed (q.v.) or fluid bed (q.v.).
Cat cracking see Catalytic cracking.
Catalytic reforming rearranging hydrocarbon molecules in a gasoline-boiling-range feedstock to produce
other hydrocarbons having a higher antiknock quality; isomerization of paraffins, cyclization of
paraffins to naphthenes (q.v.), dehydrocyclization of paraffins to aromatics (q.v.).
Catforming a process for reforming naphtha using a platinum–silica–alumina catalyst which permits
relatively high space velocities and results in the production of high-purity hydrogen.
Caustic consumption the amount of caustic lost from reacting chemically with the minerals in the rock,
the oil, and the brine.
Chemical flooding see EOR process.
Caustic wash the process of treating a product with a solution of caustic soda to remove minor
impurities; often used in reference to the solution itself.
Ceresin a hard, brittle wax obtained by purifying ozokerite; see Microcrystalline wax and Ozokerite.
Cetane index an approximation of the cetane number (q.v.) calculated from the density (q.v.) and
midboiling point temperature (q.v.); see also Diesel index.
Cetane number a number indicating the ignition quality of diesel fuel; a high cetane number represents a
short ignition delay time; the ignition quality of diesel fuel can also be estimated from the
following formula:
Diesel index ¼ ðaniline point ðFÞ  API gravityÞ100
CFR Code of Federal Regulations; Title 40 (40 CFR) contains the regulations for protection of the
environment.
Characterization factor the UOP characterization factor K, defined as the ratio of the cube root of the
molal average boiling point, TB, in degrees Rankine (8R ¼ 8F þ 460), to the specific gravity at
608F=608F:
K ¼ ðTBÞ1=3=sp grThe value ranges from 12.5 for paraffin stocks to 10.0 for the highly aromatic stocks; also called
the Watson characterization factor.
Cheesebox still an early type of vertical cylindrical still designed with a vapor dome.
Chelating agents complex-forming agents with the ability to solubilize heavy metals.
Chemical flooding see EOR process.
Chemical octane number the octane number added to gasoline by refinery processes or by the use of
octane number (q.v.) improvers, such as tetraethyl lead.
Chemical waste any solid, liquid, or gaseous material discharged from a process and that may pose
substantial hazards to human health and environment.
Chlorex process a process for extracting lubricating-oil stocks in which the solvent used is Chlorex
(b–b-dichlorodiethyl ether).
Chromatographic adsorption selective adsorption on materials such as activated carbon, alumina, or
silica gel; liquid or gaseous mixtures of hydrocarbons are passed through the adsorbent in a
stream of diluent, and certain components are preferentially adsorbed.
Chromatographic separation the separation of different species of compounds according to their size and
interaction with the rock as they flow through a porous medium.
Chromatography a method of separation based on selective adsorption; see also Chromatographic
adsorption.
Clarified oil the heavy oil which has been taken from the bottom of a fractionator in a catalytic cracking
process and from which residual catalyst has been removed.
Clarifier equipment for removing the color or cloudiness of an oil or water by separating the foreign
material through mechanical or chemical means; may involve centrifugal action, filtration,
heating, or treatment with acid or alkali.
Clay silicate minerals that also usually contain aluminum and have particle sizes less than 0.002 micron;
used in separation methods as an adsorbent and in refining as a catalyst.
Clay contact process see Contact filtration.
Clay refining a treating process in which vaporized gasoline or any other light petroleum product is
passed through a bed of granular clay, such as Fuller’s earth (q.v.).
Clay regeneration a process in which spent coarse-grained adsorbent clays from percolation processes
are cleaned for reuse by deoiling them with naphtha, steaming out the excess naphtha, and then
roasting in a stream of air to remove carbonaceous matter.
Clay treating see Gray clay treating.
Clay wash light oil, such as kerosene (kerosine) or naphtha, used to clean Fuller’s earth after it has been
used in a filter.
Clastic composed of pieces of preexisting rock.
Cleanup a preparatory step following extraction of a sample media designed to remove components that
may interfere with subsequent analytical measurements.
Cloud point the temperature at which paraffin wax or other solid substances begin to crystallize or
separate from the solution, imparting a cloudy appearance to the oil when the oil is chilled under
prescribed conditions.
Coal an organic rock.
Coalescence the union of two or more droplets to form a larger droplet and, ultimately, a continuous phase.
Coal tar the specific name for the tar (q.v.) produced from coal.
Coal tar pitch the specific name for the pitch (q.v.) produced from coal.
COFCAW an enhanced oil recovery (EOR) process (q.v.) that combines forward combustion and water
flooding.
Cogeneration an energy conversion method by which electrical energy is produced along with steam
generated for EOR use.
Coke a gray to black solid carbonaceous material produced from petroleum during thermal processing;
characterized by having a high carbon content (95%þ by weight) and a honeycomb type of
appearance; it is insoluble in organic solvents.
Coke drum a vessel in which coke is formed and which can be isolated from the process for cleaning.
Coke number used, particularly in Great Britain, to report the results of the Ramsbottom carbon residue
test (q.v.), which is also referred to as a coke test.Coker the processing unit in which coking takes place.
Coking a process for the thermal conversion of petroleum in which gaseous, liquid, and solid (coke)
products are formed.
Cold pressing the process of separating wax from oil by first chilling (to help form wax crystals) and then
filtering under pressure in a plate and frame press.
Cold settling processing for the removal of wax from high-viscosity stocks, wherein a naphtha solution
of the waxy oil is chilled and the wax crystallizes out of the solution.
Color stability the resistance of a petroleum product to color change due to light, aging, etc.
Combustible liquid a liquid with a flash point in excess of 37.88C (1008F), but below 93.38C (2008F).
Combustion zone the volume of reservoir rock wherein petroleum is undergoing combustion during
enhanced oil recovery.
Composition the general chemical make-up of petroleum.
Completion interval the portion of the reservoir formation placed in fluid communication with the well
by selectively perforating the wellbore casing.
Composition map a means of illustrating the chemical make-up of petroleum using chemical and physical
property data.
Con Carbon see Carbon residue.
Condensate a mixture of light hydrocarbon liquids obtained by condensation of hydrocarbon vapors:
predominately butane, propane, and pentane with some heavier hydrocarbons and relatively
little methane or ethane; see also Natural gas liquids.
Conductivity a measure of the ease of flow through a fracture, perforation, or pipe.
Conformance the uniformity with which a volume of the reservoir is swept by injection fluids in area and
vertical directions.
Conradson carbon residue see Carbon residue.
Contact filtration a process in which finely divided adsorbent clay is used to remove color bodies from
petroleum products.
Contaminant a substance that causes deviation from the normal composition of an environment.
Continuous contact coking a thermal conversion process in which petroleum-wetted coke particles move
downward into the reactor in which cracking, coking, and drying take place to produce coke,
gas, gasoline, and gas oil.
Continuous contact filtration a process to finish lubricants, waxes, or special oils after acid treating,
solvent extraction, or distillation.
Conventional recovery primary and secondary recovery.
Conversion the thermal treatment of petroleum which results in the formation of new products by the
alteration of the original constituents.
Conversion cost the cost of changing a production well to an injection well, or some other change in the
function of an oilfield installation.
Conversion factor the percentage of feedstock converted to light ends, gasoline, other liquid fuels, and
coke.
Copper sweetening processes involving the oxidation of mercaptans to disulfides by oxygen in the
presence of cupric chloride.
Core floods laboratory flow tests through samples (cores) of porous rock.
Co-surfactant a chemical compound, typically alcohol, that enhances the effectiveness of a surfactant.
Cp (centipoise) a unit of viscosity.
Craig–Geffen–Morse method a method for predicting oil recovery by water flood.
Cracked residua residua that have been subjected to temperatures above 3508C (6608F) during the
distillation process.
Cracking the thermal processes by which the constituents of petroleum are converted to lower molecular
weight products.
Cracking activity see Catalytic activity.
Cracking coil equipment used for cracking heavy petroleum products consisting of a coil of heavy pipe
running through a furnace, so that the oil passing through it is subject to high temperature.
Cracking still the combined equipment-furnace, reaction chamber, fractionator for the thermal conversion of heavier feedstocks to lighter products.Cracking temperature the temperature (3508C; 6608F) at which the rate of thermal decomposition of
petroleum constituents becomes significant.
Criteria air pollutants air pollutants or classes of pollutants regulated by the Environmental Protection
Agency; the air pollutants are (including Volatile organic compounds): ozone, carbon monoxide, particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and lead.
Cross-linking combining of two or polymer molecules by use of a chemical that mutually bonds with a
part of the chemical structure of the polymer molecules.
Crude assay a procedure for determining the general distillation characteristics (e.g., distillation profile,
q.v.) and other quality information of crude oil.
Crude oil see Petroleum.
Crude scale wax the wax product from the first sweating of the slack wax.
Crude still distillation (q.v.) equipment in which crude oil is separated into various products.
Cumene a colorless liquid [C6H5CH(CH3)2] used as an aviation gasoline blending component and as an
intermediate in the manufacture of chemicals.
Cut point the boiling-temperature division between distillation fractions of petroleum.
Cutback the term applied to the products from blending heavier feedstocks or products with lighter oils
to bring the heavier materials to the desired specifications.
Cutback asphalt asphalt liquefied by the addition of a volatile liquid such as naphtha or kerosene which,
after application and on exposure to the atmosphere, evaporates leaving the asphalt.
Cutting oil an oil to lubricate and cool metal-cutting tools; also called cutting fluid, cutting lubricant.
Cycle stock the product taken from some later stage of a process and recharged (recycled) to the process
at some earlier stage.
Cyclic steam injection the alternating injection of steam and the production of oil from the same well or wells.
Cyclization the process by which an open-chain hydrocarbon structure is converted to a ring structure,
e.g., hexane to benzene.
Cyclone adevicefor extractingdustfromindustrialwastegases.Itisintheformofaninverted coneintowhich
the contaminated gas enterstangential fromthe top; the gas ispropelled down a helical pathway, and
the dust particles are deposited by means of centrifugal force onto the wall of the scrubber.
Deactivation reduction in catalyst activity by the deposition of contaminants (e.g., coke, metals) during a
process.
Dealkylation the removal of an alkyl group from aromatic compounds.
Deasphaltened oil the fraction of petroleum after the asphaltene constituents have been removed.
Deasphaltening removal of a solid powdery asphaltene fraction from petroleum by the addition of the
low-boiling liquid hydrocarbons such as n-pentane or n-heptane under ambient conditions.
Deasphalting the removal of the asphaltene fraction from petroleum by the addition of a low-boiling
hydrocarbon liquid such as n-pentane or n-heptane; more correctly, the removal of asphalt
(tacky, semisolid) from petroleum (as occurs in a refinery asphalt plant), by the addition of
liquid propane or liquid butane under pressure.
Debutanization distillation to separate butane and lighter components from higher boiling components.
Decant oil the highest boiling product from a catalytic cracker; also referred to as slurry oil, clarified oil,
or bottoms.
Decarbonizing a thermal conversion process designed to maximize coker gas–oil production and minimize coke and gasoline yields; operated at essentially lower temperatures and pressures than
delayed coking (q.v.).
Decoking removal of petroleum coke from equipment such as coking drums; hydraulic decoking uses
high-velocity water streams.
Decolorizing removal of suspended, colloidal, and dissolved impurities from liquid petroleum products
by filtering, adsorption, chemical treatment, distillation, bleaching, etc.
Deethanization distillation to separate ethane and lighter components from propane and higher-boiling
components; also called deethanation.
Degradation the loss of desirable physical properties of EOR fluids, e.g., the loss of viscosity of polymer
solutions.
Dehydrating agents substances capable of removing water (drying, q.v.) or the elements of water from
another substance.Dehydrocyclization any process by which both dehydrogenation and cyclization reactions occur.
Dehydrogenation the removal of hydrogen from a chemical compound; for example, the removal of two
hydrogen atoms from butane to make butene, as well as the removal of additional hydrogen to
produce butadiene.
Delayed coking a coking process in which the thermal reactions are allowed to proceed to completion to
produce gaseous, liquid, and solid (coke) products.
Demethanization the process of distillation in which methane is separated from the higher boiling
components; also called demethanation.
Density the mass (or weight) of a unit volume of any substance at a specified temperature; see also
Specific gravity.
Deoiling reduction in quantity of liquid oil entrained in solid wax by draining (sweating) or by a selective
solvent; see MEK deoiling.
Depentanizer a fractionating column for the removal of pentane and lighter fractions from a mixture of
hydrocarbons.
Depropanization distillation in which lighter components are separated from butanes and higher boiling
material; also called depropanation.
Desalting removal of mineral salts (mostly chlorides) from crude oils.
Desorption the reverse process of adsorption whereby adsorbed matter is removed from the adsorbent;
also used as the reverse of absorption (q.v.).
Desulfurization the removal of sulfur or sulfur compounds from a feedstock.
Detergent oil lubricating oil possessing special sludge-dispersing properties for use in internal-combustion engines.
Dewaxing see Solvent dewaxing.
Devolatilized fuel smokeless fuel; coke that has been reheated to remove all of the volatile material.
Diagenesis the concurrent and consecutive chemical reactions which commence the alteration of organic
matter (at temperatures up to 508C (1208F) and ultimately result in the formation of petroleum
from the marine sediment; see also Catagenesis and Metagenesis.
Diagenetic rock rock formed by conversion through pressure or chemical reaction from a rock, e.g.,
sandstone is a diagenetic.
Diesel fuel fuel used for internal combustion in diesel engines; usually that fraction which distills after
kerosene.
Diesel cycle a repeated succession of operations representing the idealized working behavior of the fluids
in a diesel engine.
Diesel index an approximation of the cetane number (q.v.) of diesel fuel (q.v.) calculated from the density
(q.v.) and aniline point (q.v.).
Diesel knock the result of a delayed period of ignition of diesel fuel in the engine.
Differential-strain analysis measurement of thermal stress relaxation in a recently cut well.
Dispersion a measure of the convective fluids due to flow in a reservoir.
Displacement efficiency the ratio of the amount of oil moved from the zone swept by the recovery
process to the amount of oil present in the zone prior to the start of the process.
Distribution coefficient a coefficient that describes the distribution of a chemical in reservoir fluids,
usually defined as the equilibrium concentrations in the aqueous phases.
Distillation a process for separating liquids with different boiling points.
Distillation curve see Distillation profile.
Distillation loss the difference, in a laboratory distillation, between the volume of liquid originally
introduced into the distilling flask and the sum of the residue and the condensate recovered.
Distillation range the difference between the temperature at the initial boiling point and at the end point,
as obtained by the distillation test.
Distillation profile the distillation characteristics of petroleum or petroleum products showing the
temperature and the percent distilled.
Doctor solution a solution of sodium plumbite used to treat gasoline or other light petroleum distillates
to remove mercaptan sulfur; see also Doctor test.
Doctor sweetening a process for sweetening gasoline, solvents, and kerosene by converting mercaptans to
disulfides using sodium plumbite and sulfur.Doctor test a test used for the detection of compounds in light petroleum distillates which react with
sodium plumbite; see also Doctor solution.
Domestic heating oil see No. 2 Fuel Oil.
Donor solvent process a conversion process in which hydrogen donor solvent is used in place of or to
augment hydrogen.
Downcomer a means of conveying liquid from one tray to the next below in a bubble tray column (q.v.).
Downhole steam generator a generator installed downhole in an oil well to which oxygen-rich air, fuel,
and water are supplied for the purposes of generating steam into the reservoir. Its major
advantage over a surface steam generating facility is the losses to the wellbore and surrounding
formation are eliminated.
Drying removal of a solvent or water from a chemical substance; also referred to as the removal of
solvent from a liquid or suspension.
Dropping point the temperature at which grease passes from a semisolid to a liquid state under prescribed
conditions.
Dry gas a gas which does not contain fractions that may easily condense under normal atmospheric
conditions.
Dry point the temperature at which the last drop of petroleum fluid evaporates in a distillation test.
Dualayer distillate process a process for removing mercaptans and oxygenated compounds from distillate fuel oils and similar products, using a combination of treatment with concentrated caustic
solution and electrical precipitation of the impurities.
Dualayer gasoline process a process for extracting mercaptans and other objectionable acidic compounds
from petroleum distillates; see also Dualayer solution.
Dualayer solution a solution which consists of concentrated potassium or sodium hydroxide containing a
solubilizer; see also Dualayer gasoline process.
Dubbs cracking an older continuous, liquid-phase thermal cracking process, formerly used.
Dykstra–Parsons coefficient an index of reservoir heterogeneity arising from permeability variation and
stratification.
Emulated bed a process in which the catalyst bed is in a suspended state in the reactor by means of a
feedstock recirculation pump, which pumps the feedstock upwards at sufficient speed to expand
the catalyst bed, at approximately 35% above the settled level.
Edeleanu process a process for refining oils at low temperature with liquid sulfur dioxide (SO2), or with
liquid sulfur dioxide and benzene; applicable to the recovery of aromatic concentrates from
naphtha and heavier petroleum distillates.
Effective viscosity see Apparent viscosity.
Effluent any contaminating substance, usually a liquid, which enters the environment via a domestic
industrial, agricultural, or sewage plant outlet.
Electric desalting a continuous process to remove inorganic salts and other impurities from crude oil by
settling out in an electrostatic field.
Electrical precipitation a process using an electrical field to improve the separation of hydrocarbon
reagent dispersions. May be used in chemical treating processes on a wide variety of refinery
stocks.
Electrofining a process for contacting a light hydrocarbon stream with a treating agent (acid, caustic,
doctor, etc.), then assisting the action of separation of the chemical phase from the hydrocarbon
phase by an electrostatic field.
Electrolytic mercaptan process a process in which aqueous caustic solution is used to extract mercaptans
from refinery streams.
Electrostatic precipitators devices used to trap fine dust particles (usually in the size range 30–60 microns)
that operate on the principle of imparting an electric charge to particles in an incoming air stream
and which are then collected on an oppositely charged plate across a high voltage field.
Eluate the solutes, or analytes, moved through a chromatographic column (see elution).
Eluent solvent used to elute sample.
Elution a process whereby a solute is moved through a chromatographic column by a solvent (liquid or
gas) or eluent.
Emission control the use gas cleaning processes to reduce emissions.Emission standard the maximum amount of a specific pollutant permitted to be discharged from a
particular source in a given environment.
Emulsion a dispersion of very small drops of one liquid in an immiscible liquid, such as oil in water.
Emulsion breaking the settling or aggregation of colloidal-sized emulsions from suspension in a liquid
medium.
End-of-pipe emission control the use of specific emission control processes to clean gases after production
of the gases.
Energy the capacity of a body or system to do work, measured in joules (SI units); also the output of fuel
sources.
Energy from biomass the production of energy from biomass (q.v.).
Engler distillation a standard test for determining the volatility characteristics of a gasoline by measuring
the percent distilled at various specified temperatures.
Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) petroleum recovery following recovery by conventional (i.e., primary and
secondary) methods (q.v.).
Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) process a method for recovering additional oil from a petroleum reservoir
beyond that economically recoverable by conventional primary and secondary recovery
methods. EOR methods are usually divided into three main categories: (1) chemical flooding:
injection of water with added chemicals into a petroleum reservoir. The chemical processes
include: surfactant flooding, polymer flooding, and alkaline flooding, (2) miscible flooding:
injection into a petroleum reservoir of a material that is miscible, or can become miscible,
with the oil in the reservoir. Carbon dioxide, hydrocarbons, and nitrogen are used, (3) thermal
recovery: injection of steam into a petroleum reservoir, or propagation of a combustion zone
through a reservoir by air or oxygen-enriched air injection. The thermal processes include: steam
drive, cyclic steam injection, and in situ combustion.
Entrained bed a bed of solid particles suspended in a fluid (liquid or gas) at such a rate that some of the
solid is carried over (entrained) by the fluid.
EPA Environmental Protection Agency.
Ester a compound formed by the reaction between an organic acid and an alcohol; ethoxylated alcohols
(i.e., alcohols having ethylene oxide functional groups attached to the alcohol molecule).
Ethanol see Ethyl alcohol.
Ethyl alcohol (ethanol or grain alcohol): an inflammable organic compound (C2H5OH) formed during
fermentation of sugars; used as an intoxicant and as a fuel.
Evaporation a process for concentrating nonvolatile solids in a solution by boiling off the liquid portion
of the waste stream.
Expanding clays clays that expand or swell on contact with water, e.g., montmorillonite.
Explosive limits the limits of percentage composition of mixtures of gases and air within which an
explosion takes place when the mixture is ignited.
Extract the portion of a sample preferentially dissolved by the solvent and recovered by physically
separating the solvent.
Extractive distillation the separation of different components of mixtures which have similar vapor
pressures by flowing a relatively high-boiling solvent, which is selective for one of the components in the feed, down a distillation column as the distillation proceeds; the selective solvent
scrubs the soluble component from the vapor.
Fabric filters filters made from fabric materials and used for removing particulate matter from gas
streams (see Baghouse).
Facies one or more layers of rock that differs from other layers in composition, age or content.
FAST Fracture assisted steamflood technology.
Fat oil the bottom or enriched oil drawn from the absorber as opposed to lean oil.
Faujasite a naturally occurring silica–alumina (SiO2–Al2O3) mineral.
FCC fluid catalytic cracking.
FCCU fluid catalytic cracking unit.
Feedstock petroleum as it is fed to the refinery; a refinery product that is used as the raw material for
another process; the term is also generally applied to raw materials used in other industrial
processes.Ferrocyanide process a regenerative chemical treatment for mercaptan removal, using caustic-sodium
ferrocyanide reagent.
Field-scale the application of EOR processes to a significant portion of a field.
Filtration the use of an impassable barrier to collect solids but which allows liquids to pass.
Fingering the formation of finger-shaped irregularities at the leading edge of a displacing fluid in a
porous medium, which move out ahead of the main body of fluid.
Fire point the lowest temperature at which, under specified conditions in standardized apparatus, a
petroleum product vaporizes sufficiently rapidly to form above its surface an air–vapor mixture
which burns continuously when ignited by a small flame.
First contact miscibility see miscibility.
Fischer–Tropsch process a process for synthesizing hydrocarbons and oxygenated chemicals from a
mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide.
Fixed bed a stationary bed (of catalyst) to accomplish a process (see Fluid bed).
Five-spot an arrangement or pattern of wells with four injection wells at the corners of a square and a
producing well in the center of the square.
Flammability range the range of temperature over which a chemical is flammable.
Flammable a substance that will burn readily.
Flammable liquid a liquid having a flash point below 37.88C (1008F).
Flammable solid a solid that can ignite from friction or from heat remaining from its manufacture, or
which may cause a serious hazard if ignited.
Flash point the lowest temperature to which the product must be heated under specified conditions
to give off sufficient vapor to form a mixture with air that can be ignited momentarily by
a flame.
Flocculation threshold the point at which constituents of a solution (e.g., asphaltene constituents or coke
precursors) will separate from the solution as a separate (solid) phase.
Floc point the temperature at which wax or solids separate as a definite floc.
Flood, flooding the process of displacing petroleum from a reservoir by the injection of fluids.
Flexicoking a modification of the fluid coking process insofar as the process also includes a gasifier
adjoining the burner or regenerator to convert excess coke to a clean fuel gas.
Flue gases the gaseous products of the combustion process mostly comprised of carbon dioxide,
nitrogen, and water vapor.
Flue gas gas from the combustion of fuel, the heating value of which has been substantially spent and
which is, therefore, discarded to the flue or stack.
Fluid a reservoir gas or liquid.
Fluid-bed a bed (of catalyst) that is agitated by an upward passing gas in such a manner that the particles
of the bed simulate the movement of a fluid and has the characteristics associated with a true
liquid; cf. Fixed bed.
Fluid catalytic cracking cracking in the presence of a fluidized bed of catalyst.
Fluid coking a continuous fluidized solids process that cracks feed thermally over heated coke particles in
a reactor vessel to gas, liquid products, and coke.
Fluidized bed combustion a process used to burn low-quality solid fuels in a bed of small particles
suspended by a gas stream (usually air that will lift the particles, but not blow them out of the
vessel). Rapid burning removes some of the offensive byproducts of combustion from the gases
and vapors that result from the combustion process.
Fly ash particulate matter produced from mineral matter in coal that is converted during combustion to finely divided inorganic material and which emerges from the combustor in the
gases.
Foots oil the oil sweated out of slack wax; named from the fact that the oil goes to the foot, or bottom, of
the pan during the sweating operation.
Formation an interval of rock with distinguishable geologic characteristics.
Formation volume factor the volume in a barrel that one stock tank barrel occupies in the formation at
reservoir temperature, and with the solution gas that is held in the oil at reservoir pressure.Fossil fuel resources a gaseous, liquid, or solid fuel material formed in the ground by chemical and
physical changes (diagenesis, q.v.) in plant and animal residues over geological time; natural gas,
petroleum, coal, and oil shale.
Fractional composition the composition of petroleum as determined by fractionation (separation)
methods.
Fractional distillation the separation of the components of a liquid mixture by vaporizing and collecting
the fractions, or cuts, which condense in different temperature ranges.
Fractional flow the ratio of the volumetric flow rate of one fluid phase to the total fluid volumetric flow
rate within a volume of rock.
Fractional flow curve the relationship between the fractional flow of one fluid and its saturator during
simultaneous flow of fluids through rock.
Fracture a natural or man-made crack in a reservoir rock.
Fracturing the breaking apart of reservoir rock by applying very high fluid pressure at the rock face.
Fractionating column a column arranged to separate various fractions of petroleum by a single distillation and which may be tapped at different points along its length to separate various fractions in
the order of their boiling points.
Fractionation the separation of petroleum into the constituent fractions using solvent or adsorbent
methods; chemical agents such as sulfuric acid may also be used.
Frasch process a process formerly used for removing sulfur by distilling oil in the presence of copper
oxide.
Fuel oil also called heating oil is a distillate product that covers a wide range of properties; see also No. 1–
No. 4 Fuel oils.
Fuller’s earth a clay which has high adsorptive capacity for removing color from oils; attapulgus clay is a
widely used Fuller’s earth.
Functional group the portion of a molecule that is characteristic of a family of compounds and
determines the properties of these compounds.
Furfural extraction a single-solvent process in which furfural is used to remove aromatic, naphthene,
olefin, and unstable hydrocarbons from a lubricating-oil charge stock.
Furnace oil a distillate fuel primarily intended for use in domestic heating equipment.
Gas cap a part of a hydrocarbon reservoir at the top that will produce only gas.
Gas–oil ratio ratio of the number of cubic feet of gas measured at atmospheric (standard) conditions to
barrels of produced oil measured at stocktank conditions.
Gas–oil sulfonate sulfonate made from a specific refinery stream, in this case the gas–oil stream.
Gasoline fuel for the internal combustion engine that is commonly, but improperly, referred to simply as
gas.
Gaseous pollutants gases released into the atmosphere that act as primary or secondary pollutants.
Gasohol a term for motor vehicle fuel comprising between 80%–90% unleaded gasoline and 10%–20%
ethanol (see also Ethyl alcohol).
Gas oil a petroleum distillate with a viscosity and boiling range between those of kerosine and
lubricating oil.
Gas reversion a combination of thermal cracking or reforming of naphtha with thermal polymerization
or alkylation of hydrocarbon gases carried out in the same reaction zone.
Gilsonite an asphaltite that is >90% bitumen.
Girbotol process a continuous, regenerative process to separate hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and
other acid impurities from natural gas, refinery gas, etc., using mono-, di-, or triethanolamine as
the reagent.
Glance pitch an asphaltite.
Glycol-amine gas treating a continuous, regenerative process to simultaneously dehydrate and remove
acid gases from natural gas or refinery gas.
Grahamite an asphaltite.
Gravity see API gravity.
Gravity drainage the movement of oil in a reservoir that results from the force of gravity.
Gravity segregation partial separation of fluids in a reservoir caused by the gravity force acting on
differences in density.Gravity-stable displacement the displacement of oil from a reservoir by a fluid of a different density,
where the density difference is utilized to prevent gravity segregation of the injected fluid.
Gray clay treating a fixed-bed (q.v.), usually Fuller’s earth (q.v.), vapor-phase treating process to
selectively polymerize unsaturated gum-forming constituents (diolefins) in thermally cracked
gasoline.
Grain alcohol see Ethyl alcohol.
Gravimetric methods used to weigh a residue.
Gravity drainage the movement of oil in a reservoir that results from the force of gravity.
Gravity segregation partial separation of fluids in a reservoir caused by the gravity force acting on
differences in density.
Greenhouse effect warming of the earth due to entrapment of the sun’s energy by the atmosphere.
Greenhouse gases gases that contribute to the greenhouse effect (q.v.).
Guard bed a bed of an adsorbent (such as, for example, bauxite) that protects a catalyst bed by adsorbing
species detrimental to the catalyst.
Gulf HDS process a fixed-bed process for the catalytic hydrocracking of heavy stocks to lower-boiling
distillates with accompanying desulfurization.
Gulfining a catalytic hydrogen treating process for cracked and straight-run distillates and fuel oils, to
reduce sulfur content; improve carbon residue, color, and general stability; and effect a slight
increase in gravity.
Gum an insoluble tacky semisolid material formed as a result of the storage instability and the thermal
instability of petroleum and petroleum products.
HAP(s) hazardous air pollutant or pollutants.
Hardness the concentration of calcium and magnesium in brine.
HCPV hydrocarbon pore volume.
Hearn method a method used in reservoir simulation for calculating a pseudorelative permeability curve
that reflects reservoir stratification.
Headspace the vapor space above a sample into which volatile molecules evaporate. Certain methods
sample this vapor.
Heating oil see Fuel oil.
Heavy ends the highest boiling portion of a petroleum fraction; see also Light ends.
Heavy fuel oil fuel oil with a high density and viscosity; generally residual fuel oil such as No. 5 and No 6.
fuel oil (q.v.)
Heavy oil petroleum with an API gravity of less than 208.
Heavy petroleum see Heavy oil.
Heteroatom compounds chemical compounds which contain nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, and metals bound
within their molecular structure or structures.
Heterogeneity lack of uniformity in reservoir properties, such as permeability.
HF alkylation an alkylation process whereby olefins (C3, C4, C5) are combined with iso-butane in the
presence of hydrofluoric acid catalyst.
Higgins–Leighton model stream tube computer model used to simulate waterflood.
Hortonsphere a spherical pressure-type tank used to store a volatile liquid which prevents the excessive
evaporation loss that occurs when such products are placed in conventional storage tanks.
Hot filtration test a test for the stability of a petroleum product.
Hot spot an area of a vessel or line wall appreciably above normal operating temperature, usually as a
result of the deterioration of an internal insulating liner which exposes the line or vessel shell to
the temperature of its contents.
Houdresid catalytic cracking a continuous moving-bed process for catalytically cracking reduced crude
oil to produce high-octane gasoline and light distillate fuels.
Houdriflow catalytic cracking a continuous moving-bed catalytic cracking process employing an integrated single vessel for the reactor and regenerator kiln.
Houdriforming a continuous catalytic reforming process for producing aromatic concentrates and highoctane gasoline from low-octane straight naphtha.
Houdry butane dehydrogenation a catalytic process for dehydrogenating light hydrocarbons to their
corresponding mono- or di-olefins.Houdry fixed-bed catalytic cracking a cyclic regenerable process for cracking of distillates.
Houdry hydrocracking a catalytic process combining cracking and desulfurization in the presence of
hydrogen.
Huff-and-puff a cyclic EOR method in which steam or gas is injected into a production well; after a short
shut-in period, oil and the injected fluid are produced through the same well.
Hydration the association of molecules of water with a substance.
Hydraulic fracturing the opening of fractures in a reservoir by high-pressure, high-volume injection of
liquids through an injection well.
Hydrocarbon compounds chemical compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen.
Hydrocarbon-producing resource a resource such as coal and oil shale (kerogen) which produces derived
hydrocarbons by the application of conversion processes; the hydrocarbons so-produced are not
naturally occurring materials.
Hydrocarbon resource resources such as petroleum and natural gas which can produce naturally
occurring hydrocarbons without the application of conversion processes.
Hydrocarbons organic compounds containing only hydrogen and carbon.
Hydrolysis a chemical reaction in which water reacts with another substance to form one or more new
substances.
Hydroconversion a term often applied to hydrocracking (q.v.)
Hydrocracking a catalytic high-pressure high-temperature process for the conversion of petroleum
feedstocks in the presence of fresh and recycled hydrogen; carbon–carbon bonds are cleaved,
in addition to the removal of heteroatomic species.
Hydrocracking catalyst a catalyst used for hydrocracking which typically contains separate hydrogenation and cracking functions.
Hydrodenitrogenation the removal of nitrogen by hydrotreating (q.v.).
Hydrodesulfurization the removal of sulfur by hydrotreating (q.v.).
Hydrofining a fixed-bed catalytic process to desulfurize and hydrogenate a wide range of charge stocks
from gases through waxes.
Hydroforming a process in which naphtha is passed over a catalyst at elevated temperatures and
moderate pressures, in the presence of added hydrogen or hydrogen-containing gases, to form
high-octane motor fuel or aromatics.
Hydrogen blistering blistering of steel caused by trapped molecular hydrogen, formed as atomic hydrogen, during corrosion of steel by hydrogen sulfide.
Hydrogen addition an upgrading process in the presence of hydrogen, e.g., hydrocracking; see Hydrogenation.
Hydrogenation the chemical addition of hydrogen to a material. In nondestructive hydrogenation, hydrogen
is added to a molecule only if, and where, unsaturation with respect to hydrogen exists.
Hydrogen transfer the transfer of inherent hydrogen within the feedstock constituents and products
during processing.
Hydroprocessing a term often equally applied to hydrotreating (q.v.) and to hydrocracking (q.v.); also
often collectively applied to both.
Hydrotreating the removal of heteroatomic (nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur) species by treatment of a
feedstock or product at relatively low temperatures in the presence of hydrogen.
Hydrovisbreaking a noncatalytic process, conducted under similar conditions to visbreaking, which
involves treatment with hydrogen to reduce the viscosity of the feedstock and produce more
stable products than is possible with visbreaking.
Hydropyrolysis a short residence time high temperature process using hydrogen.
Hyperforming a catalytic hydrogenation process for improving the octane number of naphtha through
removal of sulfur and nitrogen compounds.
Hypochlorite sweetening the oxidation of mercaptans in a sour stock by agitation with aqueous, alkaline
hypochlorite solution; used where avoidance of free-sulfur addition is desired, because of
stringent copper strip requirements and minimum expense is not the primary object.
Ignitability characteristic of liquids whose vapors are likely to ignite in the presence of ignition source;
also characteristic of nonliquids that may catch fire from friction or contact with water and that
burn vigorously.Illuminating oil oil used for lighting purposes.
Immiscible two or more fluids that do not have complete mutual solubility and coexist as separate
phases.
Immiscible carbon dioxide displacement injection of carbon dioxide into an oil reservoir to effect oil
displacement under conditions in which miscibility with reservoir oil is not obtained; see Carbon
dioxide augmented waterflooding.
Immiscible displacement a displacement of oil by a fluid (gas or water) that is conducted under
conditions so that interfaces exist between the driving fluid and the oil.
Immunoassay portable tests that take advantage of an interaction between an antibody and a specific
analyte. Immunoassay tests are semi-quantitative and usually rely on color changes of varying
intensities to indicate relative concentrations.
Incompatibility the immiscibility of petroleum products and also of different crude oils which is often
reflected in the formation of a separate phase after mixing and storage.
Incremental ultimate recovery the difference between the quantity of oil that can be recovered by EOR
methods and the quantity of oil that can be recovered by conventional recovery methods.
Infill drilling drilling additional wells within an established pattern.
Infrared spectroscopy an analytical technique that quantifies the vibration (stretching and bending) that
occurs when a molecule absorbs (heat) energy in the infrared region of the electromagnetic
spectrum.
Inhibitor a substance, the presence of which, in small amounts, in a petroleum product prevents or
retards undesirable chemical changes from taking place in the product, or in the condition of the
equipment in which the product is used.
Inhibitor sweetening a treating process to sweeten gasoline, using a phenylenediamine type of inhibitor,
air, and caustic.
Initial boiling point the recorded temperature when the first drop of liquid falls from the end of the
condenser.
Initial vapor pressure the vapor pressure of a liquid of a specified temperature and zero percent
evaporated.
Injection profile the vertical flow rate distribution of fluid flowing from the wellbore into a reservoir.
Injection well a well in an oil field used for injecting fluids into a reservoir.
Injectivity the relative ease with which a fluid is injected into a porous rock.
In situ in its original place; in the reservoir.
In situ combustion an EOR process consisting of injecting air or oxygen-enriched air into a reservoir
under conditions that favor burning part of the in situ petroleum, advancing this burning zone,
and recovering oil heated from a nearby producing well.
Instability the inability of a petroleum product to exist for periods of time without change to the
product.
Integrity maintenance of a slug or bank at its preferred composition without too much dispersion or
mixing.
Interface the thin surface area separating two immiscible fluids that are in contact with each other.
Interfacial film a thin layer of material at the interface between two fluids which differs in composition
from the bulk fluids.
Interfacial tension the strength of the film separating two immiscible fluids, e.g., oil and water or
microemulsion and oil; measured in dynes (force) per centimeter or milli-dynes per centimeter.
Interfacial viscosity the viscosity of the interfacial film between two immiscible liquids.
Interference testing a type of pressure transient test in which pressure is measured over time in a closed-in
well while nearby wells are produced; flow and communication between wells can sometimes be
deduced from an interference test.
Interphase mass transfer the net transfer of chemical compounds between two or more phases.
Iodine number a measure of the iodine absorption by oil under standard conditions; used to indicate the
quantity of unsaturated compounds present; also called iodine value.
Ion exchange a means of removing cations or anions from solution onto a solid resin.
Ion exchange capacity a measure of the capacity of a mineral to exchange ions in amount of material per
unit weight of solid.Ions chemical substances possessing positive or negative charges in solution.
Isocracking a hydrocracking process for conversion of hydrocarbons which operates at relatively low
temperatures and pressures in the presence of hydrogen and a catalyst to produce more valuable,
lower-boiling products.
Isoforming a process in which olefinic naphtha is contacted with an alumina catalyst at high temperature
and low pressure to produce isomers of higher octane number.
Iso-kel process a fixed-bed, vapor-phase isomerization process using a precious metal catalyst and
external hydrogen.
Isomate process a continuous, nonregenerative process for isomerizing C5–C8 normal paraffin hydrocarbons, using aluminum chloride–hydrocarbon catalyst with anhydrous hydrochloric acid as a
promoter.
Isomerate process a fixed-bed isomerization process to convert pentane, heptane, and heptane to highoctane blending stocks.
Isomerization the conversion of a normal (straight-chain) paraffin hydrocarbon into an iso (branchedchain) paraffin hydrocarbon with the same atomic composition.
Isopach a line on a map designating points of equal formation thickness.
Iso-plus Houdriforming a combination process using a conventional Houdriformer operated at moderate
severity, in conjunction with one of three possible alternatives, including the use of an aromatic
recovery unit or a thermal reformer; see Houdriforming.
Jet fuel fuel meeting the required properties for use in jet engines and aircraft turbine engines.
Kaolinite a clay mineral formed by hydrothermal activity at the time of rock formation or by chemical
weathering of rock with high feldspar content; usually associated with intrusive granite rock
with high feldspar content.
Kata-condensed aromatic compounds Compounds based on linear condensed aromatic hydrocarbon
systems, e.g., anthracene and naphthacene (tetracene).
Kauri butanol number A measurement of solvent strength for hydrocarbon solvents; the higher the kauributanol (KB) value, the stronger the solvency; the test method (ASTM D1133) is based on the
principle that kauri resin is readily soluble in butyl alcohol but not in hydrocarbon solvents and
the resin solution will tolerate only a certain amount of dilution and is reflected as a cloudiness
when the resin starts to come out of solution; solvents such as toluene can be added in a greater
amount (and thus have a higher KB value) than weaker solvents like hexane.
Kerogen a complex carbonaceous (organic) material that occurs in sedimentary rock and shale; generally
insoluble in common organic solvents.
Kerosene (kerosine) a fraction of petroleum that was initially sought as an illuminant in lamps; a
precursor to diesel fuel.
K-factor see Characterization factor.
Kinematic viscosity the ratio of viscosity (q.v.) to density, both measured at the same temperature.
Knock the noise associated with self-ignition of a portion of the fuel–air mixture ahead of the advancing
flame front.
Kriging a technique used in reservoir description for interpolation of reservoir parameters between wells
based on random field theory.
LAER lowest achievable emission rate; the required emission rate in nonattainment permits.
Lamp burning a test of burning oils in which the oil is burned in a standard lamp under specified
conditions in order to observe the steadiness of the flame, the degree of encrustation of the wick,
and the rate of consumption of the kerosene.
Lamp oil see Kerosene.
Leaded gasoline gasoline containing tetraethyl lead or other organometallic lead antiknock compounds.
Lean gas the residual gas from the absorber after the condensable gasoline has been removed from the
wet gas.
Lean oil absorption oil from which gasoline fractions have been removed; oil leaving the stripper in a
natural-gasoline plant.
Lewis acid a chemical species which can accept an electron pair from a base.
Lewis base a chemical species which can donate an electron pair.Light ends the lower-boiling components of a mixture of hydrocarbons; see also Heavy ends, Light
hydrocarbons.
Light hydrocarbons hydrocarbons with molecular weights less than that of heptane (C7H16).
Light oil the products distilled or processed from crude oil up to, but not including, the first lubricatingoil distillate.
Light petroleum petroleum with an API gravity greater than 208.
Ligroine (Ligroin) a saturated petroleum naphtha boiling in the range of 208C to 1358C (688F to 2758F)
and suitable for general use as a solvent; also called benzine or petroleum ether.
Linde copper sweetening a process for treating gasoline and distillates with a slurry of clay and cupric
chloride.
Liquid petrolatum see White oil.
Liquefied petroleum gas propane, butane, or mixtures thereof, gaseous at atmospheric temperature and
pressure, held in the liquid state by pressure to facilitate storage, transport, and handling.
Liquid chromatography a chromatographic technique that employs a liquid mobile phase.
Liquid=liquid extraction an extraction technique in which one liquid is shaken with or contacted by an
extraction solvent to transfer molecules of interest into the solvent phase.
Liquid sulfur dioxide–benzene process a mixed-solvent process for treating lubricating-oil stocks to
improve viscosity index; also used for dewaxing.
Lithology the geological characteristics of the reservoir rock.
Live steam steam coming directly from a boiler before being utilized for power or heat.
Liver the intermediate layer of dark-colored, oily material, insoluble in weak acid and in oil, which is
formed when acid sludge is hydrolyzed.
Lorenz coefficient a permeability heterogeneity factor.
Lower-phase microemulsion a microemulsion phase containing a high concentration of water that, when
viewed in a test tube, resides near the bottom with oil phase on top.
Lube see Lubricating oil.
Lube cut a fraction of crude oil of suitable boiling range and viscosity to yield lubricating oil when
completely refined; also referred to as lube oil distillates or lube stock.
Lubricating oil a fluid lubricant used to reduce friction between bearing surfaces.
MACT maximum achievable control technology. Applies to major sources of hazardous air pollutants.
Mahogany acids oil-soluble sulfonic acids formed by the action of sulfuric acid on petroleum distillates.
They may be converted to their sodium soaps (mahogany soaps) and extracted from the oil with
alcohol for use in the manufacture of soluble oils, rust preventives, and special greases. The
calcium and barium soaps of these acids are used as detergent additives in motor oils; see also
Brown acids and Sulfonic acids.
Major source a source that has a potential to emit for a regulated pollutant that is at or greater than an
emission threshold set by regulations.
Maltenes that fraction of petroleum that is soluble in, for example, pentane or heptane; deasphaltened
oil (q.v.); also the term arbitrarily assigned to the pentane-soluble portion of petroleum that is
relatively high boiling (>3008C, 760 mm) (see also Petrolenes).
Marine engine oil oil used as a crankcase oil in marine engines.
Marine gasoline fuel for motors in marine service.
Marine sediment the organic biomass from which petroleum is derived.
Marsh an area of spongy waterlogged ground with large numbers of surface water pools. Marshes
usually result from: (1) an impermeable underlying bedrock; (2) surface deposits of glacial
boulder clay; (3) a basin-like topography from which natural drainage is poor; (4) very heavy
rainfall in conjunction with a correspondingly low evaporation rate; (5) low-lying land, particularly at estuarine sites at or below sea level.
Marx–Langenheim model mathematical equations for calculating heat transfer in a hot water or steam
flood.
Mass spectrometry an analytical technique that fractures organic compounds into characteristic ‘‘fragments’’ based on functional groups that have a specific mass-to-charge ratio.
Mayonnaise low-temperature sludge; a black, brown, or gray deposit with a soft, mayonnaise-like
consistency; not recommended as a food additive!MCL maximum contaminant level as dictated by regulations.
Medicinal oil highly refined, colorless, tasteless, and odorless petroleum oil used as a medicine in the
nature of an internal lubricant; sometimes called liquid paraffin.
Membrane technology gas separation processes utilizing membranes that permit different components of
a gas to diffuse through the membrane at significantly different rates.
MDL See Method detection limit.
MEK (methyl ethyl ketone) a colorless liquid (CH3COCH2CH3) used as a solvent; as a chemical
intermediate; and in the manufacture of lacquers, celluloid, and varnish removers.
MEK deoiling a wax-deoiling process in which the solvent is generally a mixture of methyl ethyl ketone
and toluene.
MEK dewaxing a continuous solvent dewaxing process in which the solvent is generally a mixture of
methyl ethyl ketone and toluene.
MEOR microbial enhanced oil recovery.
Methanol see Methyl alcohol.
Method Detection Limit the smallest quantity or concentration of a substance that the instrument can
measure.
Methyl t-butyl ether an ether added to gasoline to improve its octane rating and to decrease gaseous
emissions; see Oxygenate.
Mercapsol process a regenerative process for extracting mercaptans, utilizing aqueous sodium (or
potassium) hydroxide containing mixed cresols as solubility promoters.
Mercaptans organic compounds with the general formula R–SH.
Metagenesis the alteration of organic matter during the formation of petroleum that may involve
temperatures above 2008C (3908F); see also Catagenesis and Diagenesis.
Methyl alcohol (methanol; wood alcohol): a colorless, volatile, inflammable, and poisonous alcohol
(CH3OH) traditionally formed by destructive distillation of wood or, more recently, as a result
of synthetic distillation in chemical plants.
Methyl ethyl ketone see MEK.
Mica a complex aluminum silicate mineral that is transparent, tough, flexible, and elastic.
Micellar fluid (surfactant slug) an aqueous mixture of surfactants, co-surfactants, salts, and hydrocarbons. The term micellar is derived from the word micelle, which is a submicroscopic aggregate of
surfactant molecules and associated fluid.
Micelle the structural entity by which asphaltene constituents are dispersed in petroleum.
Microcarbon residue the carbon residue determined using a themogravimetric method. See also Carbon
residue.
Microcrystalline wax wax extracted from certain petroleum residua, with a finer and less apparent
crystalline structure than paraffin wax.
Microemulsion a stable, finely dispersed mixture of oil, water, and chemicals (surfactants and alcohols).
Microemulsion or micellar or emulsion flooding an augmented waterflooding technique in which a
surfactant system is injected in order to enhance oil displacement toward producing wells.
Microorganisms animals or plants of microscopic size, such as bacteria.
Microscopic displacement efficiency the efficiency with which an oil displacement process removes the oil
from individual pores in the rock.
Mid-boiling point the temperature at which approximately 50% of a material has distilled under specific
conditions.
Middle distillate distillate boiling between the kerosene and lubricating oil fractions.
Middle-phase microemulsion a microemulsion phase containing a high concentration of both oil and
water that, when viewed in a test tube, resides in the middle with the oil phase above it and the
water phase below it.
Migration (primary) the movement of hydrocarbons (oil and natural gas) from mature, organic-rich
source rocks to a point where the oil and gas can collect as droplets or as a continuous phase of
liquid hydrocarbon.
Migration (secondary) the movement of the hydrocarbons as a single, continuous fluid phase through
water-saturated rocks, fractures, or faults followed by accumulation of the oil and gas in
sediments (traps, q.v.) from which further migration is prevented.Mineral hydrocarbons petroleum hydrocarbons, considered mineral because they come from the earth
rather than from plants or animals.
Mineral oil the older term for petroleum; the term was introduced in the nineteenth century as a means
of differentiating petroleum (rock oil) from whale oil which, at the time, was the predominant
illuminant for oil lamps.
Minerals naturally occurring inorganic solids with well-defined crystalline structures.
Mineral seal oil a distillate fraction boiling between kerosene and gas oil.
Mineral wax yellow to dark brown, solid substances that occur naturally and are composed largely of
paraffins; usually found associated with considerable mineral matter, as a filling in veins and
fissures or as an interstitial material in porous rocks.
Minimum miscibility pressure (MMP) see Miscibility.
Miscibility an equilibrium condition, achieved after mixing two or more fluids, which is characterized
by the absence of interfaces between the fluids: (1) first-contact miscibility: miscibility in the
usual sense, whereby two fluids can be mixed in all proportions without any interfaces
forming. Example: at room temperature and pressure, ethyl alcohol and water are first-contact
miscible. (2) multiple-contact miscibility (dynamic miscibility): miscibility that is developed
by repeated enrichment of one fluid phase with components from a second fluid phase with
which it comes into contact. (3) minimum miscibility pressure: the minimum pressure above
which two fluids become miscible at a given temperature, or can become miscible, by dynamic
processes.
Miscible flooding see EOR process.
Miscible fluid displacement (miscible displacement) is an oil displacement process in which an alcohol, a
refined hydrocarbon, a condensed petroleum gas, carbon dioxide, liquefied natural gas, or even
exhaust gas is injected into an oil reservoir, at pressure levels such that the injected gas or fluid
and reservoir oil are miscible; the process may include the concurrent, alternating, or subsequent
injection of water.
Mitigation identification, evaluation, and cessation of potential impacts of a process product or
byproduct.
Mixed-phase crackingthe thermal decomposition of higher-boiling hydrocarbons to gasoline components.
Mobility a measure of the ease with which a fluid moves through reservoir rock; the ratio of rock
permeability to apparent fluid viscosity.
Mobility buffer the bank that protects a chemical slug from water invasion and dilution and assures
mobility control.
Mobility control ensuring that the mobility of the displacing fluid or bank is equal to or less than that of
the displaced fluid or bank.
Mobility ratio ratio of mobility of an injection fluid to mobility of fluid being displaced.
Modified alkaline flooding the addition of a co-surfactant and polymer to the alkaline flooding process.
Modified naphtha insolubles (MNI) an insoluble fraction obtained by adding naphtha to petroleum;
usually the naphtha is modified by adding paraffin constituents; the fraction might be equated to
asphaltenes if the naphtha is equivalent to n-heptane, but usually it is not.
Molecular sieve a synthetic zeolite mineral with pores of uniform size; it is capable of separating
molecules, on the basis of their size, structure, or both, by absorption or sieving.
Motor Octane Method a test for determining the knock rating of fuels for use in spark-ignition engines;
see also Research Octane Method.
Moving-bed catalytic cracking a cracking process in which the catalyst is continuously cycled between
the reactor and the regenerator.
MSDS Material safety data sheet.
MTBE see Methyl t-butyl ether.
NAAQS National Ambient Air Quality Standards; standards exist for the pollutants known as the
criteria air pollutants: nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur oxides (SOx), lead, ozone, particulate
matter, less than 10 microns in diameter, and carbon monoxide (CO).
Naft pre-Christian era (Greek) term for naphtha (q.v.).
Napalm a thickened gasoline used as an incendiary medium that adheres to the surface it strikes.Naphtha a generic term applied to refined, partly refined, or unrefined petroleum products and liquid
products of natural gas, the majority of which distills below 2408C (4648F); the volatile fraction
of petroleum which is used as a solvent or as a precursor to gasoline.
Naphthenes cycloparaffins.
Native asphalt see Bitumen.
Natural asphalt see Bitumen.
Natural gas the naturally occurring gaseous constituents that are found in many petroleum reservoirs;
there are also those reservoirs in which natural gas may be the sole occupant.
Natural gas liquids (NGL) the hydrocarbon liquids that condense during the processing of hydrocarbon
gases that are produced from oil or gas reservoir; see also Natural gasoline.
Natural gasoline a mixture of liquid hydrocarbons extracted from natural gas (q.v.) suitable for blending
with refinery gasoline.
Natural gasoline plant a plant for the extraction of fluid hydrocarbon, such as gasoline and liquefied
petroleum gas, from natural gas.
NESHAP National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants; emission standards for specific
source categories that emit or have the potential to emit one or more hazardous air pollutants;
the standards are modeled on the best practices and most effective emission reduction methodologies in use at the affected facilities.
Neutralization a process for reducing the acidity or alkalinity of a waste stream by mixing acids and
bases to produce a neutral solution; also known as pH adjustment.
Neutral oil a distillate lubricating oil with viscosity usually not above 200 sec at 1008F.
Neutralization number the weight, in milligrams, of potassium hydroxide needed to neutralize the acid in
1 g of oil; an indication of the acidity of an oil.
Nonasphaltic road oil any of the nonhardening petroleum distillates or residual oils used as dust layers.
They have sufficiently low viscosity to be applied without heating and, together with asphaltic
road oils (q.v.), are sometimes referred to as dust palliatives.
Nonattainment area a geographical area that does not meet NAAQS for criteria air pollutants (see also
Attainment area).
Nonionic surfactant a surfactant molecule containing no ionic charge.
Non-Newtonian a fluid that exhibits a change of viscosity with flow rate.
NO
x oxides of nitrogen.
Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy an analytical procedure that permits the identification of
complex molecules based on the magnetic properties of the atoms they contain.
No. 1 Fuel oil very similar to kerosene (q.v.) and is used in burners where vaporization before burning is
usually required and a clean flame is specified.
No. 2 Fuel oil also called domestic heating oil; has properties similar to diesel fuel and heavy jet fuel; used
in burners where complete vaporization is not required before burning.
No. 4 Fuel oil a light industrial heating oil; used where preheating is not required for handling or
burning; there are two grades of No. 4 fuel oil, differing in safety (flash point) and flow
(viscosity) properties.
No. 5 Fuel oil a heavy industrial fuel oil which requires preheating before burning.
No. 6 Fuel oil a heavy fuel oil and is more commonly known as Bunker C oil when it is used to fuel
ocean-going vessels; preheating is always required for burning this oil.
Observation wells wells that are completed and equipped to measure reservoir conditions and sample
reservoir fluids, rather than to inject or produce reservoir fluids.
Octane barrel yield a measure used to evaluate fluid catalytic cracking processes; defined as (RON
þ MON)=2 times the gasoline yield, where RON is the research octane number and MON is the
motor octane number.
Octane number a number indicating the antiknock characteristics of gasoline.
Oil bank see Bank.
Oil breakthrough (time) the time at which the oil–water bank arrives at the producing well.
Original oil in place (Oil orginally in place) (OOIP) the quantity of petroleum existing in a reservoir
before oil recovery operations begin.Oils that portion of the maltenes (q.v.) that is not adsorbed by a surface-active material such as clay or
alumina.
Oil sand see Tar sand.
Oil shale a fine-grained impervious sedimentary rock which contains an organic material called
kerogen.
Olefin synonymous with alkene.
OOIP see Oil originally in place.
Optimum salinity the salinity at which a middle-phase microemulsion containing equal concentrations of
oil and water results from the mixture of a micellar fluid (surfactant slug) with oil.
Organic sedimentary rocks rocks containing organic material such as residues of plant and animal
remains or decay.
Overhead that portion of the feedstock which is vaporized and removed during distillation.
Override the gravity-induced flow of a lighter fluid in a reservoir above another heavier fluid.
Oxidation a process which can be used for the treatment of a variety of inorganic and organic
substances.
Oxidized asphalt see Air-blown asphalt.
Ozokerite (Ozocerite) a naturally occurring wax; when refined also known as ceresin.
Oxygenate an oxygen-containing compound that is blended into gasoline to improve its octane number
and to decrease gaseous emissions.
Oxygenated gasoline gasoline with added ethers or alcohols, formulated according to the Federal Clean
Air Act to reduce carbon monoxide emissions during winter months.
Oxygen scavenger a chemical which reacts with oxygen in injection water, used to prevent degradation of
polymer.
Pale oil a lubricating oil or a process oil refined until its color, by transmitted light, is straw to pale
yellow.
Paraffinum liquidum see Liquid petrolatum.
Paraffin wax the colorless, translucent, highly crystalline material obtained from the light lubricating
fractions of paraffin crude oils (wax distillates).
Particle density the density of solid particles.
Particulate matter (particulates) particles in the atmosphere or on a gas stream that may be organic or
inorganic and originate from a wide variety of sources and processes.
Particle size distribution the particle size distribution (of a catalyst sample) expressed as a percent of the
whole.
Partitioning in chromatography, the physical act of a solute having different affinities for the stationary
and mobile phases.
Partition ratios, K the ratio of total analytical concentration of a solute in the stationary phase, CS, to its
concentration in the mobile phase, CM.
Pattern the areal pattern of injection and producing wells selected for a secondary or enhanced recovery
project.
Pattern life the length of time a flood pattern participates in oil recovery.
Penex process a continuous, nonregenerative process for isomerization of C5 and C6 fractions in the
presence of hydrogen (from reforming) and a platinum catalyst.
Pentafining a pentane isomerization process using a regenerable platinum catalyst on a silica–alumina
support and requiring outside hydrogen.
Pepper sludge the fine particles of sludge produced in acid treating which may remain in suspension.
Peri-condensed aromatic compounds Compounds based on angular condensed aromatic hydrocarbon
systems, e.g., phenanthrene, chrysene, picene, etc..
Permeability the ease of flow of the water through the rock.
Petrol a term commonly used in some countries for gasoline.
Petrolatum a semisolid product, ranging from white to yellow in color, produced during refining of
residual stocks; see Petroleum jelly.
Petrolenes the term applied to that part of the pentane-soluble or heptane-soluble material that is low
boiling (<3008C, <5708F, 760 mm) and can be distilled without thermal decomposition (see also
Maltenes).Petroleum (crude oil): a naturally occurring mixture of gaseous, liquid, and solid hydrocarbon compounds usually found trapped deep underground beneath impermeable cap rock and above a
lower dome of sedimentary rock such as shale; most petroleum reservoirs occur in sedimentary
rocks of marine, deltaic, or estuarine origin.
Petroleum asphalt see Asphalt.
Petroleum ether see Ligroine.
Petroleum jelly a translucent, yellowish to amber or white, hydrocarbon substance (melting point: 388C
to 548C) with almost no odor or taste, derived from petroleum and used principally in medicine
and pharmacy as a protective dressing and as a substitute for fats in ointments and cosmetics;
also used in many types of polishes and in lubricating greases, rust preventives, and modeling
clay; obtained by dewaxing heavy lubricating-oil stocks.
Petroleum refinery see Refinery.
Petroleum refining a complex sequence of events that result in the production of a variety of products.
Petroleum sulfonate a surfactant used in chemical flooding prepared by sulfonating selected crude oil
fractions.
Petroporphyrins see Porphyrins.
Phase a separate fluid that coexists with other fluids; gas, oil, water and other stable fluids such as
microemulsions are all called phases in EOR research.
Phase behavior the tendency of a fluid system to form phases as a result of changing temperature,
pressure, or the bulk composition of the fluids or of individual fluid phases.
Phase diagram a graph of phase behavior. In chemical flooding, a graph showing the relative volume of
oil, brine, and sometimes one or more microemulsion phases. In carbon dioxide flooding,
conditions for formation of various liquid, vapor, and solid phases.
Phase properties types of fluids, compositions, densities, viscosities, and relative amounts of oil, microemulsion, or solvent, and water formed when a micellar fluid (surfactant slug) or miscible
solvent (e.g., CO2) is mixed with oil.
Phase separation the formation of a separate phase that is usually the prelude to coke formation during a
thermal process; the formation of a separate phase as a result of the instability or incompatibility
of petroleum and petroleum products.
pH adjustment neutralization.
Phosphoric acid polymerization a process using a phosphoric acid catalyst to convert propene, butene, or
both, to gasoline or petrochemical polymers.
Photoionization a gas chromatographic detection system that utilizes a detector (PID) ultraviolet lamp as
an ionization source for analyte detection. It is usually used as a selective detector by changing
the photon energy of the ionization source.
PINA analysis a method of analysis for paraffins, iso-paraffins, naphthenes, and aromatics.
PIONA analysis a method of analysis for paraffins, iso-paraffins, olefins, naphthenes, and aromatics.
Pipe still a still in which heat is applied to the oil while being pumped through a coil or pipe arranged in a
suitable firebox.
Pipestill gas the most volatile fraction that contains most of the gases that are generally dissolved in the
crude. Also known as pipestill light ends.
Pipestill light ends see Pipestill gas.
Pitch the nonvolatile, brown to black, semisolid to solid viscous product from the destructive distillation
of many bituminous or other organic materials, especially coal.
Platforming a reforming process using a platinum-containing catalyst on an alumina base.
PNA a polynuclear aromatic compound (q.v.).
NA a polynuclear aromatic compound (q.v.).
PNA analysis a method of analysis for paraffins, naphthenes, and aromatics.
Polar aromatics resins; the constituents of petroleum that are predominantly aromatic in character and
contain polar (nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur) functions in their molecular structure(s).
Pollutant a chemical or chemicals introduced into the land, water, and air systems, that is or are not
indigenous to these systems; also an indigenous chemical or chemicals introduced into the land,
water, and air systems in amounts greater than the natural abundance.Pollution the introduction into the land, water, and air systems of a chemical or chemicals that are not
indigenous to these systems or the introduction into the land, water, and air systems of
indigenous chemicals in greater-than-natural amounts.
Polyacrylamide very high molecular weight material used in polymer flooding.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are a suite of compounds
comprised of two or more condensed aromatic rings. They are found in many petroleum
mixtures, and they are predominantly introduced to the environment through natural and
anthropogenic combustion processes.
Polyforming a process charging both C3 and C4 gases with naphtha or gas oil under thermal conditions
to produce gasoline.
Polymer in EOR, any very high molecular weight material that is added to water to increase viscosity for
polymer flooding.
Polymer augmented waterflooding waterflooding in which organic polymers are injected with the water
to improve areal and vertical sweep efficiency.
Polymer gasoline the product of polymerization of gaseous hydrocarbons to hydrocarbons boiling in the
gasoline range.
Polymerization the combination of two olefin molecules to form a higher molecular weight paraffin.
Polymer stability the ability of a polymer to resist degradation and maintain its original properties.
Polynuclear aromatic compound an aromatic compound with two or more fused benzene rings, e.g.,
naphthalene, phenanthrene.
Polysulfide treatment a chemical treatment used to remove elemental sulfur from refinery liquids by
contacting them with a nonregenerable solution of sodium polysulfide.
PONA analysis a method of analysis for paraffins (P), olefins (O), naphthenes (N), and aromatics (A).
Pore diameter the average pore size of a solid material, e.g., catalyst.
Pore space a small hole in reservoir rock that contains fluid or fluids; a four inch cube of reservoir rock
may contain millions of interconnected pore spaces.
Pore volume total volume of all pores and fractures in a reservoir or part of a reservoir; also applied to
catalyst samples.
Porosity the percentage of rock volume available to contain water or other fluid.
Porphyrins organometallic constituents of petroleum that contain vanadium or nickel; the degradation
products of chlorophyll that became included in the protopetroleum.
Positive bias a result that is incorrect and too high.
Possible reserves reserves where there is an even greater degree of uncertainty but about which there is
some information.
Potential reserves reserves based upon geological information about the types of sediments where such
resources are likely to occur and they are considered to represent an educated guess.
Pour point the lowest temperature at which oil will pour or flow when it is chilled without disturbance
under definite conditions.
Powerforming a fixed-bed naphtha-reforming process using a regenerable platinum catalyst.
Power-law exponent an exponent used to model the degree of viscosity change of some non-Newtonian
liquids.
Precipitation number the number of milliliters of precipitate formed when 10 mL of lubricating oil is
mixed with 90 mL of petroleum naphtha of a definite quality and centrifuged under definitely
prescribed conditions.
Preflush a conditioning slug injected into a reservoir as the first step of an EOR process.
Pressure cores cores cut into a special coring barrel that maintain reservoir pressure when brought to the
surface; this prevents the loss of reservoir fluids that usually accompanies a drop in pressure
from reservoir to atmospheric conditions.
Pressure gradient rate of change of pressure with distance.
Pressure maintenance augmenting the pressure (and energy) in a reservoir by injecting gas and water
through one or more wells.
Pressure pulse test a technique for determining reservoir characteristics by injecting a sharp pulse of
pressure in one well and detecting it in surrounding wells.
Pressure transient testing measuring the effect of changes in pressure at one well on other well in a field.Primary oil recovery oil recovery, utilizing only naturally occurring forces.
Primary structure the chemical sequence of atoms in a molecule.
Primary tracer a chemical that, when injected into a test well, reacts with reservoir fluids to form a
detectable chemical compound.
Probable reserves mineral reserves that are nearly certain, but about which a slight doubt exists.
Producibility the rate at which oil or gas can be produced from a reservoir through a wellbore.
Producing well a well in an oil field used for removing fluids from a reservoir.
Propane asphalt see Solvent asphalt.
Propane deasphalting solvent deasphalting using propane as the solvent.
Propane decarbonizing a solvent extraction process used to recover catalytic cracking feed from heavy
fuel residues
Propane dewaxing a process for dewaxing lubricating oils in which propane serves as solvent.
Propane fractionation a continuous extraction process employing liquid propane as the solvent; a variant
of propane deasphalting (q.v.).
Protopetroleum a generic term used to indicate the initial product formed and that changes have
occurred to the precursors of petroleum.
Proved reserves mineral reserves that have been positively identified as recoverable with current technology.
PSD prevention of significant deterioration.
PTE potential to emit; the maximum capacity of a source to emit a pollutant, given its physical or
operation design, and considering certain controls and limitations.
Pulse-echo ultrasonic borehole televiewer well-logging system wherein a pulsed, narrow acoustic beam
scans the well as the tool is pulled up the borehole; the amplitude of the reflecting beam is
displayed on a cathode-ray tube resulting in a pictorial representation of a wellbore.
Purge and trap a chromatographic sample introduction technique in volatile components that are purged
from a liquid medium by bubbling gas through it. The components are then concentrated by
‘‘trapping’’ them on a short intermediate column, which is subsequently heated to drive the
components on to the analytical column for separation.
Purge gas typically helium or nitrogen, used to remove analytes from the sample matrix in purge or trap
extractions.
Pyrobitumen see Asphaltoid.
Pyrolysis exposure of a feedstock to high temperatures in an oxygen-poor environment.
Pyrophoric substances that catch fire spontaneously in air without an ignition source.
Quadrillion 1  1015
Quench the sudden cooling of hot material discharging from a thermal reactor.
RACT Reasonably Available Control Technology standards; implemented in areas of nonattainment to
reduce emissions of volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides.
Raffinate that portion of the oil which remains undissolved in a solvent refining process.
Ramsbottom carbon residue see Carbon residue.
Raw materials minerals extracted from the earth prior to any refining or treating.
Recycle ratio the volume of recycle stock per volume of fresh feed; often expressed as the volume of
recycle divided by the total charge.
Recycle stock the portion of a feedstock which has passed through a refining process and is recirculated
through the process.
Recycling the use or reuse of chemical waste as an effective substitute for a commercial product or as an
ingredient or feedstock in an industrial process.
Reduced crude a residual product remaining after the removal, by distillation or other means, of an
appreciable quantity of the more volatile components of crude oil.
Refinery a series of integrated unit processes by which petroleum can be converted to a slate of useful
(saleable) products.
Refinery gas a gas (or a gaseous mixture) produced as a result of refining operations.
Refining the processes by which petroleum is distilled and converted by application of a physical and
chemical processes to form a variety of products are generated.
Reformate the liquid product of a reforming process.Reformed gasoline gasoline made by a reforming process.
Reforming the conversion of hydrocarbons with low octane numbers (q.v.) into hydrocarbons having
higher octane numbers; e.g., the conversion of a n-paraffin into a iso-paraffin.
Reformulated gasoline (RFG) gasoline designed to mitigate smog production and to improve air quality
by limiting the emission levels of certain chemical compounds such as benzene and other
aromatic derivatives; often contains oxygenates (q.v.).
Reid vapor pressure a measure of the volatility of liquid fuels, especially gasoline.
Regeneration the or reactivation of a catalyst by burning off the coke deposits.
Regenerator a reactor for catalyst reactivation.
Relative permeability the permeability of rock to gas, oil, or water, when any two or more are present,
expressed as a fraction of the surface permeability of the rock.
Renewable energy sources solar, wind, and other nonfossil fuel energy sources.
Rerunning the distillation of an oil which has already been distilled.
Research Octane Method a test for determining the knock rating, in terms of octane numbers, of fuels for
use in spark-ignition engines; see also Motor Octane Method.
Reserves well-identified resources that can be profitably extracted and utilized with existing technology.
Reservoir a rock formation below the earth’s surface containing petroleum or natural gas; a domain
where a pollutant may reside for an indeterminate time.
Reservoir simulation analysis and prediction of reservoir performance with a computer model.
Residual asphalt see Straight-run asphalt.
Residual fuel oil obtained by blending the residual product or products from various refining processes
with suitable diluent or dilutents (usually middle distillates) to obtain the required fuel oil grades.
Residual oil see Residuum; petroleum remaining in situ after oil recovery.
Residual resistance factor the reduction in permeability of rock to water caused by the adsorption of
polymer.
Residuum (resid; pl.: residua) the residue obtained from petroleum after nondestructive distillation has
removed all the volatile materials from crude oil, e.g., an atmospheric (3458C, 6508Fþ) residuum.
Resins that portion of the maltenes (q.v.) that is adsorbed by a surface-active material such as clay or
alumina; the fraction of deasphaltened oil that is insoluble in liquid propane but soluble in
n-heptane.
Resistance factor a measure of resistance to flow of a polymer solution relative to the resistance to flow
of water.
Resource the total amount of a commodity (usually a mineral, but can include nonminerals such as
water and petroleum) that has been estimated to be ultimately available.
Retention the loss of chemical components due to adsorption onto the rock’s surface, precipitation, or to
trapping within the reservoir.
Retention time the time it takes for an eluate to move through a chromatographic system and reach the
detector. Retention times are reproducible and can therefore be compared to a standard for
analyte identification.
Rexforming a process combining platforming (q.v.) with aromatics extraction, wherein low octane
raffinate is recycled to the Platformer.
Rich oil absorption oil containing dissolved natural gasoline fractions.
Riser the part of the bubble-plate assembly which channels the vapor and causes it to flow downward
to escape through the liquid; also the vertical pipe where fluid catalytic cracking reactions occur.
Rock asphalt bitumen which occurs in formations that have a limiting ratio of bitumen-to-rock matrix.
Rock matrix the granular structure of a rock or porous medium.
Run-of-the-river reservoirs reservoirs with a large rate of flow-through compared to their volume.
Salinity the concentration of salt in water.
Sand a coarse granular mineral, mainly comprising quartz grains, derived from the chemical and
physical weathering of rocks rich in quartz, notably sandstone and granite.
Sand face the cylindrical wall of the wellbore through which the fluids must flow to or from the reservoir.
Sandstone a sedimentary rock formed by compaction and cementation of sand grains; can be classified
according to the mineral composition of the sand and cement.SARA analysis a method of fractionation by which petroleum is separated into saturates, aromatics,
resins, and asphaltene fractions.
SARA separation see SARA analysis.
Saturates paraffins and cycloparaffins (naphthenes).
Saturation the ratio of the volume of a single fluid in the pores to pore volume, expressed as a percent
and applied to water, oil, or gas separately; the sum of the saturations of each fluid in a pore
volume is 100%.
Saybolt Furol viscosity the time, in seconds (Saybolt Furol Seconds, SFS), for 60 mL of fluid to flow
through a capillary tube in a Saybolt Furol viscometer at specified temperatures between 708F
and 2108 F; the method is appropriate for high-viscosity oils such as transmission, gear, and
heavy fuel oils.
Saybolt Universal viscosity the time, in seconds (Saybolt Universal Seconds, SUS), for 60 mL of fluid to
flow through a capillary tube in a Saybolt Universal viscometer at a given temperature.
Scale wax the paraffin derived by removing the greater part of the oil from slack wax by sweating or
solvent deoiling.
Screen factor a simple measure of the viscoelastic properties of polymer solutions.
Screening guide a list of reservoir rock and fluid properties, critical to an EOR process.
Scrubber a device that uses water and chemicals to clean air pollutants from combustion exhaust.
Scrubbing purifying a gas by washing with water or chemical; less frequently, the removal of entrained
materials.
Secondary pollutants a pollutant (chemical species) produced by interaction of a primary pollutant with
another chemical or by dissociation of a primary pollutant or by other effects within a particular
ecosystem.
Secondary recovery oil recovery resulting from injection of water, or an immiscible gas at moderate
pressure, into a petroleum reservoir after primary depletion.
Secondary structure the ordering of the atoms of a molecule in space relative to each other.
Secondary tracer the product of the chemical reaction between reservoir fluids and an injected primary
tracer.
Sediment an insoluble solid formed as a result of the storage instability and the thermal instability of
petroleum and petroleum products.
Sedimentary formed by or from deposits of sediments, especially from sand grains or silts transported
from their source and deposited in water, as sandstone and shale; or from calcareous remains of
organisms, as limestone.
Sedimentary strata typically consist of mixtures of clay, silt, sand, organic matter, and various minerals;
formed by or from deposits of sediments, especially from sand grains or silts transported from
their source and deposited in water, such as sandstone and shale; or from calcareous remains of
organisms, such as limestone.
Selective solvent a solvent which, at certain temperatures and ratios, will preferentially dissolve more of
one components of one mixture than of another and thereby permit partial separation.
Separation process an upgrading process in which the constituents of petroleum are separated, usually
without thermal decomposition, e.g., distillation and deasphalting.
Separator-Nobel dewaxing a solvent (tricholoethylene) dewaxing process.
Separatory funnel glassware shaped like a funnel with a stoppered rounded top and a valve at the tapered
bottom, used for liquid or liquid separations.
Shear mechanical deformation or distortion, or partial destruction of a polymer molecule as it flows at a
high rate.
Shear rate a measure of the rate of deformation of a liquid under mechanical stress.
Shear-thinning the characteristic of a fluid whose viscosity decreases as the shear rate Increases.
Shell fluid catalytic cracking a two-stage fluid catalytic cracking process in which the catalyst is
regenerated.
Shell still a still formerly used, in which the oil was charged into a closed, cylindrical shell and the heat
required for distillation was applied to the outside of the bottom from a firebox.
Sidestream a liquid stream taken from any one of the intermediate plates of a bubble tower.Sidestream stripper a device used to perform further distillation on a liquid stream from any one of the
plates of a bubble tower, usually by the use of steam.
Single well tracer a technique for determining residual oil saturation by injecting an ester, allowing it to
hydrolyze and following dissolution of some of the reaction products in residual oil, the injected
solutions are produced back and analyzed.
Slack wax the soft, oily crude wax obtained from the pressing of paraffin distillate or wax distillate.
Slime a name used for petroleum in ancient texts.
Slim tube testing laboratory procedure for the determination of minimum miscibility pressure using
long, small-diameter, sand-packed, oil- saturated, stainless steel tube.
Sludge a semi-solid to solid product which results from the storage instability and the thermal instability
of petroleum and petroleum products.
Slug a quantity of fluid injected into a reservoir during enhanced oil recovery.
Slurry hydroconversion process a process in which the feedstock is contacted with hydrogen under
pressure in the presence of a catalytic coke-inhibiting additive.
Slurry phase reactors tanks into which wastes, nutrients, and microorganisms are placed.
Smoke point a measure of the burning cleanliness of jet fuel and kerosine.
Sodium hydroxide treatment see Caustic wash.
Sodium plumbite a solution prepared from a mixture of sodium hydroxide, lead oxide, and distilled
water; used in making the doctor test for light oils such as gasoline and kerosine.
Solubility parameter a measure of the solvent power and polarity of a solvent.
Solutizer-steam regenerative process a chemical treating process for extracting mercaptans from gasoline
or naphtha, using solutizers (potassium iso-butyrate, potassium alkyl phenolate) in strong
potassium hydroxide solution.
Solvent a liquid in which certain kinds of molecules dissolve. While they typically are liquids with low
boiling points, they may include high-boiling liquids, supercritical fluids, or gases.
Solvent asphalt the asphalt (q.v.) produced by solvent extraction of residua (q.v.) or by light hydrocarbon
(propane) treatment of a residuum (q.v.) or an asphaltic crude oil.
Solvent deasphalting a process for removing asphaltic and resinous materials from reduced crude oils,
lubricating-oil stocks, gas oils, or middle distillates through the extraction or precipitant action
of low-molecular-weight hydrocarbon solvents; see also Propane deasphalting.
Solvent decarbonizing see Propane decarbonizing.
Solvent deresining see Solvent deasphalting.
Solvent dewaxing a process for removing wax from oils by means of solvents, usually by chilling a
mixture of solvent and waxy oil, filtration or by centrifuging the wax which precipitates, and
solvent recovery.
Solvent extraction a process for separating liquids by mixing the stream with a solvent that is immiscible
with part of the liquids stream but that will extract certain components of the liquids stream.
Solvent gas an injected gaseous fluid that becomes miscible with oil under. reservoir conditions and
improves oil displacement.
Sonic log a well log based on the time required for sound to travel through rock, useful in determining
porosity.
Solvent naphtha a refined naphtha of restricted boiling range used as a solvent; also called petroleum
naphtha; petroleum spirits.
Solvent refining see Solvent extraction.
Sonication a physical technique employing ultrasound to intensely vibrate a sample media in extracting
solvent and to maximize solvent and analyte interactions.
Sonic log a well log based on the time required for sound to travel through rock, useful in determining
porosity.
Sour crude oil crude oil containing an abnormally large amount of sulfur compounds; see also Sweet
crude oil.
SO
x oxides of sulfur.
Soxhlet extraction an extraction technique for solids in which the sample is repeatedly contacted with
solvent over several hours, increasing extraction efficiency.Spontaneous ignition ignition of a fuel, such as coal, under normal atmospheric conditions; usually
induced by climatic conditions.
Specific gravity the mass (or weight) of a unit volume of any substance at a specified temperature
compared with the mass of an equal volume of pure water at a standard temperature; see also
Density.
Spent catalyst catalyst that has lost much of its activity due to the deposition of coke and metals.
Stabilization the removal of volatile constituents from a higher boiling fraction or product (q.v.
stripping); the production of a product which, to all intents and purposes, does not undergo
any further reaction when exposed to the air.
Stabilizer a fractionating tower for removing light hydrocarbons from an oil to reduce vapor pressure
particularly applied to gasoline.
Standpipe the pipe by which catalyst is conveyed between the reactor and the regenerator.
Stationary phase in chromatography, the porous solid or liquid phase through which an introduced
sample passes. The different affinities the stationary phase has for a sample allow the components in the sample to be separated, or resolved.
Steam cracking a conversion process in which the feedstock is treated with superheated steam.
Steam distillation distillation in which vaporization of the volatile constituents is effected at a lower
temperature by introduction of steam (open steam) directly into the charge.
Steam drive injection (steam injection) EOR process in which steam is continuously injected into one set
of wells (injection wells) or other injection source to effect oil displacement toward and production from a second set of wells (production wells); steam stimulation of production wells is direct
steam stimulation, whereas steam drive by steam injection to increase production from other
wells is indirect steam stimulation.
Steam stimulation injection of steam into a well and the subsequent production of oil from the same well.
Stiles method a simple approximate method for calculating oil recovery by waterflood that assumes
separate layers (stratified reservoirs) for the permeability distribution.
Storage stability (or storage instability) the ability (inability) of a liquid to remain in storage over
extended periods of time without appreciable deterioration as measured by gum formation
and the depositions of insoluble material (sediment).
Straight-run asphalt the asphalt (q.v.) produced by the distillation of asphaltic crude oil.
Straight-run products obtained from a distillation unit and used without further treatment.
Strata layers including the solid iron-rich inner core, molten outer core, mantle, and crust of the earth.
Straw oil pale paraffin oil of straw color used for many process applications.
Stripper well a well that produces (strips from the reservoir) oil or gas.
Stripping a means of separating volatile components from less volatile ones in a liquid mixture by the
partitioning of the more volatile materials to a gas phase of air or steam (q.v. stabilization).
Sulfonic acids acids obtained by treatment of petroleum or a petroleum product with strong sulfuric
acid.
Sulfuric acid alkylation an alkylation process in which olefins (C3, C4, and C5) combine with iso-butane
in the presence of a catalyst (sulfuric acid) to form branched chain hydrocarbons used especially
in gasoline blending stock.
Supercritical fluid an extraction method where the extraction fluid is present at a pressure and temperature above its critical point.
Surface active material a chemical compound, molecule, or aggregate of molecules with physical
properties that cause it to adsorb at the interface between two immiscible liquids, resulting in
a reduction of interfacial tension or the formation of a microemulsion.
Surfactant a type of chemical, characterized as one that reduces interfacial resistance to mixing between
oil and water or changes the degree to which water wets reservoir rock.
Suspensoid catalytic cracking a nonregenerative cracking process in which cracking stock is mixed with
slurry of catalyst (usually clay) and cycle oil and passed through the coils of a heater.
SW-846 an EPA multi-volume publication entitled Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, Physical=
Chemical Methods; the official compendium of analytical and sampling methods that have been
evaluated and approved for use in complying with the RCRA regulations and that functions
primarily as a guidance document setting forth acceptable, although not required, methods forthe regulated and regulatory communities to use in responding to RCRA-related sampling and
analysis requirements. SW-846 changes over time, as new information and data are developed.
Sweated wax a crude wax freed from oil by having been passed through a sweater.
Sweating the separation of paraffin oil and low-melting wax from paraffin wax.
Sweep efficiency the ratio of the pore volume of reservoir rock contacted by injected fluids to the total
pore volume of reservoir rock in the project area. (See also areal sweep efficiency and vertical
sweep efficiency.)
Sweet crude oil crude oil containing little sulfur; see also Sour crude oil.
Sweetening the process by which petroleum products are improved in odor and color by oxidizing or
removing the sulfur-containing and unsaturated compounds.
Swelling increase in the volume of crude oil caused by absorption of EOR fluids, especially carbon
dioxide. Also increase in volume of clays when exposed to brine.
Swept zone the volume of rock that is effectively swept by injected fluids.
Synthetic crude oil (syncrude) a hydrocarbon product produced by the conversion of coal, oil shale, or
tar sand bitumen that resembles conventional crude oil; can be refined in a petroleum refinery
(q.v.).
Tar the volatile, brown to black, oily, viscous product from the destructive distillation of many
bituminous or other organic materials, especially coal; a name used for petroleum in ancient
texts.
Target analyte target analytes are compounds that are required analytes in U.S. EPA analytical
methods. BTEX and PAHs are examples of petroleum-related compounds that are target
analytes in U.S. EPA Methods.
Tar sand see Bituminous sand.
Tertiary structure the three-dimensional structure of a molecule.
Tetraethyl lead (TEL) an organic compound of lead, Pb(CH3)4, which, when added in small amounts,
increases the antiknock quality of gasoline.
Thermal coke the carbonaceous residue formed as a result of a noncatalytic thermal process; the
Conradson carbon residue; the Ramsbottom carbon residue.
Thermal cracking a process which decomposes, rearranges, or combines hydrocarbon molecules by the
application of heat, without the aid of catalysts.
Thermal polymerization a thermal process to convert light hydrocarbon gases into liquid fuels.
Thermal process any refining process which utilizes heat, without the aid of a catalyst.
Thermal recovery see EOR process.
Thermal reforming a process using heat (but no catalyst) to effect molecular rearrangement of lowoctane naphtha into gasoline of higher antiknock quality.
Thermal stability (thermal instability) the ability (inability) of a liquid to withstand relatively high
temperatures for short periods of time without the formation of carbonaceous deposits (sediment or coke).
Thermofor catalytic cracking a continuous, moving-bed catalytic cracking process.
Thermofor catalytic reforming a reforming process in which the synthetic, bead-type catalyst of coprecipitated chromia (Cr2O3) and alumina (Al2O3) flows down through the reactor concurrent with
the feedstock.
Thermofor continuous percolation a continuous clay treating process to stabilize and decolorize lubricants or waxes.
Thief zone any geologic stratum not intended to receive injected fluids in which significant amounts of
injected fluids are lost; fluids may reach the thief zone due to an improper completion or a faulty
cement job.
Thin layer chromatography (TLC) a chromatographic technique employing a porous medium of glass
coated with a stationary phase. An extract is spotted near the bottom of the medium and placed
in a chamber with solvent (mobile phase). The solvent moves up the medium and separates the
components of the extract, based on affinities for the medium and solvent.
Time-lapse logging the repeated use of calibrated well logs to quantitatively observe changes in measurable reservoir properties over time.Topped crude petroleum that has had volatile constituents removed up to a certain temperature, e.g.,
2508Cþ (4808Fþ) topped crude; not always the same as a residuum (q.v.).
Topping the distillation of crude oil to remove light fractions only
Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) the family of several hundred chemical compounds that originally
come from petroleum.
Tower equipment for increasing the degree of separation obtained during the distillation of oil in a still.
TPH E gas chromatographic test for TPH extractable organic compounds.
TPH V gas chromatographic test for TPH volatile organic compounds.
TPH-D(DRO) gas chromatographic test for TPH diesel-range organics.
TPH-G(GRO) gas chromatographic test for TPH gasoline-range organics.
Trace element those elements that occur at very low levels in a given system.
Tracer test a technique for determining fluid flow paths in a reservoir by adding small quantities of easily
detected material (often radioactive) to the flowing fluid, and monitoring their appearance at
production wells. Also used in cyclic injection to appraise oil saturation.
Transmissibility (transmissivity) an index of producibility of a reservoir or zone, the product of permeability and layer thickness.
Traps sediments in which oil and gas accumulate from which further migration (q.v.) is prevented.
Treatment any method, technique, or process that changes the physical and chemical character of
petroleum.
Triaxial borehole seismic survey a technique for detecting the orientation of hydraulically induced
fractures, wherein a tool holding three mutually seismic detectors is clamped in the borehole
during fracturing; fracture orientation is deduced through analysis of the detected microseismic
perpendicular events that are generated by the fracturing process.
Trickle hydrodesulfurization a fixed-bed process for desulfurizing middle distillates.
Trillion 1  1012
True boiling point (True boiling range) the boiling point (boiling range) of a crude oil fraction or a crude
oil product under standard conditions of temperature and pressure.
Tube-and-tank cracking a older liquid-phase thermal cracking process.
Ultimate analysis elemental composition.
Ultimate recovery the cumulative quantity of oil that will be recovered when revenues from further
production no longer justify the costs of the additional production.
Ultrafining a fixed-bed catalytic hydrogenation process to desulfurize naphtha and upgrade distillates by
essentially removing sulfur, nitrogen, and other materials.
Ultraforming a low-pressure naphtha-reforming process employing onstream regeneration of a platinum-on-alumina catalyst and producing high yields of hydrogen and high-octane-number
reformate.
Unassociated molecular weight the molecular weight of asphaltenes in an nonassociating (polar) solvent,
such as dichlorobenzene, pyridine, or nitrobenzene.
Unconformity a surface of erosion that separates younger strata from older rocks.
Unifining a fixed-bed catalytic process to desulfurize and hydrogenate refinery distillates.
Unisol process a chemical process for extracting mercaptan sulfur and certain nitrogen compounds from
sour gasoline or distillates using regenerable aqueous solutions of sodium or potassium hydroxide containing methanol.
Universal viscosity see Saybolt Universal viscosity.
Unresolved complex the thousands of compounds that a gas chromatograph mixture (UCM) is unable to
fully separate.
Unstable usually refers to a petroleum product that has more volatile constituents present or refers to the
presence of olefin and other unsaturated constituents.
UOP alkylation a process using hydrofluoric acid (which can be regenerated) as a catalyst to unite
olefins with iso-butane.
UOP copper sweetening a fixed-bed process for sweetening gasoline by converting mercaptans to
disulfides by contact with ammonium chloride and copper sulfate in a bed.
UOP fluid catalytic cracking a fluid process of using a reactor-over-regenerator design.
Upgrading the conversion of petroleum to value-added saleable products.Upper-phase microemulsion a microemulsion phase containing a high concentration of oil that, when
viewed in a test tube, resides on top of a water phase.
Urea dewaxing a continuous dewaxing process for producing low-pour-point oils, and using urea which
forms a solid complex (adduct) with the straight-chain wax paraffins in the stock; the complex is
readily separated by filtration.
Vacuum distillation distillation (q.v.) under reduced pressure.
Vacuum residuum a residuum (q.v.) obtained by distillation of a crude oil under vacuum (reduced
pressure); that portion of petroleum which boils above a selected temperature such as 5108C
(9508F) or 5658C (10508F).
Vapor-phase cracking a high-temperature, low-pressure conversion process.
Vapor-phase hydrodesulfurization a fixed-bed process for desulfurization and hydrogenation of naphtha.
Vertical sweep efficiency the fraction of the layers or vertically distributed zones of a reservoir that are
effectively contacted by displacing fluids.
Visbreaking a process for reducing the viscosity of heavy feedstocks by controlled thermal decomposition.
Viscosity a measure of the ability of a liquid to flow or a measure of its resistance to flow; the force
required to move a plane surface of area 1 m2 over another parallel plane surface 1 m away at a
rate of 1 m=sec when both surfaces are immersed in the fluid.
VGC (viscosity–gravity constant) an index of the chemical composition of crude oil defined by the
general relation between specific gravity, sg, at 608F and Saybolt universal viscosity, SUV, at
1008F:
a ¼ 10sg 1:0752 logðSUV 38Þ=10sg logðSUV 38Þ
The constant, a, is low for the paraffin crude oils and high for the naphthenic crude oils.
VI (viscosity index) an arbitrary scale used to show the magnitude of viscosity changes in lubricating oils
with changes in temperature.
Viscosity–gravity constant see VGC.
Viscosity index see VI.
VOC (VOCs) volatile organic compound or componds; volatile organic compounds are regulated
because they are precursors to ozone; carbon-containing gases and vapors from incomplete
gasoline combustion and from the evaporation of solvents.
Volatile compounds a relative term that may mean (1) any compound that will purge, (2) any compound
that will elute before the solvent peak (usually those < C6), or (3) any compound that will not
evaporate during a solvent removal step.
Volumetric sweep the fraction of the total reservoir volume within a flood pattern that is effectively
contacted by injected fluids.
VSP vertical seismic profiling, a method of conducting seismic surveys in the borehole for detailed
subsurface information.
Waterflood injection of water to displace oil from a reservoir (usually a secondary recovery process).
Waterflood mobility ratio mobility ratio of water displacing oil during waterflooding. (See also mobility
ratio.)
Waterflood residual the waterflood residual oil saturation; the saturation of oil remaining after waterflooding in those regions of the reservoir that have been thoroughly contacted by water.
Watson characterization factor see Characterization factor.
Wax see Mineral wax and Paraffin wax.
Wax distillate a neutral distillate containing a high percentage of crystallizable paraffin wax, obtained
on the distillation of paraffin or mixed-base crude, and on reducing neutral lubricating stocks.
Wax fractionation a continuous process for producing waxes of low oil content from wax concentrates;
see also MEK deoiling.
Wax manufacturing a process for producing oil-free waxes.
Weathered crude oil crude oil which, due to natural causes during storage and handling, has lost an
appreciable quantity of its more volatile components; also indicates uptake of oxygen.
Wellbore the hole in the earth comprising a well.Well completion the complete outfitting of an oil well for either oil production or fluid injection; also the
technique used to control fluid communication with the reservoir.
Wellhead that portion of an oil well above the surface of the ground.
Wet gas gas containing a relatively high proportion of hydrocarbons which are recoverable as liquids;
see also Lean gas.
Wet scrubbers devices in which a counter-current spray liquid is used to remove impurities and
particulate matter from a gas stream.
Wettability the relative degree to which a fluid will spread on (or coat) a solid surface in the presence of
other immiscible fluids.
Wettability number a measure of the degree to which a reservoir rock is water-wet or oil-wet, based on
capillary pressure curves.
Wettability reversal the reversal of the preferred fluid wettability of a rock, e.g., from water-wet to oilwet, or vice versa.
White oil a generic term applied to highly refined, colorless hydrocarbon oils of low volatility, and
covering a wide range of viscosity.
Wobbe Index (or Wobbe Number) the calorific value of a gas divided by the specific gravity.
Wood alcohol see Methyl alcohol.
Zeolite a crystalline aluminosilicate used as a catalyst, which has a particular chemical and physical
structure.The Chemistry and Technology of Petroleum
Fourth Edition
James G. Speight
CD&W Inc.
Laramie, Wyoming
Table of Contents
Part I
History, Occurrence, and Recovery
Chapter 1
History and Terminology
1.1 Historical Perspectives
1.2 Modern Perspectives
1.3 Definitions and Terminology
1.4 Native Materials
1.4.1 Petroleum
1.4.2 Heavy Oil
1.4.3 Bitumen
1.4.4 Wax
1.4.5 Asphaltite
1.4.6 Asphaltoid
1.4.7 Bituminous Rock and Bituminous Sand
1.4.8 Kerogen
1.4.9 Natural Gas
1.5 Manufactured Materials
1.5.1 Wax
1.5.2 Residuum (Residua)
1.5.3 Asphalt
1.5.4 Tar and Pitch
1.5.5 Coke
1.5.6 Synthetic Crude Oil
1.6 Derived Materials
1.6.1 Asphaltenes, Carbenes, and Carboids
1.6.2 Resins and Oils
1.7 Oil Prices
1.7.1 Pricing Strategies
1.7.2 Oil Price History
1.7.3 Future of Oil
1.7.4 Epilog
References
Chapter 2
Classification
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Classification Systems
2.2.1 Classification as a Hydrocarbon Resource
2.2.2 Classification by Chemical Composition
2.2.3 Correlation Index
2.2.4 Density2.2.5 API Gravity
2.2.6 Viscosity
2.2.7 Carbon Distribution
2.2.8 Viscosity–Gravity Constant
2.2.9 UOP Characterization Factor
2.2.10 Recovery Method
2.2.11 Pour Point
2.3 Miscellaneous Systems
2.4 Reservoir Classification
2.4.1 Identification and Quantification
2.4.2 Future
References
Chapter 3
Origin and Occurrence
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Origin
3.2.1 Abiogenic Origin
3.2.2 Biogenic Origin
3.2.2.1 Deposition of Organic Matter
3.2.2.2 Establishment of Source Beds
3.2.2.3 Nature of the Source Material
3.2.2.4 Transformation of Organic Matter into Petroleum
3.2.2.5 Accumulation in Reservoir Sediments
3.2.2.6 In Situ Transformation of Petroleum
3.2.3 Differences between the Abiogenic Theory and the Biogenic Theory
3.2.4 Relationship of Petroleum Composition and Properties
3.3 Occurrence
3.3.1 Reserves
3.3.2 Conventional Petroleum
3.3.3 Natural Gas
3.3.4 Heavy Oil
3.3.5 Bitumen (Extra Heavy Oil)
References
Chapter 4
Kerogen
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Properties
4.3 Composition
4.4 Classification
4.5 Isolation
4.6 Methods for Probing Kerogen Structure
4.6.1 Ultimate (Elemental) Analysis
4.6.2 Functional Group Analysis
4.6.3 Oxidation
4.6.4 Thermal Methods
4.6.5 Acid-Catalyzed Hydrogenolysis
4.7 Structural Models4.8 Kerogen Maturation
References
Chapter 5
Exploration, Recovery, and Transportation
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Exploration
5.2.1 Gravity Methods
5.2.2 Magnetic Methods
5.2.3 Seismic Methods
5.2.4 Electrical Methods
5.2.5 Electromagnetic Methods
5.2.6 Radioactive Methods
5.2.7 Borehole Logging
5.3 Drilling Operations
5.3.1 Preparing to Drill
5.3.2 Drilling Rig
5.3.3 Drilling Rig Components
5.3.4 Drilling
5.4 Well Completion
5.5 Recovery
5.5.1 Primary Recovery (Natural Methods)
5.5.2 Secondary Recovery
5.5.3 Enhanced Oil Recovery
5.6 Products and Product Quality
5.7 Transportation
References
Chapter 6
Recovery of Heavy Oil and Tar Sand Bitumen
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Oil Mining
6.2.1 Tar Sand Mining
6.2.2 Hot-Water Process
6.2.3 Other Processes
6.3 Nonmining Methods
6.3.1 Steam-Based Processes
6.3.2 Combustion Processes
6.3.3 Other Processes
References
Part II
Composition and Properties
Chapter 7
Chemical Composition
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Ultimate (Elemental) Composition7.3 Chemical Components
7.3.1 Hydrocarbon Constituents
7.3.1.1 Paraffin Hydrocarbons
7.3.1.2 Cycloparaffin Hydrocarbons (Naphthenes)
7.3.1.3 Aromatic Hydrocarbons
7.3.1.4 Unsaturated Hydrocarbons
7.3.2 Nonhydrocarbon Constituents
7.3.2.1 Sulfur Compounds
7.3.2.2 Oxygen Compounds
7.3.2.3 Nitrogen Compounds
7.3.2.4 Metallic Constituents
7.3.2.5 Porphyrins
7.4 Chemical Composition by Distillation
7.4.1 Gases and Naphtha
7.4.2 Middle Distillates
7.4.3 Vacuum Residua (10508Fþ)
References
Chapter 8
Fractional Composition
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Distillation
8.2.1 Atmospheric Pressure
8.2.2 Reduced Pressures
8.2.3 Azeotropic and Extractive Distillation
8.3 Solvent Treatment
8.3.1 Asphaltene Separation
8.3.1.1 Influence of Solvent Type
8.3.1.2 Influence of the Degree of Dilution
8.3.1.3 Influence of Temperature
8.3.1.4 Influence of Contact Time
8.3.2 Fractionation
8.4 Adsorption
8.4.1 Chemical Factors
8.4.2 Fractionation Methods
8.4.2.1 General Methods
8.4.2.2 ASTM Methods
8.5 Chemical Methods
8.5.1 Acid Treatment
8.5.2 Molecular Complex Formation
8.5.2.1 Urea Adduction
8.5.2.2 Thiourea Adduction
8.5.2.3 Adduct Composition
8.5.2.4 Adduct Structure
8.5.2.5 Adduct Properties
8.6 Use of the Data
ReferencesChapter 9
Petroleum Analysis
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Petroleum Assay
9.3 Physical Properties
9.3.1 Elemental (Ultimate) Analysis
9.3.2 Density and Specific Gravity
9.3.3 Viscosity
9.3.4 Surface and Interfacial Tension
9.3.5 Metals Content
9.4 Thermal Properties
9.4.1 Volatility
9.4.2 Liquefaction and Solidification
9.4.3 Carbon Residue
9.4.4 Aniline Point
9.4.5 Specific Heat
9.4.6 Latent Heat
9.4.7 Enthalpy or Heat Content
9.4.8 Thermal Conductivity
9.4.9 Pressure–Volume–Temperature Relationships
9.4.10 Heat of Combustion
9.4.11 Critical Properties
9.5 Electrical Properties
9.5.1 Conductivity
9.5.2 Dielectric Constant
9.5.3 Dielectric Strength
9.5.4 Dielectric Loss and Power Factor
9.5.5 Static Electrification
9.6 Optical Properties
9.6.1 Refractive Index
9.6.2 Optical Activity
9.7 Spectroscopic Methods
9.7.1 Infrared Spectroscopy
9.7.2 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
9.7.3 Mass Spectrometry
9.8 Chromatographic Methods
9.8.1 Gas Chromatography
9.8.2 Simulated Distillation
9.8.3 Adsorption Chromatography
9.8.4 Gel Permeation Chromatography
9.8.5 Ion-Exchange Chromatography
9.8.6 High-Performance Liquid Chromatography
9.8.7 Supercritical Fluid Chromatography
9.9 Molecular Weight
9.10 Use of the Data
ReferencesChapter 10
Structural Group Analysis
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Methods for Structural Group Analysis
10.2.1 Physical Property Methods
10.2.1.1 Direct Method
10.2.1.2 Waterman Ring Analysis
10.2.1.3 Density Method
10.2.1.4 n.d.M. Method
10.2.1.5 Dispersion–Refraction Method
10.2.1.6 Density–Temperature Coefficient Method
10.2.1.7 Molecular Weight–Refractive Index Method
10.2.1.8 Miscellaneous Methods
10.2.2 Spectroscopic Methods
10.2.2.1 Infrared Spectroscopy
10.2.2.2 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
10.2.2.3 Mass Spectrometry
10.2.2.4 Electron Spin Resonance
10.2.2.5 Ultraviolet Spectroscopy
10.2.2.6 X-Ray Diffraction
10.2.3 Heteroatom Systems
10.2.3.1 Nitrogen
10.2.3.2 Oxygen
10.2.3.3 Sulfur
10.2.3.4 Metals
10.3 Miscellaneous Methods
References
Chapter 11
Asphaltene Constituents
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Separation
11.3 Composition
11.4 Molecular Weight
11.5 Reactions
11.6 Solubility Parameter
11.7 Structural Aspects
References
Chapter 12
Structure of Petroleum
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Molecular Species in Petroleum
12.2.1 Volatile Fractions
12.2.2 Resin Constituents
12.2.2.1 Composition
12.2.2.2 Resins (Structure)
12.2.2.3 Molecular Weight12.2.3 Nonvolatile Oils
12.2.3.1 Composition
12.2.3.2 Structure
12.2.3.3 Molecular Weight
12.3 Chemical and Physical Structure of Petroleum
12.4 Stability or Instability of the Crude Oil System
12.5 Effects on Recovery and Refining
12.5.1 Effects on Recovery Operations
12.5.2 Effects on Refining Operations
References
Chapter 13
Instability and Incompatibility
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Instability and Incompatibility in Petroleum
13.3 Factors Influencing Instability and Incompatibility
13.3.1 Elemental Analysis
13.3.2 Density and Specific Gravity
13.3.3 Volatility
13.3.4 Viscosity
13.3.5 Asphaltene Content
13.3.6 Pour Point
13.3.7 Acidity
13.3.8 Metals (Ash) Content
13.3.9 Water Content, Salt Content, and Bottom Sediment
and Water (BS&W)
13.4 Methods for Determining Instability and Incompatibility
13.5 Effect of Asphaltene Constituents
References
Part III
Refining
Chapter 14
Introduction to Refining Processes
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Dewatering and Desalting
14.3 Early Processes
14.4 Distillation
14.4.1 Historical Development
14.4.2 Modern Processes
14.4.2.1 Atmospheric Distillation
14.4.2.2 Vacuum Distillation
14.4.2.3 Azeotropic and Extractive Distillation
14.5 Thermal Methods
14.5.1 Historical Development
14.5.2 Modern Processes14.5.2.1 Thermal Cracking
14.5.2.2 Visbreaking
14.5.2.3 Coking
14.6 Catalytic Methods
14.6.1 Historical Development
14.6.2 Modern Processes
14.6.3 Catalysts
14.7 Hydroprocesses
14.7.1 Historical Development
14.7.2 Modern Processes
14.7.2.1 Hydrofining
14.8 Reforming
14.8.1 Historical Development
14.8.2 Modern Processes
14.8.2.1 Thermal Reforming
14.8.2.2 Catalytic Reforming
14.8.2.3 Catalysts
14.9 Isomerization
14.9.1 Historical Development
14.9.2 Modern Processes
14.9.3 Catalysts
14.10 Alkylation Processes
14.10.1 Historical Development
14.10.2 Modern Processes
14.10.3 Catalysts
14.11 Polymerization Processes
14.11.1 Historical Development
14.11.2 Modern Processes
14.11.3 Catalysts
14.12 Solvent Process
14.12.1 Deasphalting
14.12.2 Dewaxing
14.13 Refining Heavy Feedstocks
14.14 Petroleum Products
14.15 Petrochemicals
References
Chapter 15
Refining Chemistry
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Cracking
15.2.1 Thermal Cracking
15.2.2 Catalytic Cracking
15.2.3 Dehydrogenation
15.2.4 Dehydrocyclization
15.3 Hydrogenation
15.3.1 Hydrocracking
15.3.2 Hydrotreating
15.4 Isomerization
15.5 Alkylation15.6 Polymerization
15.7 Process Chemistry
15.7.1 Thermal Chemistry
15.7.2 Hydroconversion Chemistry
15.7.3 Chemistry in the Refinery
15.7.3.1 Visbreaking
15.7.3.2 Hydroprocessing
References
Chapter 16
Distillation
16.1 Introduction
16.2 Pretreatment
16.3 Atmospheric and Vacuum Distillation
16.3.1 Atmospheric Distillation
16.3.2 Vacuum Distillation
16.4 Equipment
16.4.1 Columns
16.4.2 Packings
16.4.3 Trays
16.5 Other Processes
16.5.1 Stripping
16.5.2 Rerunning
16.5.3 Stabilization and Light End Removal
16.5.4 Superfractionation
16.5.5 Azeotropic Distillation
16.5.6 Extractive Distillation
16.5.7 Process Options for Heavy Feedstocks
References
Chapter 17
Thermal Cracking
17.1 Introduction
17.2 Early Processes
17.3 Commercial Processes
17.3.1 Visbreaking
17.3.2 Coking Processes
17.3.2.1 Delayed Coking
17.3.2.2 Fluid Coking
17.3.2.3 Flexicoking
17.3.3 Process Options for Heavy Feedstocks
17.3.3.1 Aquaconversion
17.3.3.2 Asphalt Coking Technology (ASCOT) Process
17.3.3.3 Comprehensive Heavy Ends
Reforming Refinery (Cherry-P) Process
17.3.3.4 Decarbonizing
17.3.3.5 ET-II Process
17.3.3.6 Eureka Process
17.3.3.7 Fluid Thermal Cracking (FTC) Process
17.3.3.8 High Conversion Soaker Cracking (HSC) Process17.3.3.9 Mixed-Phase Cracking
17.3.3.10 Naphtha Cracking
17.3.3.11 Selective Cracking
17.3.3.12 Shell Thermal Cracking
17.3.3.13 Tervahl T Process
17.3.3.14 Vapor-Phase Cracking
References
Chapter 18
Catalytic Cracking
18.1 Introduction
18.2 Early Processes
18.3 Commercial Processes
18.3.1 Fixed-Bed Processes
18.3.2 Fluid-Bed Processes
18.3.2.1 Fluid-Bed Catalytic Cracking
18.3.2.2 Model IV Fluid-Bed Catalytic Cracking Unit
18.3.2.3 Orthoflow Fluid-Bed Catalytic Cracking
18.3.2.4 Shell Two-Stage Fluid-Bed Catalytic Cracking
18.3.2.5 Universal Oil Products (UOP) Fluid-Bed
Catalytic Cracking
18.3.3 Moving-Bed Processes
18.3.3.1 Airlift Thermofor Catalytic Cracking
(Socony Airlift TCC Process)
18.3.3.2 Houdresid Catalytic Cracking
18.3.3.3 Houdriflow Catalytic Cracking
18.3.3.4 Suspensoid Catalytic Cracking
18.3.4 Process Options for Heavy Feedstocks
18.3.4.1 Asphalt Residual Treating (ART) Process
18.3.4.2 Residue Fluid Catalytic Cracking (HOC) Process
18.3.4.3 Heavy Oil Treating (HOT) Process
18.3.4.4 R2R Process
18.3.4.5 Reduced Crude Oil Conversion (RCC) Process
18.3.4.6 Shell FCC Process
18.3.4.7 S&W Fluid Catalytic Cracking Process
18.4 Catalysts
18.4.1 Catalyst Treatment
18.4.1.1 Demet
18.4.1.2 Met-X
18.5 Process Parameters
18.5.1 Reactor
18.5.2 Coking
18.5.3 Catalyst Variables
18.5.4 Process Variables
18.5.5 Additives
ReferencesChapter 19
Deasphalting and Dewaxing Processes
19.1 Introduction
19.2 Commercial Processes
19.2.1 Deasphalting Process
19.2.2 Process Options for Heavy Feedstocks
19.2.2.1 Deep Solvent Deasphalting Process
19.2.2.2 Demex Process
19.2.2.3 MDS Process
19.2.2.4 Residuum Oil Supercritical Extraction
(ROSE) Process
19.2.2.5 Solvahl Process
19.2.2.6 Lube Deasphalting
19.3 Dewaxing Processes
References
Chapter 20
Hydrotreating and Desulfurization
20.1 Introduction
20.2 Process Parameters and Reactors
20.2.1 Hydrogen Partial Pressure
20.2.2 Space Velocity
20.2.3 Reaction Temperature
20.2.4 Catalyst Life
20.2.5 Feedstock Effects
20.2.6 Reactors
20.2.6.1 Downflow Fixed-Bed Reactor
20.2.6.2 Upflow Expanded-Bed Reactor
20.2.6.3 Demetallization Reactor (Guard Bed Reactor)
20.3 Commercial Processes
20.3.1 Autofining
20.3.2 Ferrofining
20.3.3 Gulf-HDS
20.3.4 Hydrofining
20.3.5 Isomax
20.3.6 Ultrafining
20.3.7 Unifining
20.3.8 Unionfining
20.3.9 Process Options for Heavy Feedstocks
20.3.9.1 Residuum Desulfurization and Vacuum
Residuum Desulfurization Process
20.3.9.2 Residfining Process
20.4 Catalysts
20.5 Biodesulfurization
20.6 Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Polishing
ReferencesChapter 21
Hydrocracking
21.1 Introduction
21.2 Commercial Processes
21.2.1 Process Design
21.2.1.1 Single-Stage and Two-Stage Options
21.2.2 Process Options for Heavy Feedstocks
21.2.2.1 Asphaltenic Bottom Cracking (ABC) Process
21.2.2.2 CANMET Hydrocracking Process
21.2.2.3 H-Oil Process
21.2.2.4 Hydrovisbreaking (HYCAR) Process
21.2.2.5 Hyvahl F Process
21.2.2.6 IFP Hydrocracking Process
21.2.2.7 Isocracking Process
21.2.2.8 LC-Fining Process
21.2.2.9 MAKfining Process
21.2.2.10 Microcat-RC Process
21.2.2.11 Mild Hydrocracking Process
21.2.2.12 MRH Process
21.2.2.13 RCD Unibon (BOC) Process
21.2.2.14 Residfining Process
21.2.2.15 Residue Hydroconversion (RHC) Process
21.2.2.16 Tervahl-H Process
21.2.2.17 Unicracking Process
21.2.2.18 Veba Combi Cracking Process
21.3 Catalysts
References
Chapter 22
Hydrogen Production
22.1 Introduction
22.2 Processes Requiring Hydrogen
22.2.1 Hydrotreating
22.2.2 Hydrocracking
22.3 Feedstocks
22.4 Process Chemistry
22.5 Commercial Processes
22.5.1 Heavy Residue Gasification and Combined
Cycle Power Generation
22.5.2 Hybrid Gasification Process
22.5.3 Hydrocarbon Gasification
22.5.4 Hypro Process
22.5.5 Pyrolysis Processes
22.5.6 Shell Gasification (Partial Oxidation) Process
22.5.7 Steam–Methane Reforming
22.5.8 Steam–Naphtha Reforming
22.5.9 Synthesis Gas Generation
22.5.10 Texaco Gasification (Partial Oxidation) Process22.6 Catalysts
22.6.1 Reforming Catalysts
22.6.2 Shift Conversion Catalysts
22.6.3 Methanation Catalysts
22.7 Hydrogen Purification
22.7.1 Wet Scrubbing
22.7.2 Pressure-Swing Adsorption Units
22.7.3 Membrane Systems
22.7.4 Cryogenic Separation
22.8 Hydrogen Management
References
Chapter 23
Product Improvement
23.1 Introduction
23.2 Reforming
23.2.1 Thermal Reforming
23.2.2 Catalytic Reforming
23.2.2.1 Fixed-Bed Processes
23.2.2.2 Moving-Bed Processes
23.2.2.3 Fluid-Bed Processes
23.3 Isomerization
23.3.1 Butamer Process
23.3.2 Butomerate Process
23.3.3 Hysomer Process
23.3.4 Iso-Kel Process
23.3.5 Isomate Process
23.3.6 Isomerate Process
23.3.7 Penex Process
23.3.8 Pentafining Process
23.4 Alkylation
23.4.1 Cascade Sulfuric Acid Alkylation
23.4.2 Hydrogen Fluoride Alkylation
23.5 Polymerization
23.5.1 Thermal Polymerization
23.5.2 Solid Phosphoric Acid Condensation
23.5.3 Bulk Acid Polymerization
23.6 Catalysts
23.6.1 Reforming Processes
23.6.2 Isomerization Processes
23.6.3 Alkylation Processes
23.6.4 Polymerization Processes
References
Chapter 24
Product Treating
24.1 Introduction
24.2 Commercial Processes
24.2.1 Caustic Processes
24.2.1.1 Dualayer Distillate Process24.2.1.2 Dualayer Gasoline Process
24.2.1.3 Electrolytic Mercaptan Process
24.2.1.4 Ferrocyanide Process
24.2.1.5 Lye Treatment
24.2.1.6 Mercapsol Process
24.2.1.7 Polysulfide Treatment
24.2.1.8 Sodasol Process
24.2.1.9 Solutizer Process
24.2.1.10 Steam Regenerative Caustic Treatment
24.2.1.11 Unisol Process
24.2.2 Acid Processes
24.2.2.1 Nalfining Process
24.2.2.2 Sulfuric Acid Treatment
24.2.3 Clay Processes
24.2.3.1 Alkylation Effluent Treatment
24.2.3.2 Arosorb Process
24.2.3.3 Bauxite Treatment
24.2.3.4 Continuous Contact Filtration Process
24.2.3.5 Cyclic Adsorption Process
24.2.3.6 Gray Clay Treatment
24.2.3.7 Percolation Filtration Process
24.2.3.8 Thermofor Continuous Percolation Process
24.2.4 Oxidative Processes
24.2.4.1 Bender Process
24.2.4.2 Copper Sweetening Process
24.2.4.3 Doctor Process
24.2.4.4 Hypochlorite Sweetening Process
24.2.4.5 Inhibitor Sweetening Process
24.2.4.6 Merox Process
24.2.5 Solvent Processes
24.2.5.1 Deasphalting
24.2.5.2 Solvent Refining
24.2.5.3 Dewaxing
References
Chapter 25
Gas Processing
25.1 Introduction
25.1.1 Gas Streams from Crude Oil
25.1.2 Gas Streams from Natural Gas
25.2 Gas Cleaning
25.3 Water Removal
25.3.1 Absorption
25.3.2 Solid Adsorbents
25.3.3 Use of Membranes
25.4 Liquids Removal
25.4.1 Extraction
25.4.2 Absorption
25.4.3 Fractionation of Natural Gas Liquids25.5 Nitrogen Removal
25.6 Acid Gas Removal
25.7 Enrichment
25.8 Fractionation
25.9 Claus Process
References
Chapter 26
Products
26.1 Introduction
26.2 Gaseous Fuels
26.2.1 Composition
26.2.2 Manufacture
26.2.3 Properties and Uses
26.3 Gasoline
26.3.1 Composition
26.3.2 Manufacture
26.3.3 Properties and Uses
26.3.4 Octane Numbers
26.3.5 Additives
26.4 Solvents (Naphtha)
26.4.1 Composition
26.4.2 Manufacture
26.4.3 Properties and Uses
26.5 Kerosene
26.5.1 Composition
26.5.2 Manufacture
26.5.3 Properties and Uses
26.6 Fuel Oil
26.7 Lubricating Oil
26.7.1 Composition
26.7.2 Manufacture
26.7.2.1 Chemical Refining Processes
26.7.2.2 Hydroprocessing
26.7.2.3 Solvent Refining Processes
26.7.2.4 Catalytic Dewaxing
26.7.2.5 Solvent Dewaxing
26.7.2.6 Finishing Processes
26.7.2.7 Older Processes
26.7.3 Properties and Uses
26.8 Other Oil Products
26.8.1 White Oil
26.8.2 Insulating Oil
26.8.3 Insecticides
26.9 Grease
26.9.1 Lime Soap
26.9.2 Soda Soap
26.9.3 Lithium and Barium Soap
26.9.4 Aluminum Soap
26.9.5 Cold Sett Grease26.10 Wax
26.10.1 Composition
26.10.2 Manufacture
26.10.3 Properties and Uses
26.11 Asphalt
26.11.1 Composition
26.11.2 Manufacture
26.11.3 Properties and Uses
26.12 Coke
26.13 Sulfonic Acids
26.14 Acid Sludge
26.15 Product Blending
References
Chapter 27
Petrochemicals
27.1 Introduction
27.2 Chemicals from Paraffins
27.2.1 Halogenation
27.2.2 Nitration
27.2.3 Oxidation
27.2.4 Alkylation
27.2.5 Thermolysis
27.3 Chemicals from Olefins
27.3.1 Hydroxylation
27.3.2 Halogenation
27.3.3 Polymerization
27.3.4 Oxidation
27.3.5 Miscellaneous
27.4 Chemicals from Aromatics
27.5 Chemicals from Acetylene
27.6 Chemicals from Natural Gas
27.7 Inorganic Petrochemicals
27.8 Synthesis Gas
References
Part IV
Environmental Issues
Chapter 28
Environmental Aspects of Refining
28.1 Introduction
28.2 Definitions
28.3 Environmental Regulations
28.3.1 Clean Air Act Amendments
28.3.2 Water Pollution Control Act (The Clean Water Act)
28.3.3 Safe Drinking Water Act
28.3.4 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
28.3.5 Toxic Substances Control Act28.3.6 Comprehensive Environmental Response,
Compensation, and Liability Act
28.3.7 Occupational Safety and Health Act
28.3.8 Oil Pollution Act
28.3.9 Hazardous Materials Transportation Act
28.4 Process Analysis
28.4.1 Gaseous Emissions
28.4.2 Liquid Effluents
28.4.3 Solid Effluents
28.5 Epilog
References
Chapter 29
Refinery Wastes
29.1 Introduction
29.2 Process Wastes
29.2.1 Desalting
29.2.2 Distillation
29.2.3 Thermal Cracking and Visbreaking
29.2.4 Coking Processes
29.2.5 Fluid Catalytic Cracking
29.2.6 Hydrocracking and Hydrotreating
29.2.7 Catalytic Reforming
29.2.8 Alkylation
29.2.9 Isomerization
29.2.10 Polymerization
29.2.11 Deasphalting
29.2.12 Dewaxing
29.2.13 Gas Processing
29.3 Types of Waste
29.3.1 Gases and Lower Boiling Constituents
29.3.2 Higher Boiling Constituents
29.3.3 Wastewater
29.3.4 Solid Waste
29.4 Waste Toxicity
29.5 Refinery Outlook
29.5.1 Hazardous Waste Regulations
29.5.2 Regulatory Background
29.5.3 Requirements
29.6 Management of Refinery Waste
References
Chapter 30
Environmental Analysis
30.1 Introduction
30.2 Petroleum and Petroleum Products
30.3 Leachability and Toxicity
30.4 Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons
30.4.1 Gas Chromatographic Methods
30.4.2 Infrared Spectroscopy Methods30.4.3 Gravimetric Methods
30.4.4 Immunoassay Methods
30.5 Petroleum Group Analysis
30.5.1 Thin Layer Chromatography
30.5.2 Immunoassay
30.5.3 Gas Chromatography
30.5.4 High-Performance Liquid Chromatography
30.5.5 Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry
30.6 Petroleum Fractions
30.7 Assessment of the Methods
References
Conversion Factors
Glossary
Conversion Factors
1 acre ¼ 43,560 sq. ft.
1 acre foot ¼ 7758.0 bbl
1 atmosphere ¼ 760 mm Hg ¼ 14.696 psi ¼ 29.91 in. Hg
1 atmosphere ¼ 1.0133 bars ¼ 33.899 ft. H2O
1 barrel (oil) ¼ 42 gal ¼ 5.6146 cu. ft.
1 barrel (water) ¼ 350 lb. at 608F
1 barrel per day ¼ 1.84 cu. cm=sec
1 Btu ¼ 778.26 ft.-lb.
1 centipoise 2.42 ¼ lb. mass=(ft.-h), viscosity
1 centipoise 0.000672 ¼ lb. mass=(ft.-sec), viscosity
1 cubic foot ¼ 28,317 cu. cm ¼ 7.4805 gal
Density of water at 608 F ¼ 0l.999 g=cm3 ¼ 62.367 lb.=cu. ft. ¼ 8.337 lb.=gal
1 gallon ¼ 231 cu. in. ¼ 3,785.4 cm3 ¼ 0.13368 cu. ft.
1 horsepower-hour ¼ 0.7457 kWh ¼ 2544.5 Btu
1 horsepower ¼ 550 ft.-lb.=sec ¼ 745.7 W
1 inch ¼ 2.54 cm
1 meter ¼ 100 cm ¼ 1000 mm ¼ 106 mm ¼ 1010 A˚ (D)
1 ounce ¼ 28.35 g
1 pound ¼ 453.30 g ¼ 7000 grains
1 square mile ¼ 640 acres
SI METRIC CONVERSION FACTORS
(E 5 EXPONENT; I.E. E 1 03 5 103)
Acre-foot 1.233482 E þ 03 ¼ meter cube
Barrels 1.589873 E  01 ¼ meter cube
Centipoises 1.00000 E  03 ¼ pascal seconds
Darcy 9.869233 E  01 ¼ micrometer square
Feet 3.048000 E  01 ¼ meters
Pounds=acre-foot 3.677332 E  04 ¼ kilograms=meter cube
Pounds=square inch 6.894757 E  00 ¼ kilopascals
Dyne=cm 1.000000 E þ 00 ¼ mN=m
Parts per million 1.000000 E þ 00 ¼ milligrams=kilogramsGlossary
The following list represents a selection of definitions that are commonly used with reference to refining
operations (processes, equipment, and products) and will be of use to the reader. Older names, as may
occur in many books, are also included for clarification.
ABN separation a method of fractionation by which petroleum is separated into acidic, basic, and
neutral constituents.
Absorber see Absorption tower.
Absorption gasoline gasoline extracted from natural gas or refinery gas by contacting the absorbed gas
with an oil and subsequently distilling the gasoline from the higher-boiling components.
Absorption oil oil used to separate the heavier components from a vapor mixture by absorption of the
heavier components during intimate contacting of the oil and vapor; used to recover natural
gasoline from wet gas.
Absorption plant a plant for recovering the condensable portion of natural or refinery gas, by absorbing
the higher-boiling hydrocarbons in an absorption oil, followed by separation and fractionation
of the absorbed material.
Absorption tower a tower or column which promotes contact between a rising gas and a falling liquid so
that part of the gas may be dissolved in the liquid.
Acetone–benzol process a dewaxing process in which acetone and benzol (benzene or aromatic naphtha)
are used as solvents.
Acid catalyst a catalyst having acidic character; the aluminas are examples of such catalysts.
Acid deposition acid rain; a form of pollution depletion in which pollutants, such as nitrogen oxides and
sulfur oxides, are transferred from the atmosphere to soil or water; often referred to as
atmospheric self-cleaning. The pollutants usually arise from the use of fossil fuels.
Acidity the capacity of an acid to neutralize a base, such as a hydroxyl ion (OH).
Acidizing a technique for improving the permeability (q.v.) of a reservoir by injecting acid.
Acid number a measure of the reactivity of petroleum with a caustic solution and given in terms of
milligrams of potassium hydroxide that are neutralized by one gram of petroleum.
Acid rain the precipitation phenomenon that incorporates anthropogenic acids and other acidic chemicals from the atmosphere to the land and water (see Acid deposition).
Acid sludge the residue left after treating petroleum oil with sulfuric acid for the removal of impurities; a
black, viscous substance containing the spent acid and impurities.
Acid treatment a process in which unfinished petroleum products, such as gasoline, kerosene, and
lubricating-oil stocks, are contacted with sulfuric acid to improve their color, odor, and other
properties.
Acoustic log see Sonic log.
Acre-foot a measure of bulk rock volume, where the area is one acre and the thickness is one foot.
Additive a material added to another (usually in small amounts) in order to enhance desirable properties
or to suppress undesirable properties.
Add-on control methods the use of devices that remove refinery process emissions after they are generated
but before they are discharged to the atmosphere.
Adsorption transfer of a substance, from a solution to the surface of a solid, resulting in relatively high
concentration of the substance at the place of contact; see also Chromatographic adsorption.Adsorption gasoline natural gasoline (q.v.) obtained by the adsorption process from wet gas.
Afterburn the combustion of carbon monoxide (CO) to carbon dioxide (CO2); usually in the cyclones of
a catalyst regenerator.
After flow flow from the reservoir into the wellbore that continues for a period after the well has been
shut in; after-flow can complicate the analysis of a pressure transient test.
Air-blown asphalt asphalt produced by blowing air through residua at elevated temperatures.
Air injection an oil recovery technique using air to force oil from the reservoir into the wellbore.
Airlift Thermofor catalytic cracking a moving-bed continuous catalytic process for conversion of heavy
gas oils into lighter products; the catalyst is moved by a stream of air.
Air pollution the discharge of toxic gases and particulate matter introduced into the atmosphere,
principally as a result of human activity.
Air sweetening a process in which air or oxygen is used to oxidize lead mercaptides to disulfides, instead
of using elemental sulfur.
Air toxics hazardous air pollutants.
Albertite a black, brittle, natural hydrocarbon possessing a conchoidal fracture and a specific gravity of
approximately 1.1.
Alicyclic hydrocarbon a compound containing carbon and hydrogen only, which has a cyclic structure
(e.g., cyclohexane); also collectively called naphthenes.
Aliphatic hydrocarbon a compound containing carbon and hydrogen only, which has an open-chain
structure (e.g., as ethane, butane, octane, butene) or a cyclic structure (e.g., cyclohexane).
Aliquot the quantity of material of proper size for measurement of the property of interest; test portions
may be taken from the gross sample directly, but often preliminary operations such as mixing or
further reduction in particle size are necessary.
Alkaline a high pH, usually of an aqueous solution; aqueous solutions of sodium hydroxide, sodium
orthosilicate, and sodium carbonate are typical alkaline materials used in enhanced oil recovery.
Alkaline flooding see EOR process.
Alkalinity the capacity of a base to neutralize the hydrogen ion (Hþ).
Alkali treatment see Caustic wash.
Alkali wash see Caustic wash.
Alkanes hydrocarbons that contain only single carbon–hydrogen bonds. The chemical name indicates
the number of carbon atoms and ends with the suffix ‘‘ane’’.
Alkenes hydrocarbons that contain carbon–carbon double bonds. The chemical name indicates the
number of carbon atoms and ends with the suffix ‘‘ene’’.
Alkylate the product of an alkylation (q.v.) process.
Alkylate bottoms residua from fractionation of alkylate; the alkylate product which boils higher than the
aviation gasoline range; sometimes called heavy alkylate or alkylate polymer.
Alkylation in the petroleum industry, a process by which an olefin (e.g., ethylene) is combined with a
branched-chain hydrocarbon (e.g., iso-butane); alkylation may be accomplished as a thermal or
as a catalytic reaction.
Alkyl groups a group of carbon and hydrogen atoms that branch from the main carbon chain or ring in a
hydrocarbon molecule. The simplest alkyl group, a methyl group, is a carbon atom attached to
three hydrogen atoms.
Alpha-scission the rupture of the aromatic carbon–aliphatic carbon bond that joins an alkyl group to an
aromatic ring.
Alumina (Al2O3) used in separation methods as an adsorbent and in refining as a catalyst.
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) the official organization in the United States for
designing standard tests for petroleum and other industrial products.
Amine washing a method of gas cleaning, whereby acidic impurities such as hydrogen sulfide and
carbon dioxide are removed from the gas stream by washing with an amine (usually an
alkanolamine).
Analytical equivalence the acceptability of the results obtained from the different laboratories; a range of
acceptable results.
Analyte the chemical for which a sample is tested, or analyzed.
Antibody a molecule having chemically reactive sites specific for certain other molecules.Aniline point the temperature, usually expressed in 8F, above which equal volumes of a petroleum
product are completely miscible; a qualitative indication of the relative proportions of paraffins
in a petroleum product which are miscible with aniline only at higher temperatures; a high
aniline point indicates low aromatics.
Antiknock resistance to detonation or pinging in spark-ignition engines.
Antiknock agent a chemical compound such as tetraethyl lead which, when added in small amount to the
fuel charge of an internal-combustion engine, tends to lessen knocking.
Antistripping agent an additive used in an asphaltic binder to overcome the natural affinity of an
aggregate for water, instead of asphalt.
API gravity a measure of the lightness or heaviness of petroleum which is related to density and specific
gravity.
API ¼ ð141:5=spgr @ 60FÞ 131:5
Apparent bulk density the density of a catalyst as measured; usually loosely compacted in a container.
Apparent viscosity the viscosity of a fluid, or several fluids flowing simultaneously, measured in a porous
medium (rock), and subject to both viscosity and permeability effects; also called effective
viscosity.
Aquifer a subsurface rock interval that will produce water; often the underlay of a petroleum reservoir.
Areal sweep efficiency the fraction of the flood pattern area that is effectively swept by the injected fluids.
Aromatic hydrocarbon a hydrocarbon characterized by the presence of an aromatic ring or condensed
aromatic rings; benzene and substituted benzene, naphthalene and substituted naphthalene,
phenanthrene and substituted phenanthrene, as well as the higher condensed ring systems;
compounds that are distinct from those of aliphatic compounds (q.v.) or alicyclic compounds
(q.v.).
Aromatization the conversion of nonaromatic hydrocarbons to aromatic hydrocarbons by: (1) rearrangement of aliphatic (noncyclic) hydrocarbons (q.v.) into aromatic ring structures; and
(2) dehydrogenation of alicyclic hydrocarbons (naphthenes).
Arosorb process a process for the separation of aromatics from nonaromatics by adsorption on a gel
from which they are recovered by desorption.
Asphalt the nonvolatile product obtained by distillation and treatment of an asphaltic crude oil; a
manufactured product.
Asphalt cement asphalt, especially prepared as to quality and consistency, for direct use in the manufacture of bituminous pavements.
Asphalt emulsion an emulsion of asphalt cement in water containing a small amount of emulsifying
agent.
Asphalt flux an oil used to reduce the consistency or viscosity of hard asphalt to the point required for
use.
Asphalt primer a liquid asphaltic material of low viscosity which, upon application to a nonbituminous
surface, waterproofs the surface and prepares it for further construction.
Asphaltene (asphaltenes) the brown to black powdery material produced by treatment of petroleum,
petroleum residua, or bituminous materials with a low-boiling liquid hydrocarbon, e.g., pentane
or heptane; soluble in benzene (and other aromatic solvents), carbon disulfide, and chloroform
(or other chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents).
Asphaltene association factor the number of individual asphaltene species which associate in nonpolar
solvents as measured by molecular weight methods; the molecular weight of asphaltenes in
toluene divided by the molecular weight in a polar nonassociating solvent, such as dichlorobenzene, pyridine, or nitrobenzene.
Asphaltic pyrobitumen see Asphaltoid.
Asphaltic road oil a thick, fluid solution of asphalt; usually a residual oil. See also Nonasphaltic road
oil.
Asphaltite a variety of naturally occurring, dark brown to black, solid, nonvolatile bituminous material
that is differentiated from bitumen, primarily by a high content of material insoluble in npentane (asphaltene) or other liquid hydrocarbons.Asphaltoid a group of brown to black, solid bituminous materials of which the members are differentiated from asphaltites by their infusibility and low solubility in carbon disulfide.
Asphaltum see Asphalt.
Associated molecular weight the molecular weight of asphaltenes in an associating (nonpolar) solvent,
such as toluene.
Atmospheric residuum a residuum (q.v.) obtained by distillation of a crude oil under atmospheric
pressure and which boils above 3508C (6608F).
Atmospheric equivalent boiling point (AEBP) a mathematical method of estimating the boiling point at
atmospheric pressure of nonvolatile fractions of petroleum.
Attainment area a geographical area that meets NAAQS criteria for air pollutants (see also Nonattainment area).
Attapulgus clay see Fuller’s earth.
Autofining a catalytic process for desulfurizing distillates.
Average particle size the weighted average particle diameter of a catalyst.
Aviation gasoline any of the special grades of gasoline suitable for use in certain airplane engines.
Aviation turbine fuel see Jet fuel.
Back mixing the phenomenon observed when a catalyst travels at a slower rate in the riser pipe than the
vapors.
BACT best available control technology.
Baghouse a filter system for the removal of particulate matter from gas streams; so called because of the
similarity of the filters to coal bags.
Bank the concentration of oil (oil bank) in a reservoir that moves cohesively through the reservoir.
Bari-Sol process a dewaxing process which employs a mixture of ethylene dichloride and benzol as the
solvent.
Barrel the unit of measurement of liquids in the petroleum industry; equivalent to 42 US standard
gallons or 33.6 imperial gallons.
Base number the quantity of acid, expressed in milligrams of potassium hydroxide per gram of sample
that is required to titrate a sample to a specified end-point.
Base stock a primary refined petroleum fraction into which other oils and additives are added (blended)
to produce the finished product.
Basic nitrogen nitrogen (in petroleum) which occurs in pyridine form
Basic sediment and water (bs&w, bsw) the material which collects at the bottom of storage tanks, usually
composed of oil, water, and foreign matter; also called bottoms, bottom settlings.
Battery a series of stills or other refinery equipment operated as a unit.
Baume´ gravity the specific gravity of liquids expressed as degrees on the Baume´ (8Be´) scale; for liquids
lighter than water:
Sp gr 60F ¼ 140=ð130 þ Be´Þ
For liquids heavier than water:
Sp gr 60F ¼ 145=ð145 Be´Þ
Bauxite mineral matter used as a treating agent; hydrated aluminum oxide formed by the chemical
weathering of igneous rock.
Bbl see Barrel.
Bell cap a hemispherical or triangular cover placed over the riser in a (distillation) tower to direct the
vapors through the liquid layer on the tray; see Bubble cap.
Bender process a chemical treating process using lead sulfide catalyst for sweetening light distillates by
which mercaptans are converted to disulfides by oxidation.
Bentonite montmorillonite (a magnesium–aluminum silicate); used as a treating agent.
Benzene a colorless aromatic liquid hydrocarbon (C6H6).
Benzin a refined light naphtha used for extraction purposes.
Benzine an obsolete term for light petroleum distillates covering the gasoline and naphtha range; see
Ligroine.Benzol the general term which refers to commercial or technical (not necessarily pure) benzene; also the
term used for aromatic naphtha.
Beta-scission the rupture of a carbon–carbon bond that is; two bonds removed from an aromatic ring.
Billion 1  109
Biocide any chemical capable of killing bacteria and biorganisms.
Biogenic material derived from bacterial or vegetation sources.
Biological lipid any biological fluid that is miscible with a nonpolar solvent. These materials include
waxes, essential oils, chlorophyll, etc.
Biological oxidation the oxidative consumption of organic matter by bacteria by which the organic
matter is converted into gases.
Biomass biological organic matter.
Biopolymer a high molecular weight carbohydrate produced by bacteria.
Bitumen a semisolid to solid hydrocarbonaceous material found filling pores and crevices of sandstone,
limestone, or argillaceous sediments.
Bituminous containing bitumen or constituting the source of bitumen.
Bituminous rock see Bituminous sand.
Bituminous sand a formation in which the bituminous material (see Bitumen) is found as a filling in veins
and fissures in fractured rock or impregnating relatively shallow sand, sandstone, and limestone
strata; a sandstone reservoir that is impregnated with a heavy, viscous black petroleum-like
material that cannot be retrieved through a well by conventional production techniques.
Black acid(s) a mixture of the sulfonates found in acid sludge which are insoluble in naphtha, benzene,
and carbon tetrachloride; very soluble in water, but insoluble in 30% sulfuric acid; in the dry, oilfree state, the sodium soaps are black powders.
Black oil any of the dark-colored oils; a term now often applied to heavy oil (q.v.).
Black soap see Black acid.
Black strap the black material (mainly lead sulfide) formed in the treatment of sour light oils with doctor
solution (q.v.) and found at the interface between the oil and the solution.
Blown asphalt the asphalt prepared by air blowing a residuum (q.v.) or an asphalt (q.v.).
Bogging a condition that occurs in a coking reactor when the conversion to coke and light ends is too
slow, causing the coke particles to agglomerate.
Boiling point a characteristic physical property of a liquid at which the vapor pressure is equal to that of
the atmosphere and the liquid is converted to a gas.
Boiling range the range of temperature, usually determined at atmospheric pressure in standard laboratory apparatus, over which the distillation of an oil commences, proceeds, and finishes.
Bottled gas usually butane or propane, or butane–propane mixtures, liquefied and stored under pressure
for domestic use; see also Liquefied petroleum gas.
Bottoms the liquid which collects at the bottom of a vessel (tower bottoms, tank bottoms) during
distillation; also the deposit or sediment formed during storage of petroleum or a petroleum
product; see also Residuum and Basic sediment and water.
Bright stock refined, high-viscosity lubricating oils, usually made from residual stocks by processes such
as a combination of acid treatment or solvent extraction with dewaxing or clay finishing.
British thermal unit see Btu.
Bromine number the number of grams of bromine absorbed by 100 g of oil which indicates the
percentage of double bonds in the material.
Brown acid oil-soluble petroleum sulfonates found in acid sludge which can be recovered by extraction
with naphtha solvent. Brown-acid sulfonates are somewhat similar to mahogany sulfonates, but
are more water-soluble. In the dry, oil-free state, the sodium soaps are light-colored powders.
Brown soap see Brown acid.
Brønsted acid a chemical species which can act as a source of protons.
Brønsted base a chemical species which can accept protons.
BS&W see Basic sediment and water.
BTEX benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and the xylene isomers.
Btu (British thermal unit) the energy required to raise the temperature of one pound of water by 18F.Bubble cap an inverted cup with a notched or slotted periphery to disperse the vapor in small bubbles
beneath the surface of the liquid on the bubble plate in a distillation tower.
Bubble plate a tray in a distillation tower.
Bubble point the temperature at which incipient vaporization of a liquid in a liquid mixture occurs,
corresponding with the equilibrium point of 0% vaporization or 100% condensation.
Bubble tower a fractionating tower so constructed that the vapors rising pass up through layers of
condensate on a series of plates or trays (see Bubble plate); the vapor passes from one plate to
the next above by bubbling under one or more caps (see Bubble cap) and out through the liquid
on the plate, where the less volatile portions of vapor condense, overflow to the next lower plate,
and ultimately back into the reboiler, thereby effecting fractionation.
Bubble tray a circular, perforated plates having the internal diameter of a bubble tower (q.v.), set at
specified distances in a tower to collect the various fractions produced during distillation.
Buckley–Leverett method a theoretical method of determining frontal advance rates and saturations
from a fractional flow curve.
Bumping the knocking against the walls of a still occurring during distillation of petroleum or a
petroleum product which usually contains water.
Bunker C oil see No. 6 Fuel oil.
Burner fuel oil any petroleum liquid suitable for combustion.
Burning oil an illuminating oil, such as kerosene (kerosine) suitable for burning in a wick lamp.
Burning point see Fire point.
Burning-quality index an empirical numerical indication of the likely burning performance of a furnace
or heater oil; derived from the distillation profile (q.v.) and the API gravity (q.v.), and generally
recognizing the factors of paraffin character and volatility.
Burton process a older thermal cracking process in which oil was cracked in a pressure still and any
condensation of the products of cracking also took place under pressure.
Butane dehydrogenation a process for removing hydrogen from butane to produce butenes and, on
occasion, butadiene.
Butane vapor-phase isomerization a process for isomerizing n-butane to iso-butane using aluminum
chloride catalyst on a granular alumina support and with hydrogen chloride as a promoter.
C1, C2, C3, C4, C5 fractions a common way of representing fractions containing a preponderance of
hydrocarbons having 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 carbon atoms, respectively, and without reference to
hydrocarbon type.
CAA Clean Air Act; this act is the foundation of air regulations in the United States
Calcining heating a metal oxide or an ore to decompose carbonates, hydrates, or other compounds often
in a controlled atmosphere.
Capillary forces interfacial forces between immiscible fluid phases, resulting in pressure differences
between the two phases.
Capillary number Nc, the ratio of viscous forces to capillary forces, and equal to viscosity times velocity
divided by interfacial tension.
Carbene the pentane- or heptane-insoluble material that is insoluble in benzene or toluene but which is
soluble in carbon disulfide (or pyridine); a type of rifle used for hunting bison.
Carboid the pentane- or heptane-insoluble material that is insoluble in benzene or toluene and which is
also insoluble in carbon disulfide (or pyridine).
Carbonate washing processing using a mild alkali (e.g., potassium carbonate) process for emission
control by the removal of acid gases from gas streams.
Carbon dioxide augmented waterflooding injection of carbonated water, or water and carbon dioxide, to
increase water flood efficiency; see immiscible carbon dioxide displacement.
Carbon dioxide miscible flooding see EOR process.
Carbon-forming propensity see Carbon residue.
Carbonization the conversion of an organic compound into char or coke by heat in the substantial
absence of air; often used in reference to the destructive distillation (with simultaneous removal
of distillate) of coal.
Carbon–oxygen log information about the relative abundance of elements such as carbon, oxygen,
silicon, and calcium in a formation; usually derived from pulsed neutron equipment.Carbon rejection upgrading processes in which coke is produced, e.g., coking.
Carbon residue the amount of carbonaceous residue remaining after thermal decomposition of petroleum, a petroleum fraction, or a petroleum product in a limited amount of air; also called the
coke- or carbon-forming propensity; often prefixed by the terms Conradson or Ramsbottom in
reference to the inventor of the respective tests.
CAS Chemical Abstract Service.
Cascade tray a fractionating device consisting of a series of parallel troughs arranged in stair-step
fashion, in which liquid from the tray above enters the uppermost trough and liquid thrown
from this trough by vapor rising from the tray below impinges against a plate and a perforated
baffle, and liquid passing through the baffle enters the next longer of the troughs.
Casinghead gas natural gas which issues from the casinghead (the mouth or opening) of an oil well.
Casinghead gasoline the liquid hydrocarbon product extracted from casinghead gas (q.v.) by one of three
methods: compression, absorption, or refrigeration; see also Natural gasoline.
Catagenesis the alteration of organic matter during the formation of petroleum that may involve
temperatures in the range of 508C (1208F) to 2008C (3908F); see also Diagenesis and Metagenesis.
Catalyst a chemical agent which, when added to a reaction (process) will enhance the conversion of a
feedstock without consumed in the process.
Catalyst selectivity the relative activity of a catalyst with respect to a particular compound in a mixture,
or the relative rate in competing reactions of a single reactant.
Catalyst stripping the introduction of steam, at a point where spent catalyst leaves the reactor, in order
to strip, i.e., remove, deposits retained on the catalyst.
Catalytic activity the ratio of the space velocity of the catalyst under test to the space velocity required
for the standard catalyst to give the same conversion as the catalyst being tested; usually
multiplied by 100 before being reported.
Catalytic cracking the conversion of high-boiling feedstocks into lower boiling products by means of a
catalyst which may be used in a fixed bed (q.v.) or fluid bed (q.v.).
Cat cracking see Catalytic cracking.
Catalytic reforming rearranging hydrocarbon molecules in a gasoline-boiling-range feedstock to produce
other hydrocarbons having a higher antiknock quality; isomerization of paraffins, cyclization of
paraffins to naphthenes (q.v.), dehydrocyclization of paraffins to aromatics (q.v.).
Catforming a process for reforming naphtha using a platinum–silica–alumina catalyst which permits
relatively high space velocities and results in the production of high-purity hydrogen.
Caustic consumption the amount of caustic lost from reacting chemically with the minerals in the rock,
the oil, and the brine.
Chemical flooding see EOR process.
Caustic wash the process of treating a product with a solution of caustic soda to remove minor
impurities; often used in reference to the solution itself.
Ceresin a hard, brittle wax obtained by purifying ozokerite; see Microcrystalline wax and Ozokerite.
Cetane index an approximation of the cetane number (q.v.) calculated from the density (q.v.) and
midboiling point temperature (q.v.); see also Diesel index.
Cetane number a number indicating the ignition quality of diesel fuel; a high cetane number represents a
short ignition delay time; the ignition quality of diesel fuel can also be estimated from the
following formula:
Diesel index ¼ ðaniline point ðFÞ  API gravityÞ100
CFR Code of Federal Regulations; Title 40 (40 CFR) contains the regulations for protection of the
environment.
Characterization factor the UOP characterization factor K, defined as the ratio of the cube root of the
molal average boiling point, TB, in degrees Rankine (8R ¼ 8F þ 460), to the specific gravity at
608F=608F:
K ¼ ðTBÞ1=3=sp grThe value ranges from 12.5 for paraffin stocks to 10.0 for the highly aromatic stocks; also called
the Watson characterization factor.
Cheesebox still an early type of vertical cylindrical still designed with a vapor dome.
Chelating agents complex-forming agents with the ability to solubilize heavy metals.
Chemical flooding see EOR process.
Chemical octane number the octane number added to gasoline by refinery processes or by the use of
octane number (q.v.) improvers, such as tetraethyl lead.
Chemical waste any solid, liquid, or gaseous material discharged from a process and that may pose
substantial hazards to human health and environment.
Chlorex process a process for extracting lubricating-oil stocks in which the solvent used is Chlorex
(b–b-dichlorodiethyl ether).
Chromatographic adsorption selective adsorption on materials such as activated carbon, alumina, or
silica gel; liquid or gaseous mixtures of hydrocarbons are passed through the adsorbent in a
stream of diluent, and certain components are preferentially adsorbed.
Chromatographic separation the separation of different species of compounds according to their size and
interaction with the rock as they flow through a porous medium.
Chromatography a method of separation based on selective adsorption; see also Chromatographic
adsorption.
Clarified oil the heavy oil which has been taken from the bottom of a fractionator in a catalytic cracking
process and from which residual catalyst has been removed.
Clarifier equipment for removing the color or cloudiness of an oil or water by separating the foreign
material through mechanical or chemical means; may involve centrifugal action, filtration,
heating, or treatment with acid or alkali.
Clay silicate minerals that also usually contain aluminum and have particle sizes less than 0.002 micron;
used in separation methods as an adsorbent and in refining as a catalyst.
Clay contact process see Contact filtration.
Clay refining a treating process in which vaporized gasoline or any other light petroleum product is
passed through a bed of granular clay, such as Fuller’s earth (q.v.).
Clay regeneration a process in which spent coarse-grained adsorbent clays from percolation processes
are cleaned for reuse by deoiling them with naphtha, steaming out the excess naphtha, and then
roasting in a stream of air to remove carbonaceous matter.
Clay treating see Gray clay treating.
Clay wash light oil, such as kerosene (kerosine) or naphtha, used to clean Fuller’s earth after it has been
used in a filter.
Clastic composed of pieces of preexisting rock.
Cleanup a preparatory step following extraction of a sample media designed to remove components that
may interfere with subsequent analytical measurements.
Cloud point the temperature at which paraffin wax or other solid substances begin to crystallize or
separate from the solution, imparting a cloudy appearance to the oil when the oil is chilled under
prescribed conditions.
Coal an organic rock.
Coalescence the union of two or more droplets to form a larger droplet and, ultimately, a continuous phase.
Coal tar the specific name for the tar (q.v.) produced from coal.
Coal tar pitch the specific name for the pitch (q.v.) produced from coal.
COFCAW an enhanced oil recovery (EOR) process (q.v.) that combines forward combustion and water
flooding.
Cogeneration an energy conversion method by which electrical energy is produced along with steam
generated for EOR use.
Coke a gray to black solid carbonaceous material produced from petroleum during thermal processing;
characterized by having a high carbon content (95%þ by weight) and a honeycomb type of
appearance; it is insoluble in organic solvents.
Coke drum a vessel in which coke is formed and which can be isolated from the process for cleaning.
Coke number used, particularly in Great Britain, to report the results of the Ramsbottom carbon residue
test (q.v.), which is also referred to as a coke test.Coker the processing unit in which coking takes place.
Coking a process for the thermal conversion of petroleum in which gaseous, liquid, and solid (coke)
products are formed.
Cold pressing the process of separating wax from oil by first chilling (to help form wax crystals) and then
filtering under pressure in a plate and frame press.
Cold settling processing for the removal of wax from high-viscosity stocks, wherein a naphtha solution
of the waxy oil is chilled and the wax crystallizes out of the solution.
Color stability the resistance of a petroleum product to color change due to light, aging, etc.
Combustible liquid a liquid with a flash point in excess of 37.88C (1008F), but below 93.38C (2008F).
Combustion zone the volume of reservoir rock wherein petroleum is undergoing combustion during
enhanced oil recovery.
Composition the general chemical make-up of petroleum.
Completion interval the portion of the reservoir formation placed in fluid communication with the well
by selectively perforating the wellbore casing.
Composition map a means of illustrating the chemical make-up of petroleum using chemical and physical
property data.
Con Carbon see Carbon residue.
Condensate a mixture of light hydrocarbon liquids obtained by condensation of hydrocarbon vapors:
predominately butane, propane, and pentane with some heavier hydrocarbons and relatively
little methane or ethane; see also Natural gas liquids.
Conductivity a measure of the ease of flow through a fracture, perforation, or pipe.
Conformance the uniformity with which a volume of the reservoir is swept by injection fluids in area and
vertical directions.
Conradson carbon residue see Carbon residue.
Contact filtration a process in which finely divided adsorbent clay is used to remove color bodies from
petroleum products.
Contaminant a substance that causes deviation from the normal composition of an environment.
Continuous contact coking a thermal conversion process in which petroleum-wetted coke particles move
downward into the reactor in which cracking, coking, and drying take place to produce coke,
gas, gasoline, and gas oil.
Continuous contact filtration a process to finish lubricants, waxes, or special oils after acid treating,
solvent extraction, or distillation.
Conventional recovery primary and secondary recovery.
Conversion the thermal treatment of petroleum which results in the formation of new products by the
alteration of the original constituents.
Conversion cost the cost of changing a production well to an injection well, or some other change in the
function of an oilfield installation.
Conversion factor the percentage of feedstock converted to light ends, gasoline, other liquid fuels, and
coke.
Copper sweetening processes involving the oxidation of mercaptans to disulfides by oxygen in the
presence of cupric chloride.
Core floods laboratory flow tests through samples (cores) of porous rock.
Co-surfactant a chemical compound, typically alcohol, that enhances the effectiveness of a surfactant.
Cp (centipoise) a unit of viscosity.
Craig–Geffen–Morse method a method for predicting oil recovery by water flood.
Cracked residua residua that have been subjected to temperatures above 3508C (6608F) during the
distillation process.
Cracking the thermal processes by which the constituents of petroleum are converted to lower molecular
weight products.
Cracking activity see Catalytic activity.
Cracking coil equipment used for cracking heavy petroleum products consisting of a coil of heavy pipe
running through a furnace, so that the oil passing through it is subject to high temperature.
Cracking still the combined equipment-furnace, reaction chamber, fractionator for the thermal conversion of heavier feedstocks to lighter products.Cracking temperature the temperature (3508C; 6608F) at which the rate of thermal decomposition of
petroleum constituents becomes significant.
Criteria air pollutants air pollutants or classes of pollutants regulated by the Environmental Protection
Agency; the air pollutants are (including Volatile organic compounds): ozone, carbon monoxide, particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and lead.
Cross-linking combining of two or polymer molecules by use of a chemical that mutually bonds with a
part of the chemical structure of the polymer molecules.
Crude assay a procedure for determining the general distillation characteristics (e.g., distillation profile,
q.v.) and other quality information of crude oil.
Crude oil see Petroleum.
Crude scale wax the wax product from the first sweating of the slack wax.
Crude still distillation (q.v.) equipment in which crude oil is separated into various products.
Cumene a colorless liquid [C6H5CH(CH3)2] used as an aviation gasoline blending component and as an
intermediate in the manufacture of chemicals.
Cut point the boiling-temperature division between distillation fractions of petroleum.
Cutback the term applied to the products from blending heavier feedstocks or products with lighter oils
to bring the heavier materials to the desired specifications.
Cutback asphalt asphalt liquefied by the addition of a volatile liquid such as naphtha or kerosene which,
after application and on exposure to the atmosphere, evaporates leaving the asphalt.
Cutting oil an oil to lubricate and cool metal-cutting tools; also called cutting fluid, cutting lubricant.
Cycle stock the product taken from some later stage of a process and recharged (recycled) to the process
at some earlier stage.
Cyclic steam injection the alternating injection of steam and the production of oil from the same well or wells.
Cyclization the process by which an open-chain hydrocarbon structure is converted to a ring structure,
e.g., hexane to benzene.
Cyclone adevicefor extractingdustfromindustrialwastegases.Itisintheformofaninverted coneintowhich
the contaminated gas enterstangential fromthe top; the gas ispropelled down a helical pathway, and
the dust particles are deposited by means of centrifugal force onto the wall of the scrubber.
Deactivation reduction in catalyst activity by the deposition of contaminants (e.g., coke, metals) during a
process.
Dealkylation the removal of an alkyl group from aromatic compounds.
Deasphaltened oil the fraction of petroleum after the asphaltene constituents have been removed.
Deasphaltening removal of a solid powdery asphaltene fraction from petroleum by the addition of the
low-boiling liquid hydrocarbons such as n-pentane or n-heptane under ambient conditions.
Deasphalting the removal of the asphaltene fraction from petroleum by the addition of a low-boiling
hydrocarbon liquid such as n-pentane or n-heptane; more correctly, the removal of asphalt
(tacky, semisolid) from petroleum (as occurs in a refinery asphalt plant), by the addition of
liquid propane or liquid butane under pressure.
Debutanization distillation to separate butane and lighter components from higher boiling components.
Decant oil the highest boiling product from a catalytic cracker; also referred to as slurry oil, clarified oil,
or bottoms.
Decarbonizing a thermal conversion process designed to maximize coker gas–oil production and minimize coke and gasoline yields; operated at essentially lower temperatures and pressures than
delayed coking (q.v.).
Decoking removal of petroleum coke from equipment such as coking drums; hydraulic decoking uses
high-velocity water streams.
Decolorizing removal of suspended, colloidal, and dissolved impurities from liquid petroleum products
by filtering, adsorption, chemical treatment, distillation, bleaching, etc.
Deethanization distillation to separate ethane and lighter components from propane and higher-boiling
components; also called deethanation.
Degradation the loss of desirable physical properties of EOR fluids, e.g., the loss of viscosity of polymer
solutions.
Dehydrating agents substances capable of removing water (drying, q.v.) or the elements of water from
another substance.Dehydrocyclization any process by which both dehydrogenation and cyclization reactions occur.
Dehydrogenation the removal of hydrogen from a chemical compound; for example, the removal of two
hydrogen atoms from butane to make butene, as well as the removal of additional hydrogen to
produce butadiene.
Delayed coking a coking process in which the thermal reactions are allowed to proceed to completion to
produce gaseous, liquid, and solid (coke) products.
Demethanization the process of distillation in which methane is separated from the higher boiling
components; also called demethanation.
Density the mass (or weight) of a unit volume of any substance at a specified temperature; see also
Specific gravity.
Deoiling reduction in quantity of liquid oil entrained in solid wax by draining (sweating) or by a selective
solvent; see MEK deoiling.
Depentanizer a fractionating column for the removal of pentane and lighter fractions from a mixture of
hydrocarbons.
Depropanization distillation in which lighter components are separated from butanes and higher boiling
material; also called depropanation.
Desalting removal of mineral salts (mostly chlorides) from crude oils.
Desorption the reverse process of adsorption whereby adsorbed matter is removed from the adsorbent;
also used as the reverse of absorption (q.v.).
Desulfurization the removal of sulfur or sulfur compounds from a feedstock.
Detergent oil lubricating oil possessing special sludge-dispersing properties for use in internal-combustion engines.
Dewaxing see Solvent dewaxing.
Devolatilized fuel smokeless fuel; coke that has been reheated to remove all of the volatile material.
Diagenesis the concurrent and consecutive chemical reactions which commence the alteration of organic
matter (at temperatures up to 508C (1208F) and ultimately result in the formation of petroleum
from the marine sediment; see also Catagenesis and Metagenesis.
Diagenetic rock rock formed by conversion through pressure or chemical reaction from a rock, e.g.,
sandstone is a diagenetic.
Diesel fuel fuel used for internal combustion in diesel engines; usually that fraction which distills after
kerosene.
Diesel cycle a repeated succession of operations representing the idealized working behavior of the fluids
in a diesel engine.
Diesel index an approximation of the cetane number (q.v.) of diesel fuel (q.v.) calculated from the density
(q.v.) and aniline point (q.v.).
Diesel knock the result of a delayed period of ignition of diesel fuel in the engine.
Differential-strain analysis measurement of thermal stress relaxation in a recently cut well.
Dispersion a measure of the convective fluids due to flow in a reservoir.
Displacement efficiency the ratio of the amount of oil moved from the zone swept by the recovery
process to the amount of oil present in the zone prior to the start of the process.
Distribution coefficient a coefficient that describes the distribution of a chemical in reservoir fluids,
usually defined as the equilibrium concentrations in the aqueous phases.
Distillation a process for separating liquids with different boiling points.
Distillation curve see Distillation profile.
Distillation loss the difference, in a laboratory distillation, between the volume of liquid originally
introduced into the distilling flask and the sum of the residue and the condensate recovered.
Distillation range the difference between the temperature at the initial boiling point and at the end point,
as obtained by the distillation test.
Distillation profile the distillation characteristics of petroleum or petroleum products showing the
temperature and the percent distilled.
Doctor solution a solution of sodium plumbite used to treat gasoline or other light petroleum distillates
to remove mercaptan sulfur; see also Doctor test.
Doctor sweetening a process for sweetening gasoline, solvents, and kerosene by converting mercaptans to
disulfides using sodium plumbite and sulfur.Doctor test a test used for the detection of compounds in light petroleum distillates which react with
sodium plumbite; see also Doctor solution.
Domestic heating oil see No. 2 Fuel Oil.
Donor solvent process a conversion process in which hydrogen donor solvent is used in place of or to
augment hydrogen.
Downcomer a means of conveying liquid from one tray to the next below in a bubble tray column (q.v.).
Downhole steam generator a generator installed downhole in an oil well to which oxygen-rich air, fuel,
and water are supplied for the purposes of generating steam into the reservoir. Its major
advantage over a surface steam generating facility is the losses to the wellbore and surrounding
formation are eliminated.
Drying removal of a solvent or water from a chemical substance; also referred to as the removal of
solvent from a liquid or suspension.
Dropping point the temperature at which grease passes from a semisolid to a liquid state under prescribed
conditions.
Dry gas a gas which does not contain fractions that may easily condense under normal atmospheric
conditions.
Dry point the temperature at which the last drop of petroleum fluid evaporates in a distillation test.
Dualayer distillate process a process for removing mercaptans and oxygenated compounds from distillate fuel oils and similar products, using a combination of treatment with concentrated caustic
solution and electrical precipitation of the impurities.
Dualayer gasoline process a process for extracting mercaptans and other objectionable acidic compounds
from petroleum distillates; see also Dualayer solution.
Dualayer solution a solution which consists of concentrated potassium or sodium hydroxide containing a
solubilizer; see also Dualayer gasoline process.
Dubbs cracking an older continuous, liquid-phase thermal cracking process, formerly used.
Dykstra–Parsons coefficient an index of reservoir heterogeneity arising from permeability variation and
stratification.
Emulated bed a process in which the catalyst bed is in a suspended state in the reactor by means of a
feedstock recirculation pump, which pumps the feedstock upwards at sufficient speed to expand
the catalyst bed, at approximately 35% above the settled level.
Edeleanu process a process for refining oils at low temperature with liquid sulfur dioxide (SO2), or with
liquid sulfur dioxide and benzene; applicable to the recovery of aromatic concentrates from
naphtha and heavier petroleum distillates.
Effective viscosity see Apparent viscosity.
Effluent any contaminating substance, usually a liquid, which enters the environment via a domestic
industrial, agricultural, or sewage plant outlet.
Electric desalting a continuous process to remove inorganic salts and other impurities from crude oil by
settling out in an electrostatic field.
Electrical precipitation a process using an electrical field to improve the separation of hydrocarbon
reagent dispersions. May be used in chemical treating processes on a wide variety of refinery
stocks.
Electrofining a process for contacting a light hydrocarbon stream with a treating agent (acid, caustic,
doctor, etc.), then assisting the action of separation of the chemical phase from the hydrocarbon
phase by an electrostatic field.
Electrolytic mercaptan process a process in which aqueous caustic solution is used to extract mercaptans
from refinery streams.
Electrostatic precipitators devices used to trap fine dust particles (usually in the size range 30–60 microns)
that operate on the principle of imparting an electric charge to particles in an incoming air stream
and which are then collected on an oppositely charged plate across a high voltage field.
Eluate the solutes, or analytes, moved through a chromatographic column (see elution).
Eluent solvent used to elute sample.
Elution a process whereby a solute is moved through a chromatographic column by a solvent (liquid or
gas) or eluent.
Emission control the use gas cleaning processes to reduce emissions.Emission standard the maximum amount of a specific pollutant permitted to be discharged from a
particular source in a given environment.
Emulsion a dispersion of very small drops of one liquid in an immiscible liquid, such as oil in water.
Emulsion breaking the settling or aggregation of colloidal-sized emulsions from suspension in a liquid
medium.
End-of-pipe emission control the use of specific emission control processes to clean gases after production
of the gases.
Energy the capacity of a body or system to do work, measured in joules (SI units); also the output of fuel
sources.
Energy from biomass the production of energy from biomass (q.v.).
Engler distillation a standard test for determining the volatility characteristics of a gasoline by measuring
the percent distilled at various specified temperatures.
Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) petroleum recovery following recovery by conventional (i.e., primary and
secondary) methods (q.v.).
Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) process a method for recovering additional oil from a petroleum reservoir
beyond that economically recoverable by conventional primary and secondary recovery
methods. EOR methods are usually divided into three main categories: (1) chemical flooding:
injection of water with added chemicals into a petroleum reservoir. The chemical processes
include: surfactant flooding, polymer flooding, and alkaline flooding, (2) miscible flooding:
injection into a petroleum reservoir of a material that is miscible, or can become miscible,
with the oil in the reservoir. Carbon dioxide, hydrocarbons, and nitrogen are used, (3) thermal
recovery: injection of steam into a petroleum reservoir, or propagation of a combustion zone
through a reservoir by air or oxygen-enriched air injection. The thermal processes include: steam
drive, cyclic steam injection, and in situ combustion.
Entrained bed a bed of solid particles suspended in a fluid (liquid or gas) at such a rate that some of the
solid is carried over (entrained) by the fluid.
EPA Environmental Protection Agency.
Ester a compound formed by the reaction between an organic acid and an alcohol; ethoxylated alcohols
(i.e., alcohols having ethylene oxide functional groups attached to the alcohol molecule).
Ethanol see Ethyl alcohol.
Ethyl alcohol (ethanol or grain alcohol): an inflammable organic compound (C2H5OH) formed during
fermentation of sugars; used as an intoxicant and as a fuel.
Evaporation a process for concentrating nonvolatile solids in a solution by boiling off the liquid portion
of the waste stream.
Expanding clays clays that expand or swell on contact with water, e.g., montmorillonite.
Explosive limits the limits of percentage composition of mixtures of gases and air within which an
explosion takes place when the mixture is ignited.
Extract the portion of a sample preferentially dissolved by the solvent and recovered by physically
separating the solvent.
Extractive distillation the separation of different components of mixtures which have similar vapor
pressures by flowing a relatively high-boiling solvent, which is selective for one of the components in the feed, down a distillation column as the distillation proceeds; the selective solvent
scrubs the soluble component from the vapor.
Fabric filters filters made from fabric materials and used for removing particulate matter from gas
streams (see Baghouse).
Facies one or more layers of rock that differs from other layers in composition, age or content.
FAST Fracture assisted steamflood technology.
Fat oil the bottom or enriched oil drawn from the absorber as opposed to lean oil.
Faujasite a naturally occurring silica–alumina (SiO2–Al2O3) mineral.
FCC fluid catalytic cracking.
FCCU fluid catalytic cracking unit.
Feedstock petroleum as it is fed to the refinery; a refinery product that is used as the raw material for
another process; the term is also generally applied to raw materials used in other industrial
processes.Ferrocyanide process a regenerative chemical treatment for mercaptan removal, using caustic-sodium
ferrocyanide reagent.
Field-scale the application of EOR processes to a significant portion of a field.
Filtration the use of an impassable barrier to collect solids but which allows liquids to pass.
Fingering the formation of finger-shaped irregularities at the leading edge of a displacing fluid in a
porous medium, which move out ahead of the main body of fluid.
Fire point the lowest temperature at which, under specified conditions in standardized apparatus, a
petroleum product vaporizes sufficiently rapidly to form above its surface an air–vapor mixture
which burns continuously when ignited by a small flame.
First contact miscibility see miscibility.
Fischer–Tropsch process a process for synthesizing hydrocarbons and oxygenated chemicals from a
mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide.
Fixed bed a stationary bed (of catalyst) to accomplish a process (see Fluid bed).
Five-spot an arrangement or pattern of wells with four injection wells at the corners of a square and a
producing well in the center of the square.
Flammability range the range of temperature over which a chemical is flammable.
Flammable a substance that will burn readily.
Flammable liquid a liquid having a flash point below 37.88C (1008F).
Flammable solid a solid that can ignite from friction or from heat remaining from its manufacture, or
which may cause a serious hazard if ignited.
Flash point the lowest temperature to which the product must be heated under specified conditions
to give off sufficient vapor to form a mixture with air that can be ignited momentarily by
a flame.
Flocculation threshold the point at which constituents of a solution (e.g., asphaltene constituents or coke
precursors) will separate from the solution as a separate (solid) phase.
Floc point the temperature at which wax or solids separate as a definite floc.
Flood, flooding the process of displacing petroleum from a reservoir by the injection of fluids.
Flexicoking a modification of the fluid coking process insofar as the process also includes a gasifier
adjoining the burner or regenerator to convert excess coke to a clean fuel gas.
Flue gases the gaseous products of the combustion process mostly comprised of carbon dioxide,
nitrogen, and water vapor.
Flue gas gas from the combustion of fuel, the heating value of which has been substantially spent and
which is, therefore, discarded to the flue or stack.
Fluid a reservoir gas or liquid.
Fluid-bed a bed (of catalyst) that is agitated by an upward passing gas in such a manner that the particles
of the bed simulate the movement of a fluid and has the characteristics associated with a true
liquid; cf. Fixed bed.
Fluid catalytic cracking cracking in the presence of a fluidized bed of catalyst.
Fluid coking a continuous fluidized solids process that cracks feed thermally over heated coke particles in
a reactor vessel to gas, liquid products, and coke.
Fluidized bed combustion a process used to burn low-quality solid fuels in a bed of small particles
suspended by a gas stream (usually air that will lift the particles, but not blow them out of the
vessel). Rapid burning removes some of the offensive byproducts of combustion from the gases
and vapors that result from the combustion process.
Fly ash particulate matter produced from mineral matter in coal that is converted during combustion to finely divided inorganic material and which emerges from the combustor in the
gases.
Foots oil the oil sweated out of slack wax; named from the fact that the oil goes to the foot, or bottom, of
the pan during the sweating operation.
Formation an interval of rock with distinguishable geologic characteristics.
Formation volume factor the volume in a barrel that one stock tank barrel occupies in the formation at
reservoir temperature, and with the solution gas that is held in the oil at reservoir pressure.Fossil fuel resources a gaseous, liquid, or solid fuel material formed in the ground by chemical and
physical changes (diagenesis, q.v.) in plant and animal residues over geological time; natural gas,
petroleum, coal, and oil shale.
Fractional composition the composition of petroleum as determined by fractionation (separation)
methods.
Fractional distillation the separation of the components of a liquid mixture by vaporizing and collecting
the fractions, or cuts, which condense in different temperature ranges.
Fractional flow the ratio of the volumetric flow rate of one fluid phase to the total fluid volumetric flow
rate within a volume of rock.
Fractional flow curve the relationship between the fractional flow of one fluid and its saturator during
simultaneous flow of fluids through rock.
Fracture a natural or man-made crack in a reservoir rock.
Fracturing the breaking apart of reservoir rock by applying very high fluid pressure at the rock face.
Fractionating column a column arranged to separate various fractions of petroleum by a single distillation and which may be tapped at different points along its length to separate various fractions in
the order of their boiling points.
Fractionation the separation of petroleum into the constituent fractions using solvent or adsorbent
methods; chemical agents such as sulfuric acid may also be used.
Frasch process a process formerly used for removing sulfur by distilling oil in the presence of copper
oxide.
Fuel oil also called heating oil is a distillate product that covers a wide range of properties; see also No. 1–
No. 4 Fuel oils.
Fuller’s earth a clay which has high adsorptive capacity for removing color from oils; attapulgus clay is a
widely used Fuller’s earth.
Functional group the portion of a molecule that is characteristic of a family of compounds and
determines the properties of these compounds.
Furfural extraction a single-solvent process in which furfural is used to remove aromatic, naphthene,
olefin, and unstable hydrocarbons from a lubricating-oil charge stock.
Furnace oil a distillate fuel primarily intended for use in domestic heating equipment.
Gas cap a part of a hydrocarbon reservoir at the top that will produce only gas.
Gas–oil ratio ratio of the number of cubic feet of gas measured at atmospheric (standard) conditions to
barrels of produced oil measured at stocktank conditions.
Gas–oil sulfonate sulfonate made from a specific refinery stream, in this case the gas–oil stream.
Gasoline fuel for the internal combustion engine that is commonly, but improperly, referred to simply as
gas.
Gaseous pollutants gases released into the atmosphere that act as primary or secondary pollutants.
Gasohol a term for motor vehicle fuel comprising between 80%–90% unleaded gasoline and 10%–20%
ethanol (see also Ethyl alcohol).
Gas oil a petroleum distillate with a viscosity and boiling range between those of kerosine and
lubricating oil.
Gas reversion a combination of thermal cracking or reforming of naphtha with thermal polymerization
or alkylation of hydrocarbon gases carried out in the same reaction zone.
Gilsonite an asphaltite that is >90% bitumen.
Girbotol process a continuous, regenerative process to separate hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and
other acid impurities from natural gas, refinery gas, etc., using mono-, di-, or triethanolamine as
the reagent.
Glance pitch an asphaltite.
Glycol-amine gas treating a continuous, regenerative process to simultaneously dehydrate and remove
acid gases from natural gas or refinery gas.
Grahamite an asphaltite.
Gravity see API gravity.
Gravity drainage the movement of oil in a reservoir that results from the force of gravity.
Gravity segregation partial separation of fluids in a reservoir caused by the gravity force acting on
differences in density.Gravity-stable displacement the displacement of oil from a reservoir by a fluid of a different density,
where the density difference is utilized to prevent gravity segregation of the injected fluid.
Gray clay treating a fixed-bed (q.v.), usually Fuller’s earth (q.v.), vapor-phase treating process to
selectively polymerize unsaturated gum-forming constituents (diolefins) in thermally cracked
gasoline.
Grain alcohol see Ethyl alcohol.
Gravimetric methods used to weigh a residue.
Gravity drainage the movement of oil in a reservoir that results from the force of gravity.
Gravity segregation partial separation of fluids in a reservoir caused by the gravity force acting on
differences in density.
Greenhouse effect warming of the earth due to entrapment of the sun’s energy by the atmosphere.
Greenhouse gases gases that contribute to the greenhouse effect (q.v.).
Guard bed a bed of an adsorbent (such as, for example, bauxite) that protects a catalyst bed by adsorbing
species detrimental to the catalyst.
Gulf HDS process a fixed-bed process for the catalytic hydrocracking of heavy stocks to lower-boiling
distillates with accompanying desulfurization.
Gulfining a catalytic hydrogen treating process for cracked and straight-run distillates and fuel oils, to
reduce sulfur content; improve carbon residue, color, and general stability; and effect a slight
increase in gravity.
Gum an insoluble tacky semisolid material formed as a result of the storage instability and the thermal
instability of petroleum and petroleum products.
HAP(s) hazardous air pollutant or pollutants.
Hardness the concentration of calcium and magnesium in brine.
HCPV hydrocarbon pore volume.
Hearn method a method used in reservoir simulation for calculating a pseudorelative permeability curve
that reflects reservoir stratification.
Headspace the vapor space above a sample into which volatile molecules evaporate. Certain methods
sample this vapor.
Heating oil see Fuel oil.
Heavy ends the highest boiling portion of a petroleum fraction; see also Light ends.
Heavy fuel oil fuel oil with a high density and viscosity; generally residual fuel oil such as No. 5 and No 6.
fuel oil (q.v.)
Heavy oil petroleum with an API gravity of less than 208.
Heavy petroleum see Heavy oil.
Heteroatom compounds chemical compounds which contain nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, and metals bound
within their molecular structure or structures.
Heterogeneity lack of uniformity in reservoir properties, such as permeability.
HF alkylation an alkylation process whereby olefins (C3, C4, C5) are combined with iso-butane in the
presence of hydrofluoric acid catalyst.
Higgins–Leighton model stream tube computer model used to simulate waterflood.
Hortonsphere a spherical pressure-type tank used to store a volatile liquid which prevents the excessive
evaporation loss that occurs when such products are placed in conventional storage tanks.
Hot filtration test a test for the stability of a petroleum product.
Hot spot an area of a vessel or line wall appreciably above normal operating temperature, usually as a
result of the deterioration of an internal insulating liner which exposes the line or vessel shell to
the temperature of its contents.
Houdresid catalytic cracking a continuous moving-bed process for catalytically cracking reduced crude
oil to produce high-octane gasoline and light distillate fuels.
Houdriflow catalytic cracking a continuous moving-bed catalytic cracking process employing an integrated single vessel for the reactor and regenerator kiln.
Houdriforming a continuous catalytic reforming process for producing aromatic concentrates and highoctane gasoline from low-octane straight naphtha.
Houdry butane dehydrogenation a catalytic process for dehydrogenating light hydrocarbons to their
corresponding mono- or di-olefins.Houdry fixed-bed catalytic cracking a cyclic regenerable process for cracking of distillates.
Houdry hydrocracking a catalytic process combining cracking and desulfurization in the presence of
hydrogen.
Huff-and-puff a cyclic EOR method in which steam or gas is injected into a production well; after a short
shut-in period, oil and the injected fluid are produced through the same well.
Hydration the association of molecules of water with a substance.
Hydraulic fracturing the opening of fractures in a reservoir by high-pressure, high-volume injection of
liquids through an injection well.
Hydrocarbon compounds chemical compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen.
Hydrocarbon-producing resource a resource such as coal and oil shale (kerogen) which produces derived
hydrocarbons by the application of conversion processes; the hydrocarbons so-produced are not
naturally occurring materials.
Hydrocarbon resource resources such as petroleum and natural gas which can produce naturally
occurring hydrocarbons without the application of conversion processes.
Hydrocarbons organic compounds containing only hydrogen and carbon.
Hydrolysis a chemical reaction in which water reacts with another substance to form one or more new
substances.
Hydroconversion a term often applied to hydrocracking (q.v.)
Hydrocracking a catalytic high-pressure high-temperature process for the conversion of petroleum
feedstocks in the presence of fresh and recycled hydrogen; carbon–carbon bonds are cleaved,
in addition to the removal of heteroatomic species.
Hydrocracking catalyst a catalyst used for hydrocracking which typically contains separate hydrogenation and cracking functions.
Hydrodenitrogenation the removal of nitrogen by hydrotreating (q.v.).
Hydrodesulfurization the removal of sulfur by hydrotreating (q.v.).
Hydrofining a fixed-bed catalytic process to desulfurize and hydrogenate a wide range of charge stocks
from gases through waxes.
Hydroforming a process in which naphtha is passed over a catalyst at elevated temperatures and
moderate pressures, in the presence of added hydrogen or hydrogen-containing gases, to form
high-octane motor fuel or aromatics.
Hydrogen blistering blistering of steel caused by trapped molecular hydrogen, formed as atomic hydrogen, during corrosion of steel by hydrogen sulfide.
Hydrogen addition an upgrading process in the presence of hydrogen, e.g., hydrocracking; see Hydrogenation.
Hydrogenation the chemical addition of hydrogen to a material. In nondestructive hydrogenation, hydrogen
is added to a molecule only if, and where, unsaturation with respect to hydrogen exists.
Hydrogen transfer the transfer of inherent hydrogen within the feedstock constituents and products
during processing.
Hydroprocessing a term often equally applied to hydrotreating (q.v.) and to hydrocracking (q.v.); also
often collectively applied to both.
Hydrotreating the removal of heteroatomic (nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur) species by treatment of a
feedstock or product at relatively low temperatures in the presence of hydrogen.
Hydrovisbreaking a noncatalytic process, conducted under similar conditions to visbreaking, which
involves treatment with hydrogen to reduce the viscosity of the feedstock and produce more
stable products than is possible with visbreaking.
Hydropyrolysis a short residence time high temperature process using hydrogen.
Hyperforming a catalytic hydrogenation process for improving the octane number of naphtha through
removal of sulfur and nitrogen compounds.
Hypochlorite sweetening the oxidation of mercaptans in a sour stock by agitation with aqueous, alkaline
hypochlorite solution; used where avoidance of free-sulfur addition is desired, because of
stringent copper strip requirements and minimum expense is not the primary object.
Ignitability characteristic of liquids whose vapors are likely to ignite in the presence of ignition source;
also characteristic of nonliquids that may catch fire from friction or contact with water and that
burn vigorously.Illuminating oil oil used for lighting purposes.
Immiscible two or more fluids that do not have complete mutual solubility and coexist as separate
phases.
Immiscible carbon dioxide displacement injection of carbon dioxide into an oil reservoir to effect oil
displacement under conditions in which miscibility with reservoir oil is not obtained; see Carbon
dioxide augmented waterflooding.
Immiscible displacement a displacement of oil by a fluid (gas or water) that is conducted under
conditions so that interfaces exist between the driving fluid and the oil.
Immunoassay portable tests that take advantage of an interaction between an antibody and a specific
analyte. Immunoassay tests are semi-quantitative and usually rely on color changes of varying
intensities to indicate relative concentrations.
Incompatibility the immiscibility of petroleum products and also of different crude oils which is often
reflected in the formation of a separate phase after mixing and storage.
Incremental ultimate recovery the difference between the quantity of oil that can be recovered by EOR
methods and the quantity of oil that can be recovered by conventional recovery methods.
Infill drilling drilling additional wells within an established pattern.
Infrared spectroscopy an analytical technique that quantifies the vibration (stretching and bending) that
occurs when a molecule absorbs (heat) energy in the infrared region of the electromagnetic
spectrum.
Inhibitor a substance, the presence of which, in small amounts, in a petroleum product prevents or
retards undesirable chemical changes from taking place in the product, or in the condition of the
equipment in which the product is used.
Inhibitor sweetening a treating process to sweeten gasoline, using a phenylenediamine type of inhibitor,
air, and caustic.
Initial boiling point the recorded temperature when the first drop of liquid falls from the end of the
condenser.
Initial vapor pressure the vapor pressure of a liquid of a specified temperature and zero percent
evaporated.
Injection profile the vertical flow rate distribution of fluid flowing from the wellbore into a reservoir.
Injection well a well in an oil field used for injecting fluids into a reservoir.
Injectivity the relative ease with which a fluid is injected into a porous rock.
In situ in its original place; in the reservoir.
In situ combustion an EOR process consisting of injecting air or oxygen-enriched air into a reservoir
under conditions that favor burning part of the in situ petroleum, advancing this burning zone,
and recovering oil heated from a nearby producing well.
Instability the inability of a petroleum product to exist for periods of time without change to the
product.
Integrity maintenance of a slug or bank at its preferred composition without too much dispersion or
mixing.
Interface the thin surface area separating two immiscible fluids that are in contact with each other.
Interfacial film a thin layer of material at the interface between two fluids which differs in composition
from the bulk fluids.
Interfacial tension the strength of the film separating two immiscible fluids, e.g., oil and water or
microemulsion and oil; measured in dynes (force) per centimeter or milli-dynes per centimeter.
Interfacial viscosity the viscosity of the interfacial film between two immiscible liquids.
Interference testing a type of pressure transient test in which pressure is measured over time in a closed-in
well while nearby wells are produced; flow and communication between wells can sometimes be
deduced from an interference test.
Interphase mass transfer the net transfer of chemical compounds between two or more phases.
Iodine number a measure of the iodine absorption by oil under standard conditions; used to indicate the
quantity of unsaturated compounds present; also called iodine value.
Ion exchange a means of removing cations or anions from solution onto a solid resin.
Ion exchange capacity a measure of the capacity of a mineral to exchange ions in amount of material per
unit weight of solid.Ions chemical substances possessing positive or negative charges in solution.
Isocracking a hydrocracking process for conversion of hydrocarbons which operates at relatively low
temperatures and pressures in the presence of hydrogen and a catalyst to produce more valuable,
lower-boiling products.
Isoforming a process in which olefinic naphtha is contacted with an alumina catalyst at high temperature
and low pressure to produce isomers of higher octane number.
Iso-kel process a fixed-bed, vapor-phase isomerization process using a precious metal catalyst and
external hydrogen.
Isomate process a continuous, nonregenerative process for isomerizing C5–C8 normal paraffin hydrocarbons, using aluminum chloride–hydrocarbon catalyst with anhydrous hydrochloric acid as a
promoter.
Isomerate process a fixed-bed isomerization process to convert pentane, heptane, and heptane to highoctane blending stocks.
Isomerization the conversion of a normal (straight-chain) paraffin hydrocarbon into an iso (branchedchain) paraffin hydrocarbon with the same atomic composition.
Isopach a line on a map designating points of equal formation thickness.
Iso-plus Houdriforming a combination process using a conventional Houdriformer operated at moderate
severity, in conjunction with one of three possible alternatives, including the use of an aromatic
recovery unit or a thermal reformer; see Houdriforming.
Jet fuel fuel meeting the required properties for use in jet engines and aircraft turbine engines.
Kaolinite a clay mineral formed by hydrothermal activity at the time of rock formation or by chemical
weathering of rock with high feldspar content; usually associated with intrusive granite rock
with high feldspar content.
Kata-condensed aromatic compounds Compounds based on linear condensed aromatic hydrocarbon
systems, e.g., anthracene and naphthacene (tetracene).
Kauri butanol number A measurement of solvent strength for hydrocarbon solvents; the higher the kauributanol (KB) value, the stronger the solvency; the test method (ASTM D1133) is based on the
principle that kauri resin is readily soluble in butyl alcohol but not in hydrocarbon solvents and
the resin solution will tolerate only a certain amount of dilution and is reflected as a cloudiness
when the resin starts to come out of solution; solvents such as toluene can be added in a greater
amount (and thus have a higher KB value) than weaker solvents like hexane.
Kerogen a complex carbonaceous (organic) material that occurs in sedimentary rock and shale; generally
insoluble in common organic solvents.
Kerosene (kerosine) a fraction of petroleum that was initially sought as an illuminant in lamps; a
precursor to diesel fuel.
K-factor see Characterization factor.
Kinematic viscosity the ratio of viscosity (q.v.) to density, both measured at the same temperature.
Knock the noise associated with self-ignition of a portion of the fuel–air mixture ahead of the advancing
flame front.
Kriging a technique used in reservoir description for interpolation of reservoir parameters between wells
based on random field theory.
LAER lowest achievable emission rate; the required emission rate in nonattainment permits.
Lamp burning a test of burning oils in which the oil is burned in a standard lamp under specified
conditions in order to observe the steadiness of the flame, the degree of encrustation of the wick,
and the rate of consumption of the kerosene.
Lamp oil see Kerosene.
Leaded gasoline gasoline containing tetraethyl lead or other organometallic lead antiknock compounds.
Lean gas the residual gas from the absorber after the condensable gasoline has been removed from the
wet gas.
Lean oil absorption oil from which gasoline fractions have been removed; oil leaving the stripper in a
natural-gasoline plant.
Lewis acid a chemical species which can accept an electron pair from a base.
Lewis base a chemical species which can donate an electron pair.Light ends the lower-boiling components of a mixture of hydrocarbons; see also Heavy ends, Light
hydrocarbons.
Light hydrocarbons hydrocarbons with molecular weights less than that of heptane (C7H16).
Light oil the products distilled or processed from crude oil up to, but not including, the first lubricatingoil distillate.
Light petroleum petroleum with an API gravity greater than 208.
Ligroine (Ligroin) a saturated petroleum naphtha boiling in the range of 208C to 1358C (688F to 2758F)
and suitable for general use as a solvent; also called benzine or petroleum ether.
Linde copper sweetening a process for treating gasoline and distillates with a slurry of clay and cupric
chloride.
Liquid petrolatum see White oil.
Liquefied petroleum gas propane, butane, or mixtures thereof, gaseous at atmospheric temperature and
pressure, held in the liquid state by pressure to facilitate storage, transport, and handling.
Liquid chromatography a chromatographic technique that employs a liquid mobile phase.
Liquid=liquid extraction an extraction technique in which one liquid is shaken with or contacted by an
extraction solvent to transfer molecules of interest into the solvent phase.
Liquid sulfur dioxide–benzene process a mixed-solvent process for treating lubricating-oil stocks to
improve viscosity index; also used for dewaxing.
Lithology the geological characteristics of the reservoir rock.
Live steam steam coming directly from a boiler before being utilized for power or heat.
Liver the intermediate layer of dark-colored, oily material, insoluble in weak acid and in oil, which is
formed when acid sludge is hydrolyzed.
Lorenz coefficient a permeability heterogeneity factor.
Lower-phase microemulsion a microemulsion phase containing a high concentration of water that, when
viewed in a test tube, resides near the bottom with oil phase on top.
Lube see Lubricating oil.
Lube cut a fraction of crude oil of suitable boiling range and viscosity to yield lubricating oil when
completely refined; also referred to as lube oil distillates or lube stock.
Lubricating oil a fluid lubricant used to reduce friction between bearing surfaces.
MACT maximum achievable control technology. Applies to major sources of hazardous air pollutants.
Mahogany acids oil-soluble sulfonic acids formed by the action of sulfuric acid on petroleum distillates.
They may be converted to their sodium soaps (mahogany soaps) and extracted from the oil with
alcohol for use in the manufacture of soluble oils, rust preventives, and special greases. The
calcium and barium soaps of these acids are used as detergent additives in motor oils; see also
Brown acids and Sulfonic acids.
Major source a source that has a potential to emit for a regulated pollutant that is at or greater than an
emission threshold set by regulations.
Maltenes that fraction of petroleum that is soluble in, for example, pentane or heptane; deasphaltened
oil (q.v.); also the term arbitrarily assigned to the pentane-soluble portion of petroleum that is
relatively high boiling (>3008C, 760 mm) (see also Petrolenes).
Marine engine oil oil used as a crankcase oil in marine engines.
Marine gasoline fuel for motors in marine service.
Marine sediment the organic biomass from which petroleum is derived.
Marsh an area of spongy waterlogged ground with large numbers of surface water pools. Marshes
usually result from: (1) an impermeable underlying bedrock; (2) surface deposits of glacial
boulder clay; (3) a basin-like topography from which natural drainage is poor; (4) very heavy
rainfall in conjunction with a correspondingly low evaporation rate; (5) low-lying land, particularly at estuarine sites at or below sea level.
Marx–Langenheim model mathematical equations for calculating heat transfer in a hot water or steam
flood.
Mass spectrometry an analytical technique that fractures organic compounds into characteristic ‘‘fragments’’ based on functional groups that have a specific mass-to-charge ratio.
Mayonnaise low-temperature sludge; a black, brown, or gray deposit with a soft, mayonnaise-like
consistency; not recommended as a food additive!MCL maximum contaminant level as dictated by regulations.
Medicinal oil highly refined, colorless, tasteless, and odorless petroleum oil used as a medicine in the
nature of an internal lubricant; sometimes called liquid paraffin.
Membrane technology gas separation processes utilizing membranes that permit different components of
a gas to diffuse through the membrane at significantly different rates.
MDL See Method detection limit.
MEK (methyl ethyl ketone) a colorless liquid (CH3COCH2CH3) used as a solvent; as a chemical
intermediate; and in the manufacture of lacquers, celluloid, and varnish removers.
MEK deoiling a wax-deoiling process in which the solvent is generally a mixture of methyl ethyl ketone
and toluene.
MEK dewaxing a continuous solvent dewaxing process in which the solvent is generally a mixture of
methyl ethyl ketone and toluene.
MEOR microbial enhanced oil recovery.
Methanol see Methyl alcohol.
Method Detection Limit the smallest quantity or concentration of a substance that the instrument can
measure.
Methyl t-butyl ether an ether added to gasoline to improve its octane rating and to decrease gaseous
emissions; see Oxygenate.
Mercapsol process a regenerative process for extracting mercaptans, utilizing aqueous sodium (or
potassium) hydroxide containing mixed cresols as solubility promoters.
Mercaptans organic compounds with the general formula R–SH.
Metagenesis the alteration of organic matter during the formation of petroleum that may involve
temperatures above 2008C (3908F); see also Catagenesis and Diagenesis.
Methyl alcohol (methanol; wood alcohol): a colorless, volatile, inflammable, and poisonous alcohol
(CH3OH) traditionally formed by destructive distillation of wood or, more recently, as a result
of synthetic distillation in chemical plants.
Methyl ethyl ketone see MEK.
Mica a complex aluminum silicate mineral that is transparent, tough, flexible, and elastic.
Micellar fluid (surfactant slug) an aqueous mixture of surfactants, co-surfactants, salts, and hydrocarbons. The term micellar is derived from the word micelle, which is a submicroscopic aggregate of
surfactant molecules and associated fluid.
Micelle the structural entity by which asphaltene constituents are dispersed in petroleum.
Microcarbon residue the carbon residue determined using a themogravimetric method. See also Carbon
residue.
Microcrystalline wax wax extracted from certain petroleum residua, with a finer and less apparent
crystalline structure than paraffin wax.
Microemulsion a stable, finely dispersed mixture of oil, water, and chemicals (surfactants and alcohols).
Microemulsion or micellar or emulsion flooding an augmented waterflooding technique in which a
surfactant system is injected in order to enhance oil displacement toward producing wells.
Microorganisms animals or plants of microscopic size, such as bacteria.
Microscopic displacement efficiency the efficiency with which an oil displacement process removes the oil
from individual pores in the rock.
Mid-boiling point the temperature at which approximately 50% of a material has distilled under specific
conditions.
Middle distillate distillate boiling between the kerosene and lubricating oil fractions.
Middle-phase microemulsion a microemulsion phase containing a high concentration of both oil and
water that, when viewed in a test tube, resides in the middle with the oil phase above it and the
water phase below it.
Migration (primary) the movement of hydrocarbons (oil and natural gas) from mature, organic-rich
source rocks to a point where the oil and gas can collect as droplets or as a continuous phase of
liquid hydrocarbon.
Migration (secondary) the movement of the hydrocarbons as a single, continuous fluid phase through
water-saturated rocks, fractures, or faults followed by accumulation of the oil and gas in
sediments (traps, q.v.) from which further migration is prevented.Mineral hydrocarbons petroleum hydrocarbons, considered mineral because they come from the earth
rather than from plants or animals.
Mineral oil the older term for petroleum; the term was introduced in the nineteenth century as a means
of differentiating petroleum (rock oil) from whale oil which, at the time, was the predominant
illuminant for oil lamps.
Minerals naturally occurring inorganic solids with well-defined crystalline structures.
Mineral seal oil a distillate fraction boiling between kerosene and gas oil.
Mineral wax yellow to dark brown, solid substances that occur naturally and are composed largely of
paraffins; usually found associated with considerable mineral matter, as a filling in veins and
fissures or as an interstitial material in porous rocks.
Minimum miscibility pressure (MMP) see Miscibility.
Miscibility an equilibrium condition, achieved after mixing two or more fluids, which is characterized
by the absence of interfaces between the fluids: (1) first-contact miscibility: miscibility in the
usual sense, whereby two fluids can be mixed in all proportions without any interfaces
forming. Example: at room temperature and pressure, ethyl alcohol and water are first-contact
miscible. (2) multiple-contact miscibility (dynamic miscibility): miscibility that is developed
by repeated enrichment of one fluid phase with components from a second fluid phase with
which it comes into contact. (3) minimum miscibility pressure: the minimum pressure above
which two fluids become miscible at a given temperature, or can become miscible, by dynamic
processes.
Miscible flooding see EOR process.
Miscible fluid displacement (miscible displacement) is an oil displacement process in which an alcohol, a
refined hydrocarbon, a condensed petroleum gas, carbon dioxide, liquefied natural gas, or even
exhaust gas is injected into an oil reservoir, at pressure levels such that the injected gas or fluid
and reservoir oil are miscible; the process may include the concurrent, alternating, or subsequent
injection of water.
Mitigation identification, evaluation, and cessation of potential impacts of a process product or
byproduct.
Mixed-phase crackingthe thermal decomposition of higher-boiling hydrocarbons to gasoline components.
Mobility a measure of the ease with which a fluid moves through reservoir rock; the ratio of rock
permeability to apparent fluid viscosity.
Mobility buffer the bank that protects a chemical slug from water invasion and dilution and assures
mobility control.
Mobility control ensuring that the mobility of the displacing fluid or bank is equal to or less than that of
the displaced fluid or bank.
Mobility ratio ratio of mobility of an injection fluid to mobility of fluid being displaced.
Modified alkaline flooding the addition of a co-surfactant and polymer to the alkaline flooding process.
Modified naphtha insolubles (MNI) an insoluble fraction obtained by adding naphtha to petroleum;
usually the naphtha is modified by adding paraffin constituents; the fraction might be equated to
asphaltenes if the naphtha is equivalent to n-heptane, but usually it is not.
Molecular sieve a synthetic zeolite mineral with pores of uniform size; it is capable of separating
molecules, on the basis of their size, structure, or both, by absorption or sieving.
Motor Octane Method a test for determining the knock rating of fuels for use in spark-ignition engines;
see also Research Octane Method.
Moving-bed catalytic cracking a cracking process in which the catalyst is continuously cycled between
the reactor and the regenerator.
MSDS Material safety data sheet.
MTBE see Methyl t-butyl ether.
NAAQS National Ambient Air Quality Standards; standards exist for the pollutants known as the
criteria air pollutants: nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur oxides (SOx), lead, ozone, particulate
matter, less than 10 microns in diameter, and carbon monoxide (CO).
Naft pre-Christian era (Greek) term for naphtha (q.v.).
Napalm a thickened gasoline used as an incendiary medium that adheres to the surface it strikes.Naphtha a generic term applied to refined, partly refined, or unrefined petroleum products and liquid
products of natural gas, the majority of which distills below 2408C (4648F); the volatile fraction
of petroleum which is used as a solvent or as a precursor to gasoline.
Naphthenes cycloparaffins.
Native asphalt see Bitumen.
Natural asphalt see Bitumen.
Natural gas the naturally occurring gaseous constituents that are found in many petroleum reservoirs;
there are also those reservoirs in which natural gas may be the sole occupant.
Natural gas liquids (NGL) the hydrocarbon liquids that condense during the processing of hydrocarbon
gases that are produced from oil or gas reservoir; see also Natural gasoline.
Natural gasoline a mixture of liquid hydrocarbons extracted from natural gas (q.v.) suitable for blending
with refinery gasoline.
Natural gasoline plant a plant for the extraction of fluid hydrocarbon, such as gasoline and liquefied
petroleum gas, from natural gas.
NESHAP National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants; emission standards for specific
source categories that emit or have the potential to emit one or more hazardous air pollutants;
the standards are modeled on the best practices and most effective emission reduction methodologies in use at the affected facilities.
Neutralization a process for reducing the acidity or alkalinity of a waste stream by mixing acids and
bases to produce a neutral solution; also known as pH adjustment.
Neutral oil a distillate lubricating oil with viscosity usually not above 200 sec at 1008F.
Neutralization number the weight, in milligrams, of potassium hydroxide needed to neutralize the acid in
1 g of oil; an indication of the acidity of an oil.
Nonasphaltic road oil any of the nonhardening petroleum distillates or residual oils used as dust layers.
They have sufficiently low viscosity to be applied without heating and, together with asphaltic
road oils (q.v.), are sometimes referred to as dust palliatives.
Nonattainment area a geographical area that does not meet NAAQS for criteria air pollutants (see also
Attainment area).
Nonionic surfactant a surfactant molecule containing no ionic charge.
Non-Newtonian a fluid that exhibits a change of viscosity with flow rate.
NO
x oxides of nitrogen.
Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy an analytical procedure that permits the identification of
complex molecules based on the magnetic properties of the atoms they contain.
No. 1 Fuel oil very similar to kerosene (q.v.) and is used in burners where vaporization before burning is
usually required and a clean flame is specified.
No. 2 Fuel oil also called domestic heating oil; has properties similar to diesel fuel and heavy jet fuel; used
in burners where complete vaporization is not required before burning.
No. 4 Fuel oil a light industrial heating oil; used where preheating is not required for handling or
burning; there are two grades of No. 4 fuel oil, differing in safety (flash point) and flow
(viscosity) properties.
No. 5 Fuel oil a heavy industrial fuel oil which requires preheating before burning.
No. 6 Fuel oil a heavy fuel oil and is more commonly known as Bunker C oil when it is used to fuel
ocean-going vessels; preheating is always required for burning this oil.
Observation wells wells that are completed and equipped to measure reservoir conditions and sample
reservoir fluids, rather than to inject or produce reservoir fluids.
Octane barrel yield a measure used to evaluate fluid catalytic cracking processes; defined as (RON
þ MON)=2 times the gasoline yield, where RON is the research octane number and MON is the
motor octane number.
Octane number a number indicating the antiknock characteristics of gasoline.
Oil bank see Bank.
Oil breakthrough (time) the time at which the oil–water bank arrives at the producing well.
Original oil in place (Oil orginally in place) (OOIP) the quantity of petroleum existing in a reservoir
before oil recovery operations begin.Oils that portion of the maltenes (q.v.) that is not adsorbed by a surface-active material such as clay or
alumina.
Oil sand see Tar sand.
Oil shale a fine-grained impervious sedimentary rock which contains an organic material called
kerogen.
Olefin synonymous with alkene.
OOIP see Oil originally in place.
Optimum salinity the salinity at which a middle-phase microemulsion containing equal concentrations of
oil and water results from the mixture of a micellar fluid (surfactant slug) with oil.
Organic sedimentary rocks rocks containing organic material such as residues of plant and animal
remains or decay.
Overhead that portion of the feedstock which is vaporized and removed during distillation.
Override the gravity-induced flow of a lighter fluid in a reservoir above another heavier fluid.
Oxidation a process which can be used for the treatment of a variety of inorganic and organic
substances.
Oxidized asphalt see Air-blown asphalt.
Ozokerite (Ozocerite) a naturally occurring wax; when refined also known as ceresin.
Oxygenate an oxygen-containing compound that is blended into gasoline to improve its octane number
and to decrease gaseous emissions.
Oxygenated gasoline gasoline with added ethers or alcohols, formulated according to the Federal Clean
Air Act to reduce carbon monoxide emissions during winter months.
Oxygen scavenger a chemical which reacts with oxygen in injection water, used to prevent degradation of
polymer.
Pale oil a lubricating oil or a process oil refined until its color, by transmitted light, is straw to pale
yellow.
Paraffinum liquidum see Liquid petrolatum.
Paraffin wax the colorless, translucent, highly crystalline material obtained from the light lubricating
fractions of paraffin crude oils (wax distillates).
Particle density the density of solid particles.
Particulate matter (particulates) particles in the atmosphere or on a gas stream that may be organic or
inorganic and originate from a wide variety of sources and processes.
Particle size distribution the particle size distribution (of a catalyst sample) expressed as a percent of the
whole.
Partitioning in chromatography, the physical act of a solute having different affinities for the stationary
and mobile phases.
Partition ratios, K the ratio of total analytical concentration of a solute in the stationary phase, CS, to its
concentration in the mobile phase, CM.
Pattern the areal pattern of injection and producing wells selected for a secondary or enhanced recovery
project.
Pattern life the length of time a flood pattern participates in oil recovery.
Penex process a continuous, nonregenerative process for isomerization of C5 and C6 fractions in the
presence of hydrogen (from reforming) and a platinum catalyst.
Pentafining a pentane isomerization process using a regenerable platinum catalyst on a silica–alumina
support and requiring outside hydrogen.
Pepper sludge the fine particles of sludge produced in acid treating which may remain in suspension.
Peri-condensed aromatic compounds Compounds based on angular condensed aromatic hydrocarbon
systems, e.g., phenanthrene, chrysene, picene, etc..
Permeability the ease of flow of the water through the rock.
Petrol a term commonly used in some countries for gasoline.
Petrolatum a semisolid product, ranging from white to yellow in color, produced during refining of
residual stocks; see Petroleum jelly.
Petrolenes the term applied to that part of the pentane-soluble or heptane-soluble material that is low
boiling (<3008C, <5708F, 760 mm) and can be distilled without thermal decomposition (see also
Maltenes).Petroleum (crude oil): a naturally occurring mixture of gaseous, liquid, and solid hydrocarbon compounds usually found trapped deep underground beneath impermeable cap rock and above a
lower dome of sedimentary rock such as shale; most petroleum reservoirs occur in sedimentary
rocks of marine, deltaic, or estuarine origin.
Petroleum asphalt see Asphalt.
Petroleum ether see Ligroine.
Petroleum jelly a translucent, yellowish to amber or white, hydrocarbon substance (melting point: 388C
to 548C) with almost no odor or taste, derived from petroleum and used principally in medicine
and pharmacy as a protective dressing and as a substitute for fats in ointments and cosmetics;
also used in many types of polishes and in lubricating greases, rust preventives, and modeling
clay; obtained by dewaxing heavy lubricating-oil stocks.
Petroleum refinery see Refinery.
Petroleum refining a complex sequence of events that result in the production of a variety of products.
Petroleum sulfonate a surfactant used in chemical flooding prepared by sulfonating selected crude oil
fractions.
Petroporphyrins see Porphyrins.
Phase a separate fluid that coexists with other fluids; gas, oil, water and other stable fluids such as
microemulsions are all called phases in EOR research.
Phase behavior the tendency of a fluid system to form phases as a result of changing temperature,
pressure, or the bulk composition of the fluids or of individual fluid phases.
Phase diagram a graph of phase behavior. In chemical flooding, a graph showing the relative volume of
oil, brine, and sometimes one or more microemulsion phases. In carbon dioxide flooding,
conditions for formation of various liquid, vapor, and solid phases.
Phase properties types of fluids, compositions, densities, viscosities, and relative amounts of oil, microemulsion, or solvent, and water formed when a micellar fluid (surfactant slug) or miscible
solvent (e.g., CO2) is mixed with oil.
Phase separation the formation of a separate phase that is usually the prelude to coke formation during a
thermal process; the formation of a separate phase as a result of the instability or incompatibility
of petroleum and petroleum products.
pH adjustment neutralization.
Phosphoric acid polymerization a process using a phosphoric acid catalyst to convert propene, butene, or
both, to gasoline or petrochemical polymers.
Photoionization a gas chromatographic detection system that utilizes a detector (PID) ultraviolet lamp as
an ionization source for analyte detection. It is usually used as a selective detector by changing
the photon energy of the ionization source.
PINA analysis a method of analysis for paraffins, iso-paraffins, naphthenes, and aromatics.
PIONA analysis a method of analysis for paraffins, iso-paraffins, olefins, naphthenes, and aromatics.
Pipe still a still in which heat is applied to the oil while being pumped through a coil or pipe arranged in a
suitable firebox.
Pipestill gas the most volatile fraction that contains most of the gases that are generally dissolved in the
crude. Also known as pipestill light ends.
Pipestill light ends see Pipestill gas.
Pitch the nonvolatile, brown to black, semisolid to solid viscous product from the destructive distillation
of many bituminous or other organic materials, especially coal.
Platforming a reforming process using a platinum-containing catalyst on an alumina base.
PNA a polynuclear aromatic compound (q.v.).
NA a polynuclear aromatic compound (q.v.).
PNA analysis a method of analysis for paraffins, naphthenes, and aromatics.
Polar aromatics resins; the constituents of petroleum that are predominantly aromatic in character and
contain polar (nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur) functions in their molecular structure(s).
Pollutant a chemical or chemicals introduced into the land, water, and air systems, that is or are not
indigenous to these systems; also an indigenous chemical or chemicals introduced into the land,
water, and air systems in amounts greater than the natural abundance.Pollution the introduction into the land, water, and air systems of a chemical or chemicals that are not
indigenous to these systems or the introduction into the land, water, and air systems of
indigenous chemicals in greater-than-natural amounts.
Polyacrylamide very high molecular weight material used in polymer flooding.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are a suite of compounds
comprised of two or more condensed aromatic rings. They are found in many petroleum
mixtures, and they are predominantly introduced to the environment through natural and
anthropogenic combustion processes.
Polyforming a process charging both C3 and C4 gases with naphtha or gas oil under thermal conditions
to produce gasoline.
Polymer in EOR, any very high molecular weight material that is added to water to increase viscosity for
polymer flooding.
Polymer augmented waterflooding waterflooding in which organic polymers are injected with the water
to improve areal and vertical sweep efficiency.
Polymer gasoline the product of polymerization of gaseous hydrocarbons to hydrocarbons boiling in the
gasoline range.
Polymerization the combination of two olefin molecules to form a higher molecular weight paraffin.
Polymer stability the ability of a polymer to resist degradation and maintain its original properties.
Polynuclear aromatic compound an aromatic compound with two or more fused benzene rings, e.g.,
naphthalene, phenanthrene.
Polysulfide treatment a chemical treatment used to remove elemental sulfur from refinery liquids by
contacting them with a nonregenerable solution of sodium polysulfide.
PONA analysis a method of analysis for paraffins (P), olefins (O), naphthenes (N), and aromatics (A).
Pore diameter the average pore size of a solid material, e.g., catalyst.
Pore space a small hole in reservoir rock that contains fluid or fluids; a four inch cube of reservoir rock
may contain millions of interconnected pore spaces.
Pore volume total volume of all pores and fractures in a reservoir or part of a reservoir; also applied to
catalyst samples.
Porosity the percentage of rock volume available to contain water or other fluid.
Porphyrins organometallic constituents of petroleum that contain vanadium or nickel; the degradation
products of chlorophyll that became included in the protopetroleum.
Positive bias a result that is incorrect and too high.
Possible reserves reserves where there is an even greater degree of uncertainty but about which there is
some information.
Potential reserves reserves based upon geological information about the types of sediments where such
resources are likely to occur and they are considered to represent an educated guess.
Pour point the lowest temperature at which oil will pour or flow when it is chilled without disturbance
under definite conditions.
Powerforming a fixed-bed naphtha-reforming process using a regenerable platinum catalyst.
Power-law exponent an exponent used to model the degree of viscosity change of some non-Newtonian
liquids.
Precipitation number the number of milliliters of precipitate formed when 10 mL of lubricating oil is
mixed with 90 mL of petroleum naphtha of a definite quality and centrifuged under definitely
prescribed conditions.
Preflush a conditioning slug injected into a reservoir as the first step of an EOR process.
Pressure cores cores cut into a special coring barrel that maintain reservoir pressure when brought to the
surface; this prevents the loss of reservoir fluids that usually accompanies a drop in pressure
from reservoir to atmospheric conditions.
Pressure gradient rate of change of pressure with distance.
Pressure maintenance augmenting the pressure (and energy) in a reservoir by injecting gas and water
through one or more wells.
Pressure pulse test a technique for determining reservoir characteristics by injecting a sharp pulse of
pressure in one well and detecting it in surrounding wells.
Pressure transient testing measuring the effect of changes in pressure at one well on other well in a field.Primary oil recovery oil recovery, utilizing only naturally occurring forces.
Primary structure the chemical sequence of atoms in a molecule.
Primary tracer a chemical that, when injected into a test well, reacts with reservoir fluids to form a
detectable chemical compound.
Probable reserves mineral reserves that are nearly certain, but about which a slight doubt exists.
Producibility the rate at which oil or gas can be produced from a reservoir through a wellbore.
Producing well a well in an oil field used for removing fluids from a reservoir.
Propane asphalt see Solvent asphalt.
Propane deasphalting solvent deasphalting using propane as the solvent.
Propane decarbonizing a solvent extraction process used to recover catalytic cracking feed from heavy
fuel residues
Propane dewaxing a process for dewaxing lubricating oils in which propane serves as solvent.
Propane fractionation a continuous extraction process employing liquid propane as the solvent; a variant
of propane deasphalting (q.v.).
Protopetroleum a generic term used to indicate the initial product formed and that changes have
occurred to the precursors of petroleum.
Proved reserves mineral reserves that have been positively identified as recoverable with current technology.
PSD prevention of significant deterioration.
PTE potential to emit; the maximum capacity of a source to emit a pollutant, given its physical or
operation design, and considering certain controls and limitations.
Pulse-echo ultrasonic borehole televiewer well-logging system wherein a pulsed, narrow acoustic beam
scans the well as the tool is pulled up the borehole; the amplitude of the reflecting beam is
displayed on a cathode-ray tube resulting in a pictorial representation of a wellbore.
Purge and trap a chromatographic sample introduction technique in volatile components that are purged
from a liquid medium by bubbling gas through it. The components are then concentrated by
‘‘trapping’’ them on a short intermediate column, which is subsequently heated to drive the
components on to the analytical column for separation.
Purge gas typically helium or nitrogen, used to remove analytes from the sample matrix in purge or trap
extractions.
Pyrobitumen see Asphaltoid.
Pyrolysis exposure of a feedstock to high temperatures in an oxygen-poor environment.
Pyrophoric substances that catch fire spontaneously in air without an ignition source.
Quadrillion 1  1015
Quench the sudden cooling of hot material discharging from a thermal reactor.
RACT Reasonably Available Control Technology standards; implemented in areas of nonattainment to
reduce emissions of volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides.
Raffinate that portion of the oil which remains undissolved in a solvent refining process.
Ramsbottom carbon residue see Carbon residue.
Raw materials minerals extracted from the earth prior to any refining or treating.
Recycle ratio the volume of recycle stock per volume of fresh feed; often expressed as the volume of
recycle divided by the total charge.
Recycle stock the portion of a feedstock which has passed through a refining process and is recirculated
through the process.
Recycling the use or reuse of chemical waste as an effective substitute for a commercial product or as an
ingredient or feedstock in an industrial process.
Reduced crude a residual product remaining after the removal, by distillation or other means, of an
appreciable quantity of the more volatile components of crude oil.
Refinery a series of integrated unit processes by which petroleum can be converted to a slate of useful
(saleable) products.
Refinery gas a gas (or a gaseous mixture) produced as a result of refining operations.
Refining the processes by which petroleum is distilled and converted by application of a physical and
chemical processes to form a variety of products are generated.
Reformate the liquid product of a reforming process.Reformed gasoline gasoline made by a reforming process.
Reforming the conversion of hydrocarbons with low octane numbers (q.v.) into hydrocarbons having
higher octane numbers; e.g., the conversion of a n-paraffin into a iso-paraffin.
Reformulated gasoline (RFG) gasoline designed to mitigate smog production and to improve air quality
by limiting the emission levels of certain chemical compounds such as benzene and other
aromatic derivatives; often contains oxygenates (q.v.).
Reid vapor pressure a measure of the volatility of liquid fuels, especially gasoline.
Regeneration the or reactivation of a catalyst by burning off the coke deposits.
Regenerator a reactor for catalyst reactivation.
Relative permeability the permeability of rock to gas, oil, or water, when any two or more are present,
expressed as a fraction of the surface permeability of the rock.
Renewable energy sources solar, wind, and other nonfossil fuel energy sources.
Rerunning the distillation of an oil which has already been distilled.
Research Octane Method a test for determining the knock rating, in terms of octane numbers, of fuels for
use in spark-ignition engines; see also Motor Octane Method.
Reserves well-identified resources that can be profitably extracted and utilized with existing technology.
Reservoir a rock formation below the earth’s surface containing petroleum or natural gas; a domain
where a pollutant may reside for an indeterminate time.
Reservoir simulation analysis and prediction of reservoir performance with a computer model.
Residual asphalt see Straight-run asphalt.
Residual fuel oil obtained by blending the residual product or products from various refining processes
with suitable diluent or dilutents (usually middle distillates) to obtain the required fuel oil grades.
Residual oil see Residuum; petroleum remaining in situ after oil recovery.
Residual resistance factor the reduction in permeability of rock to water caused by the adsorption of
polymer.
Residuum (resid; pl.: residua) the residue obtained from petroleum after nondestructive distillation has
removed all the volatile materials from crude oil, e.g., an atmospheric (3458C, 6508Fþ) residuum.
Resins that portion of the maltenes (q.v.) that is adsorbed by a surface-active material such as clay or
alumina; the fraction of deasphaltened oil that is insoluble in liquid propane but soluble in
n-heptane.
Resistance factor a measure of resistance to flow of a polymer solution relative to the resistance to flow
of water.
Resource the total amount of a commodity (usually a mineral, but can include nonminerals such as
water and petroleum) that has been estimated to be ultimately available.
Retention the loss of chemical components due to adsorption onto the rock’s surface, precipitation, or to
trapping within the reservoir.
Retention time the time it takes for an eluate to move through a chromatographic system and reach the
detector. Retention times are reproducible and can therefore be compared to a standard for
analyte identification.
Rexforming a process combining platforming (q.v.) with aromatics extraction, wherein low octane
raffinate is recycled to the Platformer.
Rich oil absorption oil containing dissolved natural gasoline fractions.
Riser the part of the bubble-plate assembly which channels the vapor and causes it to flow downward
to escape through the liquid; also the vertical pipe where fluid catalytic cracking reactions occur.
Rock asphalt bitumen which occurs in formations that have a limiting ratio of bitumen-to-rock matrix.
Rock matrix the granular structure of a rock or porous medium.
Run-of-the-river reservoirs reservoirs with a large rate of flow-through compared to their volume.
Salinity the concentration of salt in water.
Sand a coarse granular mineral, mainly comprising quartz grains, derived from the chemical and
physical weathering of rocks rich in quartz, notably sandstone and granite.
Sand face the cylindrical wall of the wellbore through which the fluids must flow to or from the reservoir.
Sandstone a sedimentary rock formed by compaction and cementation of sand grains; can be classified
according to the mineral composition of the sand and cement.SARA analysis a method of fractionation by which petroleum is separated into saturates, aromatics,
resins, and asphaltene fractions.
SARA separation see SARA analysis.
Saturates paraffins and cycloparaffins (naphthenes).
Saturation the ratio of the volume of a single fluid in the pores to pore volume, expressed as a percent
and applied to water, oil, or gas separately; the sum of the saturations of each fluid in a pore
volume is 100%.
Saybolt Furol viscosity the time, in seconds (Saybolt Furol Seconds, SFS), for 60 mL of fluid to flow
through a capillary tube in a Saybolt Furol viscometer at specified temperatures between 708F
and 2108 F; the method is appropriate for high-viscosity oils such as transmission, gear, and
heavy fuel oils.
Saybolt Universal viscosity the time, in seconds (Saybolt Universal Seconds, SUS), for 60 mL of fluid to
flow through a capillary tube in a Saybolt Universal viscometer at a given temperature.
Scale wax the paraffin derived by removing the greater part of the oil from slack wax by sweating or
solvent deoiling.
Screen factor a simple measure of the viscoelastic properties of polymer solutions.
Screening guide a list of reservoir rock and fluid properties, critical to an EOR process.
Scrubber a device that uses water and chemicals to clean air pollutants from combustion exhaust.
Scrubbing purifying a gas by washing with water or chemical; less frequently, the removal of entrained
materials.
Secondary pollutants a pollutant (chemical species) produced by interaction of a primary pollutant with
another chemical or by dissociation of a primary pollutant or by other effects within a particular
ecosystem.
Secondary recovery oil recovery resulting from injection of water, or an immiscible gas at moderate
pressure, into a petroleum reservoir after primary depletion.
Secondary structure the ordering of the atoms of a molecule in space relative to each other.
Secondary tracer the product of the chemical reaction between reservoir fluids and an injected primary
tracer.
Sediment an insoluble solid formed as a result of the storage instability and the thermal instability of
petroleum and petroleum products.
Sedimentary formed by or from deposits of sediments, especially from sand grains or silts transported
from their source and deposited in water, as sandstone and shale; or from calcareous remains of
organisms, as limestone.
Sedimentary strata typically consist of mixtures of clay, silt, sand, organic matter, and various minerals;
formed by or from deposits of sediments, especially from sand grains or silts transported from
their source and deposited in water, such as sandstone and shale; or from calcareous remains of
organisms, such as limestone.
Selective solvent a solvent which, at certain temperatures and ratios, will preferentially dissolve more of
one components of one mixture than of another and thereby permit partial separation.
Separation process an upgrading process in which the constituents of petroleum are separated, usually
without thermal decomposition, e.g., distillation and deasphalting.
Separator-Nobel dewaxing a solvent (tricholoethylene) dewaxing process.
Separatory funnel glassware shaped like a funnel with a stoppered rounded top and a valve at the tapered
bottom, used for liquid or liquid separations.
Shear mechanical deformation or distortion, or partial destruction of a polymer molecule as it flows at a
high rate.
Shear rate a measure of the rate of deformation of a liquid under mechanical stress.
Shear-thinning the characteristic of a fluid whose viscosity decreases as the shear rate Increases.
Shell fluid catalytic cracking a two-stage fluid catalytic cracking process in which the catalyst is
regenerated.
Shell still a still formerly used, in which the oil was charged into a closed, cylindrical shell and the heat
required for distillation was applied to the outside of the bottom from a firebox.
Sidestream a liquid stream taken from any one of the intermediate plates of a bubble tower.Sidestream stripper a device used to perform further distillation on a liquid stream from any one of the
plates of a bubble tower, usually by the use of steam.
Single well tracer a technique for determining residual oil saturation by injecting an ester, allowing it to
hydrolyze and following dissolution of some of the reaction products in residual oil, the injected
solutions are produced back and analyzed.
Slack wax the soft, oily crude wax obtained from the pressing of paraffin distillate or wax distillate.
Slime a name used for petroleum in ancient texts.
Slim tube testing laboratory procedure for the determination of minimum miscibility pressure using
long, small-diameter, sand-packed, oil- saturated, stainless steel tube.
Sludge a semi-solid to solid product which results from the storage instability and the thermal instability
of petroleum and petroleum products.
Slug a quantity of fluid injected into a reservoir during enhanced oil recovery.
Slurry hydroconversion process a process in which the feedstock is contacted with hydrogen under
pressure in the presence of a catalytic coke-inhibiting additive.
Slurry phase reactors tanks into which wastes, nutrients, and microorganisms are placed.
Smoke point a measure of the burning cleanliness of jet fuel and kerosine.
Sodium hydroxide treatment see Caustic wash.
Sodium plumbite a solution prepared from a mixture of sodium hydroxide, lead oxide, and distilled
water; used in making the doctor test for light oils such as gasoline and kerosine.
Solubility parameter a measure of the solvent power and polarity of a solvent.
Solutizer-steam regenerative process a chemical treating process for extracting mercaptans from gasoline
or naphtha, using solutizers (potassium iso-butyrate, potassium alkyl phenolate) in strong
potassium hydroxide solution.
Solvent a liquid in which certain kinds of molecules dissolve. While they typically are liquids with low
boiling points, they may include high-boiling liquids, supercritical fluids, or gases.
Solvent asphalt the asphalt (q.v.) produced by solvent extraction of residua (q.v.) or by light hydrocarbon
(propane) treatment of a residuum (q.v.) or an asphaltic crude oil.
Solvent deasphalting a process for removing asphaltic and resinous materials from reduced crude oils,
lubricating-oil stocks, gas oils, or middle distillates through the extraction or precipitant action
of low-molecular-weight hydrocarbon solvents; see also Propane deasphalting.
Solvent decarbonizing see Propane decarbonizing.
Solvent deresining see Solvent deasphalting.
Solvent dewaxing a process for removing wax from oils by means of solvents, usually by chilling a
mixture of solvent and waxy oil, filtration or by centrifuging the wax which precipitates, and
solvent recovery.
Solvent extraction a process for separating liquids by mixing the stream with a solvent that is immiscible
with part of the liquids stream but that will extract certain components of the liquids stream.
Solvent gas an injected gaseous fluid that becomes miscible with oil under. reservoir conditions and
improves oil displacement.
Sonic log a well log based on the time required for sound to travel through rock, useful in determining
porosity.
Solvent naphtha a refined naphtha of restricted boiling range used as a solvent; also called petroleum
naphtha; petroleum spirits.
Solvent refining see Solvent extraction.
Sonication a physical technique employing ultrasound to intensely vibrate a sample media in extracting
solvent and to maximize solvent and analyte interactions.
Sonic log a well log based on the time required for sound to travel through rock, useful in determining
porosity.
Sour crude oil crude oil containing an abnormally large amount of sulfur compounds; see also Sweet
crude oil.
SO
x oxides of sulfur.
Soxhlet extraction an extraction technique for solids in which the sample is repeatedly contacted with
solvent over several hours, increasing extraction efficiency.Spontaneous ignition ignition of a fuel, such as coal, under normal atmospheric conditions; usually
induced by climatic conditions.
Specific gravity the mass (or weight) of a unit volume of any substance at a specified temperature
compared with the mass of an equal volume of pure water at a standard temperature; see also
Density.
Spent catalyst catalyst that has lost much of its activity due to the deposition of coke and metals.
Stabilization the removal of volatile constituents from a higher boiling fraction or product (q.v.
stripping); the production of a product which, to all intents and purposes, does not undergo
any further reaction when exposed to the air.
Stabilizer a fractionating tower for removing light hydrocarbons from an oil to reduce vapor pressure
particularly applied to gasoline.
Standpipe the pipe by which catalyst is conveyed between the reactor and the regenerator.
Stationary phase in chromatography, the porous solid or liquid phase through which an introduced
sample passes. The different affinities the stationary phase has for a sample allow the components in the sample to be separated, or resolved.
Steam cracking a conversion process in which the feedstock is treated with superheated steam.
Steam distillation distillation in which vaporization of the volatile constituents is effected at a lower
temperature by introduction of steam (open steam) directly into the charge.
Steam drive injection (steam injection) EOR process in which steam is continuously injected into one set
of wells (injection wells) or other injection source to effect oil displacement toward and production from a second set of wells (production wells); steam stimulation of production wells is direct
steam stimulation, whereas steam drive by steam injection to increase production from other
wells is indirect steam stimulation.
Steam stimulation injection of steam into a well and the subsequent production of oil from the same well.
Stiles method a simple approximate method for calculating oil recovery by waterflood that assumes
separate layers (stratified reservoirs) for the permeability distribution.
Storage stability (or storage instability) the ability (inability) of a liquid to remain in storage over
extended periods of time without appreciable deterioration as measured by gum formation
and the depositions of insoluble material (sediment).
Straight-run asphalt the asphalt (q.v.) produced by the distillation of asphaltic crude oil.
Straight-run products obtained from a distillation unit and used without further treatment.
Strata layers including the solid iron-rich inner core, molten outer core, mantle, and crust of the earth.
Straw oil pale paraffin oil of straw color used for many process applications.
Stripper well a well that produces (strips from the reservoir) oil or gas.
Stripping a means of separating volatile components from less volatile ones in a liquid mixture by the
partitioning of the more volatile materials to a gas phase of air or steam (q.v. stabilization).
Sulfonic acids acids obtained by treatment of petroleum or a petroleum product with strong sulfuric
acid.
Sulfuric acid alkylation an alkylation process in which olefins (C3, C4, and C5) combine with iso-butane
in the presence of a catalyst (sulfuric acid) to form branched chain hydrocarbons used especially
in gasoline blending stock.
Supercritical fluid an extraction method where the extraction fluid is present at a pressure and temperature above its critical point.
Surface active material a chemical compound, molecule, or aggregate of molecules with physical
properties that cause it to adsorb at the interface between two immiscible liquids, resulting in
a reduction of interfacial tension or the formation of a microemulsion.
Surfactant a type of chemical, characterized as one that reduces interfacial resistance to mixing between
oil and water or changes the degree to which water wets reservoir rock.
Suspensoid catalytic cracking a nonregenerative cracking process in which cracking stock is mixed with
slurry of catalyst (usually clay) and cycle oil and passed through the coils of a heater.
SW-846 an EPA multi-volume publication entitled Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, Physical=
Chemical Methods; the official compendium of analytical and sampling methods that have been
evaluated and approved for use in complying with the RCRA regulations and that functions
primarily as a guidance document setting forth acceptable, although not required, methods forthe regulated and regulatory communities to use in responding to RCRA-related sampling and
analysis requirements. SW-846 changes over time, as new information and data are developed.
Sweated wax a crude wax freed from oil by having been passed through a sweater.
Sweating the separation of paraffin oil and low-melting wax from paraffin wax.
Sweep efficiency the ratio of the pore volume of reservoir rock contacted by injected fluids to the total
pore volume of reservoir rock in the project area. (See also areal sweep efficiency and vertical
sweep efficiency.)
Sweet crude oil crude oil containing little sulfur; see also Sour crude oil.
Sweetening the process by which petroleum products are improved in odor and color by oxidizing or
removing the sulfur-containing and unsaturated compounds.
Swelling increase in the volume of crude oil caused by absorption of EOR fluids, especially carbon
dioxide. Also increase in volume of clays when exposed to brine.
Swept zone the volume of rock that is effectively swept by injected fluids.
Synthetic crude oil (syncrude) a hydrocarbon product produced by the conversion of coal, oil shale, or
tar sand bitumen that resembles conventional crude oil; can be refined in a petroleum refinery
(q.v.).
Tar the volatile, brown to black, oily, viscous product from the destructive distillation of many
bituminous or other organic materials, especially coal; a name used for petroleum in ancient
texts.
Target analyte target analytes are compounds that are required analytes in U.S. EPA analytical
methods. BTEX and PAHs are examples of petroleum-related compounds that are target
analytes in U.S. EPA Methods.
Tar sand see Bituminous sand.
Tertiary structure the three-dimensional structure of a molecule.
Tetraethyl lead (TEL) an organic compound of lead, Pb(CH3)4, which, when added in small amounts,
increases the antiknock quality of gasoline.
Thermal coke the carbonaceous residue formed as a result of a noncatalytic thermal process; the
Conradson carbon residue; the Ramsbottom carbon residue.
Thermal cracking a process which decomposes, rearranges, or combines hydrocarbon molecules by the
application of heat, without the aid of catalysts.
Thermal polymerization a thermal process to convert light hydrocarbon gases into liquid fuels.
Thermal process any refining process which utilizes heat, without the aid of a catalyst.
Thermal recovery see EOR process.
Thermal reforming a process using heat (but no catalyst) to effect molecular rearrangement of lowoctane naphtha into gasoline of higher antiknock quality.
Thermal stability (thermal instability) the ability (inability) of a liquid to withstand relatively high
temperatures for short periods of time without the formation of carbonaceous deposits (sediment or coke).
Thermofor catalytic cracking a continuous, moving-bed catalytic cracking process.
Thermofor catalytic reforming a reforming process in which the synthetic, bead-type catalyst of coprecipitated chromia (Cr2O3) and alumina (Al2O3) flows down through the reactor concurrent with
the feedstock.
Thermofor continuous percolation a continuous clay treating process to stabilize and decolorize lubricants or waxes.
Thief zone any geologic stratum not intended to receive injected fluids in which significant amounts of
injected fluids are lost; fluids may reach the thief zone due to an improper completion or a faulty
cement job.
Thin layer chromatography (TLC) a chromatographic technique employing a porous medium of glass
coated with a stationary phase. An extract is spotted near the bottom of the medium and placed
in a chamber with solvent (mobile phase). The solvent moves up the medium and separates the
components of the extract, based on affinities for the medium and solvent.
Time-lapse logging the repeated use of calibrated well logs to quantitatively observe changes in measurable reservoir properties over time.Topped crude petroleum that has had volatile constituents removed up to a certain temperature, e.g.,
2508Cþ (4808Fþ) topped crude; not always the same as a residuum (q.v.).
Topping the distillation of crude oil to remove light fractions only
Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) the family of several hundred chemical compounds that originally
come from petroleum.
Tower equipment for increasing the degree of separation obtained during the distillation of oil in a still.
TPH E gas chromatographic test for TPH extractable organic compounds.
TPH V gas chromatographic test for TPH volatile organic compounds.
TPH-D(DRO) gas chromatographic test for TPH diesel-range organics.
TPH-G(GRO) gas chromatographic test for TPH gasoline-range organics.
Trace element those elements that occur at very low levels in a given system.
Tracer test a technique for determining fluid flow paths in a reservoir by adding small quantities of easily
detected material (often radioactive) to the flowing fluid, and monitoring their appearance at
production wells. Also used in cyclic injection to appraise oil saturation.
Transmissibility (transmissivity) an index of producibility of a reservoir or zone, the product of permeability and layer thickness.
Traps sediments in which oil and gas accumulate from which further migration (q.v.) is prevented.
Treatment any method, technique, or process that changes the physical and chemical character of
petroleum.
Triaxial borehole seismic survey a technique for detecting the orientation of hydraulically induced
fractures, wherein a tool holding three mutually seismic detectors is clamped in the borehole
during fracturing; fracture orientation is deduced through analysis of the detected microseismic
perpendicular events that are generated by the fracturing process.
Trickle hydrodesulfurization a fixed-bed process for desulfurizing middle distillates.
Trillion 1  1012
True boiling point (True boiling range) the boiling point (boiling range) of a crude oil fraction or a crude
oil product under standard conditions of temperature and pressure.
Tube-and-tank cracking a older liquid-phase thermal cracking process.
Ultimate analysis elemental composition.
Ultimate recovery the cumulative quantity of oil that will be recovered when revenues from further
production no longer justify the costs of the additional production.
Ultrafining a fixed-bed catalytic hydrogenation process to desulfurize naphtha and upgrade distillates by
essentially removing sulfur, nitrogen, and other materials.
Ultraforming a low-pressure naphtha-reforming process employing onstream regeneration of a platinum-on-alumina catalyst and producing high yields of hydrogen and high-octane-number
reformate.
Unassociated molecular weight the molecular weight of asphaltenes in an nonassociating (polar) solvent,
such as dichlorobenzene, pyridine, or nitrobenzene.
Unconformity a surface of erosion that separates younger strata from older rocks.
Unifining a fixed-bed catalytic process to desulfurize and hydrogenate refinery distillates.
Unisol process a chemical process for extracting mercaptan sulfur and certain nitrogen compounds from
sour gasoline or distillates using regenerable aqueous solutions of sodium or potassium hydroxide containing methanol.
Universal viscosity see Saybolt Universal viscosity.
Unresolved complex the thousands of compounds that a gas chromatograph mixture (UCM) is unable to
fully separate.
Unstable usually refers to a petroleum product that has more volatile constituents present or refers to the
presence of olefin and other unsaturated constituents.
UOP alkylation a process using hydrofluoric acid (which can be regenerated) as a catalyst to unite
olefins with iso-butane.
UOP copper sweetening a fixed-bed process for sweetening gasoline by converting mercaptans to
disulfides by contact with ammonium chloride and copper sulfate in a bed.
UOP fluid catalytic cracking a fluid process of using a reactor-over-regenerator design.
Upgrading the conversion of petroleum to value-added saleable products.Upper-phase microemulsion a microemulsion phase containing a high concentration of oil that, when
viewed in a test tube, resides on top of a water phase.
Urea dewaxing a continuous dewaxing process for producing low-pour-point oils, and using urea which
forms a solid complex (adduct) with the straight-chain wax paraffins in the stock; the complex is
readily separated by filtration.
Vacuum distillation distillation (q.v.) under reduced pressure.
Vacuum residuum a residuum (q.v.) obtained by distillation of a crude oil under vacuum (reduced
pressure); that portion of petroleum which boils above a selected temperature such as 5108C
(9508F) or 5658C (10508F).
Vapor-phase cracking a high-temperature, low-pressure conversion process.
Vapor-phase hydrodesulfurization a fixed-bed process for desulfurization and hydrogenation of naphtha.
Vertical sweep efficiency the fraction of the layers or vertically distributed zones of a reservoir that are
effectively contacted by displacing fluids.
Visbreaking a process for reducing the viscosity of heavy feedstocks by controlled thermal decomposition.
Viscosity a measure of the ability of a liquid to flow or a measure of its resistance to flow; the force
required to move a plane surface of area 1 m2 over another parallel plane surface 1 m away at a
rate of 1 m=sec when both surfaces are immersed in the fluid.
VGC (viscosity–gravity constant) an index of the chemical composition of crude oil defined by the
general relation between specific gravity, sg, at 608F and Saybolt universal viscosity, SUV, at
1008F:
a ¼ 10sg 1:0752 logðSUV 38Þ=10sg logðSUV 38Þ
The constant, a, is low for the paraffin crude oils and high for the naphthenic crude oils.
VI (viscosity index) an arbitrary scale used to show the magnitude of viscosity changes in lubricating oils
with changes in temperature.
Viscosity–gravity constant see VGC.
Viscosity index see VI.
VOC (VOCs) volatile organic compound or componds; volatile organic compounds are regulated
because they are precursors to ozone; carbon-containing gases and vapors from incomplete
gasoline combustion and from the evaporation of solvents.
Volatile compounds a relative term that may mean (1) any compound that will purge, (2) any compound
that will elute before the solvent peak (usually those < C6), or (3) any compound that will not
evaporate during a solvent removal step.
Volumetric sweep the fraction of the total reservoir volume within a flood pattern that is effectively
contacted by injected fluids.
VSP vertical seismic profiling, a method of conducting seismic surveys in the borehole for detailed
subsurface information.
Waterflood injection of water to displace oil from a reservoir (usually a secondary recovery process).
Waterflood mobility ratio mobility ratio of water displacing oil during waterflooding. (See also mobility
ratio.)
Waterflood residual the waterflood residual oil saturation; the saturation of oil remaining after waterflooding in those regions of the reservoir that have been thoroughly contacted by water.
Watson characterization factor see Characterization factor.
Wax see Mineral wax and Paraffin wax.
Wax distillate a neutral distillate containing a high percentage of crystallizable paraffin wax, obtained
on the distillation of paraffin or mixed-base crude, and on reducing neutral lubricating stocks.
Wax fractionation a continuous process for producing waxes of low oil content from wax concentrates;
see also MEK deoiling.
Wax manufacturing a process for producing oil-free waxes.
Weathered crude oil crude oil which, due to natural causes during storage and handling, has lost an
appreciable quantity of its more volatile components; also indicates uptake of oxygen.
Wellbore the hole in the earth comprising a well.Well completion the complete outfitting of an oil well for either oil production or fluid injection; also the
technique used to control fluid communication with the reservoir.
Wellhead that portion of an oil well above the surface of the ground.
Wet gas gas containing a relatively high proportion of hydrocarbons which are recoverable as liquids;
see also Lean gas.
Wet scrubbers devices in which a counter-current spray liquid is used to remove impurities and
particulate matter from a gas stream.
Wettability the relative degree to which a fluid will spread on (or coat) a solid surface in the presence of
other immiscible fluids.
Wettability number a measure of the degree to which a reservoir rock is water-wet or oil-wet, based on
capillary pressure curves.
Wettability reversal the reversal of the preferred fluid wettability of a rock, e.g., from water-wet to oilwet, or vice versa.
White oil a generic term applied to highly refined, colorless hydrocarbon oils of low volatility, and
covering a wide range of viscosity.
Wobbe Index (or Wobbe Number) the calorific value of a gas divided by the specific gravity.
Wood alcohol see Methyl alcohol.
Zeolite a crystalline aluminosilicate used as a catalyst, which has a particular chemical and physical
structure.
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