Technical Drawing

Technical Drawing
اسم المؤلف
Giesecke, Mitchell, Apencer
التاريخ
31 أغسطس 2021
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Technical Drawing
Giesecke, Mitchell, Apencer
Contents
1 the Graphic Language
2 Mechanical Drawing
3 Lettering
4 Geometrical Constructions
5 Technical Sketching and Shape Description
6 Multiview Projection
7 Sectional Views
8 Auxiliary Views
9 Revolutions
10 Shop Processes
11 Dimensioning
12 Tolerancing
13 Threads, Fasteners, and Springs
14 Working Drawings
15 Axonometric Projection
16 Oblique Projection
17 Perspective
18 Intersections and Developments
19 Gearing and Cams
20 Graphs
21 Engineering Graphics
22 Structural Drafting
23 Topographic Drawing and Mapping
24 Piping Drafting
25 Welding Representation
26 Aeronautical Drafting
27 Shading
28 Patent Drafting
29 Reproduction of Drawings
Appendix
Index
(numbers listed are page numbers)
Abbreviations, ASA, 788
Abscissa, 601
Accumulation of tolerances, 343
Accuracy, 12, 34
Acme thread, 356, 363
American St’d (table), 801
Addition charts, 637
Adjacent areas, 171
Aeronautical draftings, 724
books on, 773
design practice, 727, 731
dimensions in, 726
installation drawings in, 732
lettering in, 726
problems, 745
scales in, 727
views in, 727
working drawings in, 732
Algebraic solution graphs, 639
Aligned dimension figures, 305
Aligned sections, 257
Alignment charts, 613, 623
common forms of, 624
Allowance, 336
Alphabet, inclined, 77
vertical, 76
Alphabet of lines, 21
Alternate 4-center ellipse, 494, 522
Alternate section lining, 219
American Standard
abbreviations, 788
Acme threads (table), 801
bolts and nuts, 374
table, 802
cap screws, 379
tables, 802, 804
cast iron flanges and fittings (table), 824-827
cast iron screwed fittings (table), 822, 823
code for pressure piping, 704
cotter pins (table), 813
lettering, 66
limits and fits, 341
tables, 792-798
machine screws, 381
table, 805
pipe threads, 370
table, 820
piping symbols, 704, 816
plain washers (table), 809
rivets, 386, 387
set screws, 381
sheet sizes, 57
symbols for electrical diagrams, 818, 819
taper pins (table), 812
thread fits, 367
threads (National), 356, 367
Unified and American threads (table), 799
wood screws, 383
Woodruff keys, 385
table, 807
wrought steel pipe (table), 820
American Standards, list of, 773
Ames Lettering Instrument, 74, 305
Ammonia development, 767
829830 INDEX
Angles, 91
dihedral, 240
dimensioning, 306
drafting, 27
in civil engineering, 306
in isometric, 487
in oblique, 523
to bisect, 94
to lay out, 99
to transfer, 94
tolerances of, 340, 353
true size of, 177, 240
Angular perspective, 533
Annealing, 293
Approximate ellipse, 117
Approximate 4-center ellipse, 492
Arc
tangent to arcs, 108
tangent to lines, 106-108
to rectify, 110
Arcs, 92
dimensioning, 307
in isometric, 494
sketching, 134
Architects scale, 29
use of, 30
Area charts, 616
Area law, 645
graphical solution, 647
Areas, adjacent, 171
Arithmetic plottings, 607
Arrowheads, 302
Artgum, 22
Assembly drawings, 398, 404
aeronautical, 732
check, 413
exploded, 498, 725
general, 406
installation, 413
sectioning in, 409
sub-assembly, 408
threads in, 367
working-drawing, 410
Auxiliary plane, 233
Auxiliary sections, 244
Auxiliary views, 233
classification of, 237
depth, 238
ellipses in, 249
half, 243
height, 238
hidden lines in, 243
partial, 242
problems in, 249
reference planes for, 235
secondary, 245
successive, 245
width, 239
Axes, isometric, 485
oblique, 517
of graphs, 601
Axes of ellipse, to find, 114
Axis of revolution, 258
Axonometric projection, 480, 481
method of intersections, 504
problems, 509
sketching in, 131
Backing sheet, 14, 44
Bar graphs, 597
design and layout of, 614
Base-line dimensioning, 343
Basic
hole system, 337
shaft system, 338
size, 336
Batter, 306
Bead welds, 718
Beam connections (tables), 814
Bearings, 685
Bends, 740
Bevel gears, 584
definitions and formulas, 584
nomenclature of, 585
working drawings of, 585
Bevels, 306
Bibliography, 773
Bilateral tolerances, 339
Bisect angle, 94
Bisect line or arc, 93
Blocking-in (freehand), 133
views (mechanical), 398
Blue-line blueprints, 765
Blueprint process, 763
Blueprint reading, 7, 169
books on, 775
Bolt circle, 314
Bolts, 372
American St’d, 374
table, 802
high-strength, 675
miscellaneous, 383
series of, 374
specifications of, 378
threads on, 375
to draw, 375
Books, related, 773
Boring, 282, 286
Boring mill, 279
Bow instruments, 40
use of, 41
Box construction
isometric, 486
oblique, 520
Braddock-Rowe triangle, 74, 305
Break lines, 21INDEX 831
in auxiliary views, 243
in graphs, 601
in sections, 214
use of, 168, 222
Breaks, conventional, 223
Brick construction, 680
Bridge, plan and elevation of, 692
Bridge, timber, 666
Brinell hardness, 270
Broaching, 281
Broken-out section, 214
Brush, dusting, 22
Buttock lines, 741
Buttress thread, 356, 364
Butt-welded fittings, 701
Cabinet drawing, 517
Cadastral maps, 684
Calculus
differential, 640
graphical, 640
integral, 647
problems in, 661
Calipers, 285
Cam problems, 595
Cams, 579, 589
books on, 775
cylindrical, 592
disk, 590
Cap screws, 372
American St’d, 379
tables, 803, 84
Capital letters
guide lines for, 73
inclined, 76
large and small, 74
vertical, 75
Carburizing, 293
Cartography, 684
Casting, sand, 271
Cast iron pipe, 698
Cavalier drawing, 517
Center lines, 21, 146, 301
isometric, 486
Center of vision, 533
Centers, shaft, 323
table, 825
Chamfers, dimensioning, 323
Changes on drawings, 402, 767
Charts, 597
addition and subtraction, 637
alignment, 613, 623
common forms of, 624
axes for, 601
books on, 776
column or bar, 614
distribution, 619
flow, 619
logarithmic line, 609
map distribution, 619
N-, 634
network, 638
organization, 619
pie, 617
polar, 612
proportional, 636
scales for, 601
semi-logarithmic, 606
design of, 608
surface or area, 616
time-series, 598
trilinear, 610
volume, 618
Check assembly, 413
Check drawings, 402
Check valves, 704
Checker-board survey, 689
Chord, 92
Circle, 92
in perspective, 545
of centers, 314
revolved, 264
sketching a, 133
tangent to line, 105
through 3 points, 104
to draw, 37, 41
to find center, 104
Circular drawing machine, 508
Circumference, 92
City maps, 689
Clean drawings, 13, 22
Clearance fit, 336
tables on, 794, 795
Cloth, tracing, 57
Coarse thread series, 367, 368
Column charts, 614
Compass, 36, 685
beam, 38
giant bow, 36
lead points, 36
use of, 36
Concentric circles, 113
Concrete construction, 677
drawings for, 677
Condensed lettering, 65
Cone, 93
development of, 558, 561
dimensioning a, 312
oblique, 561
Conic sections, 111
Connections, riveted beam, 672
Constants of integration, 651
Contact prints, 767
Contour dimensioning, 309
Contour interval, 687832 INDEX
Contour pen, 45
Contoured surface patterns, 742
Contours, 684, 687, 695
from control points, 687
tolerances for, 352
Conventional
breaks, 223
edges, 186
Conversion scales, 627
lines, 20, 21
Coordinate axes (graphs), 601
Coordinate papers, 599
Copper tubing, 699
Copyflex, Bruning, 1188
Core, 272
Cored hole, 272
Corners, projections of, 165, 170
Cotter pins, 385
table, 813
Counterbored hole, 184, 282
Counterrevolution, 265
Countersunk hole, 183, 282, 288
Cross-section, 207
Cross-section paper, 130
in oblique sketching, 152
Cube, 93, 553
Curve fitting (graphs), 605
Curve line types, 605
Curve shapes (graphs), 603
Curved surfaces, 178
dimensioning, 324
Curves, adjustable, 53
dimensioning, 317
elliptical, 182
graph, 604
irregular, 53
isometric, 489
perspective, 545
plotted, 241
power, 657
ship, 741
space, 182
tangent, 109, 110
Cutting plane, 207
Cutting-plane line, 21, 207-209
Cycle designation (charts), 609
Cycloid, to draw, 122
Cylinders, 93
and ellipses, 181
deformities of, 180
development, 555, 557
intersections of, 183, 570
oblique, 557
size dimensions of, 31
1
Cylindrical
cams, 592
surfaces, 178
Dardelet thread, 379
Datum plane, 235
Decagon, 92
Decimal
dimension figures, 304
dimensions, 303
scale, 29, 32, 33
system, complete, 327
Deformities of cylinders, 1 80
Depth auxiliary views, 238
Depth dimension, transfer, 164
Descriptive geometry, 5, 6
books on, 776
Design, 396
aeronautical, 727
do’s and don’ts, 293
evolution of, 395
layout, 396, 731
size, 336
Detail drawings, 273, 397, 732
Detailed threads, 359
Details per sheet, 398
Developed drawing (piping), 704
Development, 552, 553
cone, right circular, 558
cylinders, 555, 570
oblique cone, 561
oblique cylinder, 557
oblique prism, 556
oblique pyramid, 560
of a sphere, 565
of transition pieces, 562-565
prism, right, 555
prisms, 566-569
problems, 575
pyramid, right, 557
Diagrams, 597
displacement, 589
functional, 730
Diazzo-dry process, 766
Diazzo-moist prints, 765
Die casting, 276
Differential calculus, 640
Differentiation
graphical, 641
Ray-polygon method, 644
Dihedral angles, 240
Dimension figures, 304
direction of reading, 305
guide lines for, 78
staggered, 305
to letter, 78, 304
Dimension line, 21, 300
Dimensioning, 298
aircraft, 726
angles, 306
arcs, 307
base-line, 343INDEX 833
chamfers, 323
contour, 309
curved surfaces, 324
curves, 318
decimal figures in, 304
do’s and don’ts, 329
geometric break-down in, 300, 309
holes, 313
isometric, 497
keyways, 323
knurls, 324
lines used in, 300
notes, 313, 320-322
oblique, 524
piping, 707
prisms, 310
problems, 331
rounded-end shapes, 3i8
tapers, 322
technique of, 299
threads, 322
true-position, 346
Dimensions, 298
and section lines, 305
choice of, 300
for locating holes, 315
forging, 317
fractional and decimal. 303
in inches, 306
limit, 335, 336, 340
location, 310, 314
machine, 317
mating, 316
of prisms, 311
on or off views, 308
pattern, 317
placement of, 299, 301
reference, 314
size, 310, 311
superfluous, 319, 320
tabular, 324
tolerance, 334, 336
truss, 676
Dimetric
drawing, approx., 501
exploded, 502
graph paper, 500
piping drawing, 705
projection, 482, 498
sketching, 501
stencil, 501
Diplacement diagrams. 589
Distribution charts, 619
Divide line into equal parts, 96
Dividers, 38
proportional, 39
use of, 39
Division graphs, 638
Dodecagon, 92
Dodecahedron, 552
Do’s and don’ts of dimensioning, 329
Double curved surface, 553
Double thread, 358
Draft, on castings, 272
on forgings, 292
Drafting (See drawing)
aeronautical, 724
angles, 27
at home or school, 13
machines, 55
objectives in, 12
standards, 6, 773
structural, 663
structural steel, 667
tape, 15, 16
Drag, 272
Drawing (See drafting)
assembly, 397, 404, 732
boards, 14, 15
books, 773
checking, 402
detail, 397, 732
early, 3
equipment, 1
1
for aeronautical drafting, 726
ink, 45, 48
instruments, 4, 34, 776
isometric, 483
mechanical, 1
1
numbers, 401
paper, 56
Patent Office, 398
pencils, 16
pictorial, 480
piping, 705
reading a, 172
revisions, 402
structural, 663
types of, 2
undimensioned, 734
Drawings
installation, 733
mock-up, 731
model, 731
preliminary, 730
proposal, 731
reproduction of, 737, 763
Drill, tap, 373
Drill press, 278
Drill sizes (table), 801
Drilled hole, 184, 282, 288, 373
Drop forging, 291
Drop spring bow compass, 42
Ducks, 741
Duplicate tracings, 767
Dusting brush, 22834 INDEX
Edges, 553
conventional, 186
inclined, 175
normal, 174
oblique, 176
parallel, 176
projections of, 170, 174
Edison, sketch by, 395
Electrical diagram symbols, 818, 819
Electrical drawing books, 776
Elements, 178, 566
Elevation view, 141
Elevations, 684
Ellipse, 111
alternate four-center, 494, 522
approximate, 117
axes of, to find, 1 14
center of, to find, 115
concentric-circle, 113
definition of, 111
foci, 112
four-center, 492, 521
from revolved circle, 264
guides, 495, 500
isometric, 149, 490-495
oblique, 521, 522
oblique-circk, l 1 ‘
Orth four-center, 493
parallelogram, 114
pin and string, 112
sketching on, 135, 149
tangents to, 115
templates, 116, 494, 500
trammell, 112
trimetric, 503
Ellipses and cylinders, 181
Ellipses in auxiliary views, 249
Ellipsoid, 93, 553
Elliptical curves, 181
Empirical equations, 653, 655
Engine lathe, 277
Engineer, the young, 394
Engineering drawing (concrete), 679
Engineering drawing books, 777
Engineering graph, 598
Engineering graphics, 623
problems on, 659
Engineering master layouts, 736
Engineers scale, 29, 32, 626
Enlarging a drawing, 104
Epicycloid, 123
Equations, empirical, 653, 655
Equator, 565
Equilateral triangle, 99
Erasers, 22
Erasing, 22
ink, 52
machine, 22
shield, 22
Esperanto, 1
Etchings, line, 769
Exploded
assemblies, 498, 725
dimetric, 502
isometric, 499
Extended lettering, 65
Extension line, 21, 301
Extra-Fine Threads, S.A.E., 368
Facing, 286
Faired lines, 741
Fastener problems, 391
Fasteners, 354, 384
Feather key, 384
Feet and inches, 305
Figure of intersection, 566
Figures, dimension, 304
Fillet welds, 715
Fillets and rounds, 185, 274, 307
Fine thread series, 367, 368
Finish marks, 273, 307
Finished surfaces, 185, 307
dimensions to, 314
First-angle projection, 188
Fits, 303-336
ASA, 341
tables on, 792-798
American Nat’l thread, 367
Unified thread, 369
Fittings, pipe, 699, 701
Fixtures, 290
Flanged fittings, 701
Flash welds, 721
Flask, 272
Flat pattern layouts, 739
Flow charts, 619
Foci ellipse, 112
Folding lines, 161, 234
Foot marks, 305
Force fits, 342
table, 798
Forging, 291
Forging design, 292
Forging dimensions, 317
Foundry, 275
Four-center ellipse, isometric, 492
oblique, 521
Fractions, guide lines for, 77
in dimensioning, 304
lettering of, 78
“Freak” values (graphs), 602
Freehand sketching (See sketching)
French curves, 53
Frontal plane, 160
Full sections, 206
in isometric, 496INDEX 835
Functional diagrams, 730
Functional scales, 625
Funicular polygon method, 649
Gages, fixed, 285
Gate valves, 704
Gear tooth, shape of, 582
involute, 582
Gearing problems, 593
Gears, 579
bevel, 584
definitions and formulas for, 584
nomenclature, 585
working drawings of, 585
spur, 580
definitions and formulas for, 581
working drawings of, 583
worm, 586
working drawings of, 588
General arrangement drawing, 728
Generatrix, 552
Geodedic Survey, U.S., 695
Geological Survey, U.S., 695
Geometric breakdown, 300, 309
Geometric construction, 90
problems, 123
Geometric tolerances, 349
Giant bow set, 35
Glass box, 160, 234
Globe valves, 703
Gothic letters, 65, 83
Grade, 306
Grant’s Odontograph, 583
Graphic language, 1
Graphical calculus, 640
Graphical differentiation, 641
area law in, 646
Ray-polygon method of, 644
Graphical representation, 2, 597
Graphics
books on, 777
engineering, 7, 623
problems, 659
Graphs, 597
addition and subtraction, 637
algebraic solution, 639
axes for, 601
bar, 597, 614
books on, 776
curve fitting in, 605
engineering, 598
grids of, 599
line, 597
line types on, 605
logarithmic line, 609
mathematical, 598
multiplication and division, 638
notes on, 606
points and curves on, 604
polar coordinate, 612
layout of, 613
problems in, 620
scales for, 601
semi-logarithmic, 606
design of, 608
titles on, 606
trilinear line, 610
layout of, 611
Greek alphabet, 87
Grid, perspective, 547
Grids and composition, 599
Grinding machine, 279
Groove welds, 717
Guide lines, 72
devices for drawing, 74
for capital letters, 73
for fractions, 77
for lower-case letters, 79
for numerals, 77
inclined, 73
spacing of, 73
vertical, 73
Guides, ellipse, 494, 495
Half auxiliary views, 243
Half sections, 213
in isometric, 496
Half views, 168, 222
Handbooks, 778
Hardening, 293
Hatchures, 684
Heat treating, 293
Hectographing, 769
Height auxiliary views, 238
Helix, to draw, 121
Henry Tank Pen, 69
Heptagon, 92
Hexagon, 92
to draw, 100
Hidden lines, 21, 144
in auxiliary views, 243
in sections, 208
Hieroglyphics, 1
High strength steel bolting, 675
Highway plans, 693, 694
History of technical drawing, 2
Holes
dimensioning, 313
drilled, 282, 373
locating, 313, 315
tapped, 373
to draw, 184
to produce, 282
Hoover Dam, 692
Horizon, 530, 534
Horizontal lines, drawing, 23836 INDEX
Horizontal plane, 160
Hyperbola, 1 1
1
to draw, 119
Hyperboloid, 553
Hypocycloid, 123
Icosahedron, 553
Illustration, production, 742
Inboard profile, 729
Inch marks, 305
Inclined edges, 175
Inclined lines, 26, 175
in perspective, 543
Inclined surfaces, 174
in isometric, 485
Ink
drawing, 45
erasing, 52
lettering, 71
lines, 49
tracing, 49
use of, 48
Inking, order of, 51
Installation assembly, 413
Installation drawings, 733
Instrumaster isometric stencil, 494
Instruments, drawing, 5, 34
Integral calculus, 647
Integral curve, ordinate scale of, 650
Integration, 647
constants of, 651
mechanical methods of, 652
semi-graphical, 651
Interchangeable manufacturing, 299, 334
Interference fit, 337
table, 797
Interpolation, 688
Intersections
and developments, 552
and tangencies, 182
cone and cylinder, 573
cylinders, 183, 495, 570
in isometric, 495
in sections, 222
method of (trimetric), 504
plane and cylinder, 555
plane and prism, 555
planes and solids, 553
principles of, 553, 566
prism and cone, 572
prisms, 566-569
problems in, 575
solids, 566
sphere and cylinder, 574
Involute, to draw, 122
gear tooth form, 582
Irregular curves, 53, 54
Isometric
angles in, 487
arcs, 494
axes, 485
box construction, 486
center lines, 486
curves in, 489
dimensioning, 497
drawing, 483
ellipses in, 149, 490
exploded, 499
intersections, 495
irregular objects in, 488
paper, 151
piping drawings, 709
projection, 482
scale, 483
sectioning, 489, 496
sketching, 148
sphere, 495
Isosceles triangle, 92
Jig, drill, 290
Jig borer, 280
Joints, pipe, 698, 701
welded, 703, 712
Keys, 384
cotter, 385
on graphs, 606
Pratt & Whitney, 384
table, 808
square and flat, 384
table, 806
Woodruff, 385
table, 807
Keyways, dimensioning, 323
King post timber bridge, 666
Knuckle thread, 356
Knurls, dimensioning, 324
Lathe, 277
Layouts, design, 396, 731
flat pattern, 739
master, 736
Lead of thread, 355, 357
Leaders, 302
Left-hand parts, 187
Left-hand threads, 357
Left-handed lettering, 71
Legends on graphs, 606
Leonardo da Vinci, 4
Leroy Lettering Instrument, 82
Leroy pen, 69
Letterguide, 83
Lettering, 64
American Standard, 66
books on, 778
devices, 82INDEX 837
exercises, 87
guide lines for, 72
history of, 64
in aeronautical drafting 726
inclined capital, 76
ink, 71
instruments, 82, 83
left-handed, 71
lower-case, 79, 80
on maps, 86
optical illusions in, 67
pencils, 67, 71
pens, 68, 69
single-stroke Gothic, 66
stability in, 67
styles of, 65
technique of, 70
triangles, 74
uniformity in, 67
vertical capital, 75
Letters, extended and condensed, 6
Gothic, 83
lightface and boldface, 66
Modern Roman, 85
Old Roman, 84, 85
spacing of, 80
Level, 686
Light rays, conventional, 748
Lighting for drafting, 14
Limit dimensions, 335, 336, 340
Limits and fits, ASA, 341
tables on, 792-798
Line, 90
charts, 597
logarithmic, 609
rectangular coordinate, 598
trilinear, 610
types of, 598
divided into equal parts, 96
divided into proportional parts, 96
etching, 769
graph, 597
perpendicular to line, 97
to bisect, 94
true length of, 245, 262
Line gage, 50
Linead, perspective, 541
Lines, alphabet of, 21
buttock, 741
center, 146
conventional, 20
drawing horizontal, 23
drawing vertical, 24
faired, 741
hidden, 144
inclined, 26
ink, 46, 49, 50
meaning of, 148
parallel, 28, 95, 176
perpendicular, 28
precedence of, 148
projections of, 171
section, 207
sketching, 131
station, 741
straight, 90
technique of, 44
water, 741
Lintels, 681
Local notes, 321
Location dimensions, 310, 311
for holes, 314
Locational fits, 342
Lock washers, 379
table, 810
Locknuts, 379
Lofting, 741
Log cycle sector, 608
Log scale designation, 609
Logarithmic
line charts, 609
parallel-scale nomographs, 631
Lower-case letters, 79, 80
guide lines for, 79
Machine
design, books on, 778
dimensions, 317
operations, 285
pins, 385
screws, 381
table, 805
shop, 277
tools, 277
Machinist’s rule, 284
Manufacturing methods, 270
Map charts, 618
Maps, 683
books on, 687, 779
city, 689
definitions for, 683
lettering on, 86
symbols for, 815
topographic, 618, 683
United States, 695
Master layouts, 736
Mathematical graph, 598
Mating
dimensions, 316
parts, 316
fits between, 335, 336
Maximum material condition, 348
Measuring in shop, 284
Mechanical draftsman’s scale, 29, 33
Mechanical drawing, 1
1
problems, 59838 INDEX
three views, 166
two views, 163
Mechanism, books on, 779
Meridian, 565
Metal ring connectors, 667
Metals, hot and cold working, 291
Meter, 298
Microfilm, 768
Milling machine, 278
Mimeographing, 769
Mock-up drawings, 731
Model drawings, 731
Models, 170
Modern Roman letters, 85
Modulus, scale, 626
Monument, 684
Mosaic map, 687
Multiple threads, 357
Multiplication graphs, 638
Multiview
perspective, 531
piping drawings, 705-708
problems, 189
projection, 138, 159, 481
sketching, 131
Natural scale N-charts, 6j4
Neatness in drafting, 13, 22
Network charts, 638
Nominal size, 336
Nomographs, 613, 623
common forms of, 624
logarithmic, 631
parallel-scale, 628
problems in, 659
Nonagon, 92
Non-isometric lines, 487
Normal edges, 173
Normal surfaces, 173
in isometric, 484
Normalizing, 293
Notes, 313, 320-322
on graphs, 606
thread, 369
Numbering of points, 165, 171
Numerals
guide lines for, 77
inclined, 77
vertical, 77
Numbers, drawing, 401
Nuts, Amer. St’d, 374
Oblique
angles in, 523
box construction in, 520
circle ellipse, 1 14
cone, 561
cylinder, 557
dimensioning in, 524
edges, 176
piping drawing, 705
positions in, 519
prism, 556
problems, 525
pyramid, 560
sections in, 524
sketching in, 131, 151, 525
steps in, 519
surfaces, 175, 177, 246
Octagon, 92
to draw, 101
Octahedron, 553
Odontograph, Grant’s, 582, 583
Offset
ellipse, 490, 522
location measurements, 485, 522
printing, 769
sections, 217-219, 489
Ogee curve, 110
Old English letters, 65
Old Roman letters, 84
Optical illusions, 67
Ordinate (graphs), 601
Ordinate scale of integral curve, 650
Organization charts, 619
Orth four-center ellipse, 493
Orthographic projection, 10, 481
compared with oblique 515
Ozalid Streamliner, 765
Paper
coordinate, 599
cross-section, 130
drawing, 56
fastening to board, 16
tracing, 57
Parabola, 111, 244
to draw, 117
to find focus of, 118
Parabolic curve, 118
Parallel
edges, 176
lines, 91, 95, 176
ruling straightedge, 50
scale nomographs, 628
Parallelepiped, 93
Parallelogram, 92
ellipse, 114
Partial auxiliary views, 242
Partial views, 168, 222
Parts list, 401
Patent drawing, 398, 753
books on, 779
Pattern, 272, 274
contoured surface, 742
dimensions, 317INDEX 839
layouts, 739
shop, 272
Pencil, 16
drawing technique, 42
grades, 17
lettering, 71
points, 19
Pencils, drawing, 16
lettering, 68
sharpening, 18
sketching, 130
tracing, 43
Pens, Henry Tank, 69
Leroy, 69
lettering, 68
Rapidograph, 70
special lettering, 69
Speedball, 65, 69
Pentagon, 92
to draw, 100
Perpendicular lines, 28
to draw, 97
Perspective, 8, 481, 529
angular, 533
books on, 779
circles and curves in, 545
diagram, 546
grid, 547
linead, 541
measurements in, 542
multiview, 531
plan method, 546
problems, 548
set-up for, 531
sketching in, 131, 152, 547
template, 541
three-point, 535, 540
three types of, 535
two-point, 537
Phantom lines, 21
for threads, 364
Phantom sections, 217
Photo templates, 739
Photogrammetry, 686
Photographic contact prints, 767
Photostats, 768
Pi, 92
Pictorial drawing, 480
Picture plane, 530
location of, 534
Pie charts, 617
Pin and string ellipse, 112
Pins, 385
cotter (table), 813
taper (table), 812
Pipe, 697
cast iron, 821
copper, 699
fittings, 699, 701
tables, 822-824
joints, 698, 702
seamless brass and copper, 699
special, 700
steel and wrought-iron, 697
threads, 370
table, 820
types of, 397
valves, 703
wrought steel (table), 820
Piping, 697
diagrams, 498
dimensioning, 707
drawings, 697, 705
books on, 779
problems, 708
symbols, 704, 816
Pitch of thread, 355, 357
Placing drawing, 679
Plane surface, 552
Planer, 279
Planes
frontal, 171
horizontal, 171
of projection, 159, 188
profile, 171
reference, 235
Planimeter, 652
Platonic solids, 553
Plats, 683
survey, 685
Plotted curves, 241
Plug welds, 718
Points, 90
on graphs, 604
projecting, 165, 182
Polar coordinate line charts, 612
design and layout of, 613
Polar planimeter, 652
Polygon, 92
Polyhedra, 553
Positional tolerances, 345
Powder metallurgy, 277
Power curves, 657
Pratt & Whitney keys, 384
table, 808
Precedence of lines, 148
Preliminary drawings, 730
Primary auxiliary views, 243, 245
Printing {See lettering)
Prisms, 93
development of, 555, 556
dimensioning, 310, 311
intersection of, 566
oblique, 556
Production illustration, 742
books on, 779840 INDEX
Profile, 684
dimensioning, 324
highway, 693
inboard, 729
plane, 160
Projection, 9
axonometric, 486
cabinet, 518
cavalier, 518
classification of. 9
dimetric, 482, 498
first-angle, 6, 188
four types of, 481
isometric, 482
multiview, 138, 159, 481
parallel, 9, 10
perspective, 481, 529
planes of, 159, 188
oblique, 10, 481, 514
of angles, 177
of corners, 170
of edges, 170, 174
of surfaces, 170, 173, 175
of third view, 165
orthographic, 10
third-angle, 6, 159
trimetric, 482, 502
types of, 8, 9, 131
welds, 721
Projectors, 10, 160
direction of (oblique), 516
Proportional charts. 637
Proportional dividers, 40
Proportional parts, 96
Proposal drawings, 731
Protractors, 26
Pyramid, 93, 557
development of, 557, 560
dimensioning a, 312
oblique, 560
right, 557
Pythagoras, theorem of, 92
Quadrant, 92
Quadrilateral, 92
Rectify an arc, 110
Reference dimension, 314
Reference plane, 235, 244, 247
Reinforced concrete drawings, 677
Reinhardt letters, 66
Removed sections, 215
Removed views, 168
Reproduction, of drawings, 763
of undimensioned drawings, 737
Residuals, computation of, 654
Revisions, 402
Revolution, 258
axes of, 258
conventions, 264
of circle, 264
problems, 266
Revolutions, 258
primary, 259
successive, 260
Revolved features (in sections), 220
Revolved section, 215
Revolving a drawing, 240
Rhomboid, 92
Rhombus, 92
Ribs in section, 218, 221
Right-hand parts, 187
Right-hand threads, 357
Rivet symbols, 387
Riveted beam connections, 672
Riveted joints, 386
Rivets, 386, 671
Roman letters, 65
Roof truss, 665
Root of thread, 355
Rough surfaces, 185, 307
Roughness, surface, 325
Rounded-end shapes, 318
Rounds and fillets, 185, 274, 307
Ruled surface, 552
Ruling pens, 45
to sharpen, 51
use of, 46
Running fit, 341
tables, 792, 793
Runouts, 185
Rack teeth, 583
Railroad pen, 45
Rapidograph pen, 70
Rate-of-change chart, 606
Ray-polygon method, 644
Reading a drawing, 7, 169, 172
Reamed hole, to draw, 184
Reaming, 282
Receding axis (oblique), 517
Rectangle, 92
Rectangular coordinate line charts, 598
steps in drawing, 599
“S” breaks, 223
S.A.E. Extra Fine Threads, 368
Sand casting, 271
Sandpaper pad, 19
Scale
architects, 30
decimal, 33, 328
engineers, 32, 626
isometric, 483
modulus, 626
Scale guard, 30
Scalene triangle, 92INDEX 841
Scales
conversion, 627
dimetric, 500
functional, 625
graph, 601, 603
in aeronautical drafting, 727
of drawings, 30, 299
of sketches, 131
to indicate, 33
trimetric, 502
types of, 29
uses of, 30, 32, 34
Scatter diagrams, 619
Schematic threads, 364
Scotch drafting tape, 15
Screwed fittings, 701
Screws, 372
American St’d Cap, 379, 380
tables, 803, 804
American St’d Machine, 381
table, 805
American St’d Set, 381
American St’d Wood, 383
miscellaneous, 383
Screw threads (See Threads)
Seamless brass and copper pipe, 699
Seam welds, 720
Secondary auxiliary views, 245
Secant, 92
Section lines, 21, 207-209, 410
sectioning problems, 224
Sections, 206
aligned, 220
alternate, 219
assembly, 409
auxiliary, 244
broken-out, 214
dimensions over, 305
full, 206
half, 213
intersections in, 222
isometric, 489, 496
oblique, 524
of thin parts, 409
offset, 217-219
phantom, 217
removed, 215
revolved, 215
ribs in, 218, 221
spokes in, 221
visualizing, 212
Sector, 92
for spacing, 627
log cycle, 608
Segment, 92
Selective assembly, 337
Semi-graphical integration, 651
Semi-logarithmic charts, 606
design of, 608
Set screws, 372, 381
Shade lines, 747, 748
Shading, 747, 757-762
exercises, 751
of geometric solids, 751
surface, 750
Shaft centers, 323
table, 825
Shape description, 129, 159, 298
Shaper, 279
Shapes, structural steel, 670
Sharp-V thread, 356
Sheet metal bends, 324
Sheet metal drafting, 552
books on, 779
Sheet sizes, ASA, 57
Shop processes, 269
and tolerances, 344
books on, 780
Simplified drafting, 403
Simplified threads, 364
Simpson’s Rule, 252
Single-curved surfaces, 552
Single threads, 357
Size, basic, 336
design, 336
nominal, 336
Size description, 298
Size dimensions, 310
of cylinders, 311
of holes, 313
of miscellaneous shapes, 312
of prisms, 311
Skeleton construction, 520
Sketching, 7, 129
axonometric, 131
blocking-in for, 137
books on, 780
dimetric, 501
isometric, 148
materials, 130
multiview, 131
oblique, 131, 151, 524
on isometric paper, 151
pencils, 131
perspective, 131, 152, 547
problems, 153, 189
sections, 225
views, 146
Sliding fit, 341
tables on, 792, 793
Slope, 306
Slope law, 641
Slopes (graphs), 603
Slot welds, 718
Slots, dimensioning of, 318
Soap models, 170342 IMDEX
Solder fittings, 700
Solids, 553
intersections of, 566
Platonic, 553
Space curves, 182
Spacing
of letters, 80, 81
of views, 164, 166
Speedball pens, 6.;, o?
Sphere, 93, 553
development of, 565
dimensioning a, 312
in isometric, 495
Spiral of Archimedes, 12:
Splines, 741
Split-ring connectors, 664. 66’/
Spokes in section, 22 1
Spot welds, 719
Spotfacing, 183, 282
Springs, 387
Sprue, 272
Spur gears, 580
formulas for, 581
working drawings of, 583
Square, 92, 99
Square and flat keys, 384
table, 806
Square thread, 356, 361
table, 806
Stability of letters, 67
Staggered numerals, 305
Standard lettering, jj
Standard parts, 325
Standard sheet sizes, 57
Standards, 325
drafting, 6
engineering, 397
Stapler, draftsman’s, 16
Station lines, 741
Station point, 53, 534
Steel Construction Manual, 671
Stock forms, 290
Stone construction, 682
Straightedge, parallel-ruling, 56
String-polygon method, 649
Structural
clay products, 680
drawing, 663
books on, 780
drawing problems, 682
shapes, 290, 634
steel drafting, 667
Structure location plans, 693
Studs, 372
Subtraction charts, 637
Successive auxiliary views, 245
Successive revolutions, 260
Sun frame, 764
Superfluous dimensions, 319, 32(.
Surface
charts, 616
quality symbols, 325
roughness, 325
shading, 750
Surfaces, 552
curved, 178
cylindrical, 178
development of, 553
double curved, 553
finished, 185, 307
inclined, 174
normal, 17?
oblique, 175, 177
plane, 552
projections of, 17C
rough, 185, 307
ruled, 552 .
shapes of, 172
single-curved, 552
warped, 552
Survey, 684
checker-board, 689
plat, 685
Symbols
electrical diagram, 818, 819
heating, ventilating, and ductwork. 817
piping, 704, 816
rivet, 387
sectioning, 410
surface quality, 325
thread, 364
topographic, 689, 815
welding, 712, 713
Tabular dimensions
Tangent, 92
arcs, 105, 106
curves, 109, 110
edges, 185
line, to draw, 105, 106, 642
surfaces, 182
to an ellipse, 115
Tap drill, 373
Taper pins, 385
table, 812
Tapers, dimensioning, 322
Tapped holes, 282, 288, 373
Technical drawing, early, 3
importance of, 7
modern, 6
Technical sketching, 129
Technical terms, 781
Technique, dimensioning, 299
lettering, 70
pencil drawing, 42
sketching, 131INDEX 843
Tempering, 293
Templates, 55
ellipse, 116, 494
isometric, 494
perspective, 541
photo, 739
trimetric, 503
welding, 721
Tetrahedron, 93, 553
Thermofax process, 768
Thread cutting, 286
Thread problems, 391
Threads, 355
Acme, 356, 363, 801 (table)
American National, 356, 359, 367
bolt, 375
buttress, 356, 364
cap screw, 380
Coarse, 367, 368
Dardelet, 379
detailed, 358
dimensioning, 322
Fine, 367, 368
fits, American National, 367
Unified, 369
forms of, 356
in assembly, 367
machine screw, 381
nomenclature, 355
notes for, 369
pipe, 370
table, 820
pitch of, 357
right-hand and left-hand, 357
S.A.E. Extra Fine, 367
schematic, 365
series of, 356
simplified, 364
single and multiple, 357
square, 356, 361
table, 806
symbols for, 364
Unified, 355, 359, 368
table, 799
Thumbtacks, 15
Tile, 680
Time-series charts, 598
Title boxes (or strips), 82, 399, 400
Titles, lettering of, 82
on graphs, 606
Tolerance zones, 345
Tolerances, 334, 336
accumulation of, 343
and shop processes, 344
bilateral, 338
for contours, 352
geometric, 349
of angles, 340, 353
of form, 349-351
plus and /or minus, 339
positional, 345
specification of, 339
unilateral, 338
Tool design, books on, 780
Topographic
drawing problems, 695 .
maps, 618, 683
symbols, 689, 815
Torus, 93, 553
Tracing, ink, 49
pencil, 43
Tracing cloth, 57
Tracing paper, 57
Tracing-paper transfer, 103
Tracings, duplication of, 767
Trammel ellipse, 112
Transfer an angle, 94
Transfer plane figure, 102
Transit, stadia, 684
Transition fit, 337
table, 796
Transition pieces, 561
development of, 562-565
Trapezoid, 92
Trapizium, 92
Traverse, 684
Triangle, to draw, 98
equilateral, 99
Triangle wheel, 26
Triangles, 24
geometry of, 91
lettering, 74
testing of, 25
Triangulation, 560
Trilinear line charts, 610
layout of, 611
Trimetric
ellipses, 503
projection, 482, 502
scales, 502
template, 503
Triple thread, 358
True length of arc, 1 10
True length of line, 245, 262
True-position dimensioning, 346
True size of surfaces, 246, 263
Truss
dimensions, 676
riveted, 674
roof, 665
welded, 723
T-squares, 14
testing, 15
Twist drill sizes (table), 801844 INDEX
Unified thread, 355, 356, 368
fits, 369
table, 799
Unilateral dimension figures, 305
Unilateral tolerances, 338
Upset welds, 721
Valves, 703, 704
Vandyke prints, 765
Vanishing points, 531, 533, 535, 543
Varigraph, 83
Vellum, tracing, 57
Vertical lines, drawing, 24
Viewing-plane line, 21
Views, choice of, 142 .
alignment of, 147
alternate position of, 167
auxiliary, 233
in aeronautical drafting, 727
necessary, 143
partial, 168
partial auxiliary, 242
removed, 168
sketching, 146
spacing of, 164, 166
sectional, 206
visualizing the, 169
Views of objects, 138. 159
Visible line, 21
Vision, center of, 533
Visual aids, list of, 786
Visual rays, 530
Visualization, 8, 169
of a section, 212
Volume charts, 618
Warped surface, 552
Washers, lock (table), 810
Washers, plain (table), 809
Water lines, 741
Webs in section, 218
Welded
joints, 712
pipe joints, 703
truss, 723
Welding, 290, 674
drawings, 710
processes, 71
1
symbols, 712, 713
templates, 721
Welds, 674
bead, 718
fillet, 715
flash and upset, 721
groove, 717
plug and slot, 718
projection, 720
seam, 720
spot, 719
Whitworth thread, 356
Width auxiliary views. 239
Wire gages (table), 811
Wood construction, 663
Wood screws, Amer. St’d, 383
Woodruff keys, 385
table, 807
Working-drawing assembly, 410
Working-drawing problems, 413
Working drawings, 273, 394
aeronautical, 732
bevel gears, 585
spur gears, 583
worm gears, 586
Worm gears, 586
working drawings of, 588
Worm thread, 356
Wrico Lettering Instrument, 82
Xerography, 768
Zinc etchings, 769
Zone tolerances for contours,

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