Structural Shear Joints Analyses, Properties and Design for Repeat Loading

Structural Shear Joints Analyses, Properties and Design for Repeat Loading
اسم المؤلف
George T. Hahn , Kaushik A. Iyer , Carol A. Rubin
التاريخ
14 يونيو 2023
المشاهدات
192
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Structural Shear Joints Analyses, Properties and Design for Repeat Loading
George T. Hahn
Mechanical Engineering,Vanderbilt University
Kaushik A. Iyer
U.S. Army Research Laboratory
Carol A. Rubin
Mechanical Engineering,Vanderbilt University
TABLEOF CONTENTS
SECTION 1.MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF SHEAR JOINTS AND
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
Chapter 1. BASIC FEATURES 3
1.1. Aspects of Shear Joints 3
1.2. Out-of-Plane Deformation, Microslip and Plasticity 6
1.3. Fasteners and the Fastener Load 8
1.4. The Bearing, Clamping and Adhesive Modes of Load Transfer 8
1.5. Stress Descriptors for Fatigue 11
Chapter 2. SHEAR JOINTS IN THE BEARING MODE 13
2.1. Stress Descriptors for Bearing Mode 13
2.2. Butt Joint 14
2.3. Doubler 19
2.4. Lap Joint 20
2.5. Lap Joints in the Adhesive-Plus-Bearing Mode 27
2.6. Multiple Rows of Fasteners 29
2.7. Biaxial Loading and Effects of the Free Edge 30
2.8. Fastener Stresses 33
Chapter 3. CLAMPING, INTERFERENCE, MICROSLIP AND
3.1. The Clamped, Frictional or Slip-Resistant Mode of Butt and Lap Joints 41
3.2. Fasteners in the Clamping Mode 54
3.3. Hole Expansion, Squeeze and Interference 54
3.4. Contact Pressure, Microslip and Tangential Stress 59
3.5. Self-piercing Rivet 63
Chapter 4. FATIGUE OF SHEAR JOINTS 67
4.1. Stages of the Fatigue Process 67
4.2. Failure Modes and Locations 67
SELF-PIERCING RIVETS 41
vii
ix
xi
i i iiv Structural Shear Joints
4.3. Fatigue Strength of Panels 70
4.4. Fatigue Strength of Fasteners 80
4.5. Fretting Wear and Fatigue 81
Chapter 5. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR REPEATED LOADING 87
5.1. Mechanical Performance 87
5.2. Considerations for Joint Durability 87
5.3. Joint Type and Mode Selection 90
5.4. NDI and Fretting 91
5.5. Fail Safe Design 92
5.6. Generalizing Finite Element Results 92
SECTION 2. COMPILATION OF FINITE ELEMENT RESULTS
Chapter 6. LOAD TRANSFER IN SINGLE RIVET-ROW LAP JOINTS
(CONVENTIONAL AND COUNTERSUNK) 99
6.1. Summary of Load Transfer Models 99
6.2. Load Transfer Calculations for Single Rivet-Row Lap Joints 99
6.3. Summary and Important Points 104
Chapter 7. COMPILATION OF RESULTS FOR OPEN HOLE
PANELS AND BUTT JOINTS 107
7.1. Summary of Calculational Models for Open Hole Panels
7.2. Summary of Calculational Models for Butt Joints 107
7.3. Summary of Calculation Results for Open Hole Panels
7.4. Summary of Calculation Results for Butt Joints without Interference
7.5. Effects of Interference in Butt Joints 114
107
107
107
Chapter 8. COMPILATION OF RESULTS FOR LAP JOINTS 125
8.1. Summary of Calculational Models 125
8.2. Summary of Calculation Results
8.3. Summary of Calculation Results Including Interference and Clamping
Chapter 9. SINGLE RIVET-ROW LAP JOINTS UNDER BIAXIAL LOADING 151
9.1. Summary of Calculational Models for 2-D and 3-D Lap Joints under
9.2. Summary of Calculation Results for Pinned Connections under Biaxial Loading 151
9.3. Summary of Calculation Results for Single Rivet-Row Lap Joints under
125
129
Biaxial Loading 151
Biaxial Loading 151
Chapter 10. COMPILATION OF RESULTS FOR LAP JOINTS WITH
10.1. Summary of Calculational Models for for Single Rivet-Row Lap Joints
with Sealants and Adhesives 157
10.2. Summary of Calculation Results for Pinned Connections with Sealants
and Adhesives 157
SEALANTS AND ADHESIVES 157Table of Contents V
Chapter 11. COMPILATION OF RESULTS FOR RIVETS 161
11.1. Summary of Calculational Models for Rivets 161
11.2. Summary of Calculational Results for Rivets 161
Chapter 12. DATA TABULATIONS 173
12.1. Summary Calculation Results for Single Rivet-Row Lap Joints 173
12.2. Summary Calculation Results for Double Rivet-Row Lap Joints 173
12.3. Summary Calculation Results for Rivet Installation Residual Stresses 174
12.4. Summary Calculation Results for Single Rivet-Row Joints Under
Biaxial Loading 174
12.5. Summary Calculation Results for Single Rivet-Row Joints With Sealant 175
12.6. Summary Calculation Results for Variation of Panel Thickness in
Wide Single Rivet-Row Joints 183
12.7. Summary Calculation Results for Joint Excess Compliance and Rivet Tilt 183
SECTION 3. CALCULATIONAL MODELS AND VALIDATION
Chapter 13. FINITE ELEMENT MODELS 189
13.1. 2D Models of Butt Joints,Attachment Joints and Open Hole Panels 189
3.2. 3D Models of Single Rivet-Row Lap and Butt Joints (Standard and
Countersunk Rivet Heads) 190
13.3. Double Rivet-Row Lap Joints (Standard and Countersunk Rivet Heads)
Chapter 14. THIN ADHESIVE LAYER ANALYSIS (TALA) FOR MODELING
14.1. Development of A Thin Adhesive Layer Analysis (TALA) 197
14.2. Conversion of Adhesive Solid Element to Spring Element for 2-D Fem 197
14.3. Conversion of Stress-Strain Relationship to Force-Displacement Relationship
for Thin Adhesive Layer 200
14.4. Mechanical Behavior of Thin Sealant Layer 202
14.5. Shear Spring Dependence of Contact Pressure 205
Chapter 15. MATERIAL MODELS FOR THE FINITE ELEMENT CALCULATIONS
15.1. Materials Used in the Finite Element Calculations 207
195
SEALANTS AND ADHESIVES INSTALLED IN JOINTS 197
207
Chapter 16. VALIDATION OF FINITE ELEMENT CALCULATIONSAND TALA
16.1. Finite Element Model Validation 209
16.2. Validation of The Thin Adhesive Layer Analysis (TALA) 210
209
Chapter 17. STRESS CONCENTRATION FACTORS IN MULTIPLE ROW JOINTS
17.1. Analyses of Multiple Row Joints 217
17.2. Estimating Fastener Loads in Multiple Row Joints 217
217vi Structural Shear Joints
17.3. Estimating Fastener Loads with 3D Deformations 218
17.4. A Superposition Method for Estimating SCFs 221
17.5. Validation 223
Chapter 18. ANALYSIS OF FASTENER TENSION AND CLAMPING STRAIN 225
18.1. Nomenclature 225
18.2. Clamping Model 226
18.3. Fastener Tension and Clamping Strain Predictions 227
18.4. Summary of Procedure 229
APPENDIX A. SUMMARY OF CALCULATIONAL MODELS 231
APPENDIX B. STRESS CONCENTRATION FATOR-FATIGUE STRENGTH
(SCF-FS) ANALYSIS 241
APPENDIX C. ANALYSIS OF FRETTING WEAR AND FATIGUE 249
APPENDIX D. SYMBOLS, ABREVIATIONS AND UNITS 253
REFERENCES 257
INDEX
INDEX
A
Abbreviations xi, 225,226,231,253-256
Adhesive-plus-bearing mode
calculational models 239
compliance 28
definition 10
design considerations 91
fastener tilt 28
polymer sealant 27
stress concentration factor, SCF 27,28
Alpha-numeric code ix,231
Angular conventions 14
Assembly variability 88
Attachment joint
definition 3
multiple row 221
B
Back panel
Bearing mode 13-39
definition 4
definition 13
design considerations 90
peak local stresses 13
Bearing-plus-adhesive mode (see
adhesive-plus-bearing mode)
Biaxial loading 5,30,31,32,151,190,194,
238
lap joint 151,152
butt joint 151,153,154
Biaxial stress ratio 32
Bolt tension (see clamping force)
Built-up joint 6
Butt joints (double shear)
calculational models 223
clamped butt joint 4147
contact pressure 110-112
definition 3
fretting factors 118-123
gross section SCF 15
hole expansion (interference) 54,114
net section SCF 15
multiple rows 29,221
nondestructive evaluation, NDE 30
pitch 24,26
slip 117
stress concentration factor, SCF 14,15,
113-115
Bypass load 222
C
Calculation models 231-240
Calibrating steel bolts 42
Clamping mode (frictional mode, slip
resistant or slip critical mode
calculational models 237
clearance 54
compliance 53
definition 9
design considerations 91
double-row butt joint 54
fastener load 0
fastener stresses 54
force (bolt tension) 13,41, 225-230
hysteresis 53
micro-slip 47,50
micro-tilt 47
misfit 229
multiple row joint 222
263264 Structural Shear Joints
Clamping mode (continued)
nominal clamping 41
residual stresses 42
shank strain 41
spring model 226
stress carrying capacity 95
stress field 49,50
stress concentration factor, SCF 47-54
transition to bearing mode 46
Clearance 54
Compliance 13,23,28,53,59,94,173,183
Contact pressure 13,50,56,59,63,110
Countersunk fastener 9,21,23,26,28,
definition 173
29,33-35,38,85,99-105,128-131,
138-149,155,162,163,168-171,
175-177,179,181,182,185,191,220
Crack growth 67
Crack initiation 67
Cyclic life 90
Cyclic loading 53
Cyclic stress-strain behavior 7
life 70
D
Damage tolerance 87
Design considerations 6.87-95
Diameter/thickness-ratio 24
Double rivet-row joint 24,54,135,173,
Doubler
195,236
definition 3 finger 6
multiple row 217,221
stress concentration factor, SCF 19,
221
E
Excess compliance (see compliance)
Experimental validation 209
F
Fail safe design 92
Fastener (also see rivet)
cyclic stress capacity 91
flexibility 218
head-shank corner 69
influence on panel SCF
load 8,9,29,222
load in multiple-row joints 217
pitch 8,13,92,
stresses 33,38.39,54,161-171
tension, average 229
tilt 28
tilt angle 3
type xi,231
cracks, detection of 91
durability 87
failure modes 67-70
fretting 82-86
Gerber diagram 245
life 11,28,70,87
multiple site damage, MSD 70
SCF-FS Analysis, 71-80,241-247
S-N curves of aluminum alloys 246
S-N curves of open hole panels 243,
S-N curves of shear joints 72,73,75,77,
strength of panels 70-80
strength of fasteners 80,81
Fatigue
244
80,247
Filled open hole 14
Finite element models
adhesive-plus-fasteners (TALA)
2D models of butt and attachment
3D models of butt and lap joints
hole expansion (interference) and
validation 209-216,223
197-205
joints and open hole panels 189
190-193,195
clamping 193
Fracture mechanics analyses 67
Free edge 30,31
Fretting 59,92
factors 12,250
wear 12,81
double strap, bolted butt joint 85
rivet lap joint 85
single rivet row lap joint 85
factor (parameter) 118,119,120
stress carrying capacity 45
Fretting fatigue 12,82,249
Friction 6,13
Frictional mode (see clamping mode)
Front panel 4Index 265
G
Gerber diagram 71,245
Gross section location
definition 50
failure 69
H
Hole expansion (interference) 6,5459,
129,193,237
contact pressure 56
influence on bearing mode stresses 58
residual stresses 56,58
mandrel 55
modified net section failure 69
upset and squeeze 55
Hysteresis 53
I
Interference (see hole expansion)
J
Joint
attachment 3
built up 6
butt (double shear) 3,14,15,24,26,
compliance 13,28
configuration xi, 88,231
double row butt 54
double shear (see butt joint)
failure 16
lap 3,20,33,37,234,235
measurement of lap 215
multiple row 3,8,29,32,217,232
narrow 5
selection 90
single-row 31
single shear (see lap joint)
variables xi, 231
wide 5
29,30,41-47, 54,110-112,233
K
k/K-ratio 218
L
Lagging row of fastener holes
definition 4
loading 5,8,24
fastener stresses 38
Lap joint (single shear)
calculational models 234-236
clamped 41-47
compliance 23
definition 3
double fastener row joint 24,177,236
fastener stresses 33-38
fretting 81-88
multiple row joint 29,221
nondestructive evaluation, NDE 20,
pitch 24-26
single fastener-row joint 17,18,20-23,
stress concentration factor, SCF 17,18,
30
173,178-186
20-26,29,221
Leading row of fastener holes
definition 4
loading 5,8,24,223
fastener stresses 33
Load transfer analysis 99-105
load path 105
Load transfer mode
bearing 8,13,90,99-105
clamping 9,91
clamping-plus-bearing 10,91
adhesive-plus-bearing 10,27,91
Local deformation 47
M
Mandrel (see hole expansion)
Material models and properties 207
Material variability 90
Micro-slip 6,7,47,50,59
Micro-tilt 47
Mode of load transfer
adhesive-plus-bearing 10,91
bearing 8,13,90,221
bearing-plus-adhesive 27
clamped 222
clamping-plus-bearing 10,50,51
definition 9
failure 67
fasteners in clamping 54
frictional 9,lO
selection 90
slip critical 9
slip resistant 9,20266 Structural Shear Joints
Monotonic strength 87
Multiple row joints
analysis 217-221
bearing mode 221
clamping mode 222
definition 3
fastener load 8,29,217,221
nondestructive evaluation, NDE 30
biaxial loading 32
stress concentration factors, SCF 29,
221-224
Multiple Site Damage (MSD) 70
N
Net section location
butt and lap joints 50
definition 50
failure 67
peak stress 47
Nomenclature 225,253
Nominal stress 93
Non-Destructive Evaluations (NDE) 20,
Normalized tangential stress 113
Nucleation of cracks 70
Number of fastener rows 93, 217-224
82,85,87,91
0
One-dimensional spring models 30
Open hole panel
empty 6,107,108,232
filled 6, 14,.109,232
Out-of-plane deformation 3,6
P
Panel
back 4
configuration 88
definition 3
fastener 88
front 4
material 39,93,94
open hole 6,14,107-109,232
thickness 24,92,183
Peak local stresses 13
Pinned connections with sealants and
adhesives 157
Pitch 8
Pitchldiameter ratio 13,24,26, 92
Plasticity 7
Poisson’s contraction 29
Polymer sealants 27
Pressure dependent shear modulus 27
R
R-ratio 90
Rivet (also see fastener)
countersunk fastener 9,21,23,26,28,
29,33-35,38,85,99-105,128-131,
138-149,155,162,163,168-171,
175-177,179,181,182,185,191,220
head 23
installation residual stresses 174
self-piercing 63,65
shape 38
squeeze 54,55
stresses 161-171
upset 55
vs. bolts 95
tilt 13,23,173,183
S
S-N curve
aluminum alloys 246
open hole panels, aluminum 243-244
shear joints, riveted aluminum lap 72,
shear joints, bolted steel butt 75,76
adhesive-plus-bearing mode 74
bearing mode 71
clamping mode 74
73,77,79,80, 247
SCF-FS analysis of shear joint
SCF-FS analysis of open hole panel
Sealant
Sealants and adhesives 239
Self-piercing rivet lap joint
243-244
modeling of 197
modeling of 194
fatigue 80
stress concentration factor, SCF 63
S-Ncurve 80
Shank failures 70
Shank strain 41Index 267
Shear spring dependence of contact
Shear stress-strain relationships for a thin
Self-piercing rivet, 63-65
Installation 65
Single rivet-row 20
lap joints under biaxial loading 31,174
lap joints 125,129,173,176-179,182,
lap joints with sealants 175
lap joints with sealants and adhesives
pressure 205
sealant coating layer 204
184-186
157
Slip 13
Slip resistant mode (see clamping mode)
Slip critical mode (see clamping mode)
Solid adhesive spring element 197
Spring models of shear joint, 30,218
Standard head 33
Steel joints 38,75,76,93
Strength Reduction Factor- Fatigue
Strength (SRF-FS)
analysiswith self-piercing rivets 79
Stress Concentration Factor (SCF) 11,
14,15-20,25,26,173,241
gross section 15
influence of adhesive stiffness 27
net section 15,30,51
superposition method for estimating
221
Stress ratio 245
Stiffnessratio 30
Symbols 225,226,231,253-256
T
Thin Adhesive Layer Analysis (TALA)
197
validation of 210
Thread root failure 69
3D finite element models 190-196
Tilt 94,174
2D models
attachment joints 189
butt joints 189
open hole panels 189
U
Units 253-256
V
Validation of finite element models

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