SKF Bearing Maintenance Handbook

SKF Bearing Maintenance Handbook
اسم المؤلف
SKF
التاريخ
29 مايو 2023
المشاهدات
221
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
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SKF Bearing Maintenance Handbook
1 Basics . 8
2 Mounting rolling bearings . 44
3 Mounting bearing units . 92
4 Mounting bearing housings 122
5 Mounting seals 140
6 Alignment 158
7 Lubrication . 178
8 Inspection 216
9 Troubleshooting . 228
10 Dismounting 252
11 Bearing damage and their causes . 288
12 Maintenance support . 324
13 Appendices . 332
14 Index 438
Basics 1
Terminology 10
Rolling bearing types and designs 12
Radial bearings . 12
Thrust bearings . 18
Track runner bearings 19
Y-bearings . 21
Designation system for rolling bearings . 22
Basic designations . 22
Designation suffixes 24
Identifying SKF products 26
Bearing identification . 26
Split housing and bearing unit
identification . 27
Replacement seals . 27
Bearing life . 27
Basic rating life 27
SKF rating life . 27
Service life . 28
Bearing service life . 28
Seal service life . 28
Lubricant service life . 28
Cleanliness . 28
Bearing internal clearance 29
Bearing arrangements . 30
Types of bearing arrangements . 30
Locating and non-locating bearing
arrangements . 30
Adjusted bearing arrangements . 31
Methods of bearing location . 31
Radial location of bearings . 31
Selection of fit . 32
Recommended fits and tolerances . 35
Dimensional, form and running
accuracy requirements 35
Surface roughness of bearing seats 36
Axial location of bearings 37
Abutment and fillet dimensions . 38
Sealing arrangements 39
External seals . 39
Integral bearing sealing solutions . 40
Storage of bearings, seals and
lubricants 41
Storage of bearings, bearing units and
housings . 41
Storage of elastomer seals . 42
Storage of lubricants . 42
Lubricant disposal 43
Mounting rolling bearings
Preparations prior to mounting 46
Planning . 46
Cleanliness . 46
Removing the preservative from
new bearings . 47
Checking associated components . 47
Safety . 49
Preparing components 49
Bearing handling 49
Bearing internal clearance 51
Clearance before and after
mounting 51
Measuring clearance with a feeler
gauge . 52
Cold mounting 53
Mechanical methods . 53
Bearings with a cylindrical bore . 53
Bearings with a tapered bore . 54
The SKF Drive-up method . 57
The SKF Drive-up method:
Step-by-step 58
The oil injection method . 62
The oil injection method:
Step-by-step 62
The SENSORMOUNT method 67
Hot mounting . 68
Electric hot plates 68
Induction heaters 69
Aluminium heating rings . 69
Heating cabinets . 70
Infrared radiators 70
Heating panels 71
Oil baths . 71
SKF mounting tools 72
Mechanical tools . 72
Hydraulic tools 73
Heating equipment 73
Gloves . 73
Mounting instructions by bearing type 74
Mounting angular contact ball
bearings . 74
Stand-alone bearings . 74
Adjusting face-to-face bearing
arrangements . 74
Adjusting back-to-back bearing
arrangements . 76
Universally matchable bearings and
matched bearing sets . 76
Angular contact ball bearings with
a two-piece inner ring . 78
Mounting self-aligning ball bearings . 79
Basic design bearings with
protruding balls 79
Sealed bearings with a tapered bore 79
Bearings with an extended inner ring . 80
Mounting cylindrical and needle roller
bearings . 80
Single row cylindrical and needle
roller bearings with a cage . 80
Four-row cylindrical roller bearings 82
Mounting tapered roller bearings . 84
Single row tapered roller bearings . 84
Double row and multi-row tapered
roller bearings . 89
Mounting spherical roller and CARB
toroidal roller bearings 90
Sealed spherical roller bearings . 90
CARB toroidal roller bearings . 91
Mounting bearing units
General 94
What to remember 94
Preparations prior to mounting 101
Appropriate tools 102
Mounting ball bearing units with
grub (set) screw locking 104
Ball bearing units with a cast iron or
composite housing . 104
Ball bearing units with a pressed steel
housing 105
Mounting ball bearing units with
an eccentric locking collar . 106
Ball bearing units with a cast iron or
composite housing . 106
Ball bearing units with a pressed steel
housing 108
Mounting ball bearing units with
an adapter sleeve 109
Mounting SKF ConCentra
ball bearing units 111
SKF ConCentra ball bearing plummer
(pillow) block units 111
SKF ConCentra ball bearing flanged
units 113
Mounting SKF ConCentra
roller bearing units 114
SKF ConCentra roller bearing plummer
(pillow) block units 114
SKF ConCentra roller bearing flanged
units 117
Mounting roller bearing units with
a cylindrical locking collar . 119
Assembling ball bearing units . 121
Mounting bearing housings
Introduction 124
Selecting replacement parts . 124
Preparations prior to mounting 130
Using shims 130
Bolts 131
Using locating (stabilizing) rings . 132
Using end covers 133
Installing split or solid seals . 133
Mounting standard split plummer
(pillow) block housings . 134
Mounting SoNL plummer (pillow)
block housings 137
Installing seals
General 142
What to remember 142
SKF Bearing fitting tool kit 146
Preparations prior to installation . 146
Installing a radial shaft seal into
a housing 146
Installing seals that have an auxiliary lip 149
Installing a solid all-rubber seal . 149
Installing a radial shaft seal over
a shaft . 150
Replacing a radial shaft seal . 151
Repairing a worn shaft with an SKF wear
sleeve . 152
Installing an SKF SPEEDI-SLEEVE . 152
Installing a large diameter wear sleeve . 152
Installing a large, split all-rubber seal . 154
Installing sealing washers . 156
Installing a V-ring seal . 157
Alignment
Introduction 160
Machine installation and alignment . 161
Foundation quality . 161
Alignment targets . 161
Soft foot . 162
Types of soft foot . 162
Checking for soft foot 162
Shimming 163
Machinery shims . 163
SKF Vibracon SM elements . 164
Customized rigid steel chocks . 164
Epoxy resin . 165
Bolt tightening 166
Tightening torque and assembly
preload 166
Tightening tools 166
Shaft alignment . 167
Types of misalignment 167
Measuring conventions . 167
Stationary and movable machines . 167
Alignment parameters . 168
Measuring positions 168
Shaft alignment tolerances 169
Shaft alignment methods . 170
Traditional shaft alignment methods 170
Dial indicator methods 170
Laser shaft alignment methods 172
The alignment process 173
offset drive alignment . 175
Offset drive alignment tolerances . 175
Offset drive alignment methods . 175
Laser offset drive alignment methods . 175
Belt alignment 176
Types of belt misalignment 176
Belt alignment tolerances . 176
Belt alignment methods . 176
Traditional belt alignment methods . 176
Laser belt alignment methods . 176
Lubrication
Introduction 180
Lubrication management 180
Inspection, handling and disposal of
lubricants 181
Grease versus oil 182
Alternative lubricants . 182
Grease lubrication . 183
What is in a grease? 183
Base oil 183
Thickener 183
Additives . 184
How grease functions in bearings . 184
Interpreting grease datasheets . 184
Grease properties 185
Greases and bearing operating
conditions 187
Grease performance tests 188
Selecting a suitable grease . 189
Grease selection tools . 189
How to grease bearings and
associated components on initial
installation . 189
The best time to apply grease . 189
The right quantity 190
Greasing techniques when
mounting . 191
Running-in of grease lubricated
bearings . 191
Relubrication . 192
Relubrication intervals 192
Relubrication procedures 194
Renewal . 198
Grease compatibility 200
Compatibility between greases 200
Compatibility between greases and
bearing materials 202
Compatibility between greases and
SKF bearing preservatives . 202
SKF grease lubrication products 202
oil lubrication . 203
What is in an oil? 203
Base oil 203
Additives . 203
Oil viscosity . 203
How to select a suitable oil . 203
Oil selection process 204
Additional oil selection tools 207
Oil lubrication systems 207
Types of oil lubrication systems 207
Maintaining oil lubrication systems . 207
Chain oils 209
Oil compatibility . 210
Oil analysis . 210
Oil sampling . 210
Contamination and filtering . 211
SKF oil lubrication products 212
Centralized lubrication systems 213
Selecting the appropriate lubricant 213
Types of centralized lubrication
systems . 213
Total loss lubrication systems . 214
Circulating lubrication systems 214
Inspection
Introduction 218
Maintenance methodologies . 218
Inspection during operation . 220
Monitoring noise 221
Monitoring temperature . 221
Monitoring lubrication conditions . 222
Vibration monitoring for rolling
bearings . 222
Taking vibration measurements . 223
Rolling bearing defect frequency
analysis 224
Inspection during a machine shutdown 224
Inspecting the bearings . 225
Inspecting the seal counterfaces 226
Troubleshooting
Introduction 230
Why bearings fail 230
Factors influencing bearing service life . 230
Troubleshooting . 232
Common symptoms of bearing trouble . 232
Trouble conditions and their solutions 235
Dismounting
Dismounting rolling bearings 254
What to remember . 254
Preparations prior to dismounting . 254
Appropriate dismounting methods . 255
Dismounting a bearing fitted on a
cylindrical shaft seat 256
Manual dismounting 256
Dismounting with a
hydraulically-assisted puller 257
Dismounting using the oil injection
method 258
Dismounting with a press 258
Dismounting with heat 258
Dismounting a bearing fitted on a
tapered shaft seat . 259
Manual dismounting 260
Dismounting with
a hydraulically-assisted puller . 260
Dismounting using the oil injection
method 260
Dismounting a bearing fitted on
an adapter sleeve 260
Manual dismounting: plain shafts 262
Manual dismounting: stepped shafts . 262
Dismounting with a hydraulic nut 262
Dismounting using the oil injection
method 264
Dismounting a bearing fitted on a
withdrawal sleeve 264
Manual dismounting 264
Dismounting with a hydraulic nut 266
Dismounting using the oil injection
method 266
Dismounting a bearing from a solid
housing . 267
Manual dismounting 267
Dismounting using the oil injection
method 268
Dismounting with heat 269
Dismounting a bearing from a shaft
and a solid housing simultaneously 269
Dismounting bearing units 270
What to remember . 270
Preparations prior to dismounting . 271
Dismounting ball bearing units with
grub (set) screw locking . 272
Dismounting ball bearing units with
an eccentric locking collar . 273
Dismounting ball bearing units
fitted on an adapter sleeve . 274
Dismounting SKF ConCentra ball
bearing units . 275
Dismounting SKF ConCentra roller
bearing units . 276
Dismounting roller bearing units
with a cylindrical locking collar 276
Dismounting bearing housings . 278
What to remember . 278
Preparations prior to dismounting . 278
Dismounting split plummer (pillow)
block housings 280
Dismounting flanged housings . 282
Removing seals . 284
Removing non-contact seals . 284
Removing contact seals . 284
Bearing damage and their
causes
Introduction . 290
Dismounting . 291
Path patterns 291
Patterns resulting from normal
operating conditions 292
Patterns resulting from abnormal
operating conditions 296
Bearing damage 298
Pre-operational causes of damage 300
Incorrect shaft and housing fits . 300
Damage and failure due to
defective shaft or housing seats 302
Static misalignment 304
Faulty mounting practices . 305
Passage of excessive electric
voltage through the bearing . 307
Transportation and storage
damage 308
Operational causes of damage 309
Material fatigue (subsurface
initiated) . 309
Ineffective lubrication 310
Ineffective sealing . 314
Vibration (false brinelling) . 319
Operational misalignment . 320
Passage of electric current
through the bearing 321
Maintenance support
Introduction 326
Training 326
SKF Reliability Maintenance Institute . 326
Classroom training . 326
Customized training 326
SKF Reliability Maintenance
Institute online 327
SKF @ptitude Exchange . 327
SKF @ptitude Decision Support . 327
Maintenance strategy review 328
SKF Client Needs Analysis . 328
Integrated maintenance solutions . 329
Energy and sustainability management . 329
SKF Energy Monitoring Service . 329
Shopfloor Awareness Cards 330
Mechanical maintenance services 330
Remanufacturing and refurbishment . 331
SKF remanufacturing services 331
SKF machine tool precision services . 331
SKF Authorized Distributors . 331
SKF Certified Maintenance Partners . 331
SKF Certified Electric Motor
Rebuilders . 331
Appendices
Appendix A: Recommended fits 334
A-1 Fits for solid steel shafts (for radial bearings with a cylindrical bore) . 334
A-2 Fits for solid steel shafts (for thrust bearings) . 336
A-3 Fits for one-piece cast iron and steel housings (for radial bearings) 336
A-4 Fits for split or one-piece cast iron and steel housings (for radial bearings) 337
A-5 Fits for cast iron and steel housings (for thrust bearings) 337
Appendix B: Shaft and housing tolerances . 338
B-1 Shaft tolerances and resultant fits (metric) . 338
B-2 Housing tolerances and resultant fits (metric) . 350
B-3 Shaft tolerances and resultant fits (inch) . 360
B-4 Housing tolerances and resultant fits (inch) . 372
B-5 Modified shaft diameter deviations for use with inch bearings 382
B-6 Modified housing bore diameter deviations for use with inch bearings 383
B-7 Shaft diameter and form tolerances for sleeve mounting 384
Appendix C: ISo tolerance grades . 385
Appendix D: Accuracy of bearing seats 386
D-1 Accuracy of form and position of bearing seats . 386
D-2 Surface roughness of bearing seats . 387
D-3 Dimensions for relieved fillets 387
Appendix E: Bearing internal clearance . 388
E-1 Radial internal clearance of deep groove ball bearings . 388
E-2 Axial internal clearance of universally matchable angular contact ball bearings 389
E-3 Axial preload of universally matchable angular contact ball bearings . 389
E-4 Axial internal clearance of double row angular contact ball bearings . 390
E-5 Axial internal clearance of four-point contact ball bearings . 391
E-6 Radial internal clearance of self-aligning ball bearings 392
E-7 Radial internal clearance of cylindrical and needle roller bearings . 393
E-8 Axial internal clearance of NUP cylindrical roller bearings 394
E-9 Axial internal clearance of NJ + HJ cylindrical roller bearings . 395
E-10 Axial internal clearance of matched single row metric tapered roller bearings 396
E-11 Radial internal clearance of spherical roller bearings with a cylindrical bore . 397
E-12 Radial internal clearance of spherical roller bearings with a tapered bore . 398
E-13 Radial internal clearance of CARB toroidal roller bearings with a cylindrical bore . 399
E-14 Radial internal clearance of CARB toroidal roller bearings with a tapered bore . 400
E-15 Radial internal clearance of Y-bearings . 401
33213
Appendix F: Recommended values for axial drive-up, reduction of radial
internal clearance and lock nut tightening angle 402
F-1 Drive-up data for self-aligning ball bearings with a tapered bore 402
F-2 Drive-up data for spherical roller bearings with a tapered bore . 403
F-3 Drive-up data for CARB toroidal roller bearings with a tapered bore . 404
Appendix G: Recommended values for preparing associated components for the oil
injection method . 405
G-1 Recommended dimensions for oil supply ducts and distribution grooves 405
G-2 Design and recommended dimensions for threaded holes for connecting oil supply 405
Appendix H: Guideline values for the SKF Drive-up method 406
H-1 Guideline values for requisite oil pressure and axial displacement for mounting
self-aligning ball bearings . 406
H-2 Guideline values for requisite oil pressure and axial displacement for mounting
spherical roller bearings . 407
H-3 Guideline values for requisite oil pressure and axial displacement for mounting
CARB toroidal roller bearings . 412
Appendix I: oil viscosity equivalents and ISo viscosity grades 414
I-1 Viscosity equivalents . 414
I-2 ISO viscosity grades 415
Appendix J: overview of SKF mounting tools and products . 416
Appendix K: overview of SKF alignment equipment . 419
Appendix L: overview of SKF lubrication tools and products 420
Appendix M: SKF bearing greases and grease selection chart . 423
Appendix N: overview of SKF basic condition monitoring instruments . 432
Appendix o: overview of SKF dismounting tools and products 435
Appendix P: Unit conversion table 437
Index
@
@ptitude Exchange See SKF @ptitude Exchange
A
abrasive paper 226
abrasive wear 298–299
caused by incorrect fits 300–301
caused by ineffective lubrication 313
caused by ineffective sealing 314–315
abutments
accuracy requirements 35–36, 386
dimensions 38
trouble conditions 237, 251
acrylic rubber 201
acrylonitrile-butadiene rubbers
designation suffixes for bearings 24–25
designation suffixes for seals 145
adapter sleeve locking 94–95
dismounting bearing units 274
mounting bearing units 109–110
tightening torque values 103
adapter sleeves
dismounting bearings 260–264
dismounting flanged housings 282
mounting bearings (oil injection method) 62–66
mounting bearings (SKF Drive-up method) 57–61
additives
compatibility with materials 188–189, 202, 207, 210
in centralized lubrication systems 212
in grease 184
in oil 203
adhesive wear 298–299
caused by incorrect fits 301
caused by ineffective lubrication 312
adjustable steel levellers See SKF Vibracon SM elements
adjusted bearing arrangements 31
axial location 37–38
adjusting bearings
angular contact ball bearings 74–77
tapered roller bearings 84–88
troubleshooting 245
alignment 158–177
of belts 176–177
of machines 161–166
of offset drives 175
of shafts 167–174
SKF equipment 419
allen keys See hexagonal keys
aluminium heating rings
for dismounting bearings 255, 258–259
for mounting bearings 69, 81
ambient temperature
considerations for machine alignment 161
considerations for relubrication 195–196
angled foot See soft foot
angular contact ball bearings
adjusting back-to-back arrangements 76–77
adjusting face-to-face arrangements 74–75
axial internal clearance values 389
axial preload values 389
greasing on initial installation 191
mounting 74–78
stand-alone bearings 74
trouble conditions 243, 245, 247
types and designs 12–13
universally matchable bearings 76
with a two-piece inner ring 78
anti-foaming additive 203
anti-fretting agent 49
anti-oxidant additive
in grease 184
in oil 203
anti-rust additive
in grease 184
in oil 203
anti-wear additive
in grease 184
in oil 203, 207
assembling ball bearing units 121
asset management 326–329
asset reliability 326–329
associated components
checking the accuracy 47–49
dimensions for ducts, grooves and holes 405
greasing on initial installation 188
preparations 49
attachment bolts/nuts
compensating for soft foot 162
for bearing units 101, 105
for housings 131
automatic lubrication 197
automatic lubricators See SKF SYSTEM 24
automatic particle counting method 212
auxiliary lips
greasing on initial installation 149, 190
seal types and designs 143–145
axial displacement 30–31
considerations for fit selection 34
for CARB toroidal roller bearings 91
in plummer block housings 132
measuring axial drive-up 56–57
values for SKF Drive-up method 406–413
axial drive-up
measuring axial displacement 56
measuring clearance reduction 55
troubleshooting 240
values for CARB toroidal roller bearings 404
values for self-aligning ball bearings 402
values for spherical roller bearings 403
axial internal clearance 29, 51
trouble conditions 248
values for angular contact ball bearings 389–391
values for cylindrical roller bearings 394–395
values for tapered roller bearings 396
43814
axial load
induced loads 241, 243–244, 301, 320
path patterns 294–295
axial location 37–38
in plummer block housings 132
B
back-to-back bearing arrangements
adjusting angular contact ball bearings 76–77
adjusting tapered roller bearings 86–88
ball bearing units
assembly 121
designations 96, 100
dismounting 272–275
mounting 104–114
shaft locking methods 94–96
types and designs 96–100
base frame See machine base frame
base oil
compatibility 200–201
in grease 183
in oil 203
viscosity 185
base-bound 167, 175
basic rating life 27
bearing arrangements
in plummer block housings 127, 132
terminology 11
types 30–31
bearing damage 288–323
causes 230–231, 298
ISO classification 298
operational 309–322
pre-operational 300–308
symptoms 232–235
bearing failure See bearing damage
bearing housings See housings
bearing life
rating life 27–28
service life 28–29
bearing location 31–38
bearing seats
accuracy requirements 35–36, 386
bearing damage 302–303
checking the accuracy 47–49
dimensions for relieved fillets 387
surface roughness 36, 387
bearing units
designations 96, 100
dismounting 270–277
identification 27
mounting 92–121
shaft locking methods 94–96
storage 41
types and designs 96–100
bearings
defect frequencies 224
designation system 22–25
dismounting 254–269
greasing on initial installation 189–191
handling 49–50
identification 26–27
inspection 225–226
mounting 44–91
relubrication 194–198
size categories 46
storage 41, 230
terminology 10
types and designs 12–21
belt alignment 176–177
bolt tensioners 166
bolt-bound 167, 175
brass
compatibility with EP additives 202
for machinery shims 163
C
calcium soap 185
calibrated cones
for belt alignment 176
for shaft alignment 170
cap bolts 131
CARB toroidal roller bearings
abutment dimensions 38
axial drive-up values 404
axial location 37
clearance reduction values 404
greasing on initial installation 191
in plummer block housings 132
lock nut tightening angles 404
mounting 90–91
mounting (oil injection method) 62–66
mounting (SKF Drive-up method) 57–61
radial internal clearance values 399–400
SKF Drive-up method values 412–413
trouble conditions 240
types and designs 17
cardan shaft alignment See offset drive alignment
cast iron
bearing unit housings 100
housings 126
cast steel 126
castle nuts 88
centralized lubrication systems 213–215
centring flanges 84–85
chain oils 209
for SKF SYSTEM 24 lubricators 199
chocking See shimming
chocks 164
churning
caused by excess grease 190, 199
caused by vibration 194
resulting in lubricant leakage 222
troubleshooting 236
CircOil See SKF CircOil
circulating oil 208
in centralized lubrication systems 213–215
mounting SONL housings 137–139
oil change interval 209
taking oil samples 210
cleaning
bearings 226
seals 146
cleanliness 28–29, 46–47
clearance See internal clearance
clearance reduction 54–55
values for CARB toroidal roller bearings 404
values for spherical roller bearings 403
Client Needs Analysis See SKF Client Needs Analysis
cold mounting 53–67
compatibility
between base oils 201
between thickeners 201
grease 200–202
oil 210
complex soaps 183
composite material See polyamide
compressed air 226
ConCentra See SKF ConCentra
condition monitoring 216–224
lubrication 222
noise 221
SKF instruments 432–434
temperature 221
conditions of rotation 32
consistency 185
grease performance test 188
consistency grade See NLGI grade
contact seals
external seals 39
integral bearing seals 40
removal 284–286
trouble conditions 238
439Index
contamination
bearing damage progression 231
contaminants 211–212
ISO classification 212
relubrication interval adjustment 195
resulting in abrasive wear 314–315
resulting in indentations 316
troubleshooting 245–246, 249–250
continuous relubrication 195, 197
copper corrosion test 188
corrective maintenance See reactive maintenance
corrosion 298–299
frictional corrosion 302–303, 308, 319
moisture corrosion 308, 317–318
corrosion protection test 188
cracking 298–299
crackle test 211
cracks
caused by defective seats 303
caused by incorrect fits 300–301
microcracks 309–312
craters 321–322
creep 31
caused by incorrect fits 300–301
considerations for fit selection 33
troubleshooting 243, 246–247
cross holes 150, 152
cross-location See adjusted bearing arrangements
current leakage 298–299
caused by passage of electric current 321–322
cylindrical collar locking 94–95
mounting bearing units 119–120
tightening torque values 102
cylindrical roller bearings
axial internal clearance values 394–395
axial location 37
dismounting 258–259
greasing on initial installation 191
mounting 80–84
radial internal clearance values 393
types and designs 13–14
cylindrical shaft seats
dismounting bearings 256–259
form and position accuracy 386
measurement form 48
mounting bearings 53
cylindricity 36, 386
D
deep groove ball bearings
greasing on initial installation 191
integral bearing seals 40
radial internal clearance values 388
types and designs 12
defect frequencies 224
dents See indentations
designations
for bearing units 96–100
for bearings 22–25
for housings 125–129
for seals 143–145
dial indicator methods
for adjusting angular contact ball bearings 74–77
for adjusting tapered roller bearings 86–88
for shaft alignment 170–171
for SKF Drive-up method 58–61
dial indicators 56
diameter series 22–23
direction of load indeterminate 32
dismounting bearing units 270–277
preparations 271
tools 270
with an adapter sleeve 274
with an eccentric locking collar 273
with grub screw locking 272
with SKF ConCentra locking 275–277
dismounting bearings 254–269
from a cylindrical shaft seat 256–259
from a solid housing 267–269
from a tapered shaft seat 259–260
methods 255
preparations 254
tools 255, 435–436
using heat 258–259, 269
when bearing damage is present 291
with a withdrawal sleeve 264–267
with an adapter sleeve 260–264
dismounting fluid 254
dismounting housings 278–283
flanged housings 282–283
preparations 278
split plummer blocks 280–281
dismounting seals See removing seals
distance rings 134
double row angular contact ball bearings
axial internal clearance values 390
designs 12
mounting 78
double row tapered roller bearings
designs 17
mounting 89
double-lip seals
grease replenishment 196
greasing on initial installation 149, 190
drift punches
for installing seals 148
for mounting bearing units 107–108
drive-up See axial drive-up
drive-up method See SKF Drive-up method
dropping point 185
grease performance test 188
dry lubricant 182–183
Duoflex See SKF Duoflex
Duralife See SKF Duralife
Duralip See SKF Duralip
DURATEMP 145
E
eccentric collar locking 94–95
dismounting bearing units 273
mounting bearing units 106–108
tightening torque values 102
elastomer seals
installation 140–157
storage 42
electric current
current leakage damage 321–322
excessive voltage damage 307
trouble conditions 249–250
electric hot plates 68
electrical erosion 298–299
current leakage 321–322
excessive voltage 307
electronic stethoscopes 221
EMCOR rating See SKF EMCOR rating
end covers 133
endoscopes 225–226
energy efficiency 329
enveloped acceleration 224
EP additives See extreme pressure additives
Epocast 36 165
epoxy resin
for machine alignment 165
for shaft repair 152
escape holes See grease escape holes
external seals 39
trouble conditions 238
extractors See pullers
extreme pressure additives
compatibility with materials 202, 207
in grease 184
in oil 203, 207
extreme temperature applications 182
44014
F
face alignment 176–177
face-to-face bearing arrangements
adjusting angular contact ball bearings 74–75
adjusting tapered roller bearings 84–85
failure analysis See bearing damage
failure modes 298–299
false brinelling 298–299
caused by incorrect transportation or storage 308
caused by vibration 319
fatigue 298–299
subsurface initiated 301, 303–304
surface initiated 301, 303–304, 310–311
fatigue fracture 298–299
caused by operational misalignment 319
faults See machine faults
feeler gauges
for belt alignment 176
for checking soft foot 162
for measuring clearance reduction 55
for measuring internal clearance 52
for shaft alignment 170
felt seals 238
field service contracts 330
fillets
dimensions 38
dimensions (relieved fillets) 387
trouble conditions 247
filter rating 212
fits
bearing damage 300–302
for housings 336–337
for shafts 334–336
resultant fits 338–381
selection 32–34
trouble conditions 241–242, 246
FKM See fluoro elastomer
flanged housings
dismounting 282–283
types and designs 125–126
flanged units 100
dismounting 270–277
mounting 104–120
types and designs 96–100
flourinated grease 189, 200, 202
fluoro elastomer
at high temperatures 142
designation suffix for seals 145
fluting
caused by electric current 322
caused by vibration 319
foam dam 165
foaming
causes 211
prevention 202
food compatible lubricants 209, 424
forced fracture 298–299
caused by defective seats 303
caused by incorrect fits 301
form accuracy 35–36
tolerances for bearing seats 386
tolerances for shafts (sleeve mounting) 384
foundation quality 161
four-lip seals
grease replenishment 196
greasing on initial installation 190
four-point contact ball bearings
axial internal clearance values 391
designs 13
mounting 78
trouble conditions 244
four-row cylindrical roller bearings
designs 14
mounting 82–84
four-row tapered roller bearings
designs 17
mounting 89
fracture 298–299
fatigue fracture 319
forced fracture 301, 303
thermal cracking 301
FRB rings See locating rings
fretting corrosion 298–299
caused by defective seats 302–303
caused by incorrect fits 300
grease performance test 188
removal 226
frictional corrosion 298–299
false brinelling 308, 319
fretting corrosion 298–299, 302–303
frictional moment 235
G
garter springs
seal types and designs 143–145
trouble conditions 237
gloves 73
graphite 182, 184
grease
ageing 187, 192, 195
analysis 222
comparison with oil 182, 214
compatibility 200–202
consistency 185, 188
datasheets 181, 184–188
function 184
operating temperature range 186–187
performance tests 188
properties 185–188
selection 189
selection chart (SKF greases) 430–431
SKF greases 423–431
stiffness 184, 187
grease escape holes 196, 199
grease fittings
for grease replenishment 195
position on plummer block housings 133, 196
grease leakage 182
grease performance tests 188
troubleshooting 202, 236, 238–239
grease lubrication 183–202
Grease Test Kit See SKF Grease Test Kit
groove alignment 176–177
grub screw locking 94–95
dismounting bearing units 272
mounting bearing units 104–106
tightening torque values 102
guide rods 81
guiding sleeves See mounting sleeves
H
hammers
for installing seals 146
for mounting bearings 49
handling
bearing damage 305–306, 308
bearings 49–50
lubricants 181
heat
condition monitoring 221
troubleshooting 233
heater mats 269
heating cabinets 70
heating panels 71
heating rings See aluminium heating rings
hexagonal keys 102
high-precision bearings
greasing on initial installation 191
types and designs 12, 18
HMV.. nuts See hydraulic nuts
HNBR See acrylonitrile-butadiene rubbers
hollow shafts 34–35
hook spanners 102–103
hot dismounting See dismounting bearings, using heat
hot mounting 68–71
441Index
housings
dismounting 278–283
greasing on initial installation 190
identification 27
mounting 122–139
terminology 11
types and designs 125–127
hubs See wheel hubs
humidity
when storing bearings and units 41
when storing elastomer seals 42
when storing lubricants 43
hydraulic nuts
for dismounting bearings 262, 266
for SKF Drive-up method 56, 406–413
series and designs 73
hydraulic pumps
for SKF Drive-up method 56
selection guide 72
hydraulically-assisted pullers 257, 260
HYDROCAM 166
I
imbalance 223
impact damage
caused by faulty mounting practices 248, 305
caused by incorrect transportation or storage 308
impact rings/sleeves 146
incompatibility See compatibility
indentations 298–299
bearing damage progression 211, 231
caused by faulty mounting practices 305–306
caused by ineffective sealing 316
troubleshooting 245, 248
induced loads 301, 320
troubleshooting 241, 243–244
induction heaters
for dismounting bearings 255, 259
for installing wear sleeves 152
for mounting bearings 69, 82
infrared radiators 70
initial clearance 29
inner ring expansion 56
insert bearings See Y-bearings
inspection 216–227
during operation 220–224
during shutdown 224–227
lubricants 181
installing seals 140–157
greasing on initial installation 190
in plummer block housings 133–139
trouble conditions 238–239
integral seals
for bearing units 96
for bearings 40
trouble conditions 237–238, 251
integrated maintenance solutions 329
internal bearing pullers 268
internal clearance
before and after mounting 29, 51
considerations for fit selection 33
initial 29, 51
measuring with a feeler gauge 52
operational 29
reduction values when mounting 403–404
residual values after mounting 403–404
troubleshooting 233, 234, 239–242
values prior to mounting 388–401
ISO
bearing damage classification 298
contamination classification 212
dimension series 22–23
tolerance classes 35
tolerance grades 385
viscosity grades 203, 415
K
keyways 150, 152
kiln bearings 182
kinematic viscosity See viscosity
L
labyrinth seals 39
grease replenishment 196
greasing on initial installation 190
installation in plummer block housings 136
trouble conditions 238
large diameter wear sleeves 225
installation 152–153
laser alignment methods
for belt alignment 176–177
for offset drive alignment 175
for shaft alignment 171–173
leaks 222
troubleshooting 236, 238–239, 245
life See bearing life
lifting tackle 50, 68
liquid contaminants 212
troubleshooting 246, 250
lithium soap 185
load distributions
considerations for fit selection 32
path patterns 292–297
load ratios 187
load zones 292–297
locating bearing arrangements 30–31
locating rings 132
lock nut tightening angle 55
values for CARB toroidal roller bearings 404
values for self-aligning ball bearings 402
values for spherical roller bearings 403
looseness 163, 220
LuBase 189, 207
LubeSelect 189, 192, 207
lubricant
disposal 181
handling 181
inspection 181, 222, 225
selection 182
service life 28
shelf life 43
storage 42
lubricant film
formation 204
load carrying capacity 184, 200
lubrication 178–215
management 180
SKF tools and products 420–422
trouble conditions 236–237
lubrication systems
centralized 213–215
oil 207–209
LubriLean See SKF LubriLean
M
machine alignment 161–166
machine base frame
casting epoxy resin 165
soft foot condition 162
Machine Condition Advisor See SKF Machine Condition Advisor
machine faults 222
machine installation 161–166
machine tools
lubrication 191, 215
SKF services 331
machinery shims 163–164
for adjusting angular contact ball bearings 74–75
for adjusting tapered roller bearings 85
for bearing units 101
for plummer block housings 130
in the TMAS series 164
to prevent axial preloading 244
trouble conditions 241
maintenance methodologies 218–219
44214
maintenance strategy review 328–330
maintenance support 324–331
mandrels 146
matched bearing sets 76
material fatigue See subsurface initiated fatigue
material safety datasheets 180
interpretation 184–188
measurement form 48
mechanical maintenance services 330
mechanical pullers 256, 260
mechanical stability 188
metal-to-metal contact
prevention 183, 202
resulting in adhesive wear 312
troubleshooting 233–234, 237, 246, 249
microcracks 299
caused by ineffective lubrication 310
caused by material fatigue 309
micrometers 47–49
microscope counting method 212
mineral oil
in grease 183, 189
in oil 203–204
minimal quantity lubrication 214–215
misalignment
bearing damage 304, 320
in ball bearing units with an adapter sleeve 110
in ball bearing units with an eccentric locking collar 106, 108
in ball bearing units with grub screw locking 104, 106
in roller bearing units with a cylindrical locking collar 119
in SKF ConCentra ball bearing units 112, 114
in SKF ConCentra roller bearing units 116, 118
of belts 176–177
of external seals 238
of offset drives 175
of shafts 167–169
path patterns 296–297
vibration frequencies 222–223
mixing greases See grease, compatibility
moisture corrosion 298–299
caused by incorrect transportation or storage 308
caused by ineffective sealing 317–318
troubleshooting 250
molybdenum disulphide
for mounting bearings 62
in grease 183
Monoflex See SKF Monoflex
mounting bearing units 92–121
preparations 101
replacement parts 94–100
tightening torque values 102–103
tools 102–103
with a cylindrical locking collar 119–120
with an adapter sleeve 109–110
with an eccentric locking collar 106–108
with grub screw locking 104–106
with SKF ConCentra locking 111–118
mounting bearings 44–91
faulty mounting practices 248–249, 305–306
instructions by bearing type 74–91
preparations 46–49
tools 72–73, 416–418
trouble conditions 240, 243, 245, 247
using mechanical methods 53–56
using the oil injection method 62–66
using the SENSORMOUNT method 67
using the SKF Drive-up method 57–61
mounting housings 122–139
plummer blocks 134–136
plummer blocks (SONL) 137–139
preparations 130
replacement parts 124–129
mounting sleeves
for installing seals 150
for mounting cylindrical roller bearings 81–84
movable machine 167–169
Multiflex See SKF Multiflex
multi-row tapered roller bearings See four-row tapered roller
bearings
N
natural oil
in grease 183
in oil 203
NBR See acrylonitrile-butadiene rubbers
needle roller bearings
dismounting 255, 258
mounting 80–81
radial internal clearance values 393
types and designs 15–16
NLGI grade 184
grease performance test 188
noise
condition monitoring 221
troubleshooting 233
non-contact seals
external seals 39
integral bearing seals 40
removal 284
non-locating bearing arrangements 30–31
non-separable bearings 190
non-soaps 183
o
offset drive alignment 175
oil
analysis 210–212
comparison with grease 182, 214
compatibility 201, 210
filtering 211–212
sampling 210
selection 203–207
viscosity 203–206
oil bath 208
for heating bearings 71
oil change interval 209
oil sampling 210
trouble conditions 236–237
oil bleeding 181, 184, 187
grease performance test 188
relubrication interval adjustment 205
oil change intervals 209
oil injection method
dimensions for ducts, grooves and holes 405
for dismounting a bearing from a solid housing 268
for dismounting a bearing on a cylindrical shaft seat 258
for dismounting a bearing on a tapered shaft seat 260
for dismounting a bearing on a withdrawal sleeve 266
for dismounting a bearing on an adapter sleeve 264
for mounting bearings 62–66
oil injectors 72
oil jet 208
oil change interval 209
oil leakage 182
troubleshooting 236
oil level gauge 137, 139
oil lubrication 203–212
oil lubrication systems 207–209
oil pick-up ring 207–208
in SONL housings 137–139
oil change interval 209
oil pressure
calculation for SKF Drive-up method 58
values for SKF Drive-up method 406–413
oil separation See oil bleeding
oil spot See oil-air
oil-air 207–208
SKF Oil+Air 215
one-piece plummer block housings 126
on-site machining 330
443Index
operating temperature
condition monitoring 221
of bearings 187, 204
of grease 186–187
relubrication interval adjustment 195
troubleshooting 190, 202, 233
operational clearance 29
operator driven reliability 219, 330
o-rings 39
oscillating applications 207
outer ring rotation
load conditions 32
path patterns 293
relubrication interval adjustment 195
wheel application 87–88
out-of-balance See unbalance
out-of-round 241
caused by defective seats 302–303
path patterns 296–297
troubleshooting 241
out-of-square
caused by defective seats 302
caused by static misalignment 304
troubleshooting 251
oval clamping See out-of-round
overheating 233
overload 298–299
caused by faulty mounting practices 305
caused by incorrect transportation or storage 308
over-rolling 231
bearing defect frequencies 224
oxidation
of grease 187
prevention 81, 185, 203
resulting in corrosion 299
oxidized lubricant 226, 254
P
paint
on support surfaces 130, 161, 165
seal protection 150
particle counting 212
path patterns 291–297
perpendicularity 36, 386
pick-up ring See oil pick-up ring
pillow block See plummer block
pinching See out-of-round
plastic deformation 298–299
indentations 305–306, 316
overload 305, 308
plugs See end covers
plummer block housings
dismounting 280–281
mounting SNL housings 134–136
mounting SONL housings 137–139
types and designs 125–126
plummer block units
dismounting 270–277
mounting 104–120
types and designs 96–100
polishing wear
caused by incorrect fits 300–301
caused by ineffective sealing 315
polyamide
bearing unit housings 100
compatibility with EP additives 202
polyurea 183
predictive maintenance 218–219
preload
operational 29, 51
troubleshooting 240–245
values for angular contact ball bearings 389
premature bearing failure See bearing damage
preservatives
compatibility 189, 202
removal from new bearings 47, 202
pressed steel 100
presses
for dismounting bearings 258, 267
for installing seals 146
for mounting bearings 53
pressure gauges 56
preventive maintenance 218–219
proactive reliability maintenance 219
ProFlex See SKF ProFlex
PTFE
at high temperatures 142
compatibility 202
designation suffix for seals 145
radial shaft seals 143, 146, 150
pullers
for dismounting a bearing from a solid housing 267–269
for dismounting a bearing on a cylindrical shaft seat 256–257
for dismounting a bearing on a tapered shaft seat 260
for dismounting flanged housings 282
pulley alignment See belt alignment
pulling plates 260
pumps
for SKF Drive-up method 56
selection guide 72
purging
during relubrication 196
during renewal 199
trouble conditions 239
R
radial bearings 12–17
radial internal clearance 29, 51
measuring with a feeler gauge 52
reduction values when mounting 403–404
residual values after mounting 403–404
values for angular contact ball bearings 389–390
values for CARB toroidal roller bearings 399–400
values for cylindrical roller bearings 393
values for deep groove ball bearings 388
values for four-point contact ball bearings 391
values for needle roller bearings 393
values for self-aligning ball bearings 392
values for spherical roller bearings 397–398
values for Y-bearings 401
radial location 31–36
trouble conditions 241–242, 246
radial shaft seals
cleaning 146
installation into a housing 146–149
installation over a shaft 150
replacement 151
types and designs 143–145
radiators See infrared radiators
rating life 27–28
reactive maintenance 218–219
recommended fits See fits
reference temperature 203
refurbishment 331
reheat furnaces 182
reliability engineering 327
relieved fillets 38
dimensions 387
relubrication 192–198
effect on temperature 221
of sealed bearings 90, 192
relubrication intervals 192–195
troubleshooting 236, 245–246
remanufacturing 331
removing seals 284–286
renewal 198–199
replacement parts
for bearing units 94–100
for housings 124–129
for seals 142–145
replenishment 195–196
44414
resultant fits
for housings (inch) 372–381
for housings (metric) 350–359
for shafts (inch) 360–371
for shafts (metric) 338–349
retaining rings 91
reverse rim method 170–171
rim-face method 170–171
ring creep See creep
ring gauges 47
RMI See SKF Reliability Maintenance Institute
roll neck bearings 259
roll stability 188
roller bearing units
designations 96, 100
dismounting 276–277
mounting 114–120
shaft locking methods 94–96
types and designs 96–100
rolling bearings See bearings
rotating load 32
troubleshooting 243
rotating outer ring
load conditions 32
path patterns 293
relubrication interval adjustment 195
wheel application 87–88
rotational centre 167
rubbing 233
running accuracy 35–36
tolerances for bearing seats 386
tolerances for shafts (sleeve mounting) 384
running-in 191
runout 36
tolerances for bearing seats 386
rust
caused by defective seats 302
caused by ineffective sealing 317–318
troubleshooting 246
rust inhibiting preservative 188
compatibility with greases 189, 202
removal 202
S
safety datasheets See material safety datasheets
salt water 185
seal counterface 142
inspection 226–227
repair 151–154
requirements 146
seal lips
made of PTFE 146
materials 145
orientation 146, 239
types and designs 143–145
sealants
for installing seals 148, 152
to prevent oil leakage 137
sealed bearings 40
deep groove ball bearings 40
heating 68
relubrication 192
self-aligning ball bearings 79
shelf life 41
spherical roller bearings 90
trouble conditions 238
washing 189
sealing arrangements 39–40
trouble conditions 238
sealing washers 156
seals
external seals 39
for bearing units 96
for housings 128–129
installation 140–157
integral bearing seals 40
radial shaft seals 143–145
removal 284–286
service life 28
shelf life 42
terminology 11
trouble conditions 233, 235
seats See bearing seats
self-aligning ball bearings
axial drive-up values 402
greasing on initial installation 191
lock nut tightening angles 402
mounting 79–80
mounting (oil injection method) 62–66
mounting (SKF Drive-up method) 57–61
radial internal clearance values 392
SKF Drive-up method values 392
types and designs 13
SENSORMOUNT method 67
separable bearings
greasing on initial installation 190
mounting 80
serial numbers
on four-point contact ball bearings 78
on four-row cylindrical roller bearings 82
on four-row tapered roller bearings 89
on plummer block housings 27
service life 28–29
influencing factors 230–231
set screw See grub screw
shaft alignment 167–174
measuring conventions 167–168
methods 170–173
tolerances 169
shaft locking methods 94–96
shaft movement 234
shaft repair 152–154
shelf life
of bearings 41
of elastomer seals 42
of lubricants 43
shields 40
shimming 163
shims See machinery shims
shock loading
additive requirements 207
bearing damage 248, 308
relubrication interval adjustment 195
Shopfloor Awareness Cards 330
short foot See soft foot
sine bars 47
size code 22
SKF @ptitude Decision Support 327
SKF @ptitude Exchange 327
SKF Authorized Distributors 331
SKF Bearing fitting tool kit
for installing seals 146
for mounting bearings 72
SKF Certified Electric Motor Rebuilders 331
SKF Certified Maintenance Partners 331
SKF CircOil 215
SKF Client Needs Analysis 328
SKF ConCentra ball bearing units
dismounting 275
mounting 111–114
SKF ConCentra locking 94–95
SKF ConCentra roller bearing units
dismounting 276–277
mounting 114–118
445Index
SKF Drive-up method 57–61
axial displacement values 406–413
hydraulic nuts 406–413
oil pressure values 406–413
tools 56–57
SKF Duoflex 215
SKF Duralife 145
SKF Duralip 145
SKF EMCOR rating 188
SKF Energy Monitoring Service 329–330
SKF Grease Test Kit 222
SKF greases 423–431
for SKF SYSTEM 24 lubricators 199
selection chart 430–431
SKF Lubrication Planner 180
SKF LubriLean 215
SKF Machine Condition Advisor 223
SKF Monoflex 215
SKF Multiflex 215
SKF Oil+Air 215
SKF ProFlex 215
SKF rating life 27–28
SKF Reliability Maintenance Institute 326–327
SKF SPEEDI-SLEEVE 225
installation 152–153
SKF Springcover 144–145
SKF Springlock groove 144–145
SKF SYSTEM 24 198–199
SKF tools and products
for alignment 419
for condition monitoring 432–434
for dismounting 435–436
for lubrication 420–422
for mounting 416–418
SKF traffic light concept 186–187
SKF V2F rating 188
SKF Vibracon SM elements 162–165
SKF WAVE seal lip 143
skidding See smearing
sliding See smearing
slotted elements See chocks
smearing
resulting in adhesive wear 301, 312
troubleshooting 244, 247
SNL housings See plummer block housings
soaps 183, 185
soft foot 162
solid additives
in centralized lubrication systems 213
in grease 184
in oil 203
solid contaminants 211–212
troubleshooting 245, 249
solid oil 182–183
solid seals
installation 133, 149
types and designs 144–145
solvents
for cleaning bearings 224
handling 225
types 254
SONL housings See plummer block housings
spacer lugs 144
spacer rings 91, 151
spacing washers 156
spalling 231
subsurface initiated 303–304, 309
surface initiated 301, 304, 310–311
troubleshooting 244, 249–250
speed factor 187
limits for grease lubrication 186, 194
SPEEDI-SLEEVE See SKF SPEEDI-SLEEVE
spherical roller bearings
axial drive-up values 403
clearance reduction values 403
designs 17
lock nut tightening angles 403
mounting 90
mounting (oil injection method) 62–66
mounting (SKF Drive-up method) 57–61
radial internal clearance values 397–398
SKF Drive-up method values 407–411
spheroidal graphite cast iron 126
spindle reconditioning services 331
spirit levels
for belt alignment 176
for shaft alignment 170
splines 150, 152
split plummer block housings See plummer block housings
split seals 133, 154–155
Springcover See SKF Springcover
stabilizing rings See locating rings
standstill
excessive voltage damage 307
moisture corrosion damage 317–318
vibration damage 319
start-up
of grease lubricated bearings 186–187, 190–191
of oil lubricated bearings 207
stationary inner ring 293
stationary load 32
stationary machine 167–168
storage
bearing damage 308
of bearings 41
of elastomer seals 42
of lubricants 42–43
straightedge method
for belt alignment 176–177
for offset drive alignment 175
for shaft alignment 170–171
subsurface initiated fatigue 298–299, 309
caused by defective seats 303
caused by incorrect fits 301
caused by static misalignment 304
suffix list
for bearing units 96
for bearings 24–25
for housings 127–128
for seals 145
super-precision bearings
greasing on initial installation 191
types and designs 12, 18
support surfaces
for bearing units 101
for housings 130
surface damage 233–235
surface initiated fatigue 298–299
caused by defective seats 303
caused by incorrect fits 301
caused by ineffective lubrication 310–311
caused by static misalignment 304
troubleshooting 249
surface roughness 36
mean values 387
surface wetting 202
sustainability 329–330
synthetic oil
in grease 183
in oil 203
SYSTEM 24 See SKF SYSTEM 24
T
taconite seals 128–129
take-up housings 125–126
take-up units
dismounting 270–277
mounting 104–120
taper gauges 47–48
44614
tapered roller bearings
adjusting back-to-back arrangements 86–88
adjusting face-to-face arrangements 84–85
axial internal clearance values 396
greasing on initial installation 191
mounting 84–89
trouble conditions 245
types and designs 16–17
tapered shaft seats
dismounting bearings 259–264
measurement form 48
mounting bearings 54–56
temperature
ambient 161
condition monitoring 221
operating 186–187
reference 203
trouble conditions 233
temperature difference
between inner and outer rings 221
considerations for alignment 161
considerations for fit selection 33
trouble conditions 240
terminology 10–11
test running 174
thermal cracking 298–299
caused by incorrect fits 301
thermal expansion
considerations for alignment 161, 169
considerations for fit selection 33–34
mounting CARB toroidal roller bearings 91
thermal inspection 221
thermometers 221
thickeners
compatibility 201
types 183
thrust bearings 18–19
tightening torque 166
values for attachment bolts/nuts 105, 131
values for bearing units 102–103
values for cap bolts 131
tolerance classes See ISO, tolerance classes
tolerance grades See ISO, tolerance grades
tolerance tables
for housings (inch) 372–381
for housings (metric) 350–359
for shafts (inch) 360–371
for shafts (metric) 338–349
for shafts (sleeve mounting) 384
modified deviations for inch bearings 382–383
tools See SKF tools and products
torque indicator 112–113
torque keys See hexagonal keys
Total Cost of Ownership 329
total loss lubrication systems 214
track runner bearings 19–20
traffic light concept See SKF traffic light concept
training 326–327
transportation damage 308
troubleshooting 228–251
true brinelling 308
U
ultrasonic probes 221
unbalance 243, 246
unit conversion table 437
units See bearing units
universally matchable bearings
axial internal clearance values 389
axial preload values 389
mounting 76
V
V2F rating See SKF V2F rating
variable speed machines 223
vertical shafts
considerations for lubricant selection 182
relubrication interval adjustment 195
Vibracon SM elements See SKF Vibracon SM elements
vibration
false brinelling damage 308, 319
grease performance test 188
relubrication interval adjustment 195
troubleshooting 234
vibration monitoring 222–224
bearing defect frequencies 224
taking measurements 223
viscosity
calculation 204–206
equivalents 414
of base oil in grease 185
of oil 203
trouble conditions 246, 249
viscosity grades See ISO viscosity grades
viscosity index 203
viscosity ratio 204
VKA test 188
voltage 307
V-ring seals
installation in plummer block housings 135
installation over a shaft 157
removal 286
W
washboarding 322
washdowns 29
washers
for bearing units 101
for housings 131
water
bearing damage 317–318
contamination 181, 187, 212
content in oil 210–211
resistance of grease 183, 185, 188
WAVE seal lip See SKF WAVE seal lip
wear 298–299
abrasive 300–301, 313, 314–315
adhesive 301, 312
wear sleeves 152–153
welding 172
wheel hubs 87–88
withdrawal sleeves
dismounting bearings 264–267
mounting bearings (oil injection method) 62–66
mounting bearings (SKF Drive-up method) 57–61
X
XNBR See acrylonitrile-butadiene rubbers
Y
Y-bearing units See bearing units
Y-bearings
assembly 121
radial internal clearance values 401
types and designs 21

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