Shigley’s Mechanical Engineering Design

Shigley’s Mechanical Engineering Design
اسم المؤلف
Richard G. Budynas , J. Keith Nisbett
التاريخ
20 يوليو 2020
المشاهدات
التقييم
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Shigley’s Mechanical Engineering Design
Tenth Edition
Richard G. Budynas
Professor Emeritus, Kate Gleason College of Engineering, Rochester Institute of Technology
J. Keith Nisbett
Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology
Contents
Preface xv
Part 1 Basics 2
1 Introduction to Mechanical
Engineering Design 3
1–1 Design 4
1–2 Mechanical Engineering Design 5
1–3 Phases and Interactions of the Design
Process 5
1–4 Design Tools and Resources 8
1–5 The Design Engineer’s Professional
Responsibilities 10
1–6 Standards and Codes 12
1–7 Economics 13
1–8 Safety and Product Liability 15
1–9 Stress and Strength 16
1–10 Uncertainty 16
1–11 Design Factor and Factor of Safety 18
1–12 Reliability and Probability of Failure 20
1–13 Relating the Design Factor to Reliability 24
1–14 Dimensions and Tolerances 27
1–15 Units 31
1–16 Calculations and Significant Figures 32
1–17 Design Topic Interdependencies 33
1–18 Power Transmission Case Study
Specifications 34
Problems 36
2 Materials 41
2–1 Material Strength and Stiffness 42
2–2 The Statistical Significance of Material
Properties 46
2–3 Strength and Cold Work 49
2–4 Hardness 52
2–5 Impact Properties 53
2–6 Temperature Effects 54
2–7 Numbering Systems 56
2–8 Sand Casting 57
2–9 Shell Molding 57
2–10 Investment Casting 58
2–11 Powder-Metallurgy Process 58
2–12 Hot-Working Processes 58
2–13 Cold-Working Processes 59
2–14 The Heat Treatment of Steel 60
2–15 Alloy Steels 62
2–16 Corrosion-Resistant Steels 64
2–17 Casting Materials 65
2–18 Nonferrous Metals 67
2–19 Plastics 70
2–20 Composite Materials 71
2–21 Materials Selection 72
Problems 79
3 Load and Stress
Analysis 85
3–1 Equilibrium and Free-Body Diagrams 86
3–2 Shear Force and Bending Moments in
Beams 89
3–3 Singularity Functions 91
3–4 Stress 93
3–5 Cartesian Stress Components 93
3–6 Mohr’s Circle for Plane Stress 94
3–7 General Three-Dimensional Stress 100
3–8 Elastic Strain 101
3–9 Uniformly Distributed Stresses 102
3–10 Normal Stresses for Beams in Bending 103
3–11 Shear Stresses for Beams in Bending 108
3–12 Torsion 115
3–13 Stress Concentration 124Contents xi
3–14 Stresses in Pressurized Cylinders 127
3–15 Stresses in Rotating Rings 129
3–16 Press and Shrink Fits 130
3–17 Temperature Effects 131
3–18 Curved Beams in Bending 132
3–19 Contact Stresses 136
3–20 Summary 140
Problems 141
4 Deflection and
Stiffness 161
4–1 Spring Rates 162
4–2 Tension, Compression, and Torsion 163
4–3 Deflection Due to Bending 164
4–4 Beam Deflection Methods 166
4–5 Beam Deflections by Superposition 167
4–6 Beam Deflections by Singularity
Functions 170
4–7 Strain Energy 176
4–8 Castigliano’s Theorem 178
4–9 Deflection of Curved Members 183
4–10 Statically Indeterminate Problems 189
4–11 Compression Members—General 195
4–12 Long Columns with Central Loading 198
4–13 Intermediate-Length Columns with Central
Loading 198
4–14 Columns with Eccentric Loading 198
4–15 Struts or Short Compression Members 202
4–16 Elastic Stability 204
4–17 Shock and Impact 205
Problems 206
Part 2 Failure Prevention 226
5 Failures Resulting from
Static Loading 227
5–1 Static Strength 230
5–2 Stress Concentration 231
5–3 Failure Theories 233
5–4 Maximum-Shear-Stress Theory for Ductile
Materials 233
5–5 Distortion-Energy Theory for Ductile
Materials 235
5–6 Coulomb-Mohr Theory for Ductile
Materials 242
5–7 Failure of Ductile Materials
Summary 245
5–8 Maximum-Normal-Stress Theory for
Brittle Materials 249
5–9 Modifications of the Mohr Theory for
Brittle Materials 249
5–10 Failure of Brittle Materials Summary 252
5–11 Selection of Failure Criteria 252
5–12 Introduction to Fracture Mechanics 253
5–13 Important Design Equations 262
Problems 264
6 Fatigue Failure Resulting
from Variable Loading 273
6–1 Introduction to Fatigue in Metals 274
6–2 Approach to Fatigue Failure in Analysis
and Design 280
6–3 Fatigue-Life Methods 281
6–4 The Stress-Life Method 281
6–5 The Strain-Life Method 284
6–6 The Linear-Elastic Fracture Mechanics
Method 286
6–7 The Endurance Limit 290
6–8 Fatigue Strength 291
6–9 Endurance Limit Modifying
Factors 294
6–10 Stress Concentration and Notch
Sensitivity 303
6–11 Characterizing Fluctuating Stresses 308
6–12 Fatigue Failure Criteria for Fluctuating
Stress 311
6–13 Torsional Fatigue Strength under Fluctuating
Stresses 325
6–14 Combinations of Loading Modes 325
6–15 Varying, Fluctuating Stresses; Cumulative
Fatigue Damage 329
6–16 Surface Fatigue Strength 335
6–17 Road Maps and Important Design Equations
for the Stress-Life Method 338
Problems 341xii Mechanical Engineering Design
Part 3 Design of Mechanical
Elements 350
7 Shafts and Shaft
Components 351
7–1 Introduction 352
7–2 Shaft Materials 352
7–3 Shaft Layout 353
7–4 Shaft Design for Stress 358
7–5 Deflection Considerations 371
7–6 Critical Speeds for Shafts 375
7–7 Miscellaneous Shaft Components 380
7–8 Limits and Fits 387
Problems 392
8 Screws, Fasteners, and the
Design of Nonpermanent
Joints 401
8–1 Thread Standards and Definitions 402
8–2 The Mechanics of Power Screws 406
8–3 Threaded Fasteners 414
8–4 Joints—Fastener Stiffness 416
8–5 Joints—Member Stiffness 419
8–6 Bolt Strength 424
8–7 Tension Joints—The External Load 427
8–8 Relating Bolt Torque to Bolt Tension 429
8–9 Statically Loaded Tension Joint with
Preload 432
8–10 Gasketed Joints 436
8–11 Fatigue Loading of Tension Joints 436
8–12 Bolted and Riveted Joints Loaded in
Shear 443
Problems 451
9 Welding, Bonding, and
the Design of Permanent
Joints 467
9–1 Welding Symbols 468
9–2 Butt and Fillet Welds 470
9–3 Stresses in Welded Joints in Torsion 474
9–4 Stresses in Welded Joints in Bending 479
9–5 The Strength of Welded Joints 481
9–6 Static Loading 484
9–7 Fatigue Loading 488
9–8 Resistance Welding 490
9–9 Adhesive Bonding 490
Problems 499
10 Mechanical Springs 509
10–1 Stresses in Helical Springs 510
10–2 The Curvature Effect 511
10–3 Deflection of Helical Springs 512
10–4 Compression Springs 512
10–5 Stability 514
10–6 Spring Materials 515
10–7 Helical Compression Spring Design for Static
Service 520
10–8 Critical Frequency of Helical Springs 526
10–9 Fatigue Loading of Helical Compression
Springs 528
10–10 Helical Compression Spring Design for
Fatigue Loading 531
10–11 Extension Springs 534
10–12 Helical Coil Torsion Springs 542
10–13 Belleville Springs 549
10–14 Miscellaneous Springs 550
10–15 Summary 552
Problems 552
11 Rolling-Contact
Bearings 561
11–1 Bearing Types 562
11–2 Bearing Life 565
11–3 Bearing Load Life at Rated Reliability 566
11–4 Reliability versus Life—The Weibull
Distribution 568
11–5 Relating Load, Life, and Reliability 569
11–6 Combined Radial and Thrust Loading 571
11–7 Variable Loading 577
11–8 Selection of Ball and Cylindrical Roller
Bearings 580
11–9 Selection of Tapered Roller Bearings 583
11–10 Design Assessment for Selected RollingContact Bearings 592Contents xiii
11–11 Lubrication 596
11–12 Mounting and Enclosure 597
Problems 601
12 Lubrication and Journal
Bearings 609
12–1 Types of Lubrication 610
12–2 Viscosity 611
12–3 Petroff’s Equation 613
12–4 Stable Lubrication 615
12–5 Thick-Film Lubrication 616
12–6 Hydrodynamic Theory 617
12–7 Design Considerations 621
12–8 The Relations of the Variables 623
12–9 Steady-State Conditions in Self-Contained
Bearings 637
12–10 Clearance 640
12–11 Pressure-Fed Bearings 642
12–12 Loads and Materials 648
12–13 Bearing Types 650
12–14 Thrust Bearings 651
12–15 Boundary-Lubricated Bearings 652
Problems 660
13 Gears—General 665
13–1 Types of Gears 666
13–2 Nomenclature 667
13–3 Conjugate Action 669
13–4 Involute Properties 670
13–5 Fundamentals 670
13–6 Contact Ratio 676
13–7 Interference 677
13–8 The Forming of Gear Teeth 679
13–9 Straight Bevel Gears 682
13–10 Parallel Helical Gears 683
13–11 Worm Gears 687
13–12 Tooth Systems 688
13–13 Gear Trains 690
13–14 Force Analysis—Spur Gearing 697
13–15 Force Analysis—Bevel Gearing 701
13–16 Force Analysis—Helical Gearing 704
13–17 Force Analysis—Worm Gearing 706
Problems 712
14 Spur and Helical Gears 725
14–1 The Lewis Bending Equation 726
14–2 Surface Durability 735
14–3 AGMA Stress Equations 737
14–4 AGMA Strength Equations 739
14–5 Geometry Factors I and J (ZI and YJ) 743
14–6 The Elastic Coefficient C
p (ZE) 748
14–7 Dynamic Factor Kv 748
14–8 Overload Factor K
o 750
14–9 Surface Condition Factor C
f (ZR) 750
14–10 Size Factor K
s 751
14–11 Load-Distribution Factor K
m (KH) 751
14–12 Hardness-Ratio Factor CH (ZW) 753
14–13 Stress-Cycle Factors YN and ZN 754
14–14 Reliability Factor KR (YZ) 755
14–15 Temperature Factor KT (Yu) 756
14–16 Rim-Thickness Factor KB 756
14–17 Safety Factors SF and SH 757
14–18 Analysis 757
14–19 Design of a Gear Mesh 767
Problems 772
15 Bevel and Worm Gears 777
15–1 Bevel Gearing—General 778
15–2 Bevel-Gear Stresses and Strengths 780
15–3 AGMA Equation Factors 783
15–4 Straight-Bevel Gear Analysis 795
15–5 Design of a Straight-Bevel Gear Mesh 798
15–6 Worm Gearing—AGMA Equation 801
15–7 Worm-Gear Analysis 805
15–8 Designing a Worm-Gear Mesh 809
15–9 Buckingham Wear Load 812
Problems 813
16 Clutches, Brakes, Couplings,
and Flywheels 817
16–1 Static Analysis of Clutches and Brakes 819
16–2 Internal Expanding Rim Clutches and
Brakes 824xiv Mechanical Engineering Design
16–3 External Contracting Rim Clutches and
Brakes 832
16–4 Band-Type Clutches and Brakes 836
16–5 Frictional-Contact Axial Clutches 837
16–6 Disk Brakes 841
16–7 Cone Clutches and Brakes 845
16–8 Energy Considerations 848
16–9 Temperature Rise 849
16–10 Friction Materials 853
16–11 Miscellaneous Clutches and Couplings 856
16–12 Flywheels 858
Problems 863
17 Flexible Mechanical
Elements 871
17–1 Belts 872
17–2 Flat- and Round-Belt Drives 875
17–3 V Belts 890
17–4 Timing Belts 898
17–5 Roller Chain 899
17–6 Wire Rope 908
17–7 Flexible Shafts 916
Problems 917
18 Power Transmission
Case Study 925
18–1 Design Sequence for Power Transmission 927
18–2 Power and Torque Requirements 928
18–3 Gear Specification 928
18–4 Shaft Layout 935
18–5 Force Analysis 937
18–6 Shaft Material Selection 937
18–7 Shaft Design for Stress 938
18–8 Shaft Design for Deflection 938
18–9 Bearing Selection 939
18–10 Key and Retaining Ring Selection 940
18–11 Final Analysis 943
Problems 9
Axis, defined, 1003
Axle, defined, 352
BB
10 life, 566
Backlash, 668
Bainite, 61
Bairstow, L., 284
Ball bearings, 562–563
Ball bushings, 565
Band-type clutches and brakes, 836–837
Barth, Carl G., 731
Barth equation, 731
Base circle, 670–675
Base pitch, 674
Basic dimension, 975, 983, 1003
Basic Dynamic Load Rating, 566
Basic size (limits and fits), 387–389
Basic static load rating, 572–573
Bauschinger’s theory, 284
Beach marks, 274–275, 278
Beams
with asymmetrical sections, 107–108
in bending, normal stresses for, 103–108
in bending, shear stresses for, 108–114
curved beams in bending, 132–136
deflection due to bending, 164–166
deflection methods, 166–167
deflections by singularity functions,
170–176
deflections by superposition, 167–170
shear-force and bending moments in,
89–90
shear stress in rectangular, 109
two-plane bending, 106–107
Bearing characteristic, 615
Bearing characteristic number, See
Sommerfeld number
Bearing fatigue failure criteria. 565
Bearing film pressure, 616–618, 624, 628,
633–634
Bearing pressure (rope), 911
Bearing housing heat dissipation, 637
Bearing life
life measure, 565, 568
rating life, 566
recommendations for various classes
of machinery, 575
reliability versus life, 568
Bearing load life at rated reliability, 566–567
Bearings, journal
alloy characteristics, 649
boundary-lubricated, 652–660
material choice for, 648–650
thrust bearings, 651–652
types of, 650–651
A
Abrasion, 735
Absolute system of units, 31
Absolute tolerance system, 31
Absolute viscosity, 612–613, 625–627
Acme threads, 404–406, 409
Actual mating envelope, 979–980,
1002–1003
Addendum, 668, 688–690, 801, 803
Adhesive bonding, 490–499
joint design, 496–499
stress distributions, 493–496
types of adhesive, 491–492
Admiralty metal, 69
AGMA equation factors
allowable bending stress numbers,
739–741, 791–793
allowable contact stress, 742–743, 790–792
bending strength geometry factor, 738,
744–746, 785–786
crowning factor for pitting, 785
dynamic factor, 730, 738, 748, 750,
783–784
elastic coefficient, 736, 738, 748, 749, 790
geometry factors, 743–748, 785–786
hardness-ratio factor, 753–754, 788–789
lengthwise curvature factor for bending
strength, 785
load-distribution factor, 738, 751–753, 785
overload factor, 738, 750, 758–759, 783
pitting resistance geometry factor, 738,
743, 746–748, 785–786
reliability factor, 755–756, 789–790
reversed loading, 792
rim-thickness factor, 738, 756–757
safety factors, 757, 783
size factor, 738, 751, 785
stress-cycle factor, 741–742, 754–755,
787–788
surface condition factor, 738, 750
surface-strength geometry factor,
746–748
temperature factor, 756, 788
AGMA gear method
bevel gears, 780, 783–794
helical gears, 737–759
spur gears, 737–759
worm gears, 801–806
AGMA quality numbers, 748
AGMA transmission accuracy-level
number, 748
Alignment (bearings), 600
Allowable stress numbers (spur gears), 739
Allowance, 28
Alloy cast irons, 66
Alloy steels, 63–64
Alternating and midrange von Mises
stresses, 326, 359
Alternating stresses, 274, 308, 311
equivalent reversing stress (Ex. 6–12), 322
Aluminum, 56–57, 67
Aluminum brass, 69
Aluminum bronze, 69
American Bearing Manufacturers
Association (ABMA), 11, 565
American Chain Association (ACA), 903
American Gear Manufacturers Association
(AGMA), 12, 337, 688, 726, 778
nomenclature, 727–728, 781–782
strength equations, 739–743, 783
stress equations, 737–739, 780, 783
American Institute of Steel Construction
(AISC), 12, 481–483
American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI),
12, 56
American National (Unified) thread
standard, 402
American Society for Testing and Materials
(ASTM), 12, 52, 57, 259
American Society of Mechanical Engineers
(ASME), 10, 11–12, 19, 612
American Welding Society (AWS), 12,
468–470
Amplitude ratio (stress), 310
Anaerobic adhesives, 492
Analysis and optimization, 7
Angle of action, 674
Angle of approach, 674
Angle of articulation, 900
Angle of recess, 674
Angle of twist, 115–116, 121
Angularity control, 973–974, 987
Angular-velocity ratio, 669, 872, 898
Annealing, 60–61
Anodizing, 67
Antifriction bearing. See Rolling-contact
bearings
Arc of action, 676
Arc of approach, 676
Arc of recess, 676
Area principal axes, 107
Arrow side (weld symbol), 469
Ashby, M. F., 73
ASME-elliptic line, 313–314, 316, 318,
325, 340, 361, 439
Associated Spring, 546
Austenitic chromium-nickel steels, 64, 65
Automotive valve-spring surge, 526, 527
Average life (bearings), 566
Axial clutches, 837–840
Axial layout, for shaft components, 355
Axial pitch, 684, 687
1073
Index1074 Mechanical Engineering Design
Catalog load rating, rolling-contactbearings, 566
Catastrophic failure, buckling, 204
Centrifugal castings, 58, 679
Centrifugal clutch, 824
Centrifugal force, belts, 876
Centroidal axis
columns, 195, 198, 202
curved beams, 132–133
straight beams, 104, 164
Ceramics, 73, 79
Cermet pads, 855
CES Edupack software, 73
Chain dimensioning, 30
Chain drives, 899–907
Chain velocity, 901
Charpy notched-bar test, 53–54
Chordal speed variation, 902
Choudury, M., 421
Chrome-silicon wire, 516, 517
Chrome-vanadium wire, 516, 517
Chromium, 63, 66
Chromium-nickel steels, 64, 65
Circular pad caliper brake, 844–845
Circular runout control, 974, 993–994
Circularity control, 973–974, 985–986
Circular pitch, 667–668, 674, 683–684, 687
Clamshell marks, 274
Clearance, 27
journal bearings, 614, 640–642
preferred fits, 389
spur gears, 668
straight bevel gears, 682, 689
Clearance circle, 668
Close running fit, 389
Closed ends, springs, 512–513
Close-wound extension springs, 536
Clough, R. W., 947, 948
Clutches
band-type, 836–837
cone clutches, 845–847
energy considerations, 848–849
external contracting rim, 832–836
friction, 818
frictional-contact axial, 837–840
friction materials, 853–856
internal expanding rim, 824–832
miscellaneous clutches and couplings,
856–857
static analysis of, 819–823
temperature rise, 849–853
torque capacity, 839, 848
uniform pressure, 820, 839–840
uniform wear, 838–839
Codes, 12–13
Coefficient of friction
clutches and brakes, 818, 819, 821,
853, 855
flat- and round-belt drives, 876
interference fits, 392
threaded fasteners, 430
journal bearings, 613–615, 630–631, 652
power screws, 407, 413-414
V belt, 892
worm and worm-gears, 707, 709,
802–803
Coefficient of speed fluctuation, 859–860
static analysis of, 819–823
symmetrical pivoted shoe, 834–836
temperature rise, 849–853
wear, 834–835, 838–840
Brass, 68–69
Breakeven points, 14–15
Brinell hardness, 52, 62, 753
Brittle-Coulomb-Mohr (BCM) theory,
249–250
Brittle materials
Brittle-Coulomb-Mohr (BCM) theory,
249–250
failure summary, 252
fatigue failure criteria, 322–323
fracture criteria, 233
maximum-normal-stress theory for, 249
modified Mohr (MM) theory, 249,
250–251, 263
Smith-Dolan fatigue criteria, 322–323
stress-concentration factor, static loading,
125–126
Bronze, 68–70
B10 life, 566
Bubble chart, 74, 76, 78–79
Buckingham, E., 335–337
Buckingham (pi) method, 840
Buckingham wear load, 812–813
Burnishing, of gears, 682
Bushing, 610, 650,
wear, 655–658
Button pad caliper brake, 844–845
Butt welds, 469, 470–471
C
CAD software, 8–9, 946
Calculations and significant figures, 32–33
Caliper brakes, 841–845
Cap screws, 380, 415
Carbon content, 43, 56, 61–65
Cartesian stress components, 93–94
Cartridge brass, 68–69
Case hardening, 62
Case study (power transmission)
bearing selection, 939–940
deflection check, 938–939
design for stress, 938
final shaft design, 942–943
gear specification, 931–935
key design, 940–941
problem specification, 34–36, 926–927
shaft layout, 936
speed, torque, and gear ratios, 929–930
Castigliano’s theorem, 178–183
curved beam deflections, 183–189
flat triangular spring deflection, 551
helical spring deflection, 512, 545
statically indeterminate problems,
191–192
Casting alloys, 67
Casting materials, 65–67
Cast irons, 65–67
endurance limits, 291
fatigue test data, 252
minimum strength, 52
numbering system for, 57
stress concentration and, 232
Cast steels, 66–67
Bearings, rolling-contact
bearing life, 565–566
boundary dimensions for, 573–574
combined radial and thrust loading,
571–573
lubrication, 596–597
mounting and enclosure, 597–601
parts of, 563
relating load and life at rated reliability,
566–567
relating load and life at other than rated
reliability, 568–571
reliability, 593–596
tapered roller bearings. See Tapered roller
bearings
types of, 562–565
variable loading, 577–580
Bearing stress, 383, 410, 444
Belleville springs, 549–550
Belt drives
Flat and round belts, 875–887
Flat metal belts, 887
Timing belts, 898–899
V belts, 890–898
Belts, 872–875
Bending moments in beams, 89–90
Bergstr?sser factor, 511
Beryllium bronze, 70
Bevel gears, 666, 701–704
AGMA equation factors, 783–795
AGMA symbols for bevel gear rating
equations, 781–782
bevel gearing, general, 778–780
bevel-gear stresses and strengths,
780–783
design of a straight-bevel gear mesh,
798–800
straight-bevel gear analysis, 795–797
Bilateral tolerance, 27
Blake, J. C., 430
Bolt preload, 417, 427, 433–434
Bolts, 414–415, 417. See also Joints
relating bolt torque to bolt tension,
429–432
strength, 424–427
Bonus tolerance, 994–995, 1003
Bottom land, 668
Boundary conditions, 957–958
Boundary elements, 958
Boundary-lubricated bearings, 652–660
bushing wear, 655–658
linear sliding wear, 653–655
temperature rise, 658–660
Boundary lubrication, 611, 615, 652–653
Boundary representation (B-rep), 955
Bowman Distribution, 430, 434
Boyd, John, 623–624
Brakes
band-type, 836–837
cone, 845–847
disk brakes, 841–845
energy considerations, 848–849
external contracting, 832–836
friction materials, 853–856
internal expanding, 824–832
properties of brake linings, 855
self-energizing/deenergizing, 819Index 1075
Derived median line, 985–986, 1003
Derived median plane, 986, 1003
Derived unit, 31
Design Assessment for Selected RollingContact Bearings, 592–596
Design basics
calculations and significant figures, 32–33
case study specifications, 34–36
categories, 230
considerations, 8
design factor/factor of safety, 18–20
dimensions and tolerances, 27–31
economics, 13–15
in general, 4–5
information sources, 9–10
phases and interactions of, 5–8
relating design factor to reliability, 24–27
reliability and probability of failure, 20–23
safety/product liability, 15
standards and codes, 12–13
stress and strength, 16
tools and resources, 8–10
topic interdependencies, 33
uncertainty in, 16–17
units, 31–32
Design engineer
communication and, 5, 10–11
professional responsibilities of, 10–12
Design factor, 4, 17–18
Deviation (limits and fits), 387
Diametral pitch, 668
Die castings, 58, 679
Dimensions and tolerances. See also
Geometric Dimensioning and
Tolerancing
choice of, 28–29
terminology of, 27–28
systems of, 31, 970–971
Dimension-series code (ABMA), 574
Direct load, 448
Direct mounting of bearings, 584–585
Direct shear, 103, 176, 510–512
Discrete distributions, 23
Discrete mean, 23
Discrete standard deviation, 23
Discretization errors, 948–949
Disk brakes, 841–846
circular pad caliper, 844–845
uniform pressure, 843–844
uniform wear, 842–843
Disk clutch, 837–838
Displacement, Castigliano’s theorem, 179
Distortion-energy (DE) failure theory,
235–241, 263
Distribution
Gaussian (normal), 21
Weibull, 568–569
Double-enveloping worm gearsets, 667
Double-row bearings, 564
Double-threaded screw, 402
Dowel pin, 383
Dowling, M. E., 310
Drawing (tempering), 61–62
Drive pin, 383
Drum brake, 824
Ductile-brittle transition, 53
Ductile (nodular) cast iron, 65–66
Courant, R., 947
Crack growth, 253–255, 287–290
Crack modes and stress intensity factor,
255–259
Creep, 54–55
Critical buckling load, 961–963
Critical frequency of helical springs, 526–528
Critical load, 195
Critical speeds for shafts, 375–380
Critical stress intensity factor, 259–261
Critical unit load, 196
Crowned pulleys, 872, 887
C10 load rating, 566–567, 569–570, 573, 575
Cumulative fatigue damage, 329–335
Curvature effect, 511–512
Curved beams in bending
deflections, 183–189
stresses, 132–136
Cylindrical contact, 138–140
Cylindrical roller bearings, 575, 580–583
Cylindrical worm gear. See Singleenveloping worm gearset
Cylindricity control, 973–974, 985, 987
D
Datsko, Joseph, 50
Datum, 976–981, 1003
Datum axis, 979–980, 993, 1003
Datum feature, 976–980, 996–997, 1003
Datum feature symbol, 980–981
Datum feature simulator, 976–977, 980,
993, 1003
Datum of size, 1003
Datum reference frame, 976–977, 1003
Decision-making, 4–5
Dedendum, 668
Deflection
beam deflection methods, 166–167
beam deflections by singularity functions,
170–176
beam deflections by superposition,
167–170
Castigliano’s theorem, 178–189,191–192,
512, 545, 551
columns with eccentric loading, 198–202
compression members, general, 195
deflection due to bending, theory,
164–166
deflection of curved members, 183–189
elastic stability, 204
intermediate-length columns with central
loading, 198
long columns with central loading,
195–198
shock and impact, 205–206
spring rates, 162–163
statically indeterminate problems, 189–195
strain energy, 176–178
struts or short compression members,
202–203
tension, compression, and torsion, 163
Deflection considerations, shafts, 371–375
DE-ASME elliptic equation, 361
DE-Gerber equation,361
DE-Goodman equation, 360
DE-Soderberg equation,361
Degrees of freedom (dof’s), 947
Coefficients of variance, 26
Cold forming, 679
Cold rolling, 679
Cold working, 49–51
Cold-working processes, 59–60
Collins, J. A., 335
Columns
critical load, 195
with eccentric loading, 198–202
Euler column formula, 195
intermediate-length with central loading, 198
long columns with central loading,
195–198
parabolic formula, 198
secant column formula, 199–200
slenderness ratio, 196
unstable bending, 195
Commercial bronze, 68
Commercial seal, 600
Communication
of design (presentation), 7–8
skills, 5, 10–11
Completely reversed stress, 283, 293, 340,
529, 1055
Composite materials, 71–72
Compound gear train, 691–692
Compound reverted gear train, 693
Compression members, 195
struts or short compression members,
202–203
Compression springs. See Helical coil
compression springs
Compression tests, 44–45
Compressive stress, 93
Computational errors, 948
Computational tools, 8–9
Computer-aided design (CAD) software,
8–9, 946
Computer-aided engineering (CAE), 9
Concentricity control, 974, 990, 993
Concept design, 6–7
Cone angle, 420, 845–846
Cone clutch, 845–847
uniform pressure, 847
uniform wear, 846–847
Conical spring, 551, (Prob. 10–29) 556
Conjugate action, 669
Constant-force spring, 550
Constructive solid geometry (CSG), 955
Contact adhesives, 492
Contact fatigue strength, 336, 742
Contact ratio, 676–677
Contact stresses, 136–140
cylindrical contact, 138–140
spherical contact, 137–138
Continuing education, 11
Continuous probability distributions, 21
Copper-base alloys, 68–70
Corrosion, 302
Corrosion-resistant steels, 64–65
Cost considerations. See Economics
Coulomb-Mohr theory for ductile materials,
242–244, 246, 252, 263
Coulomb-Mohr theory for brittle materials.
See Brittle-Coulomb-Mohr (BCM)
theory
Couplings, 856–8571076 Mechanical Engineering Design
for threaded elements, 436
for welds, 482
Fazekas, G. A., 844
Feature, GD&T definition of, 973, 1004
Feature control frame, 983–985, 1004
Feature of size, 973, 979–982, 990, 1004
Feature-relating tolerance zone framework
(FRTZF), 991–992, 1004
Felt seals, 600
Ferritic chromium steels, 64–65
Field, J., 63
Filler, 71
Fillet welds, 469–470. See also Welds
Filling notch, 564
Film pressure, 633–634
Finite element, 948
Finite-element analysis (FEA), 232, 945–965
about, 946–947
boundary conditions, 957–958
critical buckling load, 961–963
element geometries, 949–951
element library, 949
finite-element method, 947–949
finite-element solution process, 951–954
load application, 956–957
mesh generation, 954–956
modeling techniques, 958–961
thermal stresses, 961
types of errors in, 948–949
vibration analysis, 963–964
Finite-element analysis (FEA) programs,
9, 189, 946
Finite-element method, 947–949
Finite-element solution process, 951–954
Finite life, 305
Finite-life region, 282–283
Firbank, T. C., 875
Fit, 28
Fits
interference fits, 390–392
preferred limits and fits, 387–390
types of, 389
Fitted bearing, 617
Flat belts, 872–875
Flat-belt drives, 873–890
Flatness control, 973–974, 985–986
Flexible mechanical elements
belts, 872–875
flat-and round-belt drives, 873–890
flat metal belts, 887–890
flexible shafts, 916–917
roller chain, 899–907
timing belts, 898–899
V belts, 890–898
wire rope, 908–916
Flexible shafts, 916–917
Flexural endurance limit, 335
Floating caliper brake, 841
Fluctuating simple loading, 339–340
Fluctuating stresses, 274
characterization of, 308–310
combinations of loading modes, 325–329
fatigue failure criteria for, 311–324
torsional fatigue strength under, 325
varying, cumulative fatigue damage,
329–335
Fluid lubrication, 610
Equivalent radial load, 571
Equivalent vonMises stress, 236
Euler column formula, 195, 197
Eutectoid steel, 61
Evaluation, 7
Expanding-ring clutch, 824
Extension springs. See Helical coil
extension springs
External contracting rim clutches and
brakes, 832–836
Extreme-pressures (EP) lubricants, 652
Extrusion, 59, 679
F
Face-contact ratio, 687, 743–744
Face-to-face mounting (DF), 599
Face width, 690
Factor of safety, 18
Failure, probability of, 20–23
Failure theories, static loading, 233
brittle materials, 249–252
ductile materials, 233–248
fracture mechanics, 253–262
selection of failure criteria, 252–253
Fasteners, 424–427
stiffness, 416–419
threaded, 414–416
Fatigue failure, defined, 274
Fatigue failure from variable loading
characterizing fluctuating stresses, 308–310
combinations of loading modes, 325–329
crack formation and propagation,
275–279
cumulative damage, 329–335
endurance limit, 290–291
endurance limit modifying factors, 294–302
fatigue failure criteria for fluctuating
stress, 311–324
fatigue-life methods, 281
fatigue strength, 291–294
fluctuating stresses, 308–324, 325
introduction to fatigue in metals, 274–280
linear-elastic fracture mechanics method,
286–290
road maps and important design
equations, 338–341
stages of, 274–277
strain-life method, 284–286
stress concentration and notch sensitivity,
303–308
stress-life method, 281–284
surface fatigue strength, 335–338
torsional fatigue strength under
fluctuating stresses, 325
Fatigue limit, 283. See also Endurance limit
Fatigue loading
of helical compression springs, 528–534
of tension joints, 436–443
of welded joints, 488–489
of wire rope, 912–913
Fatigue problem categories, 325
Fatigue strength, 282, 291–294
Fatigue stress-concentration factor. See also
Stress concentration
defined, 303–304
application to fluctuating stresses, 310
for gear teeth, 735, 744
Ductile materials
Coulomb-Mohr theory for, 242–244, 263
distortion-energy theory for, 235–241, 263
Dowling method for, 310
failure summary, 245–249
maximum-shear-stress theory for,
233–235, 263
selection of failure criteria, 252–253
stress-concentration factor, 125–126, 232
yield criteria, 233
Ductility, 50
Dunkerley’s equation, 378
Duplexing (bearings), 599
Durability (life) correlations, 896
Dynamic loading, stress concentration
effect, 126, 303–308
Dynamic viscosity, 612
Dyne, 612
E
Eccentricity ratio, 199, 617, 628–630
Economics, 13–15
breakeven points, 14–15
cost estimates, 15
large tolerances, 13–14
standard sizes, 13
Effective arc, 876
Effective slenderness ratio, 514
Effective stress, 236
Efficiency
belt drives, 875
screw thread, 408–409
wormgearing, 708, 804, 805
Eigenvalues, 963
Eigenvectors, 963
Elastic coefficient, 736, 738, 748, 749,
790–791
Elastic creep, 875
Elastic instability, 204, 946
Elasticity, modulus of, 43
Elastic limit, 43, 46
Elastic strain, 101–102
Elastohydrodynamic lubrication, 597, 611
Elastomers, 74, 79
Electrolytic plating, 302
Elimination approach, 953
Enclosures (bearings), 600–601
End-condition constant, 196, 514
Endurance limit, 280, 283, 290–291
Endurance limit modifying factors,
294–302
loading factor, 298–299
miscellaneous-effects factor, 301–302
reliability factor, 300–301
size factor, 296–298
surface factor, 295–296
temperature factor, 299–300
Engineering stress and strength, 45
Engineering stress-strain diagrams, 44
Engineers’ Creed (NSPE), 12
Engraver’s brass, 69
Envelope principle, 982, 1004
Epicyclic gear trains, 695
Equilibrium, 86
Equilibrium and free-body diagrams, 86–89
Equivalent bending load, 909, 914
Equivalent diameter, 297Index 1077
extension springs, 534–542
fatigue loading of, 528–531
materials used for, 515–518
maximum allowable torsional stresses
for, 518
stability (buckling), 514–515
for static service, 520–526
stresses in. See Helical springs
set-removal, 513
Helical coil extension springs, 534–542
ends for, 535
fatigue analysis, 539–542
load-deflection relation, 536–537
maximum allowable stresses for, 537
maximum tensile stress, 535–536
static applications, 537–539
Helical coil torsion springs, 542–549
bending stress, 544
deflection and spring rate, 544–546
end location description, 543–544
fatigue strength, 546–547
static strength, 546
Helical gears, 666, 683–687, 704–706. See
also Spur and helical gears, AGMA
Helical springs. See also Helical coil
extension, compression, or torsion
springs
critical frequency of, 526–528
the curvature effect, 511–512
deflection of, 512
spring rate, 512
stresses in, 510–511
Helix angle, 407, 683–685
Hertz, H., 136, 139
Hertzian endurance strength, 336–338
Hertzian stresses, 136, 335, 736. See also
Contact stresses
Hertz theory, 735
Hexagon-head bolt, 415
Hexagon-head screw, 416
Hexagon nuts, 415–416
High-cycle fatigue, 281–283
High-leaded brass, 69
Hobbing, 681
Holding power, 380
Hole basis (limits and fits), 387
Hooke’s law, 43, 65, 101–102
Hoop stress, 128
Hot-working processes, 58–59
Hrennikoff, A., 947
Hydraulic clutches, 824
Hydrodynamic lubrication, 610,
615–617, 651
Hydrostatic lubrication, 611
Hypoid gears, 666, 779
I
Idle arc, 876
Impact, 205–206
Impact load, 53
Impact properties, 53–54
Impact value, 53
Inch-pound-second system (ips), 31
Indirect mounting, 584–585
Infinite-life region, 282–283
Influence coefficients, 376
Injection molding, 680
milling, 680
shaping, 680–681
Gear tooth bending, 762, 765, 768, 771
Gear tooth wear, 762, 765, 768, 771
Gear train value, 691
Gear trains, 690–697
Gear wear, 759, 768, 792–793
General three-dimensional stress, 100–101
Generating line, 671
Geometric attributes, 973–974, 1004
Geometric characteristics, 985–994, 1004
Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing
(GD&T), 28, 970–1005
basic dimension, 975, 983, 1003
definition of, 28, 971
datum, 976–981, 1003
feature control frame, 983–985, 1004
geometric characteristics, 985–994, 1004
glossary of terms, 1002–1005
material condition modifiers, 994–996, 1004
standards, 972
symbolic language, 974–975
tolerance zone, 981–982, 1005
Geometric stress-concentration factor, 125.
See also Stress concentration factor
Geometry factors, 743–748
Gerber fatigue-failure criterion, 313–315,
326, 340, 360–361, 439, 488, 542, 546
Gerber failure line, 313–314
Gib-head key, 384
Gilding brass, 68
Global instabilities, 204
Goodman fatigue failure criterion, 311,
313–315, 326, 340, 360, 437–439,
488, 531
Goodman failure line, 313–315
Government information sources, 10
Gravitational system of units, 31
Gravity loading, 957
Gray cast iron, 65
Green, I., 421
Griffith, A. A., 254–255
Grip, 417
Grooved pulleys, 872
Grossman, M. A., 63
Guest theory, 233
H
Hagen-Poiseuille law, 612
Ham, C. W., 413
Hard-drawn steel spring wire, 515–518
Hardness, 52–53
Hardness-ratio factor, 742, 753–754,
788–789
Harmonic frequencies, 527
Harmonics, 375
Haringx, J. A., 514
Heading, 60
Heat transfer analysis (FEA), 961
Heat treatment of steel, 60–63
Helical coil compression springs, 512–534
critical frequency of, 526–528
deflection of. See Helical springs
design for fatigue loading, 531–534
design for static service, 520–526
end-condition constants for, 514
ends, types of, 512–513
Flywheels, 818, 858–863
Foot-pound-second system (fps), 31
Force analysis
bevel gearing, 701–704
case study, 937
helical gearing, 704–706
method, 87–89
spur gearing, 697–701
worm gearing, 706–712
Force fit, 389
Forging, 59
Form, in GD&T, 973–974, 983, 985, 1004
Form controls, 985–987
Form cutters, 679
Fracture mechanics, 253–262, 264
crack modes and stress intensity factor,
255–259
fracture toughness, 259–262
quasi-static fracture, 254–255
Fracture toughness, 259–262
Free-body diagrams, 87–88
Free-cutting brass, 69
Free running fit, 389
Frettage corrosion, and flywheels, 302
Frictional-contact axial clutches,
837–840
Friction materials, for brakes and clutches,
853–856
Friction variable, 630
Full bearing, 617
Full-film lubrication, 610, 651
Fundamental contact stress equation, 780
Fundamental deviation (limits and fits), 387
G
Gamma function, 568
Gasketed joints, 436
Gaussian (normal) distribution, 21
GD&T. See Geometric Dimensioning and
Tolerancing
Gear bending strength, 739–741
Gear mesh design, 767–772
Gears, general, 665–712
AGMA factors. See AGMA equation
factors
conjugate action, 669
contact ratio, 676–677
force analysis, bevel gearing, 701–704
force analysis, helical gearing, 704–706
force analysis, spur gearing, 697–701
force analysis, worm gearing, 706–712
fundamentals, 670–676
gear teeth formation, 679–682
gear trains, 690–697
interference, 677–679
involute properties, 670
nomenclature, 667–668
parallel helical gears, 683–687
straight bevel gears, 682–683
tooth systems, 688–690
types of gears, 666–667
Gear strength
spur and helical gears, 739–743
bevel gears, 780, 783, 785, 787–788
Gear teeth formation, 679–682
finishing, 682
hobbing, 6811078 Mechanical Engineering Design
lubricant flow, 631–633
lubricant temperature rise, 634–636
Petroff’s equation, 613–615
pressure-fed bearings, 642–648
relations of the variables, 623–637
stable lubrication, 615
steady-state conditions in self-contained
bearings, 637–640
thick-film lubrication, 616–617
thrust bearings, 651–652
types of lubrication, 610–611
viscosity, 611–613
Lubrication failure, 735
Lüder lines, 233–234
Lundberg, 139
M
Macaulay functions, 86, 90
Machine-screw head styles, 415–416
Magnesium, 68
Magnetic clutches, 824
Major diameter, 402
Malleable cast iron, 66
Manganese, 63–64
Manson, S. S., 333
Manson-Coffin equation, 286, 292
Manson’s method, 333–334
Margin of safety, 25
Marin factors, 295–302
Marin, Joseph, 245
Martensite, 61–62
Martensitic stainless steels, 64
Martin, H. C., 947
Material condition modifiers,
994–996, 1004
Material efficiency coefficient, 76
Material index, 77
Materials. See also specific materials
alloy steels, 63–64
casting materials, 65–67
cold-working processes, 59–60
composite materials, 71–72
corrosion-resistant steels, 64–65
families and classes of, 73–74
hardness, 52–53
heat treatment of steel, 60–63
hot-working processes, 58–59
impact properties, 53–54
investment casting, 58
nonferrous metals, 67–70
numbering systems, 56–57
plastics, 70–71
powder-metallurgy process, 58
sand casting, 57
selection of, 72–79
shell molding, 57–58
statistical significance of properties of,
46–49
strength and cold work, 49–51
strength and stiffness, 42–46
temperature effects, 54–55
Materials selection charts, 73–79
Mathematical models, 7
Matrix, 71
Maximum material boundary, 996, 1004
Maximum material condition (MMC), 975,
982, 994–995, 1005
Lewis form factor, 729
Limits, 27, 387–392
Linear damage hypothesis, 577, 579
Linear elastic fracture mechanics
(LEFM), 253
Linear-elastic fracture mechanics method,
281, 286–290
Linear sliding wear, 653–655
Linear spring, 162
Line elements, 949
Line of action, 669, 671, 674
Line of contact, 139
Little, R. E., 420
Load and stress analysis
Cartesian stress components, 93–94
contact stresses, 136–140
curved beams in bending, 132–136
elastic strain, 101–102
equilibrium and free-body diagrams, 86–89
general three-dimensional stress, 100–101
Mohr’s circle for plane stress, 94–100
normal stresses for beams in bending,
103–108
press and shrink fits, 130–131
shear force and bending moments in
beams, 89–90
shear stresses for beams in bending,
108–115
singularity functions, 91–93
stress, 95
stress concentration, 124–127
stresses in pressurized cylinders, 127–129
stresses in rotating rings, 129–130
temperature effects, 131
torsion, 115–124
uniformly distributed stresses, 102–103
Load application, 956–957
Load application factors, 576
Load factor, 432–433
Loading factor, 298
Load intensity, 89–90
Load-life-reliability relationship, 562, 570
Load line, 235
Load-sharing ratio, 744
Load-stress factor, 336
Load zone, 585
Location, in GD&T, 973–974, 983, 985, 1004
Location controls, 990–993
Locational clearance fit, 389
Locational interference fit, 389
Logarithmic strain, 44
Loose running fit, 389
Loose-side tension, 876
Low brass, 68–69
Low-contact-ratio (LCR) helical gears, 744
Low-cycle fatigue, 281, 283
Lower deviation (limits and fits), 387
Low-leaded brass, 69
L10 life, 566
Lubrication, of roller bearings, 596–597
Lubrication and journal bearings
bearing types, 650–651
boundary-lubricated bearings, 652–660
clearance, 640–642
design considerations, 621–623
hydrodynamic theory, 617–621
loads and materials, 648–650
Interference
fits, 27–28, 389–392
gear teeth, 677–679
of stress and strength, 25–26
Internal expanding rim clutches and brakes,
824–832
drum torque, 827
shoe forces, 826–829
shoe geometry, 824–825
shoe pressure distribution, 825–826
Internal friction theory, 242
Internal gear, 674
Internal-shoe brake, 824
International System of Units (SI), 32
International tolerance (IT) grade numbers
(limits and fits), 387
Internet information sources, 10
Interpolation equation for lubrication charts,
636–637
Invention of the concept, 6–7
Investment casting, 58, 679
Involute helicoid, 683
Involute profile, 669
Involute properties, 670
Isotropic materials, 72
IT numbers (limits and fits), 387
Ito, Y., 419–420
Izod notched-bar test, 53–54
J
J. B. Johnson formula, 198, 201, 410
Joerres, R. E., 517
Joints, bolted and riveted
bolted and riveted joints loaded in shear,
443–451
fastener stiffness, 416–419
fatigue loading of tension joints, 436–443
gasketed, 436
member stiffness, 419–424
shear joints with eccentric loading, 447
statically loaded tension joint with
preload, 432–435
tension joints with external loads, 427–429
Jominy test, 63
Journal bearing, 622–623
K
Karelitz, G. B., 637–638
Keys and keyways, 365, 382–386
Kinematic viscosity, 612
Kips, 31
Kurtz, H. J., 430
L
Labyrinth seal, 601
Laminates, 72
Landgraf, R. W., 284
Langer criterion, 314–315
Lang-lay ropes, 908
Lap joints, 493, 496, 497
Lead, 402
Least Material Boundary (LMB), 975,
996, 1004
Least Material Condition (LMC), 975, 982,
994–995, 1004
Leibensperger, R. L., 597
Lewis, Wilfred, 726
Lewis bending equation, 726–735Index 1079
Perpendicularity control, 973–974, 987–988
Peterson, R. E., 232
Petroff’s equation, 613–615
Phosphor bronze, 69
Phosphor-bronze wire, 517
Piecewise-continuous periodic loading
cycle, 577–578
Pilkey, W. D., 384
Pillow-block bearings, 637
Pinion, 667
Pinion cutter, 680
Pinion tooth bending, 762, 764, 768, 770
Pinion tooth wear, 762, 765, 768, 771
Pins, 382–383
Pitch, 402, 404
Pitch circle, 667, 669, 673
Pitch diameter, 402, 667, 682, 687–688
Pitch length, 892
Pitch-line velocity, 699, 784
Pitch point, 669, 671
Pitch radius, 669
Pitting, 335, 735
Pitting resistance, AGMA stress equation,
737–738
Pitting-resistance geometry factor, 746–748
Plain end springs, 512
Plane of analysis, 234
Plane slider bearing, 618
Plane stress, 94–100, 234
Mohr’s circle shear convention, 96–100
transformation equations, 94
Planetary gear trains, 695, 696
Planet carrier (arm), 695, 696
Planet gears, 695
Plastics, 70–71
Pneumatic clutches, 824
Poise (P), 612
Poisson’s ratio, 72, 102
Polymers, 73–74, 79
Poritsky, 139
Position control, 974, 990–992
Positive-contact clutch, 856–857
Potential energy, 176–178, 206
Pound-force (lbf), 31
Powder-metallurgy process, 58, 650, 679
Power screws, 406–414
Power transmission case study
about, 926
bearing selection, 928, 939–940
deflection check, 938
design for stress, 938
design sequence for power transmission,
927–928
final analysis, 928, 943
force analysis, 927, 937
gear specification, 927, 928–935
key and retaining ring selection, 928,
940–942
key design, 940
power and torque requirements, 927, 928
problem specification, 926–927
shaft design for deflection, 928, 938–939
shaft design for stress, 927, 938
shaft layout, 927, 935–937
shaft material selection, 927, 937
specifications, 926–927
speed, torque, and gear ratios, 929–930
Muntz metal, 69
Music wire, 515–518
N
Natural frequency, 75, 527, 963
Naval brass, 69
Needle bearings, 564, 565
Neuber constant, 304
Neuber equation, 304
Neutral axis, 103–104, 132
Neutral plane, 104
Newmark, N. M., 947
Newtonian fluids, 612
Newton (N), 32
Nickel, 63, 66
Nodes, 947
Nodular cast iron, 65–66
Noise, vibration and harshness (NVH), 491
Nominal mean stress method, 310
Nominal size, 27
Nominal stresses and strengths, 45
Nonferrous metals, 67–70
Nonlinear softening spring, 163
Nonlinear stiffening spring, 162
Normal circular pitch, 684
Normal diametral pitch, 684
Normalizing, 60–61
Normal stress, 93
Norris, C. H., 472
Notched-bar tests, 53–54
Notch sensitivity, 303–304
Numbering systems, 56–57
Nuts, 415–416, 427
O
Octahedral shear stresses, 238
Octahedral-shear-stress theory, 237–238
Offset method, 43
Oil flow, 635, 642
Oiliness agents, 652
Oil-tempered wire, 516
Opening crack propagation mode, 255
Orientation, in GD&T, 973–974, 985, 1004
Orientation controls, 987–988
Osgood, C. C., 420
Other side (weld symbol), 469
Overconstrained system, 189
Overload factors, 738, 750, 758–759, 783
Overload release clutch, 856–857
Overrunning clutch or coupling, 857
P
Palmgren-Miner cycle-ratio summation rule,
330–333, 335
Parabolic formula, 198
Parallel-axis theorem, 105, 475
Parallel helical gears, 683–687
Paris equation, 288
Parallelism control, 973–974, 987
Partial bearing, 617
Partitioning approach, 953
Pattern-locating Tolerance Zone Framework
(PLTZF), 991–992, 1005
Pearlite, 61
Pedestal bearings, 637
Peel stresses, 496, 498
Performance factors, 622
Permanent-mold casting, 679
Maximum-normal-stress theory for brittle
materials, 249
Maximum-shear-stress theory (MSS),
233–235, 245, 252, 263
Maxwell’s reciprocity theorem, 376
McHenry, D., 947
McKee, S. A., 615
McKee, T. R., 615
McKee abscissa, 615
Mean coil diameter, 510
Mechanical efficiency, 805
Mechanical springs. See Springs
Median life, 566
Medium drive fit, 389
Mesh, 954
Mesh density, 954
Mesh generation, 954–956
fully automatic, 955
manual, 954–955
semiautomatic, 955
Mesh refinement, 954
Metal-mold castings, 58
Metals, 73, 79
nonferrous, 67–70
Metals Handbook (ASM), 277
Metal spraying, 302
Metric fastener specifications,
403–404, 427
Milling, 680
Mindlin, 139
Miner’s rule, 330–333
Minimum film thickness, 616–617, 629
Minimum life, 566
Minor diameter, 402
Misalignment, 371, 564, 599, 600
Miscellaneous-effects factor, 301–302
Mises-Hencky theory, 237
Mises stresses, 325, 359–360
Mixed-film lubrication, 652–653
Modal analysis, 963–964
Mode I, plane strain fracture toughness, 259
Modeling techniques, 958–961
Modern Steels and Their Properties
Handbook, 63
Modified Goodman diagram, 311–312
Modified Goodman failure line, 313–315
Modified Goodman fatigue failure criterion.
See Goodman fatigue failure criterion
Modified Mohr (MM) theory, 249–252, 263
Module, 668
Modulus of elasticity, 43, 72, 74–76, 101,
1015, 1054
Modulus of elasticity of wire rope, 908
Modulus of resilience, 46
Modulus of rigidity, 45, 102, 1015
Modulus of rupture, 45
Modulus of toughness, 46
Mohr’s circle for plane stress, 94–100
Mohr theory of failure, 242, 249–250
Molded-asbestos linings and pads, 855
Molybdenum, 64, 66
Moment connection, 474
Moment load (secondary shear), 448
Monte Carlo computer simulations, 31
Multiple of rating life, 567
Multiple-threaded product, 402, 805
Multipoint constraint equations, 9581080 Mechanical Engineering Design
supporting axial loads, 355
torque transmission provisions, 355–357
Shafts and shaft components
about, 352
bearings, 571
couplings, 857
critical speeds for shafts, 375–380
defined, 352
deflection considerations, 371–375
flexible, 916–917
keys and pins, 382–385
layout, 353–358
limits and fits, 387–392
materials for, 352–353
retaining rings, 386
setscrews, 380–382
shaft design for stress, 358–371
Shaping, 680–681
Shear-energy theory, 237
Shear force in beams, 89–90
Shear-lag model, 493, 497
Shear loaded bolted and riveted joints,
443–451
Shear modulus, 45, 102
Shear stress-correction factor, 511
Shear yield strength, 234, 239, 515, 517
Sheaves, 872
Shell molding, 57–58, 679
Shock, 205–206
Shot peening, 301, 528, 762
Shoulders, 353–355, 364–365, 573–574,
596, 598
Shrink fits, 130–131
Significant figures, 32–33
Silicon, 64
Silicon bronze, 69
Sines failure criterion, 528, 531
Single-enveloping (cylindrical) worm
gearset, 667, 801. See also Worm gears
Single-row bearing, 563–564
Singularity functions, 86, 91–93, 170–176
Sintered-metal pads, 855
Size factor, 296–298, 751, 785
Slenderness ratio, 196, 203
Sliding fit, 388, 389
Sliding mode, 255
Sliding velocity, 708–709
Slug, 31
Smith-Dolan locus, 322–323
Smith, G. M., 527
Smith, James O., 325
Smith-Liu, 139
S-N diagram. See Strength-life diagram
Snug-tight condition, 429
Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE),
11, 56
Society of Manufacturing Engineers
(SME), 11
Socket setscrews, 381
Soderberg line, 313–314, 361
Software
CAD, 8–9
CES Edupack, 73
engineering-based, 9
FEA programs, 189, 946, 965
non-engineering-specific, 9
Solid elements, 949
Residual stress method, 310
Resilience, 46
Resistance welding, 490
Retaining rings, 365, 386, 598, 941
Reynolds equation, 621, 623–624
Reynolds, Osborne, 617–618
Right-hand rule, threads, 402
Rigid elements, 958
Rim-thickness factor, 756–757
Ring gear, 674, 696
Rivet joint, 443–445
Roark’s Formulas for Stress and Strain, 167
Rockwell hardness, 52
Roller chain, 899–907
Rolling-contact bearings. See Bearings,
rolling-contact
Roll threading, 60
Rolovic, R. D., 232
Root diameter, 402
Rotary fatigue, 335
Rotating-beam test, 282, 290
Rotating rings, stresses in, 129–130
Rotation factor, 571, 573
Round-belt drives, 872, 875–882
Rule #1, 982, 1005
Runout control, 974, 993–994
Russell, Burdsall & Ward Inc., 433
Ryan, D. G., 413
S
Safety, 12, 15, 18–20
Saint-Venant’s principle, 956
Salakian, A. G., 472
Sam?nov, C., 514
Sand casting, 57, 679
Saybolt Universal viscosity (SUV), 612
Scoring, 735
Screws
machine screws, 415–416
power screws, 406–414
self-locking, 408
thread standards and definitions,
402–406
Sealants. See Adhesive bonding
Seals for bearings, 600–601
Seam welding, 490
Secant column formula, 199–200
Secondary shear, 448, 474
Section modulus, 104
Self-acting (self-locking) phenomenon, 821
Self-adaptive mesh refinement, 955
Self-aligning bearings, 563, 564, 573, 600
Self-contained bearings, 637–638
Self-deenergizing brake shoe, 819
Self-energizing brake shoe, 819
Self-locking screw, 408
Series system, 24
Set removal, 513
Setscrews, 380–382
Shaft basis (limits and fits), 388
Shaft design for stress, 358–371
critical locations, 358–359
estimating stress concentrations, 364–365
shaft stresses, 359–364
Shaft layout, 353–358
assembly and disassembly, 357–358
axial, 355
Preload (bolts), 417, 427, 433–434
Preloading (bearings), 600
Presentation, 7–8
Presetting, 513
Press and shrink fits, 130–131, 357
Pressure angle, 671, 688, 690
Pressure-fed bearings, 642–648
Pressure line, 671
Pressure-sensitive adhesives, 492
Pressurized cylinders, stresses in, 127–129
Pretension, bolt preload, 417, 427, 433–434
Primary shear, 448, 474, 479
Principal directions, 95, 100
Principal second-area moments, 107
Principal stresses, 95, 100–101
Probability density function (PDF), 21
Probability of failure, 20–24
Problem definition, 6, 11
Problem-solving, 4–5, 11
Product liability, 15
Professional societies, 10, 11
Profile controls, 988–990
Profile of a line, 974, 988
Profile of a surface, 974, 988
Proof load, 424
Proof strength, 424, 433
Propagation of dispersion, 24
Propagation of error, 24
Propagation of uncertainty, 24
Proportional limit, 43
Puck pad caliper brake, 844–845
Pulley correction factor, 879–880, 882
Punch-press torque demand, 861–862
Pure compression, 102
Pure shear, 102
Pure tension, 102
Q
Quality numbers (AGMA), 748, 750
Quasi-static fracture, 254–255
Quenching, 61
R
R. R. Moore high-speed rotating-beam
machine, 282
Rack, 674
Rack cutter, 680
Radial clearance, 27, 614, 616, 640
Radial clearance ratio, 614
Radius of gyration, 108
Raimondi, Albert A., 623–624
Raimondi-Boyd analysis, 623–624,
628–629, 632–634, 636, 637
Rain-flow counting technique, 330
Rate of shear, 612
Rating life, 566–567
Rayleigh’s model for lumped masses, 375
Red brass, 68–69
Redundant supports, 189
Regardless of feature size (RFS), 995, 1005
Regular lay, 908
Relatively brittle condition, 254
Reliability, 4, 20, 24–26
Reliability factors, 296, 300–301, 755–756,
789–790
Reliability method of design, 20, 24
Repeated stresses, 274, 309Index 1081
stress-concentration factor, 125
techniques for reducing, 364
Stress-concentration factor, 125, 231–232.
See also Stress concentration
Stress-correction factor, 745
Stress-cycle factor, 754–755, 787–788
Stresses, 16, 44, 93
Cartesian stress components, 93–94
contact stresses, 136–140
general three-dimensional, 100–101
normal stresses for beams in bending,
103–108
normal stresses for curved beams in
bending, 132–136
in pressurized cylinders, 127–129
in rotating rings, 129–130
shear stresses for beams in bending,
108–115
shear stresses for torsion, 115–116
stress concentration, 124–127
thermal, 131
uniformly distributed stresses, 102–103
Stress intensity factor, 256–257
Stress intensity modification factor, 257
Stress-life method, 281–284
Stress numbers, 737–744, 783, 790–793
Stress raisers, 124
Stress ratio, 287, 310
Stress relieving, 61
Stress-strain diagram, 43–46, 49, 54, 433
Stress yield envelope, 234–235, 237
Strict liability concept, 15
Structural instabilities (buckling), 204
Structural adhesives, 491–492
Struts, 202–203
Studs, 417
Sun gear, 695
Superposition, 167–168
Surface compressive stress, 736
Surface condition factor, 750
Surface elements, 949
Surface endurance shear, 335
Surface endurance strength, 336
Surface factor, 295–296
Surface fatigue failure, 138, 335–338,
735–737
Surface fatigue strength, 335–338
Surface-strength geometry factor, 746–748
Symmetry control, 974, 990, 993
T
Tandem mounting (DT), 599
Tangential shear stress, 93
Tapered fits, 357
Tapered roller bearings, 564–565. See also
Bearings, rolling-contact
catalog data, 586–587
equivalent radial load, 588–589
fit, 596
induced thrust load, 585, 588
mounting, direct and indirect, 584–585
nomenclature, 584
selection of, 583–592
Tearing mode, 255
Temperature effects
on deflection and stress, 131
on material properties, 54–55
Standard sizes, 13
Statically indeterminate problems,
189–195
Static equilibrium, 86
Static load, 53, 228
Static loading, failures resulting from
about, 228
Brittle-Coulomb-Mohr (BCM) and
modified Mohr (MM) theories,
249–252, 263
Coulomb-Mohr theory for ductile
materials, 242–244
design equations summary, 262–264
distortion-energy theory for ductile
materials, 235–241
failure of brittle materials
summary, 252
failure of ductile materials summary,
245–249
failure theories, summary, 233, 264
fracture mechanics, introduction to,
253–262
maximum-normal-stress theory for brittle
materials, 249
maximum-shear-stress theory for ductile
materials, 233–235
selection of failure criteria, 252–253
static strength, 230–231
stress concentration, 125, 231–232
Statistical tolerance system, 31
Steel castings, 66–67
Steels
alloy steels, 63–64
cast steels, 66–67
corrosion-resistant, 64–65
heat treatment of, 60–63
modulus of elasticity, 43
numbering system for, 56–57
strength relation to hardness, 52
Stereolithography, 9
Stiffness
of a bolt, 419
of materials, 43, 45, 74
of the members in a bolted joint,
419–422
Stiffness constant of a bolted joint, 428
Stochastic analysis, 17, 284
Stock sizes, 13
Straight bevel gears. See Bevel gears
Straight roller bearings. See Cylindrical
roller bearings
Straightness control, 973–974, 985
Strain energy, 176–178
Strain-hardened, 49
Strain-life method, 281, 284–286
Strength, 16, 44
Strength-life (S-N) diagram, 280, 282–283,
292–293
Stress concentration, 124–126, 231–232.
See also Fatigue stress-concentration
factor
adjustment for notch sensitivity,
303–304
estimating for shafts, 364–365
FEA analysis of, 955, 958–960
in keyseats, 384
in sharp cracks, 254
Solid-film lubricant, 611
Sommerfeld, A., 621
Sommerfeld number, 614, 622, 629, 646
Sorem, J. R., 232
Specific modulus, 74
Specific stiffness, 74
Specific strength, 77
Speed ratio, 746
Spherical contact stress, 137–139
Spherical-roller thrust bearing, 564, 565
Spinning, 60
Spiral angle, 778
Spiral bevel gears, 666, 778
Spiroid gearing, 779
Splines, 357
Spot welding, 490
Spring constant, 163
Spring index, 511, 520, 522
Spring rates, 162–163, 417, 512
Springs, 162, 509–552. See also
Helical springs
about, 510
Belleville springs, 549–550
mechanical properties of some spring
wires, 518
miscellaneous springs, 550–552
spring materials, 515–520
Spring surge, 526, 527
Sprockets, 872
Spur gears. See also Spur and helical gears,
AGMA
described, 666
force analysis, 697–701
minimum teeth on, 677–679
tooth systems, 688
Spur and helical gears, AGMA
AGMA nomenclature, 727–728
AGMA strength equations, 739–743
AGMA stress equations, 737–738
analysis, 757–767
dynamic factor, 748–750
elastic coefficient, 748
gear mesh design, 767–772
geometry factors, 743–748
hardness-ratio factor, 753–754
Lewis bending equation, 726–735
load-distribution factor, 751–753
overload factor, 750, 758–759
reliability factor, 755–756
rim-thickness factor, 756–757
roadmap summaries, 758–759
safety factors, 757, 765–766
size factor, 751
stress-cycle factors, 754–755
surface condition factor, 750
surface durability, 735–737
symbols, 727–728
temperature factor, 756
Square-jaw clutch, 856
Square key, 383
Square threads, 404
Stable lubrication, 615
Stainless steels, 56, 64–65
Stamping, 60
Standards and codes, 12–13
defined, 12
organizations with specific, 12–131082 Mechanical Engineering Design
W
Wahl, A. M., 514
Wahl factor, 511
Washers, 414, 416–417, 425, 599
Wear
from contact fatigue, 336
of boundary-lubricated bearings,
653–657
of clutches and brakes, 834–835, 838,
842–843, 846–847
of gears, 735, 759, 762, 793
of wire rope, 911
Wear factor, 336, 654, 812–813
Wear factor of safety, 759, 783, 793
Weibull distribution, 21, 562,
568–569, 594
Weibull parameters, 568, 570, 601
Weld bonding, 497
Welded joints
butt and fillet welds, 469, 470–473
fatigue loading, 488–489
references, 499
resistance welding, 490
static loading, 484–487
welded joints, strength of, 481–483
welded joints in bending, stresses in,
479–481
welded joints in torsion, stresses in,
474–478
welding symbols (AWS), 468–470
White cast iron, 66
Wileman, J., 421
Wire rope, 908–916
Wolford, J. C., 527
Woodruff key, 384–385
Worm gears, 667
AGMA equation, 801–804
analysis, 805–808
Buckingham wear load, 812–813
efficiency, 805, 928
examples, 354, 406
force analysis, 706–712
mesh design, 809–812
nomenclature, 687–688
standard tooth form, 690
thrust, rotation, and hand relations, 691
Woven-asbestos lining, 855
Woven-cotton lining, 855
Wrought alloys, 67
Y
Yellow brass, 68–69
Yield point, 43, 46, 49, 310, 433
Yield strength, 43, 46, 49, 54, 79, 233
Young’s modulus of elasticity, 43, 72,
74–76, 101
Z
Zerol bevel gear, 778
Zimmerli, F. P., 528
Zimmerli data, 528–531, 541, 546
Transmission error, 748
Transmitted load, 698–699, 701, 704, 738
Transverse circular pitch, 684, 687
Transverse shear stress, 108–114
in square threads, 410
strain-energy correction factors for, 177
Tresca theory, 233
True strain, 44
True stress, 44
True stress-strain diagram, 44–45, 50, 285
Trumpler, P. R., 622–623
Trumpler’s design criteria, 622–623
Truss element, 951
Tungsten, 64
Turner, M. J., 947–948
Turn-of-the-nut method, 429
Two-bearing mountings, 598–599
Two-plane bending, 106–107
U
Ultimate strength, 43, 46, 51, 54–55, 233
Uncertainty, 16–17
Uncorrected torsional stress, 537
Undercutting, 677–679, 685, 690
Unified Numbering System for Metals and
Alloys (UNS), 56–57
Uniform pressure, clutches and brakes,
839–840, 843
Unified thread series, 402–404
Uniform wear, clutches and brakes,
838–840, 842–843, 846–847
Unilateral tolerance, 27
Unit load, 196, 376, 648
Unit second polar moment of area, 475–476
Units, 31–32
Unstable equilibrium, 196
Unstable lubrication, 615
Upper deviation (limits and fits), 387–388
U.S. customary unit system, 31, 93
V
Vanadium, 64
Variable loading, 274
of bearings, 577–580
Variable stresses, 274, 329
V belts, 872, 874–875, 890–898
Velocity factor, 730–731, 802–803, 879
Vibration analysis (FEA), 963–964
Virtual condition, 1005
Virtual number of teeth, 683, 685
Viscosity, 611–613, 624–629
Volkersen, O., 493, 497
Volute spring, 550
von Mises, R., 237
von Mises-Hencky theory, 237
von Mises theory, 237
von Mises stress, 237, 263
in a static failure theory, 237–238
in combined fatigue loading, 326, 340
in FEA models, 955–956, 962
in shafts, 360, 362
in welds, 472
Temperature factor, 299, 756, 788
Temper carbon, 66
Tempered martensite, 62
Tempering, 61–62
Tensile strength, 43. See also Ultimate
strength
Tensile stress, 93
Tensile-stress area, 403–405
Tensile test, 42–44
Tension-test specimens, 42–43
Theoretical stress-concentration factor, 125.
See also Stress-concentration factor
Thermal stresses, 131, 494–496, 961–962
Thermoplastics, 70, 73–74
Thermoset, 70–71, 73–74
Thick-film lubrication, 615–617
Thin-film lubrication, 611, 615, 652–653
Thin-walled pressure vessels, 128
Threaded fasteners, 414–416
Thread standards, definitions, 402–406
Three-dimensional stress, 100–101
Thrust bearings, 563–565, 651–652
Timing belts, 872, 874, 898–899, 928
Timken Company, 565, 566, 585–590
Tipton, S. M., 232
Titanium, 68
Tolerance position letters, 388–389
Tolerances. See also Geometric
Dimensioning and Tolerancing,
and Limits and Fits
bilateral, 27
choice of, 28
cost considerations, 13–14
definition of, 27, 387, 1005
tolerance stack-up, 29–31
unilateral, 27
Tolerance zone, 981–982, 1005
Tooth systems, 688–690
Tooth thickness, 667–668, 673
Top land, 668
Topp, L. J., 947
Torque coefficient, 430
Torque transmission, 355–357
Torque-twist diagram, 45
Torque vector, 115
Torsion, 115–124
buckling of thin-walled beam, 204
closed thin-walled tubes, 121–123
deflection, 163
open thin-walled sections, 123–124
strain energy, 176
of welded joints, 474
Torsional fatigue strength, 325,
528–529
Torsional strengths, 45
Torsional yield strength, 45, 244, 515
Torsion springs, 542–549
Total runout control, 974, 993–994
Toughness, 46
Tower, Beauchamp, 617
Train value, 691–692, 696, 928
Transmission accuracy number, 748, 784
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