Selection of Polymeric Materials – How to Select Design Properties from Different Standards

Selection of Polymeric Materials – How to Select Design Properties from Different Standards
اسم المؤلف
E. Alfred0 Campo
التاريخ
4 يونيو 2023
المشاهدات
349
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
Loading...

Selection of Polymeric Materials – How to Select Design Properties from Different Standards
E. Alfred0 Campo
Contents
Preface . xvii
Acknowledgement . xix
1 Polymeric Materials and Properties 1
1.1 Tensile Stress-Strain Comparison Graphs 3
1.2 Property Data Information for Polymeric Materials 4
1.3 Material Selection Guidelines . 5
1.4 Polymeric Materials Specifications . 6
1.4.1 Single-Point Database Systems 6
1.4.2 Functional (Multi-point) Database Systems . 7
1.5 Testing Polymeric Materials . 8
1.6 The Need for Uniform Global Testing Standards . 10
1.6.1 Uniform Global Polymeric Materials Specifications . 13
1.6.2 Selection of Testing Standards 14
1.6.3 Issues and Concerns 15
1.6.4 Summary 16
1.7 Origin and Applications of Polymeric Materials 16
1.8 Modern History of Polymeric Materials 16
1.9 Polymeric Materials Families 18
1.10 Classification of Polymeric Materials by Performance . 18
1.11 Types of Thermoplastic Molecular Structures 19
1.12 Manufacturing of Polymers 19
1.13 Polymeric Materials Compounding Process . 20
1.13.1 Chemical Additives for Polymeric Materials Compounding . 20
1.13.2 Fillers and Reinforcements for Polymeric Materials Compounding . 23
1.13.3 Impact Modifiers for Polymeric Materials Compounding . 23
1.13.4 Colorants for Polymeric Materials Compounding . 24
1.14 Families of Thermoplastic Polymers . 24
1.14.1 Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Terpolymer . 24
1.14.2 Acetal (Polyoxymethylene, POM, Polyacetal) 24
1.14.3 Polymethyl Methacrylate (Acrylic, PMMA) . 25
1.14.4 High Temperature Nylon (HTN) 25
1.14.5 Liquid CrystalPolymer (LCP) 25
1.14.6 Polyamide (PA, Nylon) . 26
1.14.7 Polyetherimide (PEI) . 26
1.14.8 Polyetherether Ketone (PEEK) . 27
1.14.9 Polycarbonate (PC) 27
1.14.10 Modified Polyphenylene Oxide (PPO) 27
1.14.11 Polybutylene Terephthalate (PBT) 28
1.14.12 Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) . 28
1.14.13 Polyethylene (PE) 28
1.14.14 Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) . 29
1.14.15 Polyphenylene Sulfide (PPS) . 29
1.14.16 Polypropylene (PP) 30viii Contents
1.14.17 Polystyrene (PS) . 31
1.14.18 Polysulfone (PSU) . 31
1.14.19 Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) . 31
1.15 Families of Thermoplastic Elastomers (TPEs) 32
1.15.1 Thermoplastic Polyurethane (TPU) Elastomer . 32
1.15.2 Styrenic Block Copolymer (SBS) Thermoplastic Elastomers 32
1.15.3 Polyolefin Thermoplastic Elastomer (TPO) 33
1.15.4 Elastomeric Alloy-Thermoplastic Vulcanizate (EA-TPV) . 33
1.15.5 Melt ProcessibleRubber (MPR) . 34
1.15.6 Block Copolyester Thermoplastic Elastomer . 34
1.16 Families of Thermoset Polymers 35
1.16.1 Polyester Alkyd (PAK) 35
1.16.2 Diallyl Phthalate/Isophthalate (DAP, DAIP) . 35
1.16.3 Epoxy (EP) . 36
1.16.4 Phenol-Formaldehyde (Phenolic, PF) 36
1.16.5 Unsaturated Polyester (UP) 37
1.16.6 Polyimide (PI) 37
1.16.7 Polyurethane (PUR) 38
1.16.8 Silicone (Si) 38
1.16.9 Vinyl Ester (BPA) 38
2 Mechanical Properties of Polymeric Materials 41
2.1 Introduction 41
2.2 Comparison Tables of Mechanical Properties 41
2.2.1 Tensile Stress-Strain Behavior 41
2.2.2 Flexural Strength 51
2.2.3 Compression Stress-Strain Behavior . 51
2.2.4 Shear Strength 52
2.2.5 Notched Izod Impact Strength 52
2.3 Comparison of ASTM and ISO Mechanical Test Standards . 52
2.3.1 Tensile Test Comparison (2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, and 2.7) . 52
2.3.2 Flexural Test Standards (2.10 and 2.11) 53
2.3.3 Compression Test Standards . 54
2.3.4 Shear Strength Test Standards 54
2.3.5 Tensile Strength Creep Test Standards 54
2.3.6 Impact Strength Test Standards . 54
2.4 Tensile Testing (ASTM D-638) . 54
2.4.1 Tensile Test Equipment . 55
2.4.2 Tensile Test Specimen 55
2.4.3 Specimen Conditioning . 56
2.4.4 Tensile Strength Test Procedures 56
2.4.5 Tensile Modulus and Elongation 58
2.5 Tensile Strength Effects Caused by Cross-Head Speeds 59
2.6 Molecular Orientation Effects 59
2.7 Compounding Processes and Properties of Glass Reinforced Polymeric Materials . 60
2.8 Effects of Fiber Glass on Polymeric Materials Properties . 60
2.9 Tensile Stress Effects Caused by Fiber Glass Orientation . 61
2.9.1 Fiber Glass Orientation Effects on Mold Shrinkage . 62
2.10 Weld Line Effects on Injection Molded Products . 63
2.10.1 Weld Line Definition . 64
2.10.2 How to Improve the Weld Line Strength 65
2.10.2.1 Thermoplastic Resin . 65
2.10.2.2 Product Design . 66Contents ix
2.11 Temperature Effects on the Behavior of Polymeric Materials 66
2.12 Effects of Moisture on Nylon Properties 67
2.13 Flexural Testing (ASTM D-790) 69
2.13.1 Apparatus 71
2.13.2 Test Procedures and Equations . 71
2.13.3 Flexural Modulus 73
2.14 Compressive Strength Testing (ASTM D-695) . 74
2.14.1 Compressive Test Apparatus . 74
2.14.2 Test Specimens and Conditioning . 74
2.14.3 Test Procedures . 75
2.14.4 Compressive Stress-Strain Curves . 75
2.15 Shear Strength Testing (ASTM D-732) . 75
2.15.1 Test Specimen and Apparatus 76
2.15.2 Test Procedures . 76
2.15.3 Significance and Limitations . 77
2.16 Stress-Strain Curves and Load Type Comparison . 77
2.17 Creep, Rupture, Relaxation, and Fatigue 78
2.18 Tensile Creep Testing . 78
2.18.1 Stress-Strain Effects Caused by Creep . 78
2.19 Flexural Creep Testing 79
2.20 Isochronous Stress-Strain Curves . 80
2.21 Procedure for Applying Creep Modulus 83
2.22 Creep Rupture 84
2.23 Stress Relaxation 85
2.24 Fatigue Characteristics 85
2.25 Impact Strength Testing . 85
2.26 Impact Fracture Mechanism 86
2.27 Pendulum Impact Tests . 87
2.27.1 Izod Impact Testing (ASTM D-256) . 87
2.27.1.1 Izod Impact Issues and Concerns . 88
2.27.2 Charpy Impact Testing (ASTM D-256) . 90
2.27.3 Chip Impact Testing 90
2.27.4 Tensile Impact Testing (ASTM D-1822) 91
2.28 Gardner Drop Weight Impact Testing (ASTM D-3029) 92
2.29 Falling Weight Tower Impact Testing 93
2.30 Instrumented Impact Testing . 93
2.30.1 Instrumented Pendulum Izod Impact Testers . 93
2.30.2 Instrumented Charpy Impact Pendulum Testers 94
2.31 Instrumented High Speed Horizontal Plunger Impact Tester . 94
2.32 Instrumented Impact Testing (Dynatup®) . 96
2.33 Product Design Analysis Using Dynatup® Test Data 98
2.33.1 Test Process Description 99
2.34 Miscellaneous Impact Testing . 101
3 Thermal Properties of Polymeric Materials 103
3.1 Introduction . 103
3.2 Thermal Properties for Elevated Temperatures 103
3.2.1 Continuous Service Temperature Test (ASTM D-794) 111
3.2.2 Temperature of Deflection Test (ASTM D-648) . 112
3.2.3 Melting Temperature Test (ASTM D-3418) 112
3.2.4 Glass Transition Temperature Test (ASTM E-1356) 112
3.2.5 Vicat Softening Temperature Test (ASTM D-1525) 112
3.2.6 UL Standard Test Rating for Flammability (UL 94) 112x Contents
3.2.6.1 UL 94-5V, Vertical Burn Test . 112
3.2.6.2 UL 94-V0, Vertical Burn Test . 112
3.2.6.3 UL 94-V1, Vertical Burn Test . 112
3.2.6.4 UL 94-V2, Vertical Burn Test . 113
3.2.6.5 UL 94 HB, Horizontal Burn Test 113
3.2.6.6 Specimen Wall Thickness for UL 94 Flammability Test 113
3.2.7 Coefficient of Linear Thermal Expansion Test (ASTM D-696) . 113
3.2.8 UL Relative Temperature Index Test (RTI Elect—UL 746) 113
3.2.9 Thermal Conductivity Test (ASTM C-177) . 113
3.2.10 Limiting Oxygen Index Test (ASTM D-2863) 113
3.3 Introduction to ISO Testing Standards . 114
3.3.1 Comparison between ASTM/UL and ISO Test Standards 114
3.3.2 Melting Temperature 114
3.3.3 Temperature of Deflection 114
3.3.4 Vicat Softening Temperature 114
3.3.5 Coefficient of Linear Thermal Expansion 114
3.3.6 Flammability Classification . 116
3.3.7 Limiting Oxygen Index 116
3.3.8 Glass Transition Temperature . 116
3.3.9 Brittleness Temperature 116
3.3.10 Continuous Service Temperature . 116
3.3.11 UL Relative Temperature Index Electrical . 116
3.3.12 UL Relative Temperature Index Mechanical with Impact 116
3.3.13 UL Relative Temperature Index Mechanical without Impact . 116
3.3.14 Thermal Creep Modulus . 116
3.3.15 Soldering Heat Resistance 116
3.3.16 Thermal Conductivity . 116
3.3.17 Melt Mass and Volume Flow Rates . 116
3.3.18 Relative Melt Viscosity 117
3.3.19 Smoke Density . 117
3.4 Melting Temperature Test (ASTM D-3418) 117
3.5 Vicat Softening Temperature Test (ASTM D-1525) 117
3.6 Glass Transition Temperature (ASTM E-1356) 118
3.7 Brittleness Temperature (ASTM D-746) . 118
3.7.1 Test Apparatus and Procedures 119
3.8 Continuous Service Temperature Test (ASTM D-794) 119
3.9 UL Temperature Index (UL 746) . 120
3.9.1 Relative Thermal Index 120
3.9.1.1 Thermoplastic Control Material . 120
3.9.1.2 Selection of Aging Temperatures 121
3.9.1.3 Test Procedure . 121
3.9.2 Long-Term Thermal Aging Index 121
3.9.3 Thermal Creep Modulus Test (UL-746B) 122
3.10 Heat Deflection Temperature Test (ASTM D-648) . 123
3.10.1 Apparatus and Test Specimens . 123
3.10.2 Test Procedure . 124
3.10.3 Test Variables and Limitations . 124
3.10.3.1 Residual Stress 124
3.10.3.2 Specimen Wall Thickness 124
3.10.3.3 Applied Stress . 124
3.10.3.4 Specimen Molding Effects . 124
3.11 Soldering Heat Resistance Performance . 125Contents xi
3.12 Coefficient of Linear Thermal Expansion Testing (ASTM D-696) . 125
3.12.1 Test Procedure . 126
3.13 Thermal Conductivity Testing (ASTM C-177) 126
3.14 Melt Flow Rate . 127
3.14.1 Moisture Content . 128
3.15 Melt Mass-flow Rate Testing (ASTM D-1238) 128
3.15.1 Test Procedures . 128
3.15.2 Alternative Settings . 129
3.15.3 Factors Affecting Flow Rate Test Results 129
3.15.4 Interpretation of Test Results 129
3.16 Capillary Rheometer Relative Melt Viscosity Test (ASTM D-1703) . 130
3.17 Relative Melt Viscosity vs. Shear Rate Graph . 131
3.18 Flammability Characteristics of Polymeric Materials . 131
3.18.1 Inherent Flammability of Polymer Groups . 132
3.18.1.1 Inherently Flame Retardant Polymers . 132
3.18.1.2 Less Flame Retardant Polymers . 132
3.18.1.3 Flammable Polymers 133
3.19 UL 94 Flammability Test . 133
3.19.1 Factors Affecting UL 94 Flammability Test . 133
3.20 UL Horizontal Burn Testing (UL 94 HB) 133
3.20.1 Test Description 133
3.21 UL Vertical Burn Testing (UL 94-V0, UL 94-V1, UL 94-V2) 134
3.21.1 Test Description 134
3.22 UL Vertical Burn Testing (UL 94-5V, UL 94-5VA, UL 94-5VB) 135
3.22.1 Test Description 135
3.22.2 UL 94-5V Classification . 136
3.22.3 UL 94-5VA Classification (Bars and Plaques) . 136
3.22.4 UL 94-5VB Classification (Bars and Plaques) . 136
3.23 Limited Oxygen Index (LOI) Testing (ASTM D-2863) . 136
3.23.1 Test Procedures . 137
3.23.2 Factors Affecting the LOI Test Results 138
3.24 Smoke Generation Testing 138
3.24.1 Smoke Density Testing (ASTM D-2843) . 139
3.25 Self- and Flash Ignition Temperature Testing (ASTM D-1929) . 140
3.25.1 Definition . 140
3.25.2 Test Procedures . 140
4 Electrical Properties of Polymeric Materials . 141
4.1 Introduction . 141
4.2 Thermoplastic Polymers’ Characteristics for Electrical Applications . 141
4.3 Thermoset Polymers’ Characteristics for Electrical Applications 142
4.4 ASTM/UL Electrical Properties of Polymeric Materials . 142
4.4.1 Relative Temperature Index (RTI Elect—UL 746B) 143
4.4.2 Dielectric Constant (ASTM D-150) . 143
4.4.3 Dissipation Factor (ASTM D-150) . 143
4.4.4 Volume Resistivity (ASTM D-257) . 143
4.4.5 Surface Resistivity (ASTM D-257) . 143
4.4.6 Dielectric Strength (ASTM D-149) . 143
4.4.7 Hot-Wire Ignition (HWI—UL 746A) . 148
4.4.8 High-Amperage Arc Ignition (HAI—UL 746A) . 148
4.4.9 High-Voltage Arc Track Rate (HVTR—UL 746A) . 148
4.4.10 High-Voltage, Low-Ampere, Dry Arc Resistance (ASTM D-495) . 148xii Contents
4.4.11 Comparative Tracking Index (CTI—UL 746A) 148
4.5 Introduction to ISO/IEC Electrical Test Methods 148
4.5.1 ASTM/UL and ISO/IEC Comparison of Electrical Testing Standards 148
4.5.2 Relative Temperature Index . 148
4.5.3 Dielectric Constant 149
4.5.4 Dissipation Factor 149
4.5.5 Volume Resistivity 149
4.5.6 Surface Resistivity 149
4.5.7 Dielectric Strength 149
4.5.8 Comparative TrackingIndex (CTI) 149
4.5.9 High-Amperage Arc Ignition (HAI) . 149
4.5.10 High-Voltage Arc TrackRate (HVTR) . 150
4.5.11 Arc Resistance . 150
4.5.12 Hot Wire Ignition (HWI) . 150
4.5.13 Glow Wire 150
4.5.14 Hot Mandrel . 150
4.6 Electrical Terminology . 150
4.6.1 Dielectric . 150
4.6.2 Intrinsic Dielectric Strength . 150
4.6.3 Electrical Resistance 150
4.6.4 Surface Resistance 150
4.6.5 Power Factor . 150
4.6.6 Dielectric Loss Factor . 150
4.6.7 Corona (AC) . 150
4.6.8 Corona (DC) . 150
4.6.9 Corona Starting Voltage 151
4.6.10 Corona Extinguishing Voltage . 151
4.6.11 Static Decay Rate . 151
4.6.12 Conductive Polymeric Materials . 151
4.7 Electrical Insulation Properties 151
4.8 Electrical Resistance Properties 151
4.9 Dielectric ConstantTesting (ASTM D-150) . 152
4.9.1 Factors Affecting the Dielectric Constant 153
4.9.1.1 Frequency 153
4.9.1.2 Temperature . 153
4.9.1.3 Voltage . 153
4.9.1.4 Humidity . 153
4.9.1.5 Weathering 153
4.9.1.6 Specimen . 154
4.9.2 Test Procedure . 154
4.10 Dissipation Factor Testing (ASTM D-150) . 154
4.10.1 Definition . 154
4.10.2 Significance . 155
4.11 Volume Resistivity Testing (ASTM D-257) . 155
4.11.1 Test Procedure . 155
4.11.2 Significance . 155
4.12 Surface Resistivity Testing (ASTM D-257) . 155
4.12.1 Test Procedure . 156
4.12.2 Significance . 156
4.13 Dielectric Strength Testing (ASTM D-149) . 156
4.13.1 Short Time Test 157
4.13.2 Step by Step Test . 157Contents xiii
4.13.3 Factors Affecting Dielectric Strength Test Results . 158
4.13.3.1 Specimen wall thickness . 158
4.13.3.2 Temperature . 158
4.13.3.3 Relative Humidity 158
4.13.3.4 Electrode Configurations . 158
4.13.3.5 Time Procedure 158
4.13.3.6 Mechanical Stress 158
4.13.3.7 Injection Molding Process Defects . 158
4.13.4 Test Limitations and Interpretations . 158
4.13.5 Specimen . 158
4.13.6 Test Procedure . 159
4.13.7 Significance . 159
4.14 Hot Wire Ignition Testing (UL 746A/ASTM D-3874) 159
4.14.1 Definition . 159
4.14.2 Test Procedure . 159
4.15 High-Amperage Arc Ignition Testing (UL 746A) 159
4.15.1 Definition . 159
4.15.2 Significance . 160
4.16 High-Voltage Arc Tracking Rate (UL 746A) 160
4.16.1 Method ASTM D-2132 160
4.16.2 Method ASTM D-2303 161
4.17 Arc Resistance Testing (ASTM D-495) 161
4.17.1 Test Procedure . 162
4.17.2 Significance . 162
4.18 Comparative Track Index Testing (ASTM D-3638/UL 746A) 163
4.18.1 Test Procedure . 163
4.18.2 Significance . 163
4.19 Glow Wire Testing 164
4.19.1 Test Procedure . 164
4.19.2 Significance . 164
4.20 Hot Mandrel Testing . 164
4.21 Underwriters Laboratories (UL) Yellow Cards 165
4.22 How to Read and Interpret the “UL Yellow Card” 165
4.23 UL Electrical Insulation Systems . 169
4.23.1 How to Obtain the UL Electrical Insulation Systems . 171
4.23.2 Material Substitutions in the UL Electrical Insulation Systems . 171
5 Physical Properties of Polymeric Materials 175
5.1 Introduction . 175
5.2 ASTM Physical Properties of Polymeric Materials . 175
5.2.1 Specific Gravity 175
5.2.2 Water Absorption 24 hr 175
5.2.3 Water Absorption Saturation 175
5.2.4 Surface Hardness . 175
5.2.5 Taber Abrasion . 175
5.2.6 Mold Shrinkage—Melt Flow and Transverse Directions . 181
5.3 ASTM and ISO Comparison of Physical Testing Standards 181
5.3.1 ISO Categories—Rheological and Other Properties 181
5.3.2 Melt Mass-Flow andVolume-Flow Rates . 181
5.3.3 Mold Shrinkage—Melt Flow and Transverse Directions . 181
5.3.4 Water Absorption Properties 181
5.3.5 Density and Specific Gravity 181xiv Contents
5.3.6 Optical Properties . 181
5.3.7 Surface Hardness . 182
5.3.8 Taber Abrasion . 182
5.3.9 Coefficient of Friction . 183
5.4 Specific Gravity Testing (ASTM D-792) . 183
5.4.1 Test Procedures . 183
5.4.1.1 Specific Gravity Test Method “A” 183
5.4.1.2 Specific Gravity Test Method “B” 183
5.5 Density Gradient Testing (ASTM D-1505) . 184
5.6 Optical Testing Properties 184
5.6.1 Introduction . 184
5.6.2 Optical Polymeric Materials 185
5.6.3 Refractive Index (ASTM D-542) . 186
5.6.3.1 Refractometric Method 186
5.6.3.2 Microscopic Method 186
5.6.3.3 Specimen . 187
5.6.3.4 Significance . 187
5.6.4 Luminous Transmittance and Haze (ASTM D-1003) . 187
5.6.4.1 Procedure “A”—Hazemeter 187
5.6.4.2 Procedure “B”—Recording Spectrophotometer . 188
5.6.5 Specular Gloss (ASTM D-523) 188
5.7 Water Absorption Testing (ASTM D-570) 189
5.7.1 Test Specimen . 190
5.7.2 Test Procedure . 190
5.7.3 Significance . 190
5.8 Surface Hardness Testing . 190
5.8.1 Rockwell Hardness Testing (ASTM D-785-60T) 191
5.8.2 Test Apparatus and Specimen 191
5.8.3 Durometer Hardness Testing (ASTM D-2240) 192
5.8.4 Barcol Hardness Testing (ASTM D-2583) 193
5.8.5 Factors Affecting the Test Results 194
5.9 Abrasion Resistance Testing (ASTM D-1044) . 194
5.9.1 Types of Wear 194
5.9.2 Adhesive Wear . 195
5.9.3 Abrasive Wear 195
5.9.4 Corrosive Wear . 195
5.9.5 Wear Factor Effects by Temperature 195
5.9.6 Taber Abrasion Testing (ASTM D-1044) . 196
5.9.7 Theoretical Analysis of Wear 196
5.10 Tear Resistance (ASTM D-624) . 197
5.10.1 Significance . 197
5.10.2 Specimen . 197
5.10.3 Procedure . 197
5.11 Coefficient of Friction Testing (ASTM D-1894) . 197
5.11.1 Coefficient of Friction of Polymeric Materials 198
5.11.2 Effects of Lubricants 198
5.11.3 Low Coefficient of Friction Additives . 199
5.12 Mold Shrinkage Testing (ASTM D-955) . 199
5.12.1 Purpose of Mold Shrinkage Testing . 199
5.12.2 Factors Affecting Mold Shrinkage 200
5.12.3 Molding Process Effects on Mold Shrinkage 200Contents xv
5.12.4 Injection Molding Machine Effects on Mold Shrinkage . 200
5.12.5 Requirements for Sampling . 200
5.12.6 Test Specimens . 201
5.12.7 Test Specimens Conditioning 201
5.12.8 Test Procedures . 201
5.12.9 Injection Molding Machine Conditions 201
5.12.10 Injection Pressure . 202
5.12.11 Mold Cavity Temperature 202
5.12.12 Gate Type, Dimensions, Number, and Location . 202
5.12.13 Specimen Wall Thickness . 202
5.12.14 Mold Shrinkage Measurements 202
5.12.15 Mold Shrinkage Calculations 203
6 Microbial, Weather, and Chemical Resistance of Polymeric Materials 205
6.1 Introduction . 205
6.2 Fungal Resistance Testing (ASTM G 21-70) 205
6.3 Bacteria Resistance Testing (ASTM G 22) . 206
6.4 Fungi and Bacteria Outdoor Exposure Resistance Limitations 206
6.5 Weathering Tests for Polymeric Materials 207
6.5.1 Weathering Creep Factors (Degradation) . 207
6.5.2 Ultraviolet Radiation 207
6.5.3 Temperature . 208
6.5.4 Moisture 208
6.5.5 Oxidation . 208
6.5.6 Microorganisms 208
6.5.7 Weathering Resistance of Generic Polymeric Materials . 209
6.6 Accelerated Weathering Testing (ASTM G 23) 209
6.7 Exposure to Fluorescent UV Lamp, Condensation (ASTM G 53) . 210
6.8 Accelerated Weather Testing, Weather-Ometer® . 211
6.8.1 Significance . 212
6.9 Exposure to Carbon Arc Light and Water Testing (ASTM D-1499) 212
6.10 Exposure to Xenon Arc Light and Water Testing (ASTM D-2565) . 212
6.10.1 Significance . 213
6.10.2 Accelerated Weathering Test Limitations . 213
6.11 Outdoor Weathering Testing (ASTM D-1435) . 215
6.11.1 Significance . 217
6.12 Chemical Resistance Testing of Polymeric Materials . 217
6.12.1 Introduction . 217
6.12.2 Testing Methods 218
6.12.3 Immersion Testing (ASTM D 543) . 219
6.12.4 Solvent Stress-Cracking Resistance Testing 219
6.12.5 Chemical Resistance Comparative Ratings of Polymeric Materials 220
6.12.6 Interpretation of Comparative Ratings . 220
6.13 Chemical Resistance Tables of Delrin® Homopolymer Acetal 222
6.13.1 Effects Caused by Specific Chemical Reagents 222
6.13.2 Solvents 223
6.13.3 Lubricants and Hydraulic Fluids . 223
6.13.4 Gasoline 223
6.13.5 Agricultural Chemicals . 223
6.13.6 Acids, Bases, and Oxidizing Agents 223
6.13.7 Zinc Chloride and Chlorine . 223xvi Contents
6.13.8 Test Data Unstressed 223
6.13.9 Test Data Stressed 223
Appendix-A Acronyms 227
A.1 Generic Polymeric Material Acronyms 227
A.2 Common Acronyms . 230
A.3 Process Acronyms 231
A.4 Reinforcement and Filler Acronyms 232
Appendix-B Nomenclature . 235
Appendix-C English and Metric Units Conversion Guide 237
Bibliography . 241
Index . 243
INDEX
Index Terms Links
A
ABS, see Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene
Abrasion resistance testing (ASTM D-1044) 194
Taber abrasion testing (ASTM D-1044) 196
types of wear 194
see also Wear Abrasive wear 195
Accelerated weather testing
ASTM G 23 209
limitations 213
weather-ometer® 211
Acetal 24 141
Acrylic 142 185
Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) terpolymer 23 141
phase systems of 24
Styreneacrylonitrile (SAN) 24
ADC, see Allyl diglycol carbonate
Adhesive wear 195
Aging temperatures, selection of 121
Alkyd 142
Allyl diglycol carbonate (ADC) 186
Alumina trihydrate 23
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) methods 4
see also ASTM physical properties;
Capillary rheometer relative melt viscosity test
(ASTM D-1703); Heat deflection temperature
test (ASTM D-648); Melt mass-flow rate (MFR)
testing (ASTM D-1238)
ASTM-UL thermal properties
coefficient of linear thermal
expansion test (ASTM D-696) 113
coefficient of linear thermal expansion
testing (ASTM D-696) 125
continuous service temperature test (ASTM D-794) 111Index Terms Links
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) methods (Cont.)
glass transition temperature test (ASTM E-1356) 112
limiting oxygen index test (ASTM D-2863) 113
melt mass-flow rate testing (ASTM D-1238) 128
melting temperature test (ASTM D-3418) 112
melting temperature test (ASTM D-3418) 117
of thermoplastic resins 104
of thermoset resins 110
temperature of deflection test (ASTM D-648) 112
thermal conductivity test (ASTM C-177) 113
thermal conductivity testing (ASTM C-177) 126
vicat softening temperature test (ASTM D-1525) 112
vicat softening temperature test (ASTM D-1525) 117
mechanical test standards 52
Amorphous polymers 19
Antifogging agents 20
Antioxidants 20 205
Antistatic agents 20
Applications, polymeric materials 16
Applied stress 124
Arc resistance 150
ASTM D-495 161
significance 162
test procedure 162
Arc tracking 163
Arrhenius equation 121
ASTM physical properties of polymeric materials 175
mold shrinkage 181
specific gravity 175
surface hardness 175
Taber abrasion 175
of thermoplastic materials 176
of thermoset materials 180
water absorption 24 hr 175
water absorption saturation 175
ASTM/UL electrical properties 142
comparative tracking index (CTI UL 746A) 148
dielectric constant (ASTM D-150) 143Index Terms Links
ASTM/UL electrical properties (Cont.)
dielectric strength (ASTM D-149) 143
dissipation factor (ASTM D-150) 143
high-amperage Arc ignition (HAI UL 746A) 148
high-voltage Arc track rate (HVTR UL 746A) 148
high-voltage, low-ampere, dry Arc resistance (ASTM D-495)
hot-wire ignition (HWI UL 746A) 148
relative temperature index (RTI Elect—UL 746B) 143
surface resistivity (ASTM D-257) 143
of thermoplastic resins 144
of thermoset resins 148
volume resistivity (ASTM D-257) 143
ASTM-UL testing methods 9
properties database 11
electrical 12
flammability 13
hardness 12
mechanical 11
optical 13
physical 11
thermal 12
toughness 12
Atactic polypropylene 30
Automotive ABS sensor 170
B
Bacteria resistance testing (ASTM G 22) 206
Barcol hardness 182
ASTM D-2583 193
Barium sulfate 23
Baron fibers 23
Biocides 20
Block copolyester TPEs 34
Blowing agents 20
Brittleness temperature 116
ASTM D-746 118
test apparatus and procedures 119Index Terms Links
C
Calcium carbonate 23
Calcium sulfate 23
Capillary rheometer analyzer 131
Capillary rheometer relative melt viscosity test
(ASTM D-1703) 130
Carbon arc light and water testing (ASTM D-1499),
exposure to 212
carbon arc Weather-Ometer® 212
Carbon black 23
Carbon, graphite fibers 23
Celluloid 17
Ceramic fibers 23
Charpy impact testing (ASTM D-256) 90
apparatus 90
Chemical additives for compounding 20
Chemical resistance 205
comparative ratings 220
immersion testing (ASTM D-543) 219
solvent stress-cracking resistance testing 219
tables of Delrin® homopolymer acetal 222
see also Delrin® homopolymer acetal resins
testing methods 218
constant strain test 219
immersion tests 218
tensile or flexural tests 218
testing 10 217
tests, interpretation 220
A = Acceptable 222
Ex = Excellent 222
M = Marginal 220
U = Unsatisfactory 220
Classification
of polymeric materials by performance 18
commodity plastics 18
engineering thermoplastics 19
high performance engineering materials 19
intermediate plastics 18Index Terms Links
Coal 19
Coefficient of Friction 183
ASTM D-1894 testing 197
coefficient of friction of polymeric materials 198
low coefficient of friction additives 199
lubricants effects 198
static coefficient of friction testing 198
Coefficient of linear thermal expansion graph 3 114
ASTM D-696 113 125
test procedure 126
Colorants for polymeric materials compounding 24
Commodity plastics 18
Comparative tracking index (CTI) 149
CTI UL 746A 148
test configuration 163
Comparison tables of mechanical properties 41
Compounding process 20
chemical additives for 20
colorants for 24
fiber glass length used for 61
impact modifiers for 23
and properties
of glass reinforced polymeric materials 60
Compression stress-strain behavior 51
Compression test standards 54
Compressive strength testing (ASTM D-695) 74
apparatus 74
compressive stress-strain curves 75
test procedures 75
test specimens and conditioning 74
Compressive stress-strain curves 75
Conductive polymeric materials 151
Constant strain test 219
Continuous exposure temperature graph 3
Continuous service temperature 116
ASTM D-794 111 119
Corona (AC) 150
Corona (DC) 150Index Terms Links
Corona extinguishing voltage 151
Corona starting voltage 151
Corrosive wear 195
Coupling agents 20
Cracking 219
Creep 78
creep modulus, procedure for applying 83
creep rupture 84
flexural creep testing 79
stress-strain effects caused by 78
Cross-linking agents 20
Crude oil 19
Crystalline polymers 19
CTI, see Comparative tracking index
Curing agents 20
D
Dacron® 17
Data information
Delrin® 100 8
Fina 625 polystyrene 7
functional (multi-point) database system 7
for polymeric materials property 4
single-point database system 6
Delrin® homopolymer acetal resins
chemical reagents, effects caused by 222
acids, bases, and oxidizing agents 223
agricultural chemicals 223
gasoline 223
lubricants and hydraulic fluids 223
solvents 223
test data stressed 223
test data unstressed 223
zinc chloride and chlorine 223
chemical resistance tables of 222
Delrin® 100, property data sheet 8
Density gradient testing (ASTM D-1505) 184
Density 181Index Terms Links
DGEBA, see Diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A
Diallyl phthalate/isophthalate (DAP, DAIP) 35
molding compound types of 35
Dielectric constant 149
ASTM D-150 143 152
test procedure 154
factors affecting 153
frequency 153
humidity 153
specimen 154
temperature 153
voltage 153
weathering 153
Dielectric loss factor 150
Dielectric medium 150
Dielectric strength testing (ASTM D-149) 143 156
factors affecting 158
electrode configurations 158
injection molding process defects 158
mechanical stress 158
relative humidity 158
specimen wall thickness 158
temperature 158
time procedure 158
limitations and interpretations 158
short time test 157
significance 159
specimen 158
step by step test 157
test procedure 159
Diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) 36
Dissipation factor 149
ASTM D-150 143 154
definition 154
significance 155
Ductile failure 86
Durometer hardness 182
ASTM D-2240 192Index Terms Links
Dyes 24
Dynatup® 96
product design analysis using 98
test process description 99
E
EA-TPV, see Elastomeric alloy-thermoplastic
vulcanizate
Elastomeric alloy-thermoplastic vulcanizate (EA-TPV) 33
Elastomers 23
Electrical properties 12 141
see also ASTM/UL
electrical properties
arc resistance testing (ASTM D-495) 161
comparative tracking index (CTI) test configuration 164
dielectric constant testing (ASTM D-150) 152
dielectric strength testing (ASTM D-149) 156
see also Dielectric strength testing (ASTM D-149)
dissipation factor testing (ASTM D-150) 154
electrical terminology 150
glow wire testing 164
high-amperage Arc ignition testing (UL 746A) 159
high-voltage Arc tracking rate (UL 746A) 160
hot mandrel testing 164
hot wire ignition testing (UL 746A/ASTM D-3874) 159
insulation properties 151
ISO/IEC electrical test methods 148
resistance properties 151
surface resistivity testing (ASTM D-257) 155
thermoplastic polymers characteristics for 141
ABS 141
Acetal 141
Acrylic 142
Nylon 142
PET 142
Polycarbonate 142
Polyimide 142
Polyolefin (PE, PP) 142Index Terms Links
Electrical properties (Cont.)
Polystyrene 142
Polysulfone 142
PPO 142
PTFE 142
PVC 142
TFE 142
thermoset polymers’ characteristics for 142
Alkyd 142
DAP 142
Epoxy 142
Epoxy 142
Melamine formaldehyde 142
Phenolic 142
Polyester 142
Silicone 142
Urethane (rigid foam) 142
underwriters laboratories (UL) yellow cards 165
see also Underwriters laboratories (UL)
volume resistivity testing (ASTM D-257) 155
Electrical resistance 150
Electrical testing 10
Electrical volume resistivity graph 3
Elevated temperatures
thermal properties for 103
see also under Thermal properties
Elongation, tensile 58
Encapsulated transformer 170
Engineering thermoplastics 17 19
Epoxy (EP) 36 142
EPDM 23
EPM 23
types 36
Extensometers
types of 57Index Terms Links
F
Failure
ductile failure 86
stages 86
Falling weight impact tests 87
Falling weight tower impact testing 93
Families of thermoplastic polymers 24
Acetal (Polyoxymethylene, POM, Polyacetal) 24
Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) terpolymer 24
high temperature nylon (HTN) 25
liquid crystal polymer (LCP) 25
modifi ed polyphenylene oxide (PPO) 27
Polyamide (PA, Nylon) 26
Polybutylene Terephthalate (PBT) 28
Polycarbonate (PC) 27
Polyetherether Ketone (PEEK) 27
Polyetherimide (PEI) 26
Polyethylene (PE) 28
polyethylene terephthalate (PET) 28
Polymethyl Methacrylate (Acrylic, PMMA) 25
Polyphenylene Sulfide (PPS) 29
Polypropylene (PP) 30
Polystyrene (PS) 31
Polysulfone (PSU) 31
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) 29
Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) 31
Families of thermoset polymers 35
diallyl phthalate/isophthalate (DAP, DAIP) 35
Epoxy (EP) 36
phenol-formaldehyde (Phenolic, PF) 36
Polyester Alkyd (PAK) 35
Polyimide (PI) 37
Polyurethane (PUR) 38
Silicone (Si) 38
unsaturated polyester (UP) 37
Vinyl Ester (BPA) 38Index Terms Links
Families of thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs) 32
Block copolyester TPEs 34
elastomeric alloy-thermoplastic vulcanizate (EA-TPV) 33
melt processible rubber (MPR) 34
styrenic block copolymer (SBS) thermoplastic elastomers 32
thermoplastic elastomer (TPO), polyolefin 33
thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) elastomer 32
Families, polymeric 18
see also individual entries
liquid injection molding silicone 18
thermoplastic polymers 18
TPE resins 18
Fatigue 78
characteristics 85
Ferrous metal families 2
Fiberglass
“E” type fiber glass 60
effect on polymeric materials properties 60
orientation
effects on mold shrinkage 62
melt flow direction 61
tensile stress effects caused by 61
transverse direction 61
Fillers 23
Fina 625 polystyrene, property data sheet 7
Flame retardants 20
Flammability 13
characteristics 131
see also Inherent
flammability
classification 116
Flexural creep testing 79
Flexural modulus 73
Flexural strength 51
Flexural test standards (2.10 and 2.11) 53Index Terms Links
Flexural Testing (ASTM D-790) 69
apparatus 71
flexural modulus 73
Procedure “A” 70
Procedure “B” 70
test procedures and equations 71
Fluorescent UV weathering test
lamp exposure, condensation (ASTM G 53) 210
Frequency 153
Functional (multi-point) database system 7
Fungal resistance testing (ASTM G 21-70) 205
Fungi and bacteria outdoor exposure resistance
limitations 206
G
Gardner drop weight impact testing (ASTM D-3029) 92
Gate
type, dimensions, number, and location 202
General purpose class of LCP 26
Glass fibers 23
Glass reinforced polymeric materials
compounding processes and properties 60
Glass transition temperature 116
ASTM E-1356 112 118
Global testing standards, uniform
achievement of 14
issues and concerns 15
need for 10
specifications 13
Gloss meter 188
Glow wire 150
testing 164
Guarded hot plate thermal conductivity testing 127
H
HAI, see High amperage arc ignition
Hardness 12
see also Surface hardnessIndex Terms Links
Haze 182 187
Hazemeter 187
HDPE, see High density polyethylene
Heat deflection temperature test (ASTM D-648) 123
apparatus and test specimens 123
test procedure 124
test variables and limitations 124
applied stress 124
residual stress 124
specimen molding effects 124
specimen wall thickness 124
Heat stabilizers 20
High density polyethylene (HDPE) 28
High performance engineering materials 19
High rate instrumented impact tests 87
High shear rate flow testing 130
High temperature nylon (HTN) 25
High-amperage arc ignition (HAI)/testing 149
HAI UL 746A 148
UL 746A 159
High-voltage arc track rate (HVTR) 150
HVTR UL 746A 148 160
Method ASTM D-2132 160
Method ASTM D-2303 161
High-voltage, low-ampere, dry Arc resistance
(ASTM D-495)
Horizontal burning test 134
Hot mandrel 150
testing 164
Hot wire ignition (HWI) 150
UL 746A/ASTM D-3874 148 159
Humidity 153
I
Immersion testing (ASTM D-543) 218
Impact fracture mechanism/Impact tests 86
falling weight impact tests 87
high rate instrumented impact tests 87Index Terms Links
Impact fracture mechanism/Impact tests (Cont.)
instrumented pendulum impact tests 87
miscellaneous impact tests 87
pendulum impact tests 87
see also Pendulum impact tests
Impact modifiers for polymeric materials compounding 23
Impact strength testing 85
factors affecting 86
exposure to environmental stress 86
geometry 86
molding process variables 86
shape and geometry 86
stress concentration 86
thickness of plastic molded product 86
standards 54
Inherent flammability 132
flammable polymers 133
inherently flame retardant polymers 132
less flame retardant polymers 132
Injection molding
machine conditions 201
machine effects on mold shrinkage 200
products
weld line effects on 63
Injection pressure 202
Instrumented high speed horizontal plunger impact
tester 94
Instrumented impact testing 93
see also Dynatup®
instrumented charpy impact pendulum testers 94
instrumented pendulum Izod impact testers 93
Instrumented pendulum impact tests 87
Insulation properties, electrical 151
intermediate plastics 18
Internal lubricants 20
International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 14
ASTM/UL and ISO test standards, comparison between 114 115
ISO 10350:1993 14Index Terms Links
International Organization for Standardization (ISO) (Cont.)
ISO 178:1993 test 53
ISO 179:1993 Charpy impact strength 54
ISO 8256:1990 tensile impact 54
ISO 527:1993 53
mechanical test standards 52
ISO 10350:1993 test standards 52
testing standards 114
brittleness temperature 116
coefficient of linear thermal expansion 114
continuous service temperature 116
flammability classifi cation 116
glass transition temperature 116
limiting oxygen index 116
melt mass and volume flow rates 116
melting temperature test (ASTM D-3418) 117
melting temperature 114
relative melt viscosity 117
smoke density 117
soldering heat resistance 116
temperature of deflection 114
thermal conductivity 116
thermal creep modulus 116
UL relative temperature index electrical 116
UL relative temperature index mechanical with impact 116
UL relative temperatureindex mechanical without impact 116
vicat softening temperature 114
Intrinsic dielectric strength 150
ISO, see International Organization for Standardization
ISO/IEC electrical test methods 148
ASTM/UL and ISO/IEC comparison of electrical
testing standards 148
comparative tracking index (CTI) 149
dielectric constant 149
dielectric strength 149
dissipation factor 149
glow wire 150
high-amperage arc ignition (HAI) 149Index Terms Links
ISO/IEC electrical test methods (Cont.)
High-voltage arc track rate (HVTR) 150
hot mandrel 150
hot wire ignition (HWI) 150
relative temperature index 148
arc resistance 150
surface resistivity 149
TC>ASTM/UL and ISO/IEC electrical test
standards 149
volume resistivity 149
Isochronous stress-strain curves 80
creep strain vs. time at various stress levels 81
stress-strain creep curves at any given time 81
Isotactic polypropylene 30
Izod impact test method 52
ASTM D-256 87
issues and concerns 88
K
Kaolin 23
L
LCP, see Liquid crystal polymer
LDPE, see Low density polyethylene
Limited oxygen index (LOI) testing 116
ASTM D-2863 113 136
factors affecting 138
test procedures 137
Liquid crystal polymer (LCP) 25
classes of 26
general purpose class 26
lower temperature performance class 26
more temperature resistant class 26
Liquid injection molding silicone 18
LOI, see Limited oxygen index
Long-term thermal aging index 121
Low coefficient of friction additives 199
Low density polyethylene (LDPE) 28Index Terms Links
Lower temperature performance class LCP 26
Lubricants effects 198
Luminous transmittance 181 187
and haze testing (ASTM D-1003) 187
Procedure “A” (Hazemeter) 187
Procedure “B” (Recording Spectrophotometer) 188
M
Manufacturing of polymers 19
alkylation in 19
flexibility in 19
flow chart for 21
Material selection guidelines 5
plastic resin selection 5
Materials specifications 6
Mechanical properties 41
ASTM and ISO mechanical test standards, comparison 52
ISO 179:1993 Charpy impact strength 54
ISO 8256:1990 tensile impact 54
tensile test comparison (2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, and 2.7) 52
flexural test standards (2.10 and 2.11) 53
ASTM mechanical properties
of thermoplastic elastomers 50
of thermoplastic materials 42
of thermoset materials 48
comparison tables of mechanical properties 41
compounding processes and properties
of glass reinforced polymeric materials 60
compression stress-strain behavior 51
compressive strength testing (ASTM D-695) 74
see also Compressive strength testing
falling weight tower impact testing 93
flexural strength 51
flexural testing (ASTM D-790) 69
see also Flexural testing
gardner drop weight impact testing (ASTM D-3029) 92
instrumented high speed horizontal plunger impact tester 94Index Terms Links
Mechanical properties (Cont.)
instrumented impact testing 93
see also Instrumented impact testing
isochronous stress-strain curves 80
miscellaneous impact testing 101
moisture effects on nylon properties 67
molecular orientation effects 59
notched Izod impact strength 52
shear strength testing (ASTM D-732) 75
see also Shear strength testing
shear strength 52
stress-strain curves and load type comparison 77
temperature effects 66
tensile creep testing 78
tensile strength effects caused by cross-head
speeds 59
tensile stress-strain behavior 41
tensile testing (ASTM D-638) 54
weld line effects on injection molded products 63
see also Weld line
Mechanical testing 9
Melamine formaldehyde 142
Melamine resins 17
Melt flow rate (MFR) 127
ASTM D-1238 testing 128
alternative settings 129
factors affecting 129
interpretation of test results 129
Procedure “A” 128
Procedure “B” 128
test procedures 128
moisture content 128
Melt mass and volume flow rates 116
Melt processible rubber (MPR) 34
Melting temperature test (ASTM D-3418) 112 117
MFR, see Melt flow rate
Mica 23
Microbial resistance 205Index Terms Links
Microscopic method 186
Microspheres, hollow 23
Microspheres, solid 23
Miscellaneous impact tests 87 101
Modern history of polymeric materials 16
ABS 17
Celluloid 17
melamine resins 17
nylon 17
“Phenolic” resin 17
polyamide 17
polyester (PET) resins 17
thermoset polyester resins 17
Urea-formaldehyde 17
Modulus of elasticity 50
graph 3
Modulus, tensile 58
Moisture 208
content 128
effects on nylon properties 67
Mold cavity temperature 202
Mold shrinkage 181
ASTM D-955 199
calculations 203
factors affecting 200
gate type, dimensions, number, and location 202
injection molding machine conditions 201
injection molding machine effects 200
injection pressure 202
measurements 202
mold cavity temperature 202
molding process effects on 200
purpose of 199
sampling requirements 200
specimen wall thickness 202
test procedures 201
test specimens 201
fiberglass orientation effects on 62Index Terms Links
Molding process for phenolic materials 17
Molecular orientation effects 59
Molecular structures, thermoplastic types 19
More temperature resistant class of LCP 26
Motorette assemblies for testing 169
MPR, see Melt processible rubber
N
NAS 185
Natural gas 19
Nonferrous metal families 2
Notched Izod impact strength 52
Nylons 26 142
nylon 6 26
nylon 6/12 26
nylon 6/6 26
properties, moisture effects on 67
O
Olefinic thermoplastic elastomers 23
Optical polymeric materials 185 187
Acrylic 185
Allyl diglycol carbonate (ADC) 186
NAS 185
Polycarbonate (PC) 186
Polystyrene (PS) 185
Styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN) 185
Optical properties 13 181
haze 182
luminous transmittance 181
refractive index 181
specular gloss 182
Optical testing 10
properties 184
Organic fillers 23
Origin of polymeric materials 16
Outdoor exposure tests 206
Outdoor weathering testing (ASTM D-1435) 215Index Terms Links
Oxidation 208
P
Pendulum impact tests 87
Charpy impact testing (ASTM D-256) 90
Izod impact testing (ASTM D-256) 87
tensile impact testing (ASTM D-1822) 91
Percentage of elongation 50
Petroleum 19
Phenol-formaldehyde (PF) 4 36
polymerization 17
Phenolic molding materials 36
Phenolic resins 17 36 142
Physical properties 175
see also ASTM physical properties
abrasion resistance testing (ASTM D-1044) 194
see also Abrasion resistance testing
ASTM and ISO comparison of testing standards 181
coefficient of friction 183
density and specific gravity 181
ISO categories 181
melt mass-flow and volume-flow rates 181
optical properties 181
surface hardness 182
taber abrasion 182
water absorption properties 181
coefficient of friction testing (ASTM D-1894) 197
density gradient testing (ASTM D-1505) 184
luminous transmittance and haze testing (ASTM D-1003) 187
mold shrinkage testing (ASTM D-955) 199
optical testing properties 184
refractive index testing (ASTM D-542) 186
specific gravity testing (ASTM D-792) 183
specular gloss testing (ASTM D-523) 188
surface hardness testing 190
see also Surface hardness testing
tear resistance testing (ASTM D-624) 197
water absorption testing (ASTM D-570) 189Index Terms Links
Pigments 24 205
Plastic resin selection guidelines 5
Plasticizers 23
Polyamide (PA, Nylon) 26
Polyamide-imide (PAI) 4
Polyaryletherketone (PAEK) 4
Polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) 28
Polycarbonate (PC) 27 142 186
Polyester (PET) resins 17 142
Polyester alkyd (PAK) 35
Polyester 142
polyether-based TPUs 32
Polyetherether Ketone (PEEK) 27
chemical resistance at elevated temperatures 27
mechanical properties 27
production 27
Polyetherimide (PEI) 4 26
amorphous structure of 27
unreinforced PEI resins 27
Polyethylene (PE) 28
Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) 28
Polyethylene 17 28
Polyimide (PI) 37 142
Polymer fibers 23
Polymethacrylate 58
Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) 25 185
Polyolefin (PE, PP) 142
Polyphenylene Oxide (PPO), modified 27 142
Polyphenylene Sulfide (PPS) 29 64
Polypropylene (PP) 30 64
structures 30
atactic 30
isotactic 30
syndiotactic 30
Polystyrene (PS) 31 142 185
grades of 31
expandable polystyrene (EPS) 31
general purpose (GPPS) 31Index Terms Links
Polystyrene (PS) (Cont.)
high impact (HIPS) 31
modified medium impact (MIPS) 31
Polysulfone (PSU) 31 64 142
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) 29 65 142
Polyurethane (PUR) 23 38
Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) 31 142
categories 31
dispersion materials 31
homopolymer suspension powder blend 31
Power factor 150
Procedure “A” of flexural Testing (ASTM D-790) 70
Procedure “B” of flexural Testing (ASTM D-790) 70
Product design 66
Properties, polymeric materials 1
see also Material selection guidelines;
Materials specifications
automotive cast iron engines 1
coefficient of linear thermal expansion graph 3
comparison 2
continuous exposure temperature graph 3
electrical volume resistivity graph 3
ferrous metal families 2
metals 1
modulus of elasticity graph 3
nonferrous metal families 2
portable electric tools 1
property data information 4
see also Data information
PVC 1
rubber families 2
specific gravity graph 3
tensile strength graph 3
tensile stress-strain comparison graphs 3
thermal conductivity graph 3
thermoplastic families 2
thermoset families 2
toilet anti-siphon valves 1Index Terms Links
Properties, polymeric materials (Cont.)
TPOs 1
TPEs 1
Proportional limit 50
Pyroxylin 16
R
Radiation susceptibility testing 10
Recording spectrophotometer 188
Refractive index 181
ASTM D-542 186
microscopic method 186
refractometric method 186
significance 187
specimen 187
Reinforcements 23
Relative melt viscosity 117
vs. shear rate graph 131
Relative temperature index 143 148
Relative thermal index 120
aging temperatures selection 121
test procedure 121
thermoplastic control material 120
Relaxation 78
Residual stress 124
Resistance properties, electrical 151
Rockwell hardness 182
ASTM D-785-60T 191
Rubber
families 2
and thermoplastic elastomers 23
Rupture 78
S
Selection of materials 1
Self-and flash ignition temperature testing (ASTM D-1929) 140
definition 140
test procedures 140Index Terms Links
Self-lubricating polymers 198
Semi-crystalline polymers 19 198
Shear strength test standards 54
ASTM D-732 75
significance and limitations 77
test procedures 76
test specimen and apparatus 76
Short time test, dielectric strength 157
Silica 23
Silicone (Si) 38 142
Single-point database system 6
Smoke density 117
ASTM D-2843 139
Smoke generation testing 138
Soldering heat resistance 116
performance 125
Solvent stress-cracking resistance testing 219
Specific gravity 175 181
ASTM D-792 183
test method “A” 183
test method “B” 183
test procedures 183
graph 3
Specimen conditioning, in tensile testing 56
Specimen molding effects 124
Specimen wall thickness 124
Specular gloss 182
ASTM D-523 188
Static coefficient of friction testing 198
Static decay rate 151
Step by step test 157
Strain 50
Stress relaxation 85
Stress-strain curves 3
see also Compression
stress-strain behavior; Isochronous stress-strain
curvesIndex Terms Links
Stress-strain curves (Cont.)
for alloyed steel 4
for brittle resins 5
for elastomers 4
for high carbon steel 4
and load type comparison 77
for medium carbon steel 4
for nonferrous alloys and cast iron 4
for reinforced resins 5
for unfilled resins 4
Styreneacrylonitrile (SAN) 24 64 185
Styrene-butadiene multi-blocks 23
Styrenic block copolymer (SBS) thermoplastic
elastomers 32
Surface hardness 175 182
Barcol hardness 182
Durometer hardness 182
Rockwell hardness 182
testing 190
Barcol hardness testing (ASTM D-2583) 193
Durometer hardness testing (ASTM D-2240) 192
factors affecting the test results 194
Rockwell hardness testing (ASTM D-785-60T) 191
test apparatus and specimen 191
Surface lubricants 20
Surface resistance 149
ASTM D-257 143 155
Syndiotactic polypropylene 30
T
Taber abrasion 175
ASTM D-1044 196
Talc 23
Tear resistance testing (ASTM D-624) 197
Temperature 153 208
effects, on polymeric materials behavior 66Index Terms Links
Temperature (Cont.)
temperature of deflection 114
ASTM D-648 112
resistance testing 10
Tensile creep testing 78
Tensile impact testing (ASTM D-1822) 91
Tensile or flexural tests 218
Tensile strength
creep test standards 54
effects caused by cross-head speeds 59
graph 3
Tensile stress 50
Tensile stress-strain behavior 41
comparison graphs 3
see also Stress-strain
curve
Tensile testing 3
see also Stress-strain curve
ASTM D-638 54
equipment 55
instron tester thermally insulated 55
specimen conditioning 56
specimen 55
universal testing machines 55
comparison (2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, and 2.7) 52
procedures 56
tensile bar measurement, elongation, and break 57
tensile modulus and elongation 58
types of tensile test elongation and breaks 57
Testing polymeric materials 8 14
see also American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)
methods; Global testing standards; International
Organization for Standardization (ISO)
ASTM-UL testing methods 9 11
chemical resistance testing 10
electrical testing 10
mechanical testing 9
optical testing 10Index Terms Links
Testing polymeric materials (Cont.)
statistical analysis of test data 10
temperature resistance 10
weather exposure and radiation susceptibility 10
Thermal conductivity 116
ASTM C-177 113 126
graph 3
Thermal creep modulus 116
UL-746B 122
Thermal properties 12 103
ASTM-UL thermal properties
of thermoplastic resins 104
of thermoset resins 110
brittleness temperature (ASTM D-746) 118
capillary rheometer relative melt viscosity test
(ASTM D-1703) 130
coefficient of linear thermal expansion testing
(ASTM D-696) 125
continuous service temperature test (ASTM D-794) 111
continuous service temperature test (ASTM D-794) 119
flammability characteristics 131
for elevated temperatures 103
glass transition temperature (ASTM E-1356) 118
heat deflection temperature test (ASTM D-648) 123
inherent flammability of 132
ISO testing standards 114
see also under International Organization
for Standardization (ISO)
limited oxygen index (LOI) testing (ASTM D-2863) 136
melt flow rate 127
melt mass-flow rate testing (ASTM D-1238) 128
relative melt viscosity vs. shear rate graph 131
self- and flash ignition temperature testing
(ASTM D-1929) 140
smoke density testing (ASTM D-2843) 139
smoke generation testing 138
soldering heat resistance performance 125Index Terms Links
Thermal properties (Cont.)
thermal conductivity test (ASTM C-177) 113
thermal conductivity testing (ASTM C-177) 126
UL 94 flammability test 133
UL 94-5V classifi cation 136
UL 94-5VA classifi cation 136
UL 94-5VB classifi cation 136
UL horizontal burn testing (UL 94 HB) 133
UL relative temperature index test (RTI Elect—UL
746) 113
UL temperature index (UL 746) 120
see also UL temperature index (UL 746)
UL vertical burn testing 134
vicat softening temperature test (ASTM D-1525) 117
Thermoplastic control material 120
Thermoplastic elastomer olefins (TPOs) 1 33
Thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs) 1 142
families of 32
see also Families
Thermoplastic families 2
Thermoplastic polymers 18
families of 24
see also Families
Thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) elastomer 32
phases 32
polyester type 32
polyether type 32
thermal stability of 32
Thermoplastic resins 1 65
Thermoset families 2
Thermoset Polymers, Families of 35
see also
Families
Toughness 12
TPEs, see Families of thermoplastic elastomers
TPE resins 18Index Terms Links
UL, see Underwriters laboratories
UL 94-5V classification 136
UL 94-5VA classification 136
UL 94-5VB classification 136
UL horizontal burn testing (UL 94 HB) 133
test description 133
UL relative temperature index electrical 116
mechanical with impact 116
mechanical without impact 116
UL standard test rating for flammability (UL 94) 112 133
factors affecting 133
specimen wall thickness for UL 94 flammability test 113
UL 94 HB, horizontal burn test 113
UL 94-5V, vertical burn test 112
UL 94-V0, vertical burn test 112
UL 94-V1, vertical burn test 112
UL 94-V2, vertical burn test 113
UL temperature index (UL 746) 120
long-term thermal aging index 121
relative thermal index 120
see also Relative thermal index
thermal creep modulus test (UL-746B) 122
UL vertical burn testing 134
test description 134
Ultimate strength 51
Ultraviolet radiation 207
Underwriters laboratories (UL) electrical insulation systems 169
see also individual entries
automotive ABS sensor 170
encapsulated transformer 170
material substitutions in 171
Motorette assemblies for testing 169
obtaining 171
washing machine motor 170
Underwriters laboratories (UL) yellow cards 165
reading 165
Column 1 (Material designation) 165
Column 10 (High-voltage tracking rate (HVTR)) 167
UIndex Terms Links
Underwriters laboratories (UL) yellow cards (Cont.)
Column 11 (High-voltage, low-current, dry arc resistance) 168
Column 12 (Comparative track index (CTI)) 168
Column 2 (Colors) 165
Column 3 (Wall thickness) 165
Column 4 (Flammability classifi cation according to UL 94) 165
Column 5 (Relative temperature index electrical properties) 166
Column 6 (Relative temperature index
mechanical properties with impact) 166
Column 7 (Relative temperature index mechanical
properties without impact) 167
Column 8 (Hot wire ignition) 167
Column 9 (High amperage arc ignition (HAI)) 167
Unreinforced phenolic polymer 37
Unsaturated polyester (UP) 37
Urea-formaldehyde 17
Urethane (rigid foam) 142
UV stabilizers 23 205
V
Vertical burning test 135
Vicat softening temperature 114
ASTM D-1525 112 117
Vinyl ester 38
Voltage 153
Volume resistivity 149
ASTM D-257 143 155
significance 155
test procedure 155
W
Washing machine motor 170
Water absorption 24 hr 175
Water absorption properties 181
Water absorption saturation 175Index Terms Links
Water absorption testing (ASTM D-570) 189
significance 190
test procedure 190
test specimen 190
Wear
abrasive wear 195
adhesive wear 195
coefficient of friction and 195
corrosive wear 195
theoretical analysis of 196
types of 194
wear factor effects by temperature 195
Weather resistance 205
Weathering/Weathering tests 207
see also Accelerated weather testing; Fluorescent UV
Weathering test; Outdoor weathering testing
(ASTM D-1435)
accelerated weathering testing (ASTM G 23) 209
exposure testing 10
microorganisms 208
moisture 208
oxidation 208
temperature 208
ultraviolet radiation 207
weathering creep factors (degradation) 207
weathering resistance
of generic polymeric materials 209
Weather-ometer® 211
carbon arc Weather-Ometer® 212
Weld line
definition 64
effects on injection molded products 63
strength of, improving 65
product design 66
thermoplastic resin 65
Wollastonite 23
Wood flour (cellulosic filler) 37Index Terms Links
X
Xenon arc light and water testing (ASTM D-2565), exposure to 212
Y
Yield point 50
Yield strength 50
Z
Zytel® FE-8018 99

كلمة سر فك الضغط : books-world.net
The Unzip Password : books-world.net

تحميل

يجب عليك التسجيل في الموقع لكي تتمكن من التحميل
تسجيل | تسجيل الدخول

التعليقات

اترك تعليقاً