Safety Professional’s Reference and Study Guide

Safety Professional’s Reference and Study Guide
اسم المؤلف
W. David Yates
التاريخ
3 فبراير 2024
المشاهدات
156
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Safety Professional’s Reference and Study Guide
W. David Yates
Contents
Preface .xxxiii
Acknowledgments . xxxv
Author xxxvii

  1. Safety Profession and Preparing for the ASP/CSP Examination .1
    Board of Certifi ed Safety Professionals (BCSP) .1
    Definitions .2
    Minimum Qualifi cations to Sit for the CSP Examination 3
    Academic Requirements 3
    Professional Safety Experience Requirements 4
    Associate Safety Professional Process .4
    Certifi ed Safety Professional Process 4
    Safety Fundamentals Examination Blueprint 5
    Domain 1: Recognizing Safety, Health, and Environmental
    Hazards (35.4% of examination) 5
    Domain 2: Measuring, Evaluating, and Controlling Safety,
    Health, and Environmental Hazards (30.9% of
    examination) .5
    Domain 3: Safety, Health, and Environmental Training and
    Management (20.6% of examination) .6
    Domain 4: Business Principles, Practices, and Metrics in
    Safety, Health, and Environmental Practice (13.1% of
    examination) .8
    Comprehensive Practice Examination Blueprint 8
    Domain 1: Collecting Safety, Health, Environmental, and
    Security Risk Information (28.6% of examination) .8
    Domain 2: Assessing Safety, Health, Environmental, and
    Security Risk (36.6% of examination) 9
    Domain 3: Managing Safety, Health, Environmental, and
    Security Risk .9
    Preparing for the ASP/CSP Examinations 10
    Knowing Your Strengths and Weaknesses . 10
    Developing an Examination Preparation Plan 10
    References and Resources . 11
    Test Taking Strategy . 11
    Registering for and Taking the ASP/CSP Examinations 13
    Locating a Pearson VUE Test Center 13
    Purchasing an Examination Authorization 14
    Receiving Your Examination Authorization Letter . 14
    Scheduling an Examination Appointment . 14viii Contents
    Taking the Examination 15
    Arrival and Preliminary Procedures 15
    Presenting Your Identification . 15
    Final Sign-in Procedures 16
    Examination Security 16
    Examination Tutorial 17
    Examination Duration 17
    Examination Format . 17
    Examination Environment . 18
    Completing the Examination, Getting Your
    Unoffi cial Result, and Postexamination
    Surveys . 18
    Reporting Problems with Your Examination Experience 18
    Late Arrivals and Missed Appointments . 19
    Canceling and Rescheduling Examination Appointments 19
    For Candidates Testing in the United States or Canada Only 19
    Examination Authorization Extensions (For
    Candidates Testing in the United States
    and Canada Only) 19
    Retesting 20
    Other Testing Arrangements 20
    Taking the Comprehensive Practice Examination for Continuance
    of Certification Credit .20
    Key Information to Remember on the Safety Profession and
    Preparing for the ASP/CSP Examination 21
    Reference . 21
  2. Regulations and OSHA Record Keeping 23
    Occupational Safety and Health Act .23
    Who Is Covered Under the Occupational Safety and
    Health Act? . 24
    Horizontal and Vertical Standards 24
    General Duty Clause . 24
    Employer Rights and Responsibilities 25
    Employee Rights and Responsibilities 25
    Communications and Correspondence with OSHA .25
    OSHA Inspections and Process 26
    OSHA Citations 27
    OSHA Citation Penalties .27
    Appeals 29
    Employee Appeals 29
    Employer Appeals .29
    Petition for Modification of Abatement 30
    Notice of Contest 30
    Review Procedure 30Contents ix
    Hazard Communication Standard (29 CFR 1910.1200) 31
    Purpose . 31
    Scope and Application 31
    Written Hazardous Communication Program 32
    Label and Other Forms of Warning . 32
    Material Safety Data Sheets 32
    Employee Information and Training .33
    Training .33
    Bloodborne Pathogen Standard (29 CFR 1910.1030) 33
    Scope, Application, and Definitions .33
    Exposure Control Plan 34
    Record Keeping 35
    Medical Records 35
    Training Records .35
    Control of Hazardous Energy Standard (29 CFR 1910.147) .35
    Scope, Application, and Purpose 35
    Definitions 36
    Energy Control Program . 37
    Periodic Inspection 37
    Training and Communication 38
    Confi ned Space Entry Standard (29 CFR 1910.146) 38
    Scope and Application 38
    Definitions 38
    General Requirements .40
    Confi ned Space Entry Program .40
    Entry Permits 40
    Training . 41
    Personal Protective Equipment (29 CFR 1910.132) . 41
    Application . 41
    Employee-Owned Equipment . 41
    Hazard Assessment and Equipment Selection 42
    Training .42
    Respiratory Protection Standard (29 CFR 1910.134) .42
    Purpose .42
    Definitions 43
    Respiratory Protection Program 43
    Training and Information .44
    Fall Protection Standard (29 CFR 1926.500–503) (Subpart M) .44
    Scope and Application 44
    Definitions 45
    Duty to Have Fall Protection 46
    Training .46
    Record Keeping 47
    OSHA 300, 300-A, and 301 Forms (29 CFR 1910.29) 47x Contents
    How Quickly Must Each Injury or Illness Be
    Recorded? 47
    How Do “Privacy Cases” Listed on the Forms? 47
    Annual Summary 48
    Providing Records to Government Representatives 48
    Reporting Fatalities and Multiple Hospitalizations (29 CFR 1904.39) .48
    Determining Recordable Injuries or Illnesses .49
    Calculating Total Case Incident Rates (TCIR) 49
    Calculating Days Away, Restricted, or Transfer Rates 50
    Calculating Severity Rates 50
    Key Information to Remember on Regulations . 51
    References . 52
  3. Math Review 53
    Order of Operations .53
    PEMDAS: “Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally” .53
    Basic Rules of Positive and Negative Numbers 54
    Understanding Exponents 54
    Scientific Notation 55
    Multiplication and Division Using Scientific Notation 55
    Engineering Notation 56
    Absolute Values 57
    Logarithms 57
    Formula or Equation Transpositions .58
    Factorials .59
    Common Geometric Equations 59
    Area .60
    Distance 60
    Volume 60
    Pythagorean Equation .60
    Basic Trigonometric Functions . 61
    Sine 62
    Cosine .63
    Tangent .63
    Arcsine, Arccosine, and Arctangent 64
    Quadratic Equation .65
    Calculator 66
    Summary . 67
    Key Information to Remember on Math Review 67
  4. Particulates and Gases .69
    Periodic Table of the Elements .69
    Atomic Number 69
    Atomic Mass 69
    Atoms 70Contents xi
    Chemical Bonding 71
    Moles .71
    Molecules and Compounds .72
    Mixtures 72
    Chemical Formulas .73
    Atomic Weight of Compounds .73
    Percentage of Element in a Compound . 74
    Acids, Bases, and pH’s . 74
    Gas Laws .75
    Boyle’s Law 75
    Charles’ Law 76
    Ideal Gas Law 76
    Conversion Factors for Converting Pressure Units to
    Atmospheric Pressure Units .77
    Conversion Factors for Converting Units of Volume
    to Liters 77
    Converting Grams to Moles .78
    Universal Gas Constant 78
    Combined Gas Law .78
    Concentrations of Vapors, Gases, and Particulates 79
    Standard Temperature and Pressure 80
    Standards and Regulations 80
    Time-Weighted Average . 81
    Calculating PELs/TLVs for Periods Greater than 8 h 82
    Gaseous Mixtures 82
    Liquid Mixtures .83
    Percentage of TLV Mixture 84
    Calculating PEL/TLV for Silica .84
    Converting mg/m3 to ppm 85
    Converting ppm to mg/m3 85
    Lower Flammability Limit of Mixtures .86
    Referenced Equations 87
    Boyle’s Law 87
    Charles’ Law 87
    Ideal Gas Law 87
    Combined Gas Law 88
    Time-Weighted Average .88
    Calculating PELs/TLVs for Periods Greater than 8 h 88
    Gaseous Mixtures 88
    Liquid Mixtures .88
    Percentage of TLV for Mixtures 89
    Calculating PEL/TLV for Silica .89
    Converting mg/m3 to ppm 89
    Converting ppm to mg/m3 89
    Lower Flammability Limits of Mixtures 90xii Contents
    Key Information to Remember on Particulates and Gases 90
    References . 91
  5. Toxicology .93
    Definitions .93
    Routes of Entry .94
    Inhalation .94
    Ingestion .95
    Absorption .95
    Percutaneous and Intravenous Injections 95
    Dose-Response Relationship 96
    Exposures to Chemical Combinations 96
    Stages of Cancer .97
    Initiation .98
    Latency Period .98
    Promotion .98
    Progression .98
    Types of Poisons .98
    Ames Testing 98
    Cohort Study 99
    Advantages .99
    Disadvantages 99
    Case Control Study 99
    Cross-Sectional Study 100
    Common Occupational Diseases and Disorders Caused by a
    Contributing Agent or Substance .100
    Asbestosis and Asbestos-Related Illnesses 100
    Brucellosis 101
    Benzene-Related Illnesses 101
    Byssinosis . 101
    Arsenic-Related Illnesses . 102
    Berylliosis and Beryllium-Related Illnesses 102
    Copper-Related Illnesses 103
    Cadmium-Related Illnesses . 103
    Chromium-Related Illnesses . 104
    Coal Dust-Related Illnesses . 104
    Cobalt-Related Illnesses . 105
    Formaldehyde-Related Illnesses . 105
    Lead-Related Illnesses 106
    Manganese-Related Illnesses . 107
    Mercury-Related Illnesses 108
    Pneumoconiosis . 108
    Silica-Related Illnesses 109
    Zinc-Related Illnesses . 109
    Aluminum-Related Illnesses . 110Contents xiii
    Antimony-Related Illnesses . 110
    Dust-Related Illnesses 111
    Common Environments for Contracting Dust-Related
    Illnesses 111
    Thallium-Related Illnesses . 112
    Pesticide-Related Illnesses . 112
    Key Information to Remember on Toxicology 113
    References . 113
  6. Industrial Hygiene . 115
    Anticipation of Hazards 115
    Recognition of Hazards . 116
    Evaluation of Hazards . 116
    Control of Hazards 116
    Definitions . 116
    Air Sampling . 117
    Sampling Methodology 118
    Equipment Selection . 118
    Air Sampling Pumps . 118
    Piston and Bellows Air Pumps 119
    Direct-Reading Instruments . 119
    Cyclones . 120
    Sampling Media 120
    Filters .120
    Sorbent Tubes . 121
    Sample Collection Bags or Canisters . 121
    Passive Samplers 122
    Sampling Pump Calibration 122
    Determining Minimum and Maximum Sample Volumes 125
    Determining the Minimum Number of Samples to Collect . 126
    Sampling Process 126
    Key Information to Remember on Industrial Hygiene 128
    References . 129
  7. Ventilation 131
    Purpose for Using Ventilation 131
    Types and Selection of Ventilation . 131
    General Ventilation . 132
    Dilution Ventilation 132
    Local (Exhaust) Ventilation 132
    General Concepts of Ventilation Notes 132
    Principles of Air Movement . 133
    Calculating for Volumetric Airflow 133
    Calculating Static Pressure, Velocity Pressure, and Total Pressure .133
    Calculating Velocity of Air . 134xiv Contents
    Contaminant Generation 134
    Calculating Purge Rates 136
    Steady State Concentration 138
    Calculating Rate of Generation for Liquid Solvents . 139
    Calculating Vapor or Gaseous Concentrations 139
    Calculating Room Air Changes . 140
    Calculating Concentration of a Contaminant with Dilution
    Ventilation .141
    Local Exhaust Ventilation . 142
    Canopy Hood 142
    Down Draft Hood . 142
    Enclosure Hood . 142
    Receiving Hood . 143
    Openings 143
    Calculating Hood Entry Losses . 143
    Calculating Airflow Velocity 145
    Calculating Capture Velocity for Plain Opening Hood 146
    Ducts 147
    Fans 148
    Calculating Static Pressure of the Fan 148
    Air Cleaning Devices . 148
    Ventilation Measurement Equipment . 148
    Pitot Tubes 149
    Rotating Vane Anemometers . 149
    Thermal Anemometers . 149
    Key Information to Remember on Ventilation 149
    Reference . 150
  8. Noise and OSHA’s Hearing Conservation Program . 151
    OSHA’s Hearing Conservation Program . 151
    Who Is Included in Hearing Conservation Program? .151
    Monitoring . 152
    Sound Measuring Instruments 152
    Employee Notification 152
    Audiometric Testing . 153
    Standard Threshold Shift . 153
    Training Program 153
    Record Keeping . 154
    Noise-Related Definitions . 154
    Noise .154
    Continuous Noise . 154
    Intermittent Noise . 154
    Sound 154
    Frequency . 155
    Period 155Contents xv
    Speed or Velocity of Sound 155
    Wavelength 155
    Anatomy and Physiology of the Ear . 155
    Types of Hearing Loss . 156
    Major Causes of Hearing Loss 157
    OSHA Permissible Noise Exposures . 157
    Entities of Noise . 158
    Sound Power 158
    Sound Pressure 158
    Sound Intensity . 158
    Noise Calculations . 158
    Calculating Permissible Noise Exposures . 158
    Calculating Noise Dosage 159
    Converting Noise Dosage into Time-Weighted Average 160
    Combining Noise Levels 161
    Calculating Sound Levels at Various Distances . 162
    Calculating Sound Power Levels 163
    Calculating Sound Pressure Levels (SPL) 164
    Calculating Sound Intensity Levels 164
    Calculating Room Absorption . 165
    Calculating Absorption along a Transmission Path . 166
    Key Information to Remember on Noise . 166
    References . 167
  9. Biological Hazards . 169
    Bacterial Diseases . 169
    Anthrax . 169
    Brucellosis 170
    Leptospirosis 170
    Plague 171
    Tetanus 171
    Tuberculosis . 171
    Tularemia 172
    Cat Scratch Fever (Cat Scratch Disease) 172
    Viral Diseases 173
    Hepatitis A 173
    Hepatitis B 173
    Orf (Sore Mouth Disease) . 174
    Rabies 175
    Rickettsial and Chlamydia Diseases . 176
    Psittacosis (Ornithosis) . 176
    Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever 176
    Q Fever 177
    Fungal Diseases 178
    Aspergillosis 178xvi Contents
    Candidiasis . 179
    Coccidioidomycosis 180
    Histoplasmosis 180
    Biological Safety . 181
    Laboratory Practice and Technique 181
    Safety Equipment 181
    Class II, Type A . 182
    Class II, Type B1 . 182
    Class II, Type B2 . 182
    Class II, Type B3 . 183
    Class III (Gas Tight, Negative Pressure) . 183
    Facility Design and Construction . 183
    Biosafety Levels 183
    Biosafety Level I 183
    Biosafety Level II . 184
    Biosafety Level III 184
    Biosafety Level IV . 184
    Key Information to Remember on Biological Hazards 184
    References . 185
  10. Fire Protection and Prevention 187
    Definitions . 187
    Transfer of Heat 188
    Heat Transfer by Radiation 188
    Heat Transfer by Convection . 188
    Heat Transfer by Conduction 189
    Fire Tetrahedron . 189
    Classification of Fires . 190
    Class A Fires . 190
    Class B Fires . 190
    Class C Fires . 190
    Class D Fires . 190
    Class K Fires . 190
    Portable Fire Extinguishers 190
    Hydrostatic Testing (Portable Fire Extinguishers) . 191
    Fire Extinguisher Inspections and Service Requirements . 192
    Automatic Sprinkler Systems . 193
    Dry Pipe Systems 193
    Wet Pipe Systems 194
    Deluge Systems . 194
    Preaction Systems . 194
    Water Spray Systems 195
    Foam Water Sprinkler Systems . 195
    Fire Hydrants 195
    Fire Detection 195Contents xvii
    Heat Detectors . 195
    Rate-of-Rise Heat Detectors . 196
    Rate-Compensation Detectors . 196
    Smoke Detectors 196
    Fire Hydrants 197
    Flammable and Combustible Liquids . 197
    Flash Point 198
    Vapor Pressure . 198
    Fire Point 198
    Flammable and Explosive Limit Ranges . 198
    Autoignition Temperature .200
    Specific Gravity .200
    Vapor Density 200
    Evaporation Rate .200
    Water Solubility . 201
    Boiling Point 201
    Storage Requirements for Flammable and
    Combustible Liquids 201
    Inside Storage Rooms for Flammable or
    Combustible Liquids .201
    Key Information to Remember on Fire Protection and Prevention 202
    References .203
  11. Thermal Stressors .205
    Heat Stress .205
    Sources of Heat Stress .205
    Human Body Reaction to Heat .206
    Safety-Related Issues of Heat 206
    Health-Related Issues of Heat . 207
    Heat Rash 207
    Heat Cramps . 207
    Heat Syncope 207
    Dehydration 208
    Heat Exhaustion .208
    Heat Stroke 208
    Control Methods 209
    Engineering Controls 209
    Administrative and Work Practice Controls . 210
    Acclimation or Acclimatization . 210
    Fluid Replacement . 210
    Work/Rest Cycles 210
    Personal Protective Equipment 214
    Training .214
    Prevention of Heat Stress Injuries . 215
    Cold Stress 215xviii Contents
    Safety Problems Related to Cold . 216
    Cold-Related Injuries and Illnesses . 216
    Chilblains 216
    Immersion Injuries (Trench Foot) 217
    Hypothermia 218
    Frostbite .218
    Wind Chill Factor . 219
    Personal Protective Clothing 220
    Nutrition and Activity .220
    Fluid Replacement . 221
    Training and Discipline . 221
    Susceptible Groups 221
    Treatment of Cold-Related Injuries . 221
    Key Information to Remember on Thermal Stressors 221
    References .222
  12. Personal Protective Equipment .223
    Hazard Assessment .223
    Head Protection (29 CFR 1910.135) . 224
    Classification . 224
    Proper Fit and Wear of Head Protection 224
    Inspection and Maintenance 224
    Training .225
    Eye and Face Protection (29 CFR 1910.133) 226
    Fitting .226
    Inspection and Maintenance 226
    Hearing Protection (29 CFR 1910.95) 228
    Hearing Protector Attenuation 228
    Training .229
    Respiratory Protection (29 CFR 1910.134) 230
    Purpose 230
    Definitions . 231
    Respiratory Protection Program 231
    Training and Information . 232
    Torso Protection 232
    Arm and Hand Protection (29 CFR 1910.138) 233
    Glove Selection Chart 234
    Foot and Leg Protection (29 CFR 1910.136) 238
    Key Information to Remember on Personal Protective Equipment .238
    References . 239
  13. Statistics for the Safety Professional 241
    Descriptive Statistics 241
    Mean 241
    Mode 242Contents xix
    Median . 242
    Variance . 243
    Normal Distribution 244
    Calculating Correlation Coefficient . 245
    Spearman Rank Coefficient of Correlation 247
    Calculating the t-Test for Comparing Means . 248
    Chi-Square (χ2) Statistic . 249
    Degrees of Freedom .250
    p-values 250
    Permutations and Combinations . 251
    Permutations with Repetition 251
    Permutations without Repetition 251
    Combinations . 252
    Z-Score .253
    Coefficient of Determination and Coefficient of Correlation 254
    Probability Content from −00 to Z 255
    Reliability 256
    Component Reliability .256
    Probability of Failure (Component) . 257
    System Reliability 257
    Series Reliability 258
    Parallel Reliability .258
    Probability of Failure (System) 259
    Key Information to Remember for Statistics 259
    References .260
  14. Electrical Safety 261
    Electricity Basics . 261
    Voltage 261
    Current 261
    Resistance . 261
    Series and Parallel Circuits 262
    Series Circuits . 262
    Parallel Circuits 262
    Direct and Alternating Currents .263
    Direct Currents .263
    Alternating Currents .263
    Calculating Values of Voltage, Current, and Resistance
    (Ohm’s Laws) .263
    Calculating Voltage in Direct Current Circuits .263
    Calculating Voltage in Alternating Current Circuits .263
    Calculating Power in Direct Current Circuits .264
    Calculating Power in Alternating Current Circuits .264
    Calculating Resistance in Direct Current Circuits 264
    Calculating Resistance in Alternating Current Circuits 265xx Contents
    Resistors 265
    Calculating the Resistance in a Series Circuit .265
    Calculating the Resistance in a Parallel Circuit 266
    Capacitors .266
    Calculating Capacitance in a Series Circuit . 267
    Calculating Capacitance in a Parallel Circuit 267
    Inductors .268
    Calculating Inductance in a Series Circuit .268
    Calculating Inductance in a Parallel Circuit .268
    Electrical Shock Hazard 269
    Burns Caused by Electricity . 270
    Arc Blasts . 270
    Electrical Fires . 271
    Controlling Electrical Hazards . 271
    Exposed Electrical Parts 271
    Overhead Power Lines 271
    Inadequate Wiring .272
    Defective or Damaged Cords and Wires 272
    Use of Flexible Cords .272
    Improper Grounding . 273
    Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters . 273
    Assured Equipment Grounding Conductor Program 273
    Overloaded Circuits 274
    Safety Related Work Practices 274
    Planning 274
    Training .274
    Key Information to Remember on Electrical Safety 275
    References . 275
  15. Mechanics .277
    Energy 277
    Kinetic Energy 277
    Potential Energy . 278
    Elastic Potential Energy 279
    Force .280
    Contact Forces 280
    Action-at-a-Distance Forces . 281
    Defining Mass and Weight . 281
    Amount of Force 281
    Frictional Force . 282
    Force and Distance .283
    Momentum .284
    Work 284
    Modified Work .285
    Newton’s Laws of Motion 286Contents xxi
    Speed .286
    Velocity .286
    Calculating Final Velocity . 287
    Calculating Displacement .288
    Key Information to Remember on Mechanics .288
    Reference .289
  16. Hydrostatics and Hydraulics 291
    Water Properties . 291
    Hydrostatic Pressure . 292
    Torricelli’s Law . 293
    Head Pressure . 294
    Velocity Head . 295
    Velocity Pressure at Constant Laminar Velocity 296
    Flow Rates and Pressure Drops . 297
    Flow Rates and Pressures .299
    Calculating Pressure Loss Due to Friction .299
    Bernoulli’s Principle 300
    Key Information to Remember on Hydrostatics and
    Hydraulics 302
    References .302
  17. Training 303
    Principles of Adult Learning 303
    Adult Learners Are Autonomous and Self-Directed .303
    Adult Learners Have a Foundation of Life Experiences and
    Knowledge 304
    Adult Learners Are Goal Oriented .304
    Adult Learners Are Relevancy Oriented .304
    Adult Learners Are Practical .304
    Adult Learners Need to Be Respected .304
    Safety Training Program .304
    Delivery Methods 305
    Instructor-Led Training 306
    Self-Paced Learning 306
    Structured On-The-Job Training .307
    Training Needs Analysis .307
    Type of Needs Analysis 307
    Techniques 308
    Training Program Development 308
    Written Performance Objectives .309
    Developing Course Outline .309
    Selection of Training Delivery Method 310
    Development of Course Materials 310
    Testing and Evaluation . 310xxii Contents
    Pretests .310
    Review Tests . 310
    Posttests .310
    Media Presentations 311
    Powerpoint Presentations 311
    Charts and Graphs . 312
    Key Information to Remember on Training . 312
    References . 312
  18. Engineering Economics . 313
    Simple Interest 313
    Compound Interest 314
    Future Value of Money 315
    Loan Balance . 316
    Time Value of Money . 317
    Series Compound Amount Factor . 318
    Sinking Fund Factor 319
    Capital Recovery Factor 319
    Series Present Worth Factor 320
    Summary . 321
    Key Information to Remember on Engineering Economics 321
    Reference .322
  19. Management Theories . 323
    Management Theories . 323
    Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs . 323
    Physiological Needs 323
    Safety Needs . 324
    Love and Belonging . 324
    Esteem 325
    Self-Actualization . 325
    McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y . 325
    Theory X 325
    Theory Y 326
    Herzberg Motivational Theory 327
    The Deming Cycle . 327
    Management by Objectives 328
    Contingency Theory 328
    Systems Theory 329
    Chaos Theory 329
    Management Styles 329
    Directive Democrat .330
    Directive Autocrat .330
    Permissive Democrat 330
    Permissive Autocrat 330Contents xxiii
    Key Information to Remember on Management
    Theories 330
    References . 331
  20. Accident Causation and Investigation Techniques .333
    Domino Theory 334
    Heinrich’s Axioms of Industrial Safety 336
    Human Factors Theory . 337
    Accident/Incident Theory 338
    Epidemiological Theory 340
    Systems Theory 341
    Energy Release Theory 341
    Behavior Theory .342
    Combination Theory .343
    Modern Causation Model .343
    Operating Errors .343
    Systems Defects .344
    Command Error 344
    Safety Program Defect 344
    Safety Management Errors 345
    Seven Avenues 345
    Safety Management Error Countermeasures 345
    Safety Program Defect Countermeasures 345
    Command Error Defect Countermeasures 345
    System Defects Countermeasures 346
    Operating Errors Countermeasures .346
    Mishap Countermeasures 346
    Result Countermeasures 346
    Near-Miss Relationship .346
    Accident Investigation Procedures 346
    Purpose of the Investigation 347
    Investigation Procedures 347
    Fact Finding 348
    Interviews .349
    Problem Solving Techniques (Accident Investigation Techniques) 349
    The Scientific Method .350
    Gross Hazard Analysis .350
    Job Safety Analysis 351
    Failure Mode and Effect Analysis . 351
    Fault Tree Analysis . 351
    Multilinear Events Sequencing Method . 352
    Report of Investigation 354
    Key Information to Remember on Accident Causation and
    Investigation Techniques .355
    References .356xxiv Contents
  21. Worker’s Compensation 357
    History of Worker’s Compensation in the United States . 357
    Current Worker’s Compensation Laws 358
    Coverage Exemptions .359
    Worker’s Compensation Premiums 360
    Calculating EMRs 360
    Waiver of Subrogation . 361
    Safety Professional’s Role and Responsibilities in Worker’s
    Compensation 361
    Reporting of Injuries and Claims . 362
    Case Management .363
    Prompt Reporting 363
    Return-to-Work/Light Duty Program 363
    Key Information to Remember on Worker’s
    Compensation 364
    Reference .365
  22. Ergonomics . 367
    Definitions . 367
    Recommended Weight Limit . 367
    Lifting Index 367
    Lifting Task .368
    Load Weight (L) .368
    Horizontal Location (H) .368
    Vertical Location (V) .368
    Vertical Travel Distance (D) .368
    Asymmetry Angle (A) 368
    Neutral Body Position 368
    Lifting Frequency (F) 368
    Lifting Duration . 369
    Coupling Classification 369
    Significant Control 369
    NIOSH Lifting Equation . 369
    Horizontal Component . 371
    Metric (H-Value) Estimation Equation (All Distances
    in Centimeters) . 371
    U.S. System (H-Value) Estimation Equation (All
    Distances in Inches) 371
    Horizontal Multiplier 372
    Vertical Component . 372
    Vertical Multiplier 373
    Distance Component . 373
    Distance Multiplier 374
    Asymmetry Component . 374
    Asymmetric Multiplier . 374Contents xxv
    Frequency Component 375
    Lifting Duration . 375
    Frequency Multiplier . 375
    Coupling Component 376
    Coupling Multiplier .377
    Lifting Index .377
    Job Analysis Worksheet .377
    Example Problems . 378
    Problem #1 378
    Problem #2 380
    Key Information to Remember on Ergonomics .382
    References .382
  23. Construction Safety .383
    Excavation .384
    Soil Classifications .385
    Protective Systems 386
    Sloping .386
    Shoring 387
    Shields (Trench Boxes) . 387
    Registered Professional Engineer Designed
    Protective Systems 387
    Safe Entry and Exit 387
    Most Commonly Cited Trenching Violations . 387
    Electrical Safety in Construction 388
    Electrical Definitions .388
    Electrical Injuries .388
    Electrical Shock 389
    Burns 389
    Falls 389
    Controlling Electrical Hazards 389
    Exposed Electrical Parts 389
    Overhead Power Lines 390
    Inadequate wiring 390
    Defective or Damaged Cords and Wires 390
    Use of Flexible Cords . 391
    Grounding . 391
    Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters . 392
    Assured Equipment Grounding Conductor
    Program .392
    Overloaded Circuits 392
    Safety Related Work Practices 393
    Planning 393
    Training .393
    Summary . 393xxvi Contents
    Static Electricity . 394
    Bonding and Grounding . 395
    Humidification . 395
    Static Controllers (Collectors) 395
    Additives . 395
    Scaffolds 396
    Fall Hazards 396
    Falling Object (Struck By) Protection 396
    Elements of Safe Scaffold Construction 397
    Training Requirements 398
    Fall Protection and Prevention in Construction 398
    Physics of a Fall 399
    Fall Prevention and Protection 399
    Guardrails (29 CFR 1926.502) .400
    Positioning Device System (29 CFR 1926.502(e)) 400
    Restraint Systems .400
    Positioning Devices: Construction Work 400
    Warning Line Systems (29 CFR 1926.502(f)) 401
    Controlled Access Zone System (29 CFR 1926.502(g)) . 403
    Safety Monitoring System (29 CFR 1926.502(h)) .403
    Personal Fall Arrest System (29 CFR 1926.502(d)) 403
    Suspension Trauma Related to Fall Personal Fall
    Arrest Systems 404
    Safety Net Systems (29 CFR 1926.502(c)) 405
    Cranes and Derrick Safety (29 CFR 1926.550) 406
    Welding, Cutting, and Brazing (29 CFR 1926.350–353) 408
    Oxygen–Fuel Gas Welding and Cutting 408
    Fuel Gas and Oxygen Manifolds (29 CFR 1926.350(e)) 410
    Hoses (29 CFR 1926.350(f)) . 410
    Torches (29 CFR 1926.350(g)) 410
    Regulators and Gauges (29 CFR 1926.350(h)) 411
    Oil and Grease Hazards (29 CFR 1926.350(i)) 411
    Arc Welding and Cutting . 411
    Manual Electrode Holders (29 CFR 1926.351(a)) . 411
    Welding Cables and Connectors (29 CFR 1926.351(b)) .411
    Ground Returns and Machine Grounding (29 CFR
    1926.351(c)) 412
    Resistance Welding . 412
    Fire Prevention (29 CFR 1926.352) . 412
    Ventilation and Protection in Welding, Cutting, and
    Heating (29 CFR 1926.353) 412
    Hand and Power Tool Safety (29 CFR 1910 Subpart P) 413
    Abrasive Grinders (29 CFR 1910.243) 414
    Wheel Testing . 415
    The Ring Test 415Contents xxvii
    The Vibration Test 415
    Portable Circular Saws (29 CFR 1910.243) . 416
    Compressed Air Systems (29 CFR 1910.242) . 417
    Housekeeping (29 CFR 1926.25) 417
    Key Information to Remember on Construction Safety . 418
    References . 419
  24. Risk Management . 421
    Definitions . 421
    Risk Management Process 421
    Hazard Identification 422
    Hazard Assessment .423
    Probability .423
    Severity 424
    Risk Assessment Scenario .425
    Controls Development and Decision Making 426
    Types of Controls .427
    Criteria for Controls 427
    Decision Making 429
    Implement Controls 429
    Supervise and Evaluate 429
    Key Information to Remember on Risk Management 429
    References .430
  25. Hazardous Materials Management 431
    Hazardous Materials . 431
    Hazardous Waste . 431
    Basic Chemistry Review . 432
    Solid .432
    Liquid 432
    Gas 432
    Plasma 433
    Atomic Mass 433
    Atoms 433
    Definitions Related to Matter .433
    Periodic Table of the Elements .434
    Measurements of Concentrations 434
    Hazardous Materials/Hazardous Waste Properties .434
    Physical Hazards 434
    Engulfment .435
    Overpressurization .435
    Other Physical Safety Hazards 435
    Fires and Explosions .435
    Corrosion 436
    Thermal Decomposition .436xxviii Contents
    Water Reactive Material Hazards .436
    Health Hazards Associated with Hazardous Materials . 437
    Key Regulations Governing Hazardous Materials and Hazardous
    Wastes .437
    Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (1970) . 437
    Hazardous Waste Generators .438
    Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation,
    and Liability Act (CERCLA) (1980) .438
    Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act of 1986
    (SARA) .439
    Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) (1976) 440
    Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act
    (EPCRA) (1986) .440
    Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA)
    (1972) 440
    Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (1986) 441
    Hazard Communication Standard (29 CFR 1910.1200) .441
    Classification of Hazardous Materials 441
    Hazardous Waste Operations .445
    Planning and Organization .446
    Training .446
    Medical Program .446
    Site Characterization .447
    Air Monitoring 447
    Personal Protective Equipment .448
    Site Control .448
    Decontamination .448
    Key Information to Remember on Hazardous Materials Management . 448
    References .450
  26. Radiation Safety .453
    Ionizing Radiation .453
    Particle Radiation .453
    Alpha (α) Radiation .453
    Beta (β) Radiation 454
    Neutron (n) Radiation .454
    Electromagnetic Radiation 454
    Gamma (γ) Radiation 454
    X-Rays 455
    Radiation Basics .455
    Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation 456
    General 456
    Acute Somatic Effects 456
    Delayed Somatic Effects 456
    Critical Organs .456Contents xxix
    Description of Ionizing Radiation Units . 457
    Types of Radioactive Decay 457
    Calculating Radioactive Decay .458
    Radioactive Half-Life 459
    Radiation Control Methods 461
    Time .461
    Distance .462
    Source Strength for Gamma (γ) Radiation .463
    Shielding 463
    Personal Protective Equipment 465
    OSHA Exposure Standards 465
    Nonionizing Radiation 465
    Ultraviolet Radiation 466
    Visible Light Radiation .466
    Infrared (IR) Radiation . 467
    Microwave Radiation . 467
    Calculating Microwave Radiation (Near Field) 467
    Calculating Microwave Radiation (Far Field) .468
    Radio Frequency Radiation .469
    Lasers 469
    Laser Safety—Control Measures . 470
    Effective Irradiance . 470
    Speed of Light Equation . 471
    Key Information to Remember on Particulates and Gases 471
    References . 473
    Appendix A BCSP Supplied Equations . 475
    Mechanics 475
    Ergonomic (Revised NIOSH Lifting Equations) .477
    Heat Stress and Relative Humidity .477
    Concentrations of Vapors and Gases 478
    Ventilation . 479
    Engineering Economy . 481
    Reliability 483
    Noise 483
    Radiation .485
    Ionizing .485
    Nonionizing .486
    Hydrostatics and Hydraulics .487
    Statistics and Probability .488
    Appendix B OSHA Regional and Area Offices 491
    OSHA Regional Offices . 491
    Region 1 (ME, NH, MA, RI, CT, VT) 491
    Region 2 (NY, NJ, PR, VI) . 491xxx Contents
    Region 3 (DC, DE, MD, PA, VA, WV) 491
    Region 4 (KY, TN, NC, SC, GA, AL, MS, FL) 491
    Region 5 (IL, IN, MI, MN, OH, WI) 492
    Region 6 (AR, LA, NM, OK, TX) . 492
    Region 7 (IA, KS, MO, NE) 492
    Region 8 (CO, MT, ND, SD, UT, WY) . 492
    Region 9 (CA, NV, AZ) . 492
    Region 10 (AK, ID, OR, WA) . 493
    OSHA Area Offices 493
    Alabama 493
    Alaska .493
    American Samoa . 494
    Arizona . 494
    Tucson Office 494
    Arkansas . 495
    California 495
    Colorado . 496
    Connecticut 496
    Delaware . 497
    District of Columbia . 497
    Florida .497
    Georgia . 498
    Guam .498
    Hawaii .499
    Idaho .499
    Illinois .499
    Indiana 500
    Iowa .500
    Kansas .501
    Kentucky 501
    Louisiana 501
    Maine 501
    Maryland 502
    Massachusetts 502
    Michigan .503
    Minnesota .503
    Mississippi 503
    Missouri 503
    Montana 504
    Nebraska .504
    Nevada 504
    New Hampshire 505
    New Jersey .505
    New Mexico .506
    New York 506Contents xxxi
    North Carolina .507
    North Dakota .507
    Ohio .508
    Oklahoma .508
    Oregon 508
    Pennsylvania 509
    Puerto Rico . 510
    Rhode Island 510
    South Carolina . 510
    South Dakota . 510
    Tennessee 511
    Texas 511
    Utah .512
    Vermont 513
    Virginia . 513
    Virgin Islands . 513
    West Virginia 514
    Wisconsin . 514
    Wyoming 515
    Appendix C Conversions and Standards . 517
    Length 517
    Area 517
    Volume . 517
    Time .518
    Mass and Weight 518
    Energy 518
    Velocity 518
    Density . 519
    Pressure . 519
    Heat Capacity . 520
    Concentration . 520
    SI Conversion Factors 520
    Standards and Constants 521
    Physical Constants 521
    Radiation 521
    Density of Water 522
    Angles .522
    Light 522
    Magnetic Fields .522
    Energy .522
    Standards .522
    Appendix B
    OSHA Regional and Area Offices
    OSHA Regional Offices
    Region 1 (ME, NH, MA, RI, CT, VT)
    JFK Federal Building, Room E340
    Boston, MA 02203
    (617) 565-9860
    (617) 565-9827 FAX
    Region 2 (NY, NJ, PR, VI)
    201 Varick Street, Room 670
    New York, 10014
    (212) 337-2378
    (212) 337-2371 FAX
    Region 3 (DC, DE, MD, PA, VA, WV)
    U.S. Department of Labor/OSHA
    The Curtis Center-Suite 740 West
    170 S. Independence Mall West
    Philadelphia, PA 19106-3309
    (215) 861-4900
    (215) 861-4904 FAX
    Region 4 (KY, TN, NC, SC, GA, AL, MS, FL)
    61 Forsyth Street, SW, Room 6T50
    Atlanta, GA 30303
    (404) 562-2300
    (404) 562-2295 FAX492 Safety Professional’s Reference and Study Guide
    Region 5 (IL, IN, MI, MN, OH, WI)
    230 South Dearborn Street, Room 3244
    Chicago, IL 60604
    (312) 353-2220
    (312) 353-7774 FAX
    Region 6 (AR, LA, NM, OK, TX)
    525 Griffin Street, Suite 602
    Dallas, TX 75202
    (972) 850-4145
    (972) 850-4149 FAX
    (972) 850-4150 FSO FAX
    Region 7 (IA, KS, MO, NE)
    Two Pershing Square Building
    2300 Main Street, Suite 1010
    Kansas City, MO 64108-2416
    (816) 283-8745
    (816) 283-0545
    (816) 283-0547 FAX
    Region 8 (CO, MT, ND, SD, UT, WY)
    1999 Broadway, Suite 1690
    Denver, CO 80202
    720-264-6550
    720-264-6585 FAX
    Region 9 (CA, NV, AZ)
    90 7th Street, Suite 18100
    San Francisco, CA 94103
    (415) 625-2547 (Main Public – 8:00 AM–4:30 PM Pacific)
    (800) 475-4019 (For Technical Assistance)
    (800) 475-4020 (For Complaints – Accidents/Fatalities)
    Note: The 800 number for Complaints – Accidents/Fatalities is Regional only.OSHA Regional and Area Offices 493
    (800) 475-4022 (For Publication Requests)
    (415) 625-2534 FAX
    Region 10 (AK, ID, OR, WA)
    1111 Third Avenue, Suite 715
    Seattle, Washington DC 98101-3212
    (206) 553-5930
    (206) 553-6499 FAX
    OSHA Area Offices
    Alabama
    Birmingham Area Office
    Medical Forum Building
    950 22nd Street North, Room 1500
    Birmingham, AL 35203
    (205) 731-1534
    (205) 731-0504 FAX
    Mobile Area Office
    1141 Montlimar Drive, Suite 1006
    Mobile AL 36609
    (251) 441-6131
    (251) 441-6396 FAX
    Alaska
    Anchorage Area Office
    Scott Ketcham, Area Director
    U.S. Department of Labor – OSHA
    222 W. 8th Avenue, Room A14
    Anchorage, AK 99513
    Mailing Address:
    Anchorage Area Office
    Scott Ketcham, Area Director
    U.S. Department of Labor – OSHA494 Safety Professional’s Reference and Study Guide
    222 W. 7th Avenue, Box 22
    Anchorage, AK 99513
    (907) 271-5152
    (907) 271-4238 FAX
    American Samoa
    Region IX Federal Contact Numbers
    90 7th Street, Suite 18100
    San Francisco, CA 94103
    (415) 625-2547 (Main Public – 8:00 AM–4:30 PM Pacific)
    (800) 475-4019 (For Technical Assistance)
    (800) 475-4022 (For Publication Requests)
    (415) 625-2534 FAX
    (800) 475-4020 (For Complaints – Accidents/Fatalities)
    Note: The 800 number for Complaints – Accidents/Fatalities is Regional only.
    Arizona
    Industrial Commission of Arizona (ICA)
    800 W. Washington Street
    Phoenix, AZ 85007
    Laura L. McGrory, Director and State Designee
    Arizona Division of Occupational Safety and Health (ADOSH)
    Phoenix Office
    800 W. Washington Street, 2nd floor
    Phoenix, AZ 85007
    (602) 542-5795
    (602) 542-1614 FAX
    Darin Perkins, Director
    Bill Wright, Assistant Director
    Babak Emami, Consultation and Training Manager
    (602) 542-1769
    Tucson Office
    2675 E. Broadway Blvd. #239
    Tucson, AZ 85716
    (520) 628-5478OSHA Regional and Area Offices 495
    (520) 322-8008
    Mark Norton, Assistant Director
    Arkansas
    Little Rock Area Office
    10810 Executive Center Dr
    Danville Bldg #2; Ste 206
    Little Rock, AR 72211
    501-224-1841
    501-224-4431 FAX
    California
    Department of Industrial Relations
    Office of the Director
    455 Golden Gate Avenue
    San Francisco, CA 94102
    (415) 703-5050
    John Duncan, Director and State Designee
    Division of Occupational Safety and Health
    1515 Clay Street Suite 1901
    Oakland, CA 94612
    (510) 286-7000
    (510) 286-7037 FAX
    Len Welsh, Chief
    Chris Lee, Deputy Chief of Enforcement
    Cal/OSHA Consultation Services
    2424 Arden Way, Suite 485
    Sacramento, CA 95825
    (916) 263-5765
    1 (800) 963-9424 FAX
    Occupational Safety and Health Standards Board
    2520 Venture Oaks Way, Suite 350
    Sacramento, CA 95833
    (916) 274-5721
    (916) 274-5743 FAX
    Send mail to the OSHSB496 Safety Professional’s Reference and Study Guide
    Occupational Safety and Health Appeals Board
    2520 Venture Oaks Way, Suite 300
    Sacramento, CA 95833
    (916) 274-5751
    (916) 274-5785 FAX
    Send mail to Appeals Board
    Michael Wimberly, Executive Officer
    Division of Labor Standards Enforcement
    Discrimination Complaint Investigation Unit
    2031 Howe Avenue, Suite 100
    Sacramento, CA 95825
    (916) 263-1811
    (916) 916-5378 FAX
    Angela Bradstreet, Labor Commissioner
    Colorado
    Denver Area Office
    1391 Speer Boulevard, Suite 210
    Denver, Colorado 80204-2552
    (303) 844-5285
    (303) 844-6676 FAX
    The Denver Area Office also oversees the federal program for Utah.
    Contact: Herb Gibson, Area Director, Denver Area Office, (303)
    844-5285, Ext. 106.
    Englewood Area Office
    7935 East Prentice Avenue, Suite 209
    Englewood, CO 80111-2714
    (303) 843-4500
    (303) 843-4515 FAX
    Connecticut
    Bridgeport Area Office
    Clark Building
    1057 Broad Street, 4th Floor
    Bridgeport, CT 06604OSHA Regional and Area Offices 497
    (203) 579-5581
    (203) 579-5516 FAX
    Hartford Area Office
    Federal Building
    450 Main Street, Room 613
    Hartford, CT 06103
    (860) 240-3152
    (860) 240-3155 FAX
    Delaware
    Wilmington Area Office
    Mellon Bank Building, Suite 900
    919 Market Street
    Wilmington, DE 19801-3319
    (302) 573-6518
    (302) 573-6532 FAX
    District of Columbia
    Baltimore/Washington DC Area Office
    OSHA Area Office
    U.S. Department of Labor-OSHA
    1099 Winterson Road, Suite 140
    Linthicum, MD 21090
    (410) 865-2055/2056
    (410) 865-2068 FAX
    Florida
    Fort Lauderdale Area Office
    8040 Peters Road, Building H-100
    Fort Lauderdale, FL 33324
    (954) 424-0242
    (954) 424-3073 FAX
    Jacksonville Area Office
    Ribault Building, Suite 227498 Safety Professional’s Reference and Study Guide
    1851 Executive Center Drive
    Jacksonville, FL 32207
    (904) 232-2895
    (904) 232-1294 FAX
    Tampa Area Office
    5807 Breckenridge Parkway, Suite A
    Tampa, FL 33610-4249
    (813) 626-1177
    (813) 626-7015 FAX
    Georgia
    Atlanta East Area Office
    LaVista Perimeter Office Park
    2183 N. Lake Parkway, Building 7, Suite 110
    Tucker, GA 30084-4154
    (770) 493-6644
    (770) 493-7725 FAX
    Atlanta West Area Office
    2400 Herodian Way, Suite 250
    Smyrna, GA 30080-2968
    (770) 984-8700
    (770) 984-8855 FAX
    Savannah Area Office
    450 Mall Boulevard, Suite J
    Savannah, GA 31406
    (912) 652-4393
    (912) 652-4329 FAX
    Guam
    Region IX Federal Contact Numbers
    90 7th Street, Suite 18100
    San Francisco, CA 94103
    (415) 625-2547 (Main Public – 8:00 AM – 4:30 PM Pacific)
    (800) 475-4019 (For Technical Assistance)
    (800) 475-4022 (For Publication Requests)OSHA Regional and Area Offices 499
    (415) 625-2534 FAX
    (800) 475-4020 (For Complaints – Accidents/Fatalities)
    Note: The 800 number for Complaints – Accidents/Fatalities is Regional only.
    Hawaii
    Department of Labor and Industrial Relations
    830 Punchbowl Street, Suite 321
    Honolulu, HI 96813
    (808) 586-8844
    Darwin Ching, Director of Department of Labor & Industrial Relations
    James Hardway, Special Assistant to the Director
    HIOSH (Enforcement & Consultation)
    830 Punchbowl Street, Suite 425
    Honolulu, HI 96813
    Jamesner A. Dumlao, Operations Manager
    (808) 586-9078
    Consultation
    (808) 586-9100
    Accident Reporting Line
    (808) 586-9102
    Complaints
    (808) 586-9092
    (808) 586-9104 FAX
    Idaho
    Boise Area Office
    1150 North Curtis Road, Suite 201
    Boise, ID 83706
    (208) 321-2960
    (208) 321-2966 FAX
    Illinois
    Calumet City Area Office
    1600 167th Street, Suite 9500 Safety Professional’s Reference and Study Guide
    Calumet City, IL 60409
    (708) 891-3800
    (708) 862-9659 FAX
    Chicago North Area Office
    701 Lee Street – Suite 950
    Des Plaines, IL 60016
    (847) 803-4800
    (847) 390-8220 FAX
    Fairview Heights District Office
    11 Executive Drive, Suite 11
    Fairview Heights, IL 62208
    (618) 632-8612
    (618) 632-5712 FAX
    North Aurora Area Office
    365 Smoke Tree Plaza
    North Aurora, IL 60542
    (630) 896-8700
    (630) 892-2160 FAX
    Peoria Area Office
    2918 W. Willows Knolls Road
    Peoria, IL 61614
    (309) 589-7033
    (309) 589-7326 FAX
    Indiana
    Indianapolis Area Office
    46 East Ohio Street, Room 453
    Indianapolis, IN 46204
    (317) 226-7290
    (317) 226-7292 FAX
    Iowa
    U.S. Department of Labor
    Occupational Safety and Health AdministrationOSHA Regional and Area Offices 501
    210 Walnut ST RM 815
    Des Moines IA 50309-2015
    (515) 284-4794
    (515) 284-4058 FAX
    Kansas
    Wichita Area Office
    271 W. 3rd Street North, Room 400
    Wichita, KS 67202
    (316) 269-6644
    (316) 269-6646 Voice Mail
    (316) 269-6185 FAX
    Toll Free (Kansas Residents Only): 1-800-362-2896
    Kentucky
    Frankfort Area Office
    John C. Watts Federal Office Building
    330 West Broadway, Room 108
    Frankfort, KY 40601-1922
    (502) 227-7024
    (502) 227-2348 FAX
    Louisiana
    Baton Rouge Area Office
    9100 Bluebonnet Centre Blvd, Suite 201
    Baton Rouge, LA 70809
    (225) 298-5458
    (225) 298-5457 FAX
    Maine
    Bangor District Office
    382 Harlow Street
    Bangor, ME 04401
    (207) 941-8177
    (207) 941-8179 FAX502 Safety Professional’s Reference and Study Guide
    Augusta Area Office
    E.S. Muskie Federal Bldg
    40 Western Ave., Room G-26
    Augusta, ME 04330
    (207) 626-9160
    (207) 622-8213 FAX
    Maryland
    Baltimore/Washington D.C. Area Office
    OSHA Area Office
    U.S. Department of Labor-OSHA
    1099 Winterson Road, Suite 140
    Linthicum, MD 21090
    (410) 865-2055/2056
    (410) 865-2068 FAX
    Massachusetts
    North Boston Area Office
    Shattuck Office Center
    138 River Road, Suite 102
    Andover, MA 01810
    (978) 837-4460
    (978) 837-4455 FAX
    South Boston Area Office
    639 Granite Street, 4th Floor
    Braintree, MA 02184
    (617) 565-6924
    (617) 565-6923 FAX
    Springfield Area Office
    1441 Main Street, Room 550
    Springfield, MA 01103-1493
    (413) 785-0123
    (413) 785-0136 FAXOSHA Regional and Area Offices 503
    Michigan
    Lansing Area Office
    U.S. Department of Labor
    Occupational Safety and Health Administration
    315 West Allegan Street, Suite 207
    Lansing, MI 48933
    (517) 487-4996
    (517) 487-4997 FAX
    Minnesota
    Eau Claire Area Office
    1310 W. Clairemont Avenue
    Eau Claire, WI 54701
    (715) 832-9019
    (715) 832-1147 FAX
    Mississippi
    Jackson Area Office
    3780 I-55 North, Suite 210
    Jackson, MS 39211-6323
    (601) 965-4606
    (601) 965-4610 FAX
    Missouri
    Kansas City Area Office
    2300 Main Street, Suite 168
    Kansas City, MO 64108
    (816) 483-9531
    (816) 483-9724 FAX
    Toll Free (Missouri Residents Only): 1-800-892-2674
    St. Louis Area Office
    1222 Spruce Street, Room 9.104
    St. Louis, MO 63103
    (314) 425-4249504 Safety Professional’s Reference and Study Guide
    (314) 425-4255 Voice Mail
    (314) 425-4289 FAX
    Toll Free (Missouri Residents Only): 1-800-392-7743
    Montana
    Billings Area Office
    2900 4th Avenue North, Suite 303
    Billings, MT 59101
    (406) 247-7494
    (406) 247-7499 FAX
    Nebraska
    Omaha Area Office
    Overland-Wolf Building
    6910 Pacific Street, Room 100
    Omaha, NE 68106
    (402) 553-0171
    (402) 551-1288 FAX
    Toll Free (Nebraska Residents Only): 1-800-642-8963
    Nevada
    Division of Industrial Relations
    Department of Business and Industry
    400 W. King Street, Suite 400
    Carson City, NV 89703
    Donald Jayne, Director & State Designee
    Nevada OSHA
    1301 N. Green Valley Parkway, Suite 200
    Henderson, NV 89074
    (702) 486-9044
    (702) 990-0365 FAX
    Steve Coffield, Chief Administrative Officer
    Reno Office
    4600 Kietzke Lane, Suite F-153OSHA Regional and Area Offices 505
    Reno, NV 89502
    (775) 824-4600
    (775) 688-1378 FAX
    Nevada Safety Consultation and Training Section (SCATS)
    1301 N. Green Valley Parkway, Suite 200
    Henderson, NV 89074
    (702) 486-9140
    (702) 990-0362 FAX
    Jan Rosenberg, Chief Administrative Officer
    New Hampshire
    Concord Area Office
    J.C. Cleveland Federal Bldg
    53 Pleasant Street, Room 3901
    Concord, NH 03301
    (603) 225-1629
    (603) 225-1580 FAX
    New Jersey
    Avenel Area Office
    1030 St. Georges Avenue
    Plaza 35, Suite 205
    Avenel, NJ 07001
    (732) 750-3270
    (732) 750-4737 FAX
    Hasbrouck Heights Area Office
    500 Route 17 South
    2nd Floor
    Hasbrouck Heights, NJ 07604
    (201) 288-1700
    (201) 288-7315 FAX
    Marlton Area Office
    Marlton Executive Park, Building 2
    701 Route 73 South, Suite 120
    Marlton, NJ 08053506 Safety Professional’s Reference and Study Guide
    (856) 396-2594
    (856) 396-2593 FAX
    Parsippany Area Office
    299 Cherry Hill Road, Suite 103
    Parsippany, NJ 07054
    (973) 263-1003
    (973) 299-7161 FAX
    New Mexico
    Lubbock Area Office
    1205 Texas Avenue, Room 806
    Lubbock, TX 79401
    (806) 472-7681
    (806) 472-7686 FAX
    New York
    Albany Area Office
    401 New Karner Road, Suite 300
    Albany, NY 12205-3809
    (518) 464-4338
    (518) 464-4337 FAX
    Queens District Office of the Manhattan Area Office
    45-17 Marathon Parkway
    Little Neck, NY 11362
    (718) 279-9060
    (718) 279-9057 FAX
    Buffalo Area Office
    U.S. Department of Labor/OSHA
    130 S. Elmwood Avenue, Suite 500
    Buffalo, NY 14202-2465
    (716) 551-3053
    (716) 551-3126 FAX
    Long Island Area Office
    1400 Old Country Road, Suite 208
    Westbury, NY 11590OSHA Regional and Area Offices 507
    (516) 334-3344
    (516) 334-3326 FAX
    Manhattan Area Office
    201 Varick Street RM. 908
    New York, NY 10014
    (212) 620-3200
    (212) 620-4121 FAX
    Syracuse Area Office
    3300 Vickery Road
    North Syracuse, NY 13212
    (315) 451-0808
    (315) 451-1351 FAX
    Tarrytown Area Office
    660 White Plains Road, 4th Floor
    Tarrytown, NY 10591-5107
    (914) 524-7510
    (914) 524-7515 FAX
    North Carolina
    Raleigh Area Office
    4407 Bland Road
    Somerset Park Suite 210
    Raleigh, NC 27609
    (919) 790-8096
    (919) 790-8224 FAX
    North Dakota
    Bismarck Area Office
    Federal Office Building
    1640 East Capitol Avenue
    Bismarck, ND 58501
    (701) 250-4521
    (701) 250-4520 FAX508 Safety Professional’s Reference and Study Guide
    Ohio
    Cincinnati Area Office
    36 Triangle Park Drive
    Cincinnati, OH 45246
    (513) 841-4132
    (513) 841-4114 FAX
    Cleveland Area Office
    1240 East 9th Street, Room 899
    Cleveland, OH 44199
    (216) 615-4266
    (216) 615-4234 FAX
    Columbus Area Office
    200 North High Street, Room 620
    Columbus, OH 43215
    (614) 469-5582
    (614) 469-6791 FAX
    Toledo Area Office
    420 Madison Avenue, Suite 600
    Toledo, OH 43604
    (419) 259-7542
    (419) 259-6355 FAX
    Oklahoma
    Oklahoma City Area Office
    55 North Robinson – Suite 315
    Oklahoma City, OK 73102-9237
    (405) 278-9560
    (405) 278-9572 FAX
    Oregon
    Portland Area Office
    Federal Office Building
    1220 Southwest 3rd Avenue, Room 640
    Portland, OR 97204OSHA Regional and Area Offices 509
    (503) 326-2251
    (503) 326-3574 FAX
    Pennsylvania
    Allentown Area Office
    850 North 5th Street
    Allentown, PA 18102
    (610) 776-0592
    (610) 776-1913 FAX
    Erie Area Office
    1128 State Street, Suite 200
    Erie, PA 16501
    (814) 461-1492
    (814) 461-1498 FAX
    Harrisburg Area Office
    Progress Plaza
    49 North Progress Avenue
    Harrisburg, PA 17109-3596
    (717) 782-3902
    (717) 782-3746 FAX
    Philadelphia Area Office
    US Custom House, Room 242
    Second and Chestnut Street
    Philadelphia, PA 19106-2902
    (215) 597-4955
    (215) 597-1956 FAX
    Pittsburgh Area Office
    U.S. Department of Labor-OSHA
    William Moorhead Federal Building, Room 905
    1000 Liberty Avenue
    Pittsburgh, PA 15222
    (412) 395-4903
    (412) 395-6380 FAX
    Wilkes-Barre Area Office
    The Stegmaier Building, Suite 410510 Safety Professional’s Reference and Study Guide
    7 North Wilkes-Barre Boulevard
    Wilkes-Barre, PA 18702-5241
    (570) 826-6538
    (570) 821-4170 FAX
    Puerto Rico
    Puerto Rico Area Office
    Triple S Building
    1510 FD Roosevelt Avenue, Suite 5B
    Guaynabo, PR 00968
    (787) 277-1560
    (787) 277-1567 FAX
    Rhode Island
    Providence Area Office
    Federal Office Building
    380 Westminster Mall, Room 543
    Providence, RI 02903
    (401) 528-4669
    (401) 528-4663 FAX
    South Carolina
    Columbia Area Office
    Strom Thurmond Federal Building
    1835 Assembly Street, Room 1472
    Columbia, SC 29201-2453
    (803) 765-5904
    (803) 765-5591 FAX
    South Dakota
    Bruce Beelman, Area Director
    U.S. Department of Labor
    Occupational Safety and Health AdministrationOSHA Regional and Area Offices 511
    Bismarck Area Office
    1640 East Capitol Avenue
    Bismarck, ND 58501
    (701) 250-4521
    Tennessee
    Nashville Area Office
    51 Century Boulevard Suite 340,
    Nashville, TN 37214
    (615) 232-3803
    (615) 232-3827 FAX
    Texas
    Austin Area Office
    La Costa Green Bldg.,
    1033 La Posada Dr. Suite 375
    Austin, TX 78752-3832
    (512) 374-0271
    (512) 374-0086 FAX
    Corpus Christi Area Office
    Wilson Plaza
    606 N Carancahua, Ste. 700
    Corpus Christi, TX 78476
    (361) 888-3420
    (361) 888-3424 FAX
    Dallas Area Office
    8344 East RL Thornton Freeway, Suite 420
    Dallas, TX 75228
    (214) 320-2400
    (214) 320-2598 FAX
    El Paso District Office
    U.S. Dept. of Labor – OSHA
    4849 N. Mesa, Suite 200
    El Paso, TX 79912-5936512 Safety Professional’s Reference and Study Guide
    (915) 534-6251
    (915) 534-6259 FAX
    Fort Worth Area Office
    North Starr II, Suite 302
    8713 Airport Freeway
    Fort Worth, TX 76180-7610
    (817) 428-2470
    (817) 581-7723 FAX
    Houston North Area Office
    507 North Sam Houston Parkway East, Suite 400
    Houston, TX 77060
    (281) 591-2438
    (281) 999-7457 FAX
    Houston South Area Office
    17625 El Camino Real, Suite 400
    Houston, TX 77058
    (281) 286-0583
    (281) 286-6352 FAX
    Toll Free: (800) 692-4202
    Lubbock Area Office
    1205 Texas Avenue, Room 806
    Lubbock, TX 79401
    (806) 472-7681 (7685)
    (806) 472-7686 FAX
    San Antonio District Office
    Washington Square Blvd, Suite 203
    800 Dolorosa Street
    San Antonio, TX 78207-4559
    (210) 472-5040
    (210) 472-5045 FAX
    Utah
    Herb Gibson, Area Director
    U.S. Department of Labor
    Occupational Safety and Health AdministrationOSHA Regional and Area Offices 513
    1391 Speer Blvd, Suite 210
    Denver, CO 80204-2552
    (303) 844-5285, Ext. 106
    (303) 844-6676 FAX
    Vermont
    Vermont Department of Labor
    5 Green Mountain Drive
    P O Box 488
    Montpelier, VT 05601-0488
    (802) 828-4000
    (802) 888-4022 FAX
    Patricia Moulton Powden, Commissioner
    (802) 828-4301
    Workers’ Compensation and Safety Division
    J. Stephen Monahan, Director
    (802) 828-2138
    VOSHA
    Robert McLeod, Manager
    (802) 828-5084
    Virginia
    Norfolk Area Office
    Federal Office Building, Room 614
    200 Granby Street
    Norfolk, VA 23510-1811
    (757) 441-3820
    (No direct lines to staff)
    (757) 441-3594 FAX
    Virgin Islands
    Virgin Islands Department of Labor
    Albert Bryan, Jr., Commissioner
    (340) 773-1994
    Division of Occupational Safety and Health (VIDOSH)514 Safety Professional’s Reference and Study Guide
    3012 Golden Rock
    Christiansted, St. Croix VI 00890
    (340) 772-1315
    (340) 772-4323 FAX
    Jannette Barbosa, Acting Director
    (340) 772-1315
    Washington DC
    Bellevue Area Office
    505 106th Avenue NE, Suite 302
    Bellevue, Washington DC 98004
    (425) 450-5480
    Facsimile Number: (425) 450-5483
    West Virginia
    Charleston Area Office
    405 Capitol Street, Suite 407
    Charleston, WV 25301-1727
    (304) 347-5937
    (No direct lines to staff)
    (304) 347-5275 FAX
    Wisconsin
    Appleton Area Office
    1648 Tri Park Way
    Appleton, WI 54914
    (920) 734-4521
    (920) 734-2661 FAX
    Eau Claire Area Office
    1310 W. Clairemont Avenue
    Eau Claire, WI 54701
    (715) 832-9019
    (715) 832-1147 FAX
    Madison Area Office
    4802 E. BroadwayOSHA Regional and Area Offices 515
    Madison, WI 53716
    (608) 441-5388
    (608) 441-5400 FAX
    Milwaukee Area Office
    310 West Wisconsin Avenue, Room 1180
    Milwaukee, WI 53203
    (414) 297-3315
    (414) 297-4299 FAX
    Wyoming
    Herb Gibson, Area Director
    U.S. Department of Labor
    Occupational Safety and Health Administration
    1391 Speer Blvd, Suite 210
    Denver, CO 80204-2552
    (303) 844-5285, Ext. 106

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