Safety at Work Seventh Edition

Safety at Work Seventh Edition
اسم المؤلف
John Ridley and John Channing
التاريخ
13 ديسمبر 2023
المشاهدات
179
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
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Safety at Work Seventh Edition
Edited by
John Ridley and John Channing
Contents
Foreword xvii
Preface to seventh edition xix
Preface to first edition xxi
List of contributors xxiii
Part 1 Law 1
1.1 Explaining the law Brenda Watts 3
1.1.1 Introduction 3
1.1.2 The incident 3
1.1.3 Some possible actions arising from the incident 3
1.1.4 Legal issues of the incident 4
1.1.5 Criminal and civil law 4
1.1.6 Branches of law 5
1.1.7 Law and fact 7
1.1.8 The courts 7
1.1.9 Judicial precedent 17
1.1.10 Court procedure 18
1.1.11 Identity of court personnel 23
1.1.12 Employment Tribunals 25
1.1.13 European community courts (ECJ) 26
1.1.14 Human Rights Courts 28
1.1.15 Sources of English Law 29
1.1.16 Legislation 30
1.1.17 Safety legislation before the Health and Safety at
Work etc. Act 36
1.1.18 Safety legislation today 37
1.1.19 Principles developed by the courts 40vi Contents
1.2 Principal health and safety Acts S. Simpson 48
1.2.1 The Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974 48
1.2.2 The Factories Act 1961 58
1.2.3 Fire precautions 58
1.2.4 The Mines and Quarries Acts 1954–71 58
1.2.5 The Environmental Protection Act 1990 58
1.2.6 The road traffic Acts 1972–91 59
1.2.7 The Public Health Act 1936 59
1.2.8 Petroleum (Consolidation) Act 1928 60
1.2.9 Activity Centres (Young Persons Safety) Act 1995 60
1.2.10 Crown premises 60
1.2.11 Subordinate legislation 61
1.3 Influences on health and safety J. R. Ridley 64
1.3.1 Introduction 64
1.3.2 The Robens Report 64
1.3.3 Delegation of law-making powers 65
1.3.4 Legislative framework for health and safety 66
1.3.5 Self-regulation 67
1.3.6 Goal-setting legislation 68
1.3.7 European Union 69
1.3.8 European standards 72
1.3.9 Our social partners 74
1.3.10 Social expectations 74
1.3.11 Public expectations 75
1.3.12 Political influences 75
1.3.13 Roles in health and safety 76
1.3.14 Safety culture 77
1.3.15 Quality culture 77
1.3.16 No fault liability 78
1.3.17 Risk assessments 78
1.3.18 Risk aversion 79
1.3.19 Conclusion 80
1.4 Law of contract R. W. Hodgin 82
1.4.1 Contracts 82
1.4.2 Contracts of employment 85
1.4.3 Employment legislation 86
1.4.4 Law of sale 88
1.4.5 Specialised legislation affecting occupational
safety advisers 90
1.5 Employment law R. D. Miskin, updated by Sabahhit Ali 94
1.5.1 Introduction 94
1.5.2 Employment law 94
1.5.3 Discrimination 96
1.5.4 Disciplinary procedures 104
1.5.5 Dismissal 107
1.5.6 Summary 116Contents vii
1.6 Consumer protection R. G. Lawson 118
1.6.1 Fair conditions of contract 118
1.6.2 A fair quality of goods and services 126
1.6.3 Product safety 128
1.6.4 Product liability 134
1.6.5 Misleading advertising 136
1.6.6 Exclusion clauses 138
1.6.7 Distance selling 141
1.6.8 Stop now orders 141
1.6.9 Consumer redress 142
1.7 Insurance cover and compensation A. West 145
1.7.1 Workmen’s compensation and the State
insurance scheme 145
1.7.2 Employer’s liability insurance 148
1.7.3 Public Liability insurance 154
1.7.4 Investigation, negotiation and the quantum of
damage 155
1.7.5 General 159
1.8 Civil liability E. J. Skellett, updated by David Greenhalgh 160
1.8.1 Introduction 160
1.8.2 The common law and its development 160
1.8.3 The law of tort 161
1.8.4 Occupier’s Liability Acts 1957 and 1984 165
1.8.5 Supply of goods 166
1.8.6 Employer’s liability 167
1.8.7 Employer’s Liability (Defective Equipment) Act 1969 170
1.8.8 Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974 170
1.8.9 Defences to a civil liability claim 170
1.8.10 Volenti non fit injuria 171
1.8.11 Limitation 172
1.8.12 Assessment of damages 172
1.8.13 Fatal accidents 174
1.8.14 ‘No fault’ liability system 175
Part 2 The management of risk 177
2.1 An introduction to risk management J. E. Channing 179
2.1.1 Introduction 179
2.1.2 The components of risk 181
2.1.3 Strategies to control risk 184
2.1.4 Risk management in the 21st century 188
2.2 Principles of the management of risk L. Bamber 191
2.2.1 Principles of action necessary to prevent accidents 191
2.2.2 Definitions of hazard, risk and danger 192
2.2.3 Risk management 194
2.2.4 Loss control 197
2.2.5 Degrees of hazard 202viii Contents
2.2.6 Accident causation models 202
2.2.7 Accident prevention: legal, humanitarian and
economic reasons for action 204
2.3 Risk management: organisation and administration
for safety J. E. Channing 209
2.3.1 Introduction 209
2.3.2 Organisation structure models 210
2.3.3 Roles and responsibilities 213
2.3.4 Work groups 216
2.3.5 Organisational theory 218
2.3.6 Organisational techniques 220
2.3.7 Culture 224
2.3.8 Potential problems 225
2.3.9 The role of specialists in the organisation 228
2.3.10 Conclusion 229
2.4 Risk management: techniques and practices L. Bamber 230
2.4.1 Risk identification, assessment and control 230
2.4.2 Job safety analysis 236
2.4.3 System safety 241
2.4.4 Systems theory and design 243
2.4.5 System safety engineering 246
2.4.6 Fault tree analysis 247
2.4.7 Probabilistic risk assessments 248
2.4.8 Health and safety in design and planning 249
2.4.9 Quality, Environment, Safety and Health
Management Systems (QUENSH) 251
2.4.10 Use of data on accidents 253
2.4.11 Maintenance systems and planned maintenance 254
2.4.12 Damage control 255
2.4.13 Cost-effectiveness of risk management 257
2.4.14 Performance evaluation and appraisal 260
2.4.15 Loss control profiling 263
2.5 The collection and use of accident and incident data
Dr A. J. Boyle 267
2.5.1 Introduction 267
2.5.2 Types of accident and incident data 267
2.5.3 Collection of accident and incident data 271
2.5.4 Legal requirements to notify accidents and
incidents 275
2.5.5 The use of accident and incident data 275
2.5.6 Epidemiological analysis 283
2.5.7 Accident investigation 285
2.5.8 Accident and incident data and risk assessment data 296
2.5.9 The use of computers 297
Appendix. UK requirements for reporting accidents and
incidents 302Contents ix
2.6 Practical safety management: systems and techniques
J. E. Channing 307
2.6.1 Introduction 307
2.6.2 Legal obligations 308
2.6.3 Generic safety management 309
2.6.4 Implementing a regulation within a safety
management system 313
2.6.5 Safety management and housekeeping 319
2.6.6 Assessment techniques 321
2.6.7 Proprietary audit systems 326
2.6.8 Safety systems and incidents 327
2.6.9 Learning organisations 328
2.6.10 Safety management systems in small organisations 330
2.6.11 Limitations of safety systems 331
2.6.12 Conclusion 331
2.7 The individual and safety Andrew Hale 333
2.7.1 Introduction: What does this chapter try to do? 333
2.7.2 Individuals as controllers of danger 335
2.7.3 Behavioural science and the human information
processor 340
2.7.4 Individual behaviour in the face of danger 355
2.7.5 Change 377
2.7.6 Conclusion 389
2.8 Risk management and behaviour modification
J. E. Channing 393
2.8.1 Introduction 393
2.8.2 Behaviour modification for employees 395
2.8.3 Behaviour modification for managers and
supervisors 406
2.8.4 Applying behaviour concepts to incident
investigation 411
2.8.5 Behaviour concepts and the safety management
system 412
2.8.6 Risk, behaviour, leadership and commitment 415
2.8.7 Behaviour modification processes: the hazards 416
2.8.8 Behaviour and safety culture 417
2.8.9 Conclusion 418
Part 3 Occupational health and hygiene 423
3.1 The structure and functions of the human body
Dr T. Coates 425
3.1.1 Introduction 425
3.1.2 History 425
3.1.3 The functions of an occupational health department 427
3.1.4 Overseas developments 428
3.1.5 Risks to health at work 429
3.1.6 Occupational hygiene 429x Contents
3.1.7 First aid at work 431
3.1.8 Basic human anatomy and physiology 432
3.1.9 Cancer and other problems of cell growth 447
3.1.10 The body’s defence mechanisms 448
3.1.11 Factors determining the effect of substances in
the body 449
3.1.12 The assessment of risk to health 449
3.2 Occupational diseases Dr A. R. L. Clark 451
3.2.1 Introduction 451
3.2.2 Toxicology 451
3.2.3 Diseases of the skin 455
3.2.4 Diseases of the respiratory system 458
3.2.5 Diseases from metals 463
3.2.6 Pesticides 468
3.2.7 Solvents 468
3.2.8 Gassing 473
3.2.9 Oxygen deficiency 475
3.2.10 Occupational cancer 476
3.2.11 Physical agents 478
3.2.12 Ionising radiations 479
3.2.13 Noise-induced hearing loss 482
3.2.14 Working in heat 485
3.2.15 Work related upper limb disorders (WRULD) 485
3.2.16 Diseases due to micro-organisms 486
3.2.17 Psycho-social disorders 489
3.2.18 Target organs 490
3.3 Occupational hygiene Dr C. Hartley 494
3.3.1 Recognition 494
3.3.2 Evaluation 494
3.3.3 Control measures 514
3.3.4 Summary 522
3.4 Radiation Dr A. D. Wrixon and updated by
Peter Shaw and Dr M. Maslanyj 524
3.4.1 Introduction 524
3.4.2 Structure of matter 524
3.4.3 Radioactivity 525
3.4.4 Ionising radiation 525
3.4.5 Biological effects of ionising radiation 526
3.4.6 Quantities and units 527
3.4.7 Basic principles of radiological protection 528
3.4.8 Legal requirements 532
3.4.9 Health Protection Agency 536
3.4.10 Incidents and emergencies 536
3.4.11 Non-ionising radiation 537
3.5 Noise and vibration R. W. Smith and updated by Terry Bramer 542
3.5.1 What is sound? 542
3.5.2 Other terms commonly found in acoustics 545Contents xi
3.5.3 Transmission of sound 548
3.5.4 The sound level meter 549
3.5.5 The ear 550
3.5.6 The equivalent noise level 552
3.5.7 Community noise levels 553
3.5.8 Work area noise levels 554
3.5.9 Noise control techniques 555
3.5.10 Vibration 564
3.5.11 Summary 565
3.6 Workplace pollution, heat and ventilation F. S. Gill 567
3.6.1 Methods of assessment of workplace air
pollution 568
3.6.2 Measurement of the thermal environment 571
3.6.3 Standards for workplace environments 572
3.6.4 Ventilation control of a workplace environment 574
3.6.5 Assessment of performance of ventilation systems 576
3.7 Lighting E. G. Hooper and updated by Jonathan David 581
3.7.1 Introduction 581
3.7.2 The eye 581
3.7.3 Eye conditions 582
3.7.4 Definitions 583
3.7.5 Types of lighting 585
3.7.6 Illuminances 586
3.7.7 Factors affecting the quality of lighting 588
3.7.8 Emergency lighting 591
3.7.9 Recycling and dangerous substances 592
3.7.10 Use of light measuring instruments 592
3.8 Applied ergonomics J. R. Ridley 594
3.8.1 Introduction 594
3.8.2 Physiology 596
3.8.3 Working environment 609
3.8.4 Manual handling 615
3.8.5 Repetitive actions 616
3.8.6 Plant design 617
3.8.7 Controls and indicators 617
3.8.8 Noise and vibrations 620
3.8.9 Stress 621
3.8.10 Display screen equipment (DSE) 622
3.8.11 Signs and signals 623
3.8.12 The written word 624
3.8.13 Coda 624
Part 4 Workplace safety 627
4.1 Science in engineering safety J. R. Ridley 629
4.1.1 Introduction 629
4.1.2 Structure of matter 629xii Contents
4.1.3 Properties of chemicals 631
4.1.4 Physical properties 635
4.1.5 Energy and work 641
4.1.6 Mechanics 642
4.1.7 Strength of materials 643
4.1.8 Modes of failure 645
4.1.9 Testing 645
4.1.10 Hydraulics 646
4.1.11 Summary 647
4.2 Fire precautions Ray Chalklen 649
4.2.1 Introduction 649
4.2.2 Basic fire technology 649
4.2.3 Fire hazards and their control 652
4.2.4 Fire alarms and detectors 656
4.2.5 Classification of fires 663
4.2.6 Portable fire-fighting equipment 665
4.2.7 Fixed fire-fighting equipment 672
4.2.8 Fire safety signs 680
4.2.9 Means of escape in case of fire 680
4.2.10 Fire engineering 684
4.2.11 Fire protection measures 685
4.2.12 Legal requirements 689
4.2.13 Fire risk assessment 694
4.2.14 Access and facilities for the fire brigade 697
4.2.15 Fire terminology 698
4.3 Safe use of machinery J. R. Ridley 704
4.3.1 Introduction 704
4.3.2 Strategy for selecting safeguards 711
4.3.3 Safeguarding techniques 714
4.3.4 Powered trucks 725
4.3.5 Lifting equipment 728
4.3.6 Pressure systems 736
4.3.7 Coda 740
4.4 Electricity E. G. Hooper and revised by Chris Buck 743
4.4.1 Alternating and direct currents 743
4.4.2 Electricity supply 744
4.4.3 Statutory requirements 746
4.4.4 Voltage levels 747
4.4.5 Electrical accidents 748
4.4.6 The basic electrical circuit 748
4.4.7 Dangers from electricity 749
4.4.8 Protective means 752
4.4.9 Competence 755
4.4.10 Permits-to-work 756
4.4.11 Static electricity 758
4.4.12 Use of electricity in adverse or hazardous
environments 759Contents xiii
4.4.13 Electrical equipment in flammable atmospheres 760
4.4.14 Portable tools 762
4.4.15 Residual current devices 763
4.4.16 Maintenance 764
4.4.17 Conclusion 764
4.5 Statutory examination of plant and equipment
J. McMullen and updated by Cameron Sinclair 767
4.5.1 Introduction 767
4.5.2 Legislation 768
4.5.3 Pressure systems 768
4.5.4 Lifting equipment 774
4.5.5 Power presses and press brakes 779
4.5.6 Local exhaust ventilation 781
4.5.7 Electrical equipment and installations 783
4.5.8 Other considerations 785
4.5.9 Conclusion 787
4.6 Safety on construction sites R. Hudson 792
4.6.1 Construction accidents 792
4.6.2 Safe working in the industry 793
4.6.3 Construction site hazards 797
4.6.4 Access 808
4.6.5 Lifting and Equipment Operations 810
4.6.6 Welfare facilities 815
4.6.7 Other relevant legislation 816
4.7 Managing chemicals safely John Adamson 821
4.7.1 Introduction 821
4.7.2 Chemical data 821
4.7.3 Source of information 822
4.7.4 Risk assessments 823
4.7.5 Minimising the risk 827
4.7.6 Legislative requirements 831
4.7.7 Storage of substances 837
4.7.8 Transport 841
4.7.9 Plant and process design 843
4.7.10 Further safety studies 851
4.7.11 Plant modifications 852
4.7.12 Safe systems of work 852
4.7.13 Laboratories 854
4.7.14 Emergency procedures 857
4.7.15 REACH 857
4.7.16 Conclusions 858
Part 5 The environment 861
5.1 The environment: issues, concepts and strategies
J. E. Channing 863
5.1.1 Introduction 863
5.1.2 Environmental predictions 864xiv Contents
5.1.3 Sustainable development 865
5.1.4 Environmental hazards 867
5.1.5 Evaluating environmental risks 870
5.1.6 Environmental control strategies 874
5.1.7 Conclusion 876
5.2 Environmental management systems J. E. Channing 878
5.2.1 Introduction 878
5.2.2 Establishing an environmental management system 880
5.2.3 Additional EMAS requirements 889
5.2.4 Conclusions 889
5.3 Waste management Samantha Moss 891
5.3.1 Introduction 891
5.3.2 Waste authorities 892
5.3.3 National waste strategies 893
5.3.4 Defining waste 895
5.3.5 The waste hierarchy 897
5.3.6 Waste management in practice 897
5.3.7 Waste minimisation 913
5.3.8 Other waste management legislation 922
5.3.9 The cost of failure to manage waste effectively 924
5.3.10 Conclusion 925
5.4 Chemicals and the environment J. L. Adamson 928
5.4.1 Introduction 928
5.4.2 Chemical data 928
5.4.3 Risk reduction 929
5.4.4 The Environmental Protection Act 1990 (EPA) 929
5.4.5 Minimising environmental harm 933
5.4.6 Air pollution: control measures and
abatement techniques 936
5.4.7 Monitoring atmospheric pollution 938
5.4.8 Control of water pollution 941
5.4.9 Groundwater pollution 942
5.4.10 Waste disposal and duty of care 944
5.4.11 Reuse or recycling of industrial waste 952
5.4.12 Environmental management systems 953
5.4.13 Conclusion 955
5.5 The environment at large G. N. Batts 956
5.5.1 Introduction 956
5.5.2 Environmental issues 957
5.5.3 The environment and the media 963
5.5.4 The global impact of environmental issues 963
5.5.5 Ethical investing and green procurement 964
5.5.6 Increasing environmental legislation, controls and
public reporting 966
5.5.7 End-of-pipe control 9665.5.8 Polluter pays 967
5.5.9 Producer or shared responsibility 968
5.5.10 Environmental management system (EMS) and
sustainable development 969
5.5.11 Corporate social responsibility 971
Appendix 1 The Institution of Occupational Safety and Health 977
Appendix 2 Reading for the NEBOSH level 6 Diploma
examination 978
Appendix 3 List of abbreviations 980
Appendix 4 Organisations providing safety information 986
Appendix 5 List of Statutes, Regulations and Orders 988
Appendix 6 List of Cases 994
Index 999
Contents xv k999
5S’s approach, 319–21
16 personality factors, 347
Abatement equipment, 936–8
Abatement Notices, 932–3
ABC model, 396–400
ABS see Anti-locking braking systems
Absorption, 527–8, 557–62, 937
Abstraction of water, 924
AC see Alternating current
ACAS disciplinary procedure Code of
Practice, 105
Acceptable risk values, 183
Access
construction sites, 808–11
cranes, 734
fire brigade, 697–8
Accident and incident data, 267–306
accident investigations, 285–95
collection, 271–5, 286–93
computer usage, 297–302
definitions, 268, 271, 281
epidemiological analysis, 283–5
legal requirements, 275, 302–6
qualitative differences, 268–9
quantitative differences, 269–71
reporting, 271–4, 293–4, 302–6
risk assessment data, 296–7
trend analysis, 275–83
types, 267–71
usage, 275–83
Accident investigations, 285–95
advanced techniques, 295
information collection, 286–93
minor incidents, 294–5
near misses, 294–5
what happened, 286–90
why things happened, 290–3
writing reports, 293–4
Accident prevention, 205–7
definitions, 191–2
economic reasons, 205–7, 260–1, 263
humanitarian reasons, 205–6, 260–1,
263
legal reasons, 205, 260–1, 263
Accident Prevention Advisory Unit
(APAU), 260
Accident proneness theory, 333
Accident triangles, 270–1
Accidents
age distribution, 376
audit performance correlations, 325
causation models, 202–4
cause perception, 333, 334
construction sites, 792, 807–8
control systems, 254
costing, 257–9, 261–3
data, 267–306
definitions, 191–2
as deviation process, 335, 336
distribution by age/experience, 376
electrical, 748, 754–5
experience distribution, 376
individual susceptibility, 375–7
performance evaluation, 261–3
post-war rates, 419
prevention, 191–2, 204–7, 260–1, 263
radioactive substances, 536–7
IndexAccidents (continued)
reasons, 393
statistics, 232–3
systems theory, 245–6
see also Injuries
Accommodation
eye, 582
stairways, 698
statements, 121–2
Accountability, accident costs, 261–2
the Accused, 22
ACGIH see American Conference of
Governmental Industrial
Hygienists
Acid rain/precipitation, 958–9
Acids, 633–4
ACoP see Approved Codes of Practice
ACoPs (Approval to Codes of
Practice), 67
Acoustic temperature measurement,
939
Acoustics see also Noise; Sound
Acquired immune deficiency
syndrome (AIDS), 487
Action
control of danger, 371–2
information processing, 351
plans, 250–1
responsibility, 369–71
Active protection measures, fire, 685–7
Activity Centres, young persons, 60
Acts of God, 333, 334
Acts of Parliament, 6, 30–1, 48–63, 66
see also individual Acts; Tables of
Statutes
Acute hazards, 181, 452, 453
Administration, 52, 174, 186, 209–29
ADS see Approved dosimetry services
Advertising, 136–8
Advice, 70, 72, 228–9, 428, 508
Advocate General, 27
Age discrimination, 101
Age distribution, 376
AIDS (acquired immune deficiency
syndrome), 487
Air, 507–10, 576, 635
see also Atmospheric pollution;
Pollution; Ventilation
Air conditioning, 567
Air supply, 614–15
Airborne contamination
assessment, 568–71
dusts and fibres, 501–2, 568–70
exposure limits, 507–10, 572–4
gases and vapours, 495–501, 571
monitoring, 502–4
radioactive materials, 531
ventilation, 515–16
Airflow, 576–7, 615
Alarm systems see Fire alarms
Alpha radiation, 525
Alternating current (AC), 743, 744, 750
Amber List wastes, 913
American Conference of
Governmental Industrial
Hygienists (ACGIH), 507,
512–13, 572
American Industrial Hygiene
Association, 494
Ammonia, 475
Amplitude, sound waves, 542–4
Analogue control displays, 617
Anatomy, 432–47
Ancillary materials, 917
Anemometers, 576, 578, 939
Angiosarcoma, 478
Antecedents, behaviours and
consequences (ABC) model,
396–400
Anthrax, 488–9
Anthropology, 595
Anti-locking braking systems (ABS),
382
APAU (Accident Prevention Advisory
Unit), 260
Appellate Committee, 24
Appellate jurisdiction, 7
Appointed person, first aid, 431
Approval to Codes of Practice
(ACoPs), 67
Approved bodies, 708
Approved Codes of Practice (ACoP),
53–4, 708–9, 770, 772, 782–4
Approved dosimetry services (ADSs),
534
Approved Supply List, 822, 911–12
Aquifers, 943
‘Arc eye’, 803
‘Arising out of and in the course of his
employment’ criteria, 149
Arms, 491, 601–4
Arsenic, 467
Arsine, 467
Arson, 653
Asbestos, 501–2, 569, 782, 807
Asbestosis, 461
Aspects and impacts analysis, 875,
881–4
Asphyxia, 473–5
Aspirating smoke detectors, 659
1000 IndexAssessment
air pollution, 568–71
of damages, 172–4
specialists, 228–9
systems, 312–15, 321–5
ventilation performance, 576–9
see also Risk assessment
Assumptions, interviewing, 287
Asthma, 462–3
Astigmatism, 582
ATEX directives, 761
Atmospheric concentration
monitoring, 830–1
Atmospheric emissions, 50
Atmospheric pollution, 938–41, 950,
960
see also Pollution…
Atomic absorption spectrometry, 501
Atoms, 524, 629–31
Attachment of Earnings Orders, 96
Attitudes, 64–81, 346–8, 394
Attorney General, 24
Audible signal usage, 623–4
Audiograms, 484, 551–2
Audit systems, 187, 232, 323, 325–7,
414
Duty of Care Regulations, 947–52
Environmental Management
Systems, 886–8
see also Eco-management and Audit
Scheme
Authorised Transport Purposes,
909–10
Authority, 214–15
Auto-ignition temperature, 698
Automatic fire systems, 656–60, 686
Automatic guards, 722
Automatic safe load indicator, 813
Backdraught, 699
Bag filters, 937
Bagassosis, 463
Band width, 546–7
Bare conductors, 733
Barrier creams, 521–2
BASEEFA see British Approval Service
for Electrical Equipment in
Flammable Atmospheres
Bases, chemicals, 633–4
BAT see Best available techniques
BATNEEC see Best available
techniques not entailing
excessive cost
‘Battering the sides’, 797
Becquerel (Bq), 527–8
Before HSWA, 36–7
Behaviour, 343, 347–8, 351–5, 408–10
reinforcers, 396
wearing eye protection, 394
see also ABC model
Behaviour modification process,
393–421
commitment, 415–16
employees, 395–406
generic model, 405–6, 407
the hazards, 416
incident investigation, 411–12
involvement, 404–5
leadership, 415–16
lone workers, 403–4
managers, 406–11
observation, 402–3
performance management, 395–401
refreshing the process, 405
safety culture, 417–18
safety management, 412–15
structural feedback approach, 401–2
supervisors, 406–11
workplace intervention, 400
Behavioural science, 340–55
definition, 340–1
models, 342–3, 412
relevance to health and safety, 341–2
see also Behaviour
Beliefs, 347
‘Benching the sides’, 797
Benchmarking, 329–30
the Bends, 438
Benefits recoverable, 157, 177
Benzene, 472
Bereavement damages, 174
Best available techniques (BAT), 931,
935
Best available techniques not entailing
excessive cost (BATNEEC), 871,
930, 935, 967
Best Practicable Environmental Option
(BPEO), 875, 897, 933–5
Beta particles, 525–6, 939–40
Bio-technology, 937–8
Biological agents, 486–9, 495, 512
Biological danger, 202
Biological hazards, 429, 526–7
Biological waste treatment, 945
Bird, F.E., 198, 203, 242, 254, 263–4, 270
Bladder, 492
Blame cultures, 273
BLEVE (boiling liquid expanding
vapour explosion), 639
Blindness, 582
Index 1001Blood, 135, 438–40, 448, 491, 597–8
Boards, scaffolding, 808–9
Boilers see Pressure systems
Boiling liquid expanding vapour
explosion (BLEVE), 639
Bone, 492
Boredom factors, 375
Bowtie model, 337
BPEO see Best Practicable
Environmental Option
Bq see Becquerel
Brain, 441–2, 491
Brakes, 779–81
Breach of duty of care, 164
Breach of statutory duty, 41–2, 43, 151
Breathing see Respiratory system
Breathing apparatus, 475, 518–21
Bremsstrahlung, 525–6
Brent-Spar oilrig, 964
Brightness, illumination, 583
British Approval Service for Electrical
Equipment in Flammable
Atmospheres (BASEEFA), 760
British Institute of Occupational
Hygienists, 430
British Occupational Hygiene Society,
430, 494
British Standards Institution (BSI), 252,
746, 752–3, 760, 765
Broadcast advertising, 137–8
Bronchial asthma, 462–3
BS EN standards, 66, 252, 310, 760
BS Standards, 66, 799–801, 808–11
BSI see British Standards Institution
Budgetary systems, 262
Buildings
escaping fires, 682
fire engineering, 684
fire loading, 685
Regulations, 694, 784
Scotland, 784
sprinkler systems, 674–5
stability, fire, 688–9
Burden of proof, 22
Bureaucracy, 225–6
Buried cables see Underground cables
Burns, electrical, 751–2
Byssinosis, 463
CAA see Constant Attendance
Allowance
Cables, 755, 799–801, 802
Cadmium, 467–8, 804, 869
Caissons, 798
Calibration, light meters, 592–3
Cam-operated limit switch interlocks,
716–23
Cancers, 447–8, 456–7, 461–2, 476–8,
527, 528
see also Carcinogens
Candela, 583
Capability, 108
Capacitance, 749
Captive key interlocks, 719, 721
Car use, 876
Carbon, 631
Carbon dioxide, 474, 669, 679, 864, 959
Carbon disulphide, 473
Carbon monoxide, 474, 661–2, 804
Carbon tetrachloride, 471–2
Carcinogens, 452–3, 456–7, 477–8, 511
see also Cancers
Cardiovascular system, 491
Carpal tunnel syndrome, 485
Carriage see Transport
Carrying loads, 598–602, 616
Cartridge fuses, 754
Case law, 40–1
see also Common law
Cattell’s 16 personality factors, 347
Causal network knowledge, 364–5
Causation, 164–5, 333, 334
‘Caused during the period of
insurance’ phrase, 151–2
Cavity barriers, 699
CDM coordinators, 793, 796
CDM Regulations, 793, 795–6, 815
CE mark, 706, 708, 737
CEHR see Commission for Equality
and Human Rights
Ceilings, 681
Cells, human body, 432–3, 447–8, 526–7
CENELEC see Committee for
Electrotechnical Standardisation
Central nervous system, 441–2
Certification, first aiders, 431–2
CET see Corrected Effective
Temperature index
Chain of utility, 895–6
Chains, 814–15
Change processes, 377–89
Change of state, matter, 637–41
Charges, 125, 908, 968
Chartered Institution of Building
Service Engineers (CIBSE), 587,
588
Checking actions, 886–8, 954
Checklists, 314, 318, 320, 812–15
Chemical agents, 451–78
Chemical hazards, 202, 429, 495–501
1002 IndexChemical oxygen demand (COD), 942
Chemicals, 821–60
1996/1999 Regulations, 842
2002 Regulations, 833–5
CDG, 833–4
chemical data, 928–9
CHIP 3 Regulations, 833–5
CIMAH, 832–3
COMAH Regulations, 857
construction sites, 805
COSHH, 831, 835–7
data, 821–2
emergency procedures, 857
environmental pollution, 869,
928–55
exposure prevention, 827–30
fume cupboards, 856
gas cylinder storage, 841
handling risk assessment, 827
HAZOP study, 843, 844–7, 851–2
information sources, 822–3
instruction documentation, 852–3
labels, 834–5
laboratories, 854–6
legislation, 831–7, 842, 929–33, 936
liquid waste, 950
management, 821–60
MHSWR, 823, 857
NIIHHS, 831–2
NONS, 835
packaging, 833–4
permits-to-work, 853–4
plant, 843–51, 852
process design, 843–51
properties, 631–5
rail transport, 842
reactors, 849
records, 831
risks, 236
assessment, 823–7
minimisation, 827–31
phrases, 834
reduction, 929
storage, 837–41
substance definitions, 823
substitution, 827–8
symbols, 834
tanker off-loading, 840
training, 853
transport, 833–4, 841–2
treatment of waste, 945
warehousing, 840–1
waste management, 907
work systems, 852–4
Children, 101–2
CHIP 3 Regulations, 833–5
Chlorine, 473
Chromium, 467
Chronic hazards, 181, 452, 453
CIBSE see Chartered Institution of
Building Service Engineers
CIMAH (Control of Major Accident
Hazards Regulations 1984), 832,
833
Cinematograph Regulations, 783
Circadian rhythms, 374
Circuits, electrical, 748–9, 751–2, 753–5
Circulatory system, physiology,
438–40, 597–8
Citizen action, 875–6
Civil courts, 9, 11, 12, 13, 15
Civil Justice System, 18–19
Civil law, 4–5, 20, 43
Civil liability, 160–75
assessment of damages, 172–4
contributory negligence, 171
defences, 170–1
employer’s liability, 167–9
fatal accidents, 174
HSWA, 170
limitation, 172
‘no fault’ liability system, 175
supply of goods, 166–7
volenti non fit injuria defence, 151,
171–2
see also Common law
Civil Procedure Rules, 156, 161
Classification
fires, 663–5
risks, 243
Cleanliness, 516, 530, 610
Clerk to the Justices, 24
Climate Change Levy, 867, 926
Clinical waste, 896–7
Closed systems, 245
Clothing, 521, 612, 829
Co-decision procedure, 34–5
Co-operative Bank, 965
Coal tar, 457–8
Coastal waters, 941
COD see Chemical oxygen demand
Coda, 740
Code for Lighting, 587–8
Codes of Practice
ACAS disciplinary procedure, 105
advertising, 138
approval, 67
Commission for Racial Equality, 99
definition, 57
disciplinary procedure, ACAS, 105
Index 1003Codes of Practice (continued)
Earthworks, 799–801
EAW Regulations, 746–7
HSWA, 53–4, 57
pressure systems, 785
pricing offences, 123–4
see also Approval to Codes of
Practice; Approved Codes of
Practice
Coffer-dams, 798
Cold and wet environments, 804
Collection of data, 267–306
Colorimetry paper tape, 940–1
Colour, 581, 591, 610–11, 614
Colour blindness, 582
Combustible dusts, 653–4
Commercial cycle, 895–6
Commission for Equality and Human
Rights (CEHR), 101
Commission of European Union, 70
Commissioning projects, 251
Commitment, 408–10, 415–16
Committé European de Normalisation
(CEN), 72–3
Committee for Electrotechnical
Standardisation (CENELEC),
72–3, 746, 760
Common law, 6, 50–2, 150, 160–1,
308–9
see also Civil liability
Communications, 137–8, 384–6, 623–4,
885, 922
Company environmental performance,
963, 964–6
Compensation, 80, 145–7, 157–8, 163–4
see also Damages; Insurance cover
Competence, 755–6, 884–5
Competent person, 777, 785–6
Complaints, 951
Complex accidents, 295
Compounds, 631–3
Compressed air work, 807
Compressible fluids, 646–7
Computers, 297–302, 327, 398–9
Concepts in learning processes, 380
Conditioning, 379
Conductimetry, 941
Conduction of fire, 652
Conductor protection, 733
Confederation of British Industries,
224
Confined spaces, 805–6
Conflicts, 223, 226–7, 244–5
Conformity assessments, 731, 737
Conjunctivitis, 582
Consents, 905, 907
Consequences, 181–2, 233, 396–400
‘Consideration’, 82
Consignment notes, 946–7
Constant Attendance Allowance
(CAA), 147
Construction finishes, 681
Construction sites, 792–820
access, 808–11
accidents, 792, 807–8
CDM Regulations, 793, 795–6, 815
electricity use, 760, 802–3
emergency plans, 807–8
hazards, 797–808
head protection, 816–17
legislation, 808, 816–18
lifting, 802, 810–15
management, 792–3
notification of work, 796
Regulations, 793, 795–6, 802, 810–15
welfare facilities, 815–16
Consultations with employees, 404–5
Consumable materials, 918
Consumer credit, 125–6, 140
Consumer protection, 118–44
1987 Act, 91–2, 122–3, 132–9, 155, 167
consumer redress, 142–3
distance selling, 141
enforcement orders, 142
exclusion clauses, 138–41
fair conditions of contract, 118–26
fair quality of goods and services,
126–8
misleading advertising, 136–8
product liability, 134–6
product safety, 128–33
stop now orders, 141–2
unfair contract terms, 138–41
Consumer redress, 142–3
Container labelling, 904
Contaminated land, 867
Continuing periodic absences, 109
Continuous improvement, 273, 888,
889
Contractors, 794–5, 947
Contracts
employment, 7, 42, 85–6
fair conditions of, 118–26
faults in, 83
formation, 82–5
occupational safety advisers, 90–2
rights of third parties, 82
unfair terms, 138–41
see also Law of contract
Contrast, 610, 613
1004 IndexContributory negligence, 158, 171
Control
advertisements, 136, 137
air pollution, 930–1, 936–8
asbestos, 782
chemicals, 849, 928–31, 933–8, 941–2
colours, 610–11
cranes, 733, 734–5
damage control, 255–7
of danger, 371–2
end-of-pipes, 966–7
environmental, 871–2, 874–6, 886, 966
equipment, 662–3
ergonomics, 617–19
fire hazards, 652–6
foot-operated, 606–7
guards, 724
hazards, 408–10, 514–22
liquid wastes, 905–7
loss control profiling, 263–4
plant systems, 847–8
pollution, 200, 891
strategies, risk, 184–8, 195–7, 235–6
systems, 254, 847–8
techniques, 555–63
water pollution, 941–2
Control of Industrial Major Accident
Hazards Regulations 1984
(CIMAH), 832, 833
Control of Lead at Work Regulations
2002, 783
Control of Major Accident Hazards
Regulations 1999 (COMAH),
832–3, 857
Control of Substances Hazardous to
Health Regulations 1998, 78
Control of Substances Hazardous to
Health Regulations 2002
(COSHH), 782–3, 821–2, 824–6,
831, 835–7
air quality, 508
biological agent definition, 512
carcinogen definition, 511
occupational exposure limits, 573
Controllability, 367–8
Controlled waste, 896, 944, 946
Convection, 652
Conveyor trip devices, 723
Corporate social responsibility, 971–2
Corrected Effective Temperature index
(CET), 572
COSHH see Control of Substances
Hazardous to Health
Regulations 2002
Cost benefit analysis, 259–60, 871–2
Cost-effectiveness, 257–60
Costings, 206–7, 256, 257–9, 585–6
Council, European Union, 69–70
Counselling techniques, 402–3
County Courts, 9, 15, 16
Court of Appeal, 24
England, 9, 10, 11
Northern Ireland, 12, 15, 16
Court of Auditors, 71
Court procedure, 18–23
the accused, 22
burden of proof, 22
civil law, 20
enforcement, 19
imaginary incident, 21
reform, 23
stages, 18–21
tracks, 20
witnesses, 22–3
Court of Session, 12, 13
Courts, 5, 7–16
appellate jurisdiction, 7
criminal proceedings, 8
defences, 43–4
duties to third parties on site, 42–3
English hierarchy, 8–12
first instance jurisdiction, 7
inferior, 7–8
Northern Ireland, 12–16
personnel, 23–4
principles, 40–4
representation, 8
Scotland, 12, 13, 14, 25
superior, 7–8
tort, 41–2
Cranes, 729, 730, 733–5, 812–13
Crime, definition, 4
Criminal courts, 10, 11, 14, 16
Criminal law, 4–5, 43–4, 111
Criminal proceedings, 8
Crown Courts, 10, 11, 12, 16
Crown Notices, 61
Crown premises, 60–1
Culture, 77–8, 224, 388–9
Currents, electric, 743–4, 748–51,
754–5, 763–4
Cyclones, 936
D type equipment see Flameproof
equipment
Damage, 180, 198
Damage control, 255–7
Damages, 85, 150–3, 157, 172–4
see also Compensation
Damping, 560, 686
Index 1005Danger, 192–3, 202, 302–4, 335–9, 368–9
construction sites, 803–7
decision-making, 371–2
electricity, 749–52
goods Regulations, 842
prediction, 362–3
see also Facing danger
Data, 253–4, 267–306, 821–2
Databases, 299–300
DB see Decibels
DC see Direct current
De-layered organisational structures,
212–13, 218
Deafness, 152–3, 483–4, 551–2
Death, 183
Decibels (dB), 543–4, 547, 609
Decision-making, 71, 350–1, 371–2
Decking boards, 808–9
Decompression procedures, 807
Defects
equipment, 161, 170
fired pressure vessels, 771–3
lifting equipment, 778, 779
reporting, 787
unfired pressure vessels, 774
Defences
civil liability claims, 170–1
courts, 43–4
damage claims, 150–1
employer’s liability insurance, 151–2
mechanisms, 448
Defined operational boundary, 338–9
Deformation, materials, 643–4
DEFRA see Department of the
Environment Food and Rural
Affairs
Degradation of performance, 373–5
Deliveries of waste, 904, 915, 949
Deluge systems, 675
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), 526
Department of the Environment Food
and Rural Affairs (DEFRA), 926
Dermatitis, 455–6
Design, 958, 965
change, 383–4
controls, 617–19
health and safety, 249–51
machinery guards, 713
Management of Health and Safety at
Work Regulations 1999, 794
noise enclosures, 557
plants, 617
systems theory, 243–6
workplaces, hazard controls, 514
Detectors, 656–63, 685
Developing countries, 958
‘Development risks’ defence, 135
Deviation process, 335, 336
DGs see Directorate Generals
Diagnosis, behaviour, 354–5
Diet requirements, 433–4
Difficult waste, 896
Diffuse source pollution, 943
Digestive system, 434–5
Dilution
hazardous environments, 762
ventilation, 515–16, 567, 576
Direct current (DC), 743–4, 750
Directives, 33, 35, 71, 127, 131–2, 895,
966
defective products, 154–5
environmental liability, 966
Framework Directive, 102–3
General Product Safety, 131–2
packaging, 922–3
waste, 895, 911
Director of Public Prosecutions, 24
Directorate Generals (DGs), 70
Directors, 188–9
Disability, 99–101, 147, 609
Disaster plans, 808
Discharge Consents, 905
Disciplinary procedure, 104–7, 110–11
Disclaimers, 122
Disclosure, documents, 21
Discrimination, 96–104
1995 Act, 99–101
age, 101
employment law, 96–8
joint consultation, 102–3
sex discrimination, 96–8
working time, 103–4
Diseases, occupational, 304–5, 451–93
biological agents, 486–9
cancer, 476–8
chemical agents, 451–78
epidemiology, 454–5
gassing, 473–5
metals, 463–8
oxygen deficiency, 475–6
pesticides, 468
physical agents, 478–86
psycho-social disorders, 489–90
respiratory system, 458–63
skin, 455–8
solvents, 468–73
target organs, 490–2
Dismantling power presses, 780
Dismissal
capability, 108
1006 Indexcontinuing periodic absences, 109
criminal offences, 111
disciplinary procedure, 106
employees, 109–10, 115–16
employment law, 107–16
enactment contravention, 113–14
ill-health, 108–9
misconduct, 110–12
other reasons, 114
qualification, 108
redundancy, 112–13
rights exclusions, 115
unfair dismissal, 114–16
Display screen equipment (DSE), 583,
588, 608, 622–3
Disposal see Waste disposal
Disputes, fire safety, 694
Distance selling, 141
Diurnal rhythms, 374, 581–2
Diving work, 438, 807
Divisional Court, 9
DNA see Deoxyribonucleic acid
Documentation, 21, 885, 888
chemicals, 852–3
Duty of Care audit, 950–1
machinery legislation, 706
risk assessments, 221–2
see also Records
Domino incident model, 412
Domino Theory, 202–3, 290–3
Dose-response relationship, 868–9
Doses of radiation, 527–8, 533
Dosimeters, 554
Double vision, 582
Dreadfulness, 368
Drencher systems, 675
Drum compound storage, 837–40
Dry powder extinguishers, 669–70,
677–8
Dry rising main, 699
Dry sprinkler system, 699
DSE (display screen equipment), 583,
588, 608, 622–3
Due diligence defence, 120–1, 124,
737, 740
Dupont STOP program, 402
Dust lamps, 503–4
Dusts and fibres
airborne pollutants, 568–70
construction sites, 804–5
direct monitoring instruments, 502–4
environmental measurement
techniques, 501–2
local exhaust ventilation, 781–3
occupational diseases, 458–62, 463
Duties
employers, 50–2
HSC, 52
landlords, 51
liability, 40
standards, 39–40
to third parties on site, 42–3
Duty of care, 150, 162–4, 205–6
Regulations, 928
audits, 947–52
Environmental Management
Systems, 885
off-site waste management,
909–10
on-site waste management, 901–2
waste disposal, 932, 945–7
Dynamic risks, 194
E type equipment, 761
Ear, 550–2
frequency response, 545–6
hearing loss, 482–4, 551–2
noise, 482–4, 551–2, 609
occupational diseases, 491
physiology, 443–4
protectors, 518, 561–2
Ear–eye line (EE line), 607–8
Earthing, 752, 754–5, 763
Earthworks Code of Practice, 799–801
EAW Regulations see Electricity at
Work Regulations 1989
EC see European Union
EC-Type examination Certificate, 706,
708
ECFA (Events and Causal Factors
Analysis), 295
ECJ see European Court of Justice
Eco-management and Audit Scheme
(EMAS), 874, 878–80, 884–5,
887–9, 953
Eco-system effects, 870
Economics, 70, 205–7, 260–1, 263, 920
EE line see Ear-eye line
EEC see European Union
Effluent see Liquid waste
Electric fields, 539–40
Electric shock, 749–51, 754
see also Electrocution
Electrical equipment, 759–62, 763–4,
783–5, 923
Electricity, 743–66
accidents, 748, 754–5
alternating and direct currents,
743–4, 750
circuits, 748–9, 751–2, 753–5
Index 1007Electricity (continued)
construction site safety, 802–3
dangers, 749–52
fires, 654, 665
fittings, 762
in hazardous environments, 759–62
maintenance, 764
permits-to-work, 753, 756–8
portable tools, 762–3, 784–5
protective means, 752–5
residual current devices, 754, 763–4
static electricity, 757, 759
statutory requirements, 746–7
supply, 744–6
voltage levels, 747–8
Electricity at Work Regulations 1989
(EAW Regulations), 746–7,
752–3, 755–6, 759–60, 764–5, 784
Electrocution, 802
see also Electric shock
Electromagnetic radiation, 525, 526,
537–40
Electromechanical delay devices, 722
Electronic communication, 386
Electronic equipment, 923
Electrons, 524–5, 629–30
Electrostatic precipitators, 937
Elimination
hazards, 408–10
risk, 184–5
EMAS see Eco-management and Audit
Scheme
Emergencies
cranes, 734
lighting, 591, 686, 699
public places, 624
radioactivity, 536–7
see also Fire
Emergency plans/procedures, 686–7,
695–7
chemicals, 857
construction sites, 807–8
environmental emergencies, 886
waste, 905, 906, 915
Emissions
atmospheric, 950
controlling, 935, 966–7
into atmosphere, 50
product outputs, 918
reduction, 871
see also Pollution; Statutory
nuisances
Employees
behaviour modification, 395–406
consultations, 404–5
definition, 57
dismissal, 109–10
duties, 52
fire duties, 692–3
imaginary incident, 3
involvement, 404–5, 408–10
selection, 169
skill lack, 109–10
trade unions, 87
unfair dismissal rights, 115–16
waste minimisation, 914
wearing eye protection, 394
work suspension, 87
Employer’s liability, 4, 50–2, 150, 167–9
compulsory insurance, 78, 148
defective equipment, 170
defences, 151–2
employee selection, 169
insurance, 148–53
plant and equipment, 169
supervision, 169
work systems, 168
Employment
2002 Act, 86–7
children, 101–2
Code of Practice, 100
contracts, 7, 42, 85–6
dismissal, 107–16
equality, 96
law, 94–117
disciplinary procedure, 104–7
discrimination, 96–104
dismissal, 107–16
joint consultation, 102–3
young persons, 101–2
legislation, 86–8
Regulations, 96, 101
rights, 94–6
sex discrimination, 96
young persons, 101–2
Employment Medical Advisory
Service, 50
Employment Tribunals, 25–6
Code of Practice, 99
Northern Ireland, 15
procedure, 96
test of reasonableness, 106
EMS see Environmental Management
Systems
EN standards (European Standards),
72–3
see also BS EN; BS ENs
Enclosures, 556–8, 715
End-of-pipe controls, 966–7
Energy, 544, 547, 596–7
sources, 872–3, 918, 962
and work, 641–2
1008 IndexEnforcement, 19, 54–5, 129–30, 142,
924–5, 952
Enforcement and Prohibition Notices,
931
Engineering science, 246–7, 629–48
chemical properties, 631–5
failure modes, 645
hydraulics, 646–7
material deformation, 644
mechanics, 642–3
physical properties of matter, 635–41
strength of materials, 643–5
structure of matter, 629–31
testing, 645–6
England
courts, 5, 8–12, 23–4
waste management, 892, 894
English law, 5–7, 29–30
Enterprise Act 2002, 141, 142
Environment, 861–973
1995 Act, 892
agencies, 892–3, 903, 930–1
changing, 383–4
chemical pollution, 928–55
citizen action, 875–6
concepts, 863–77
contaminant monitoring, 507–10
control strategies, 874–6
definition, 957
effects, 373–5
global issues, 963–4
hazards, 867–70, 873
issues, 863–77, 957–62, 963–4
legislation, 966
measurement techniques, 495–506
policy, 880–1, 953–4, 956
predictions, 864–5
problem identification, 957–8
risk evaluation, 870–4
risks, 236
stress, 510–11
ventilation use, 574–9
waste management, 891–927
Environmental aspects
definition, 881
see also Aspects and impacts analysis
Environmental impacts
definition, 880, 881–2
see also Impacts analysis
Environmental Management Systems
(EMS), 875, 878–90, 925, 953–5,
969–71
Environmental protection, 58–9, 200,
553, 924–5, 929–33
1991 Regulations, 946, 947
Scotland, 892, 894
Epidemiology, 204, 283–5, 454–5
Equality, 87, 96, 98, 101
Equipment
air pollution control, 936–8
electrical, 759–62, 763–4, 783–5
employer’s liability, 169
statutory examinations, 767–91
waste regulations, 923
see also Machinery; Plant
Ergonomics, 594–626
controls and indicators, 617–19
definitions, 594–5
display screen equipment, 622–3
human body physiology, 596–609
noise and vibrations, 620–1
repetitive actions, 616
signs and signals, 623–4
stress, 621–2
working environment, 609–15
written word, 624
Errors
behaviour, 351–5
correction, 372–3
generic system, 352, 353
hazard detection, 360–2
opportunities, 406, 407
Escape in case of fire, 680–3
Essential safety requirements (ESRs),
708, 731, 737, 774
Ethical investment, 964–6
EU see European Union
European Agency for Safety and
Health at Work, 34–6, 71
European Commission, 509, 573
European community courts see ECJ
European Council (Summit), 70
European Court of Human Rights,
28–9
European Court of Justice (ECJ), 9,
11–13, 15, 26–8, 71
European Standards, 66, 73–4
European Union (EU)
Commission, 70
Council, 69–70
Decisions, 71
electrical equipment, 760–1
electricity supply, 744, 746
Environmental Management
Systems, 874, 878
health and safety influence, 69–72
legislation, 32–3, 36, 38–9, 71–2
lifting equipment, 774
machinery legislation, 704–5, 709
occupational health requirements,
428
Recommendations, 71
Index 1009European Union (EU) (continued)
Regulations, 71
social partners, 74
standards, 72–3
Waste Directive, 895
‘weighted’ votes, 70
see also Directives
Eutrophication, 961
Evaluation
Environmental Management
Systems, 887
environmental risks, 870–4
health hazards, 494–513
performance, 260–3
risk, 180, 194–5
waste minimisation, 919–20
Event Tree Analysis, 233
Events and Causal Factors Analysis
(ECFA), 295
Examinations
EC-Type Certificate, 706, 708
plant and equipment, 767–91
pressure systems, 739
see also Inspections
Excavation safety, 797–802
Excretion, 435, 453
Exhaust ventilation, 828
Experience distribution, accidents, 376
Explosions, 639, 760–2, 767–8
Exposure
ionising radiation, 527–8
noise, 483, 552–3
prevention, 827–30
radiation, 481–2, 531–2
Exposure limits
airborne contaminants, 507–10,
572–4
electric and magnetic fields, 539–40
ionising radiation, 529, 533
noise, 554
sensitising agents, 511
toxins, 454
variations, 513
see also Hygiene
Extensions, HSWA, 56
External audits, 887
Extinguishers, 664, 666–72, 686
Extract ventilation, 515, 567, 574–5, 686
Extrinsic allergic alveolitis, 463
Eye
defects and disorders, 582
ergonomics, 607–9, 619
free tests, 583
lasers, 538–9
occupational diseases, 491
personal protective equipment, 521
physiology, 442–3, 448, 581–3
strain, 582, 609
ultraviolet radiation, 537
Fabric filters, 937
Face to face communication, 385
Facilities for fire brigade, 697–8
Facilities statements, 121–2
Facing danger, 355–77
choices, 366–7
control of danger action, 371–2
controllability, 367–8
environment effects, 373–5
error correction, 372–3
forseeability, 368
hazard detection, 357–65
labelling as dangerous, 365–9
memorability, 368
objective danger, 356
perception, 357–69
performance effects, 373–7
risk reactions, 365–9
risk scales, 369
severity, 368
Factories, 36–7, 58, 426–7
see also Industry
FAFRs (fatal accident frequency rates),
249
Fail-safe operations, 719, 720
Failure modes/effects, 204, 243, 645
Fair trading, 118–28, 141
False alarms, 663
False trade descriptions, 119–22
Farmer’s lung, 463
Fast track, 20
Fatalities, 158, 174, 249, 303–4
Fault Tree Analysis, 183, 204, 233, 243,
247–8, 295
Faults in contracts, 83
Feasibility exercises, 919–20
Feedback from reports, 294
Feedback loops, 348
Fertilisers, 961
Fibres see Dusts and fibres
Filters, 568–9, 937
Financial accountability, 260–1
Fines, 956
Finite resources see Non-renewable
resources
Fire
active protection measures, 685–7
Acts repealed, 690
alarm systems, 685
arson, 653
1010 Indexbasic technology, 649–52
blankets, 670–1
brigade, 697–8
building stability, 688–9
classification, 663–5
combustion, 651, 653–4
compartments, 687
dampers, 686
definitions, 691–2
detectors, 656–63, 685
dusts, 653–4
electrical, 654, 665
emergency lighting, 686
emergency planning, 686–7
employees duties, 692–3
engineering, 684–5
escape route protection, 682–3
fighting equipment, 665–72
flame surface spread, 688
fuel, 650
hazard control, 652–6
heat, 651
heating systems, 655
hot work, 655
housekeeping, 655, 687
ignition temperatures, 651
inspector powers, 693
legislation, 689–94
lighting, 655–6
loading, 685
oxygen, 650
passive protection measures, 687–9
points, 699
prevention, 199
protection measures, 685–9
repealed legislation, 690
rescue services, 689
response to alarms, 682
responsible person duties, 692
risk assessment, 681, 694–7
safety duties, 692
safety signs, 680, 683–4
smoke extractor systems, 686
smoking, 654–5
smouldering, 651
spread, 651–2
staff training, 686–7
suitable extinguishers, 664
terminology, 698–700
triangle, 650
wall linings, 688
see also Extinguishers; Fixed firefighting equipment
Fire alarms, 656–63
automatic, 656–60
carbon monoxide detectors, 661–2
control equipment, 662–3
false alarms, 663
heat detectors, 660–1
indicating equipment, 662–3
laser detectors, 662
manual, 656
radiation detectors, 661
radio type systems, 662
standards, 663
wiring, 662
Fire precautions, 58, 649–703
basic technology, 649–52
construction sites, 803
escape in case of fire, 680–3
fire engineering, 684–5
fixed fire-fighting equipment,
672–9
legal requirements, 689–94
means of escape, 680–3
protection measures, 685–9
risk assessment, 694–7
safety signs, 680, 683–4
Fired pressure vessels, 736, 770–3
Fires, electrical, 752
First aid, 431–2, 816
First instance jurisdiction, 7
Fittings, 762
Fixed fire-fighting equipment, 672–9
deluge systems, 675
drencher systems, 675
dry powder systems, 677–8
foam systems, 676–7, 678
gas systems, 678–9
sprinkler systems, 673, 674–5
water mist systems, 675–6
Fixed guards, 714, 715
Flame, 688, 940
Flameproof equipment, 762
Flammable atmospheres, 759, 760–2
Flammable gases, 639
Flammable liquids, 639, 699
Flash point, 700
Flashovers, 699, 751–2
Flat organisational structures, 212–13,
218
Flicker, lighting, 591, 613
‘Flight or fight’ responses, 359–60
Floodlights, 803
Floor surfaces, 681
Flow patterns, air, 576–7
Flue gas flow rates, 939
Fluids, 646–7, 738, 769
Fluorescent lamps, 584
Foam systems, 666–7, 676–7, 678
Index 1011Focus loss, 227
Food, 59–60, 125, 133, 433–4, 817–18
Foot, 606–7, 618, 619
Forfeiture orders, 133
Fork lift trucks, 726–7, 777
Formal organisation structures, 211–13
Forms, 274–5, 303–5, 756–8, 825, 826
Forseeability, 368
Foundations, 808
Framework Directive, 102–3
Free format text programs, 298–9
Frequency, sound waves, 543, 544–5
Frequency of incidents, 233, 269–70,
280–1, 283
FSLCM see Functional safety life cycle
management
FTSE4Good index, 965
Fuel, 650
Fume fever, 805
Fumes, 804–5, 856
Functional safety life cycle
management (FSLCM), 851
Fuses, 753–4
Gamma radiation, 525–6
Gas, 637–8, 678–9, 841, 937, 940–1
Gas chromatography, 500–1, 941
Gases and vapours, 495–501, 502–3,
571
Gassing, 473–5
Geiger-Müller tubes, 532
General damages assessment, 173–4
General Product Safety Regulations,
128–31
Generic behaviour modification
models, 405–6, 407
Generic error-modelling system, 352,
353
Generic safety management, 309–13
Genetic defects, 527
Giving information, 384–6
see also Communication
Glands, human, 444–5
Glare, 589–90, 613
Global impact, 963–4
Global warming, 864–5, 959
Gloves, 521
Goal-setting legislation, 68–9
Goals, 344–5, 921–2
Goods hoists, 813–14
Grab sampling, 495–8
Gray (Gy), 527–8
Green List waste, 913
Green Papers, 32
Green procurement, 964–6
Greenhouse gases, 959
see also Global warming
Gross Hazard Analysis, 243
Groundwaters, 942–3, 950
Growth processes, 378–9
Guardrails, 809
Guards
legislation, 704, 709–10
materials, 724
power presses, 779–81
powered trucks, 726
selection strategy, 711–14
techniques, 714–25
Guide words, 845
Gy see Gray
Habits, 379
Halides lamps, 584
Halon extinguishers, 670
Hand, 491, 602–6, 618–19
Hand signals, 623
Hand–arm vibration syndrome
(HAVS), 479
Hand-held tools see Portable tools
Handling chemicals, 827
Handling waste, 904, 915, 949
Harmonisation, 73–4
HAVS see Hand–arm vibration
syndrome
Hawthorne Effect, 217
HAZAN (hazard analysis), 249, 408–10
Hazard and Operability (HAZOP)
studies, 232, 243, 248, 250, 363,
843, 844–7, 851
Hazardous environments, 759–62
Hazardous waste, 896, 910–12, 923–4,
944
Hazards, 179–82
of behaviour modification process,
416
chemical, 805, 928–9
consequence, 181–2
construction sites, 797–808
control, 408–10, 928–9
creation, 269
definitions, 180, 192–3, 870
detection, 357–65
causal network knowledge, 364–5
error signals, 360–2
‘flight or fight’ responses, 359–60
inspection, 362
predicting danger, 362–3
risk assessment, 363
sensory defects, 358
warnings responses, 360–2
1012 Indexdiffering degrees, 202
elimination, 408–10
environmental, 867–70, 873
identification, 869–70
identification, 408–10
machinery use, 711–12
prevention, 408–10
seeking, 363
system safety, 243
workplaces, 429
HAZOP (Hazard and Operability)
study, 232, 243, 248, 250, 363,
843, 844–7, 851
Head protection, 816–17
Health hazards
biological, 495, 512
chemical, 495–501
ergonomic, 495
evaluation, 494–513
measurement techniques, 495–506
physical, 495
psychosocial, 495
vibration, 564
Health and hygiene, 200
Health Protection Agency (HPA), 536
Health and safety
assessments, 428
attitudes, 64–81
behavioural science relevance, 341–2
design and planning, 249–51
environment policy, 956
European Union, 69–72
First Aid Regulations, 431
foundations, 66
influences, 64–81
legislative frameworks, 66–7
political influences, 75–6
practices, 64–81
roles, 76
social expectations, 74–5
workplace, 429
Health and Safety at Work etc. Act
1974 (HSWA), 48–58
accident prevention, 205–6
administration, 52
air pollution control, 930–1
civil liability, 170
Codes of Practice, 53–4
construction sites, 792, 795, 798
definitions, 57–8
duties, employers, 50–2
electricity supply, 746
enforcement, 54–5
extensions, 56
inspector powers, 54–5
Ionising Radiations Regulations
1999, 533
legislation today, 37–8
notices, enforcement, 55
occupational safety advisers, 91–2
offences, 55–6
Parts II to IV, 56–7
pre-1974 legislation, 48–9
project commissioning, 251
Regulations, 53–4
risk control, 185–6
risk management, 209
Robens report, 64–5
safety management, 308
schedules, 56–7
subordinate legislation, 61
Health and Safety Commission (HSC),
49, 52
Advisory Committee on Toxic
Substances, 508
Consultative Documents, 259
Industry Advisory Committees, 67
risk management, 188–9
safety management models, 309–10
understanding human factors, 394–5
Health and Safety Executive (HSE), 52
construction site first aid, 816
electricity, 753, 760, 765
Occupational Exposure Limits, 572–3
power presses, 781
risk control, 186
Hearing see Ear
Hearing loss, 152–3
Heart, 438–40
Heat, 651, 660–1, 804
see also Temperature; Thermal
environment
Heat Stress Index (HSI), 572
Heated head air meter, 577, 579
Heated vessels, 736
Heating systems, 655
Heats of fusion, 639
Heats of vaporisation, 639
Heinrich, H.W., 202–3
HELA (HSE/Local Authority
Enforcement Liaison
Committee), 39
Hepatitis, 486–7
Herbicides, 468
Hertz (Hz), 544–5
Herzberg, F., 219–20
Hierarchical organisation, 211–12
Hierarchy
English courts, 8–12
human needs, 218–19, 261, 345
Index 1013High Court, 9, 10, 11, 14, 15
Highly flammable liquids, 700
Hire-purchase issues, 51–2
Hired lifting equipment, 776–7
History, 425–7
Hoists, 813–14
Homeostasis, 382
Hooke’s Law, 643
Hormones, 444–5
Hose reel fire extinguishers, 671
Hot wire anemometers, 939
Hot work, 655
House of Lords, 9, 10, 13, 24
Household waste, 875–6
Housekeeping, 319–21, 516, 655, 687
HSC see Health and Safety
Commission
HSE see Health and Safety Executive
HSE/Local Authority Enforcement
Liaison Committee (HELA), 39
HSG 65: 1997, 311–12, 414
HSI (Heat Stress Index), 572
HSWA see Health and Safety at Work
etc. Act 1974
Human body
cell reproduction disorders, 447–8
central nervous system, 441–2
circulatory system, 438–40, 597–8
defence mechanisms, 448
digestive system, 434–5
ergonomics, 594–626
hormones, 444–5
muscles, 440–1, 596–8
physiology, 432–49, 596–609
senses, 442–4, 446
structure and functions, 432–50
vibration effects, 564
see also Liver; Respiratory system;
Skin
Human error models, 290
Human factors, 394–5
see also Ergonomics
Human information processors,
340–55
Human Rights Courts, 28–9
Humanitarian issues, 205–6, 260–1, 263
Humans, 344–51
attitudes, 346–8
behaviour, 343, 347
goals, 344–5
personality, 346–8
roles, 334
as systems, 342–3
work systems, 852–3
Humidifier fever, 489
Humidity, 505–6, 613
Hydraulics, 646–7, 780, 781
Hydrochloric acid, 473
Hydrogen sulphide, 474
Hygiene, 513
see also Cleanliness; Occupational
health and hygiene
Hygiene and Motivation (Herzberg),
219–20
Hygrometry, 505–6
Hypermetropia, 582
Hz see Hertz
‘I’ type equipment see Intrinsically safe
systems
IACs see Industry Advisory
Committees
IB (Incapacity Benefit), 146
ICC see International Criminal Court
ICNIRP see International Commission
on Non-ionising Radiation
Protection
ICRP see International Commission on
Radiological Protection
Identification of risk, 194–5, 230–3
IEC see International Electrotechnical
Commission
IEE Regulations see Institute of
Electrical Engineers Regulations
Ignition temperatures, 651, 700
IIDB (Industrial Injuries Disablement
Benefit), 146–7
Ill-health, dismissal, 108–9
Illuminaires, 614
Illuminance, 583, 586–8
Image loss, 205
Imaginary incident, 3–4, 21
Immediate dangers, 202
Immune system, 448
Impacts analysis, 875, 880–3
Impedance, 749
Implementation, 187, 313–19
Improvement objectives, 883
Incandescent lamps, 583
Incapacity Benefit (IB), 146
Incidents
applying behaviour concepts, 411–12
behaviour models, 412
domino incident model, 412
investigation, 411–12
radioactive substances, 536–7
recall, 198–9, 231
stress using the model, 412
trend analysis, 280–1, 283
see also Accident and incident data
1014 IndexIncineration, 937, 945
Incompressible fluids, 647
Increased safety equipment (‘E’ type),
761
Independent audits, 232
Indicating equipment, 662–3
Indication lights, 719
Indicative occupational exposure limit
values (IOELVs), 508–9, 573
Individuals, 333–92
accident susceptibility, 375–7
behavioural science, 340–55
change processes, 377–89
as danger controllers, 335–9
facing danger, 355–77
human information processors,
340–55
probabilistic risk assessments, 249
susceptibility to accidents, 375–7
Inductance, 749
Induction lamps, 585
Industrial Injuries Disablement Benefit
(IIDB), 146–7
Industry, 426–7, 767, 952
see also Controlled waste; Factories;
Manufacturers
Industry Advisory Committees
(IACs), 67
Infection, blood, 135
Inferior courts, 7–8
Inflammable, word use, 361
Inflammation, 448
Influences
European Union, 69–72
health and safety, 64–81
Informal organisational structures, 213
Information
chemicals safety, 822–3
collection, 267–306
exchange, 131–2
for fire brigade, 698
giving, 384–6
processing, 344–51
risk minimisation, 830
Infrared radiation, 538
Infrared spectrometry, 503, 940
Initial status review, 310
Injuries, 198, 202, 405
see also Accidents
Inland fresh waters, 942
Inorganic compounds, 632–3
Insecticides, 468
Inspections
checking accident reporting, 273
documents, 21
hazard detection, 362
lifting equipment, 733, 778–9
maintenance systems, 255
workplaces, 231
see also Examinations
Inspectors, 3, 54–6, 693
Installations, electrical equipment,
783–5
Institute of Electrical Engineers (IEE)
Regulations, 746, 752, 765, 784
Instructions, 169, 852–3
Instruments
air velocity measurement, 576–8
airborne contaminant measurement,
569–71
light measurement, 592–3
sound level meters, 549–50
Insulation, 753
Insurance cover, 145–59, 206
employer’s liability, 148–53
investigation, 155–8
liability, 148–53
negotiation, 155–8
public liability, 154–5
quantum of damage, 155–8
State insurance scheme, 145–7
see also Social security
Integrated pollution control (IPC),
930–1, 933–5
Inter-governmental Panel on Climate
Change (IPCC), 864
Interlocked guards, 715–23
Internal audits, 887–8
International Commission on Nonionising Radiation Protection
(ICNIRP), 539
International Commission on
Radiological Protection (ICRP),
528–9
International Criminal Court (ICC), 29
International Electrotechnical
Commission (IEC), 760
International Safety Rating System, 326
Interpretation
1978 Act, 31
case law, 40–1
signals, 623
Interruption of business, 201
Interviewing, accident information,
273, 286–90
Intrinsically safe systems, 762
Intumescent materials, 700
Inventory control, 915
Inverse square law, 548–9
Investigations, 155–8, 411–12
Index 1015IOELVs see Indicative occupational
exposure limit values
Ionisation process, 524–5
Ionising radiation
biological effects, 526–7
detectors, 657, 658
emission, 525–6
occupational disease, 479–82
Regulations, 533
types, 525–6
units, 527–8
see also Radiation
‘IP’ code, 760
IPC see Integrated pollution control
IPCC see Inter-governmental Panel on
Climate Change
ISO Standards
9000, 953–4, 970
9001, 252–3, 311–12
14000, 875
14001, 311–12, 878–80, 884–5, 887–9,
953–5, 969–70
18000, 875
see also BS…; Standards
Isolation, vibration, 564–5
Isotopes, 524–5
Job safety analysis, 236–41
charts, 237–8
job breakdown, 239–40
procedure, 236–9
risk identification, 232
safety instructions, 239
work systems, 239, 241
Joint consultation, 102–3
Judgement principle, 17
Judicial precedent see Precedent
Jurisdiction, 7, 27
Key exchange system, 719, 720–1
Kidney, 492
Knowledge, behaviour, 355
Kyoto Protocol, 893
Labelling, 365–9, 834–5, 904
Laboratories, 854–6
Lack of management controls, 291,
293
Ladders, 809
Lagging, 560
Lamps, 583–5
Landfill waste, 894, 926, 945, 968
Landlord duties, 51
Language, 361
LAs see Local authorities
Lasers, 504, 538–9, 662, 806–7
Law, 1–176
branches, 5–7
civil law, 4–5, 20, 43
courts, 7–16, 18–23, 40–4
criminal law, 4–5, 43–4
employment, 94–117
Employment Tribunals, 25–6
English law sources, 29–30
European Courts, 26–9
explained, 3–47
Human Rights Courts, 28–9
imaginary incident, 3–4, 21
influences, 64–81
law-making power delegation, 65–6
legislation, 30–6
objectives, 393
precedent, 17–18
questions of law/fact, 7
reporting, 18
see also Legal…; Legislation
Law of contract, 82–93
contract formation, 82–5
damages, 85
misrepresentation, 84
remedies, 84–5
safety advisers, 90–2
selling laws, 88–90
unfair terms, 89–91
Law of sale, 88–90
Law of tort see Tort
Law-making power delegation, 65–6
Lead, 463–5, 783, 804, 869
Leadership, 406, 408–10, 411, 415–16
Leakage prevention, 915
Learning processes, 328–30, 379–81
Leasing issues, 51–2
Leg, 606–7
Legal obligations, 275, 302–6, 308–9
Legal principle, 17
Legal reasons, 205, 260–1, 263
Legionnaire’s disease, 488
Legislation, 30–6
Acts of Parliament, 30–1
before HSWA, 36–7
chemicals, 929–33, 936
chemicals safety, 831–7
co-decision procedure, 34–5
construction sites, 808, 816–18
employment, 86–8
environment, 883, 966
European Union, 32–3, 38–9, 71–2
fire precautions, 689–94
frameworks, 66–7
goal-setting, 68–9
ionising radiation, 532–6
machinery, 704–11
1016 Indexnoise, 552–5
plant and equipment, 768
safety signs, 680
standards of duty, 39–40
statutory interpretation, 31–2
subordinate, 61
today, 37–40
waste management, 892–3, 898–9,
910–11, 922–5
see also Law
Leptospirosis (Weil’s disease), 487–8,
805–6
Liability
duties, 40
false trade descriptions, 120
insurance, 148–55
no fault liability, 78
occupiers, 90, 91, 154, 165–6
see also Civil liability; Employer’s
liability; Product liability
Licensing, waste management, 901–3
Life Cycle Assessments, 965
Life cycle management (FSLCM), 851
Lifting, 615–16, 729, 775–6
Lifting equipment, 728–35
constructing, 730–2
construction sites, 802, 810–15
definitions, 729–30, 775
hired, 776–7
identification systems, 779
LOLER checklists, 814–15
machine definition, 776
resale, 777
safe use of, 732–5, 775–6
statutory examinations, 774–9
testing, 778
see also Cranes
Lifting Operations and Lifting
Equipment Regulations
(LOLER), 68, 729, 732, 775–6,
779
checklists, 812–15
construction sites, 802, 810–15
Lifts, 729, 730–2, 774
Light scattering, 570, 576, 658
Lighting, 581–93
construction sites, 803
definitions, 583–5
ergonomics, 613–14
fire control, 655–6
lamp types, 585–6
meters, 592–3
powered truck operation, 727
quality factors, 588–91
recommended levels, 587–8
workstations, ergonomics, 608
Limit switches, 716–23
Limitations, 151–2, 172
management systems, 331
Liquid properties, 638–40
Liquid waste, 905–9, 942, 950
List of Waste Regulations, 911
Liver, 435, 478, 486–7, 492
Load conditions, 727–9, 732–4
Load indicators, 734, 813
Loads, lifting, 598–602, 615–16
Local assessment systems, 312–13,
314
Local authorities (LAs), 39, 930–1,
943
Logic, fault tree analysis, 247–8
LOLER see Lifting Operations and
Lifting Equipment Regulations
Lone workers, 403–4
Long-term issues, 108–9, 202, 499–502,
509–10
Loss control, 196–201, 263–4
see also Risk reduction
Loss of future earning capacity, 158
Loss of profit, 158
Loudness, 542–4, 545–6
Low frequency fields, 539–40
Lower explosive limits, 700
Lumen, 583
Luminaire, 585
Luminance, 583
Lung, 436–8, 458–63, 491
Lux, 583
McGregor, D., 218–20
Machinery, 704–42
coda, 740
construction sites, 799, 802, 817
guards, 711–25
legislation, 704–11
lifting equipment, 728–35
Machinery Directive, 704–5, 774
powered trucks, 725–8
pressure systems, 736–40
see also Equipment
Magistrates Courts, 10, 11, 15, 16
Magnetic fields, 539–40
Magnetic switches, 719–22
Maintenance
electrical equipment, 784
electricity, 764
lighting equipment, 585, 588
machinery, 709, 711, 740
portable fire-fighting equipment,
671–2
risk management, 254–5
waste minimisation, 915
Index 1017Management
chemicals, 821–60
commitment/involvement/
leadership, 408–10
construction sites, 792–3
Domino Theory, 291, 293
environmental, 875, 878–90, 925,
953–5, 969–71
models, 309–12
objectives, 884
risk control processes, 185–8
structures, 210–13
waste minimisation, 914
see also Performance management;
Risk management; Safety
management
Management of Health and Safety at
Work Regulations (MHSWR)
1999, 38–9, 793–5, 816
chemicals, 823, 857
incident recall, 101–2, 231
product liability risk, 253
risk control, 236
safety management, 308
Managers, behaviour, 406–11
Manganese, 467
Manual handling, 313–19, 323, 615–16
Manufacturers, 166, 769, 774–5, 966
see also Industry
Margins of safety, 574
Masking sound, 563
Maslow, A.H., 218–19, 261, 345
Material balances, 916–18, 944–5
Materials, 643–5, 724
see also Strength of materials
Matter
change of state, 637–41
compounds, 631–3
physical properties, 635–41
structure, 524–5, 629–31
see also Properties of materials
Maturation processes, 378–9
Maximum exposure limits (MEL),
573
Maximum potential loss (MPL),
233–4
Mean duration rate, 282
Means of escape, 680–3
Measurement
light meters, 592–3
sound level meters, 549–50
thermal environment, 571–2
Measurement matrix, 316, 317
Measures
air pollution control, 936–8
atmospheric pollution monitoring,
938–41
Environmental Management
Systems, 886–7
Mechanical interlocks, 716, 722
Mechanical risks, 236
Mechanical separators, 936
Mechanics, 598–602, 642–3
Media impact, 873–4, 963, 964
Medical grounds for suspension, 87
Medicines, 133, 426–7
Meetings, 222–3
MEL see Maximum exposure limits
Memorability, 368
Memorandum of Guidance, 746–7,
755–6
Memory, 349–50
Mental elements, 121–2
Mercury, 465–6
Mercury lamps, 584
Mesothelioma, 461–2
Metabolism, 453
Metals, 463–8, 584, 631–2, 805
Methane, 959
Methods of change, 383–9
Methyl choloroform, 473
Methylbenzene, 472
MHSWR see Management of Health
and Safety at Work Regulations
1999
Micro-organisms, 486–9
Microwave radiation, 540
Migrant workers, 623
Mines, 37, 58, 425–6, 746–7
Minimum wage, 88
Ministry of Labour and National
Service, 191
Minor incident investigations, 294–5
Misconduct, 110–12
Misleading advertising, 136–8
Misrepresentation, 84, 118
Mixtures, 510
Mobile cranes, 812–13
Mobile goods hoists, 813–14
Mobile towers, 809–11
Models
behavioural science, 342–3
Bowtie model, 337
domino incident, 412
generic behaviour modification,
405–6, 407
generic error-modelling system, 352,
353
management, 309–12
safe envelope metaphor, 338–9
1018 IndexMogden Formula, 908, 968
Monitoring
atmospheric concentrations, 830–1,
938–41
environmental contaminants, 507–10
Environmental Management
Systems, 883–4, 886–7
hazard exposure, 449–50
instruments, 502–4
lead workers, 465
loops, 348
mercury exposure, 466
performance, waste minimisation,
922
radiation, 481–2, 530–2
risk control, 187
solvent users, 469–70
Motivation, 219–20, 260–1, 344–5
Moving means, 277–8
MPL (maximum potential loss), 233–4
Multi track, 20
Multi-dimensional analysis, 284–5
Multiple causation theory, 203–4
Multipliers, 281
Muscles, 440–1, 596–7, 616
Myopia, 582
‘N’ type equipment, 761
National Health Service (NHS), 427
National Institute for Occupational
Safety and Health (NIOSH), 429
National Insurance, 145
National Minimum Wage Act 1998, 88
National Radiation Protection Board
(NRPB), 536
Nature of consequence, 397
Near misses, 294–5
Needs hierarchy, 218–19, 261
Negligence, 41, 43, 151, 162–5
Negotiation, 155–8
Neighbour, definition, 928
Nervous system, 441–2, 491
Neutrons, 524, 526, 629–30
NHS (National Health Service), 427
Nickel carbonyl, 467
Nickel diseases, 467
NIHHS (Notification of Installations
Handling Hazardous
Substances Regulations 1982),
831–2
NIOSH see National Institute for
Occupational Safety and Health
Nitrous fumes, 474
No fault liability, 78, 175
Noise, 542–66, 620–1
cancellation, 563
construction sites, 806
control techniques, 555–63
ergonomics, 609
exposure levels, 552–3
hearing loss, 482–4
hearing protectors, 518
measurement, 549–50, 552–5
neighbourhood protection, 553–4,
563
rating curves, 546
Regulations, 153, 552, 554–5
structure-borne, 565
transmission, 555–6
see also Sound
Noise-induced hearing loss, 152–3
Non-compliance, 887
Non-flammable liquid storage, 839
Non-pecuniary losses, 158
Non-renewable resources, 961, 962
NONS (Notification of New
Substances Regulations 1993),
822, 835
Northern Ireland, 12–16, 25
Nose, 444, 491
Note-taking, 289–90
Notices, 55, 61, 132–9, 693
Notification, 534–5, 796, 822, 831–2, 835
accidents, 275, 302–6
Notified bodies, 731, 737
NRPB see National Radiation
Protection Board
Nuclear energy, 872–3, 962
Nucleus, 630
Nuclides, 524–5
Nuisance, 162
Numeric data programs, 298, 301
Nursing, 427, 428
NVQs role, 76
Nystagmus (eye disorder), 582
Obscuration optical detectors, 658, 660
Observation, 402–3, 865
Occupation Code of Practice, 100
Occupational diseases, 304–5
Occupational exposure standards
(OES), 573
Occupational health and hygiene
airborne pollution, 507–10, 567–71
departments, 427–8
development, 425–7
diseases, 451–93
ergonomics, 594–626
human body, structure and
functions, 432–50
Index 1019Occupational health and hygiene
(continued)
lighting, 581–93
loss control, 200
occupational hygiene, 429–31,
494–523
radiation, 524–41
Services Report, 427
ventilation, 567–80
Occupational safety, 90–2, 310–12, 429
Occupier’s liability, 90, 91, 154, 165–6
Octave bands, 546–7
OES (occupational exposure
standards), 573
OET cranes, 733
Off-loading chemicals, tankers, 840
Off-site waste management, 909–13
Offences, 20–1, 55–6, 130–1, 924–5
Offices, 37
Ohm’s law, 748–9
OHSAS (Occupational Health and
Safety Advisory Services)
models, 310–12
Oil companies, 964
On-site waste management, 900–9
Open systems, 245
Openings, guards, 724
Operating conditions (equipment),
726–8, 740, 777–8
Operating limits, pressure vessels, 772
Operational controls, 886
Operational research, 243
Operations Review, 243
Operators (machinery), 709, 713, 725,
734
Opportunities for errors, 406, 407
Optical detectors, 657–9, 660
Optical radiation, 537–9
Orders, 132–9
Organic compounds, 633, 634
Organisations, 209–29
culture, 224
error opportunities, 406, 407
organisation, 209–29
potential problems, 225–7
responsibilities, 213–16
risk management, 209–29
roles, 213–16
specialists, 228–9
structure models, 210–13
techniques, 220–3
theories, 218–20
work groups, 216–18
Outputs, waste, 918
Outsourcing, 212
Overfusing, 754
Overhead cranes, 733
Overhead electricity lines, 744, 755, 802
Overtravel switches, 733
Oxides, 958–9
Oxygen, 435, 475–6, 504–6, 650
Ozone, 537, 960
‘P’ type equipment see Pressurisation
P4SR (Predicted four hour sweat rate),
572
Packaging, 833–4, 918, 922–3, 925, 969
Partial enclosure, 828
Particulates, 939–40, 960–1
Passengers, 728, 734
Passive protection measures, 687–9
PAT see Portable appliance tester
Pattern identification, 284, 295
Pecuniary loss, 157–8
Pedestrians, 727–8
Penalties, 56, 122, 124, 130–1
Perceived risk reactions, 365–9
Percentage safe behaviour score, 400
Perception, 183–4, 349, 357–65, 872–4
Perchloroethylene, 472
Performance, 395–401
degradation, 373–5
environmental, 963, 964–6
evaluation, 260–3
facing danger effects, 373–7
measurement/review, 187
personal protective equipment, 517
safety management, 414
self-auditing, 324
waste minimisation, 922
Permits-to-work, 753, 756–8, 853–4, 855
Personal hygiene, 516
Personal injury claims, 156, 160
Personal protection, 185, 561–2, 622
Personal protective equipment (PPE),
516–22, 710, 805, 816, 828–30
Personality, 346–8
Personnel, courts, 23–5
Pesticides, 468
Petroleum spirit, 60, 783, 818
Phosgene, 475
Photochemical smog/particulates,
960–1
Physical agents (disease), 478–86
Physical danger degrees, 202
Physical factors, stress, 510–11
Physical properties, 635–41
Physiology, 432–47, 596–609
Pictograms, 623
Pipes/pipework, 560, 770–4
1020 IndexPitch and coal tar, 457–8
Pitot tubes, 577, 939
Planning
Environmental Management
Systems, 881–4, 954
health and safety, 249–51
maintenance, 254–5, 915
on-site waste management, 900–9
risk control, 187
safety management, 414
Plant, 57
assessment techniques, 850–1
chemicals, 843–51
construction sites, 817
control systems, 847–8
employer’s liability, 169
ergonomics, 617
excavation safety, 802
management, waste minimisation,
914
modification, 852
process safety, 843–4
risk assessment, 848–51
statutory examinations, 767–91
PNEC (Predicted no-effect
concentration), 896
Pneumoconiosis, 147, 458–9
Point source pollution, 943
Poisons, 426, 449, 453, 463–8
see also Toxicology
Policy, 186, 880–1, 953–4, 956
Poling boards, 799–800
Political influences, 75–6, 863–4, 957
Pollution
air, 864, 930–1, 936–8
chemical, 869, 928–55
control, 200, 924, 931, 944
photochemical smog/particulates,
960–1
‘polluter pays’ principle, 892, 967–8
waste management, 891–2, 913
water, 924, 941–3
workplaces, 567–71
see also Airborne contamination
Pontiac fever, 488
Population growth, 863–4
Portable appliance tester (PAT), 764
Portable fire-fighting equipment,
665–72
carbon dioxide extinguishers, 669
dry powder extinguishers, 669–70
extinguisher ratings, 671, 672
fire blankets, 670–1
halon extinguishers, 670
installed hose reel, 671
maintenance, 671–2
quantities, 666–70
siting, 666–70
types, 666–70
water extinguishers, 666, 668
Portable tools, 762–3, 784–5, 802, 806,
817
Positive action switches, 717–18
Positive assessment approach, 322–5
Positive safety culture, 417–18
Power, 215–16, 642, 749, 872–3
Power presses, 716, 717, 779–81
Powered equipment, 711, 725–8, 777
Powerpoint presentation packages,
299
PPE see Personal protective equipment
Practicability condition, 708, 709–10
Pre-1974 HSWA legislation, 48–9
Pre-Action Protocols, 156
Pre-mixed foam installations, 678
Pre-work site checks, 796
Precedent, 17–18
Predictions, 362–3, 572, 864–5, 869
Preferred process route, 934–5
Premises, 57, 698
see also Occupier’s liability
Presentation packages, 299
Press brakes, 779–81
see also Power presses
Pressure, 475, 577–9, 636, 642
Pressure systems, 68, 736–40, 768–74,
785
Pressurisation, 762
Pricing offences, 122–5
Probability, 182–3, 233–4, 248–9, 369
Problem solving, 355, 380–1
Process design, 843–51
Process modifications, 915
Process organisation, 315–16
Producer responsibility, 892, 895,
922–3, 925, 932, 952, 968–9
Products
emissions, 918
liability, 134–6, 200–1, 253
life cycle, 865–7
safety, 128–33
testing, 645–6
Profiling, 263–4
Profit margins, 258–9
Prohibition notices, 132, 931
Project design, 250–1
Properties of materials, 631–5, 639,
640–1
Proportional-tank foam systems, 677
Prosecutions, 4–5
Index 1021Protection
electricity, 752–5
fire, 685–9
hearing, 555
infrared radiation, 538
lasers, 539
noise, 561–2
radiation, 528–32
ultraviolet radiation, 538
vibration, 564
workplace temperature, 612
Protective equipment, 236, 516–22,
828–30
Protocol, colour coding, 610
Protons, 524, 629–30
Proving devices, 753
Proving negligence, 151
Provision and Use of Work Equipment
Regulations (PUWER), 705,
708–11, 729, 732, 775, 780
accident prevention, 205
construction sites, 794, 817
Provisional damage assessment, 174
Psycho-social disorders, 489–90
Psychological danger, 202
Public Health Acts, 59–60, 891
Public law, 5–6
Public liability insurance, 154–5
Pure risks, 194
Pursuit of excellence, 226
PUWER see Provision and Use of Work
Equipment Regulations
Qualified majority voting (QMV), 69–70
Quality, 77–8, 251–3, 870, 953–4, 970
Quality Circles, 217–18
Quantitative methods, 233
Quantum of damage, 155–8
Quantum meruit remedies, 85
Quarries, 37, 58, 746–7, 818
Quarterly moving mean, 277–8
QUENSH (Quality, Environment,
Safety and Health Management
Systems), 251–3
Question and answer programs, 298,
300–1
Questions of law/fact, 7
Race relations, 88, 98–9
Racial equality, 99
RAD see Reactive airways dysfunction
Radar screen charts, 406, 411
Radiation, 524–41, 868–9
detectors, 661
fire spread, 652
incidents and emergencies, 536–7
legal requirements, 532–6
non-ionising, 537–40
occupational disease, 479–82
protection, 528–32
protection advisers/supervisor,
533–5
see also Ionising radiation
Radio fire alarm systems, 662
Radio frequency (RF) radiation, 540
Radioactivity, 525, 535, 806, 842
Radiological protection, 528–32
Radionuclides, 525
Rail transport, 387, 842
Ranking process, 873, 882–3
Rapport, interviews, 287–8
Rates, accident/incident trend
analysis, 280–1, 283
Ratings, risk assessment, 234–5
Raw materials, 915, 917
RCDs see Residual current devices
Re-use options, 875–6, 916, 952
Reactance, 749
Reactive airways dysfunction (RAD),
462
Reactors, chemicals, 849
Readability, 624
Reading positions, 608
Recall notices, 130
Recommendations (EU), 71
Records
accident and incident data, 274–5,
289–90
chemicals, 831
Duty of Care audit, 950–1
Environmental Management
Systems, 887
pressure systems, 739–40
statutory examinations, 779, 785
see also Documentation
Recoverable benefits, 157, 177
Recycling, 916
household waste, 875–6
industrial waste, 952
national waste strategies, 894
non-domestic lighting equipment,
592
packaging waste, 923
selecting best option, 900
water, 909
Red List waste, 913
Reduced Earnings Allowance, 147
Redundancy, 112–13, 173
Reflectance, 583
Reflections, ergonomics, 613
1022 IndexReform, court procedure, 23
Refreshing behaviour modification
process, 405
Registration, 878–80
Regulations
chemicals, 936
European Union, 71
fire safety, 689–94
first aiders, 431–2
HSWA, 53–4
implementation, 313–19
product safety, 133
see also individual regulations
Reinforcers, 396
Relative humidity, 505–6
Relevant fluid, 769
Relevant territorial waters, 941
Reliability of consequence, 397
Religion, 333, 334
Remedies, 84–5
Renewable energy, 962
Repairs, 739–40, 772
Repetitive actions, 485–6, 616
Repetitive strain injury (RSI), 616
Reports, 271–5, 293–4, 302–6
checking non-reporting, 273–4
design of forms, 274–5
environmental, 966
facts and opinions, 294
feedback, 294
good signposting, 294
HAZOP study, 846
improvements, 272–3
law, 18, 302–6
statutory examinations, 787
‘triple bottom line’, 971
writing reports, 293–4
Representation in court, 8
Res ipsa loquitur doctrine, 151, 164
Resale of equipment, 777
Rescue services, 689
Residual current devices (RCDs), 754,
763–4
Residual risk assessment, 712–13
Resistance
electrical circuits, 749
thermometers, 939
to change, 381–2
Resonance, 564
Resource costs, 257
Resource depletion, 961, 962
Respiratory system, 435–8, 448, 458–63,
475–6, 518–21, 829
Response to fire alarms, 682
Responsibilities
construction sites, 797
corporate social, 971–2
environment agencies, 892–3
Environmental Management
Systems, 884
organisations, 213–16
producers, 892, 895, 925, 932, 952,
968–9
shared, 968–9
Responsible Care programmes, 312
Responsible person, 692, 786
Restrictions on the use of hazardous
substances (RoHS), 923–4
Retention of risk, 196
Reviews, 414, 888, 954
RIDDOR (Reporting of Injuries,
Diseases and Dangerous
Occurrences Regulations) 1995,
302–6
Risk assessment, 78–9, 186–8, 195
accident and incident data, 296–7
administration processes, 221–2
aggregated accidents/incidents, 296
biological agents, 512
chemicals, 823–7, 929
construction sites, 805
COSHH, 824–6
definitions, 180, 823
environmental risks, 870–1
existing plant, 848–51
fire precautions, 681, 694–7
five steps, 187–8
forms, 825
handling of chemicals, 827
hazard seeking, 363
health hazards, 431, 449–50
ionising radiation, 533
machinery use, 712–13
manual handling of chemicals, 827
occupational hygiene, 494–513
plant, 848–51
probabilistic, 248–9
procedures, 824
risk control, 186–8
single accidents/incidents, 297
statutory examinations, 787
techniques, 233–5, 850–1
underlying levels of risk, 296
workplaces, 431
see also Aspects and impacts analysis
Risk management
21st century, 188–9
accident and incident data, 267–306
administration, 209–29
cost-effectiveness, 257–60
Index 1023Risk management (continued)
definitions, 180, 194
development pictogram, 197
introduction, 179–90
maintenance, 254–5
organisation, 209–29
practices, 230–66
principles, 191–208
role/process, 194–5
techniques, 230–66
see also Behaviour modification
Risks, 181–4
aversion, 79–80
avoidance, 196, 236
compensation, 382
components, 181–4
control, 184–8, 195–7, 235–6
definition, 870
environmental, 870–4
estimation, 180
evaluation, 180, 194–5
identification, 194–5, 230–3
measurement, 283
minimisation, 827–31
phrases, 834
ranking, 243
reduction, 196–7, 929
retention, 196
scales, 369
transfer, 196
workplace, 429
see also Facing danger; Loss control;
Risk…
Road traffic, 59
Robens Report, 49, 64–5
RoHS (restrictions on the use of
hazardous substances), 923–4
Rope slings, 814–15
Rotary switches, 716, 717
Routines, 352–4
Royal College of Nursing, 427
Royal College of Physicians, 427
Royal Society Study Group, 180
RSI (repetitive strain injury), 616
Rules, 354–5, 380, 386–8
see also Regulations
Safe behaviour score, 400
Safe envelope metaphor model, 338–9
Safe operating limit, 772
Safe product, 129
SAFed guidance, 771
Safety
1977 Regulations, 102–3
advisers, 91–2, 514, 627
catches, 734
committees, 223, 323
culture, 77, 224, 388–9, 417–18
fire signs, 680, 683–4
legislation today, 37–40
management, 327–8
valves, 770–1
see also Guards; Health and safety…
Safety management
5S’s approach, 319–21
assessment, 312–13, 321–5
audits, 323, 326–7
behaviour concepts, 412–15
benchmarking, 329–30
checklist, 318
common law, 308–9
generic, 309–13
housekeeping, 319–21
HSE models, 309–10
HSWA, 308
initial status review, 310
learning organisations, 328–30
legal obligations, 308–9
local assessment systems, 312–13
management models, 309–12
MHSW Regulations, 308
OHSAS model, 310–12
policy, 414
positive assessment approach, 322–5
practical systems/techniques,
307–32
regulation implementation, 313–19
safety systems, 327–8
small company systems, 330–1
statute law, 309
systems, 290, 327–8, 331
workplace incidents, 327–8
Safety Training Observation Program
(STOP), 402
Sale of goods, 83, 88–90, 126–7
Sampling, 495–502, 531, 569–70
SAR see Specific energy absorption rate
Scaffolding, 808–11
Schedules, HSWA, 56–7
Scientific applications, 868–9
Scientific Committee on Occupational
Exposure Limits (SCOEL), 509
Scientific management theories, 218
SCOEL see Scientific Committee on
Occupational Exposure Limits
Scoring systems, 324
Scotches, 722
Scotland
Building Act 1959, 784
courts, 12, 13, 14, 25
1024 Indexoffence reporting, 20–1
waste management, 892, 894, 911
Screens, 560–1
Scrotum cancer, 456–7
SEA see Single European Act
Sea life, 961–2
Secretary of State, 67, 694
Security, 199–200, 948–9
Segregation, 515, 915
Self-auditing, 324
Self-employed person, 58
Self-regulation, 67–8
Selling laws, 83, 88–90, 126–7
Senior management, 201, 914
Senses, physiology, 442–4, 446
Sensitisation, 511, 574
Sensitisers, 455–6, 462–3
Sensory defects, 358
Separate lifting accessories, 729
Service statements, 121–2
Service see also Fair trading
Severe Disablement Allowance, 147
Severity, 269–70, 276–7, 282–3, 368
Sewers, 805–6, 941–2
Sex discrimination, 87–8, 96–8
Shadow effects, 590
Shaping techniques, 324
Shared responsibility, 968–9
Sheriff Court, 12, 13
Shielding radioactivity, 529–30
Shift working, 581–2
Shipment of waste, 912–13
see also Transfer of waste
Shock, electric, 749–51, 754
Shoring trenches, 798–801
Short circuits, 751–2
Short-term exposure limits, 509–10
Sievert (Sv), 528
Sight see Eye
Signage see Signs
Signals, 623–4, 734–5, 813
Signposting, reports, 294
Signs, 623–4, 680, 683–4
Silencers, 558–9
Silicosis, 460–1, 804–5
Silver, 869
Single dimension analysis, 284
Single European Act (SEA), 31, 38, 69
‘Single-root cause’ incident model, 327,
328
Site ownership audit, 948
Siting of fire-fighting equipment,
666–70
Sitting, 600, 602, 616
Skills, 352–4
Skin, 445–7
airborne contamination, 574
contaminant absorption, 511
occupational diseases, 455–8, 491
protection preparations, 521–2
radioactive contamination, 530
ultraviolet radiation, 537–8
Slings, 814–15
Small Claims, 20
Small organisations, 330–1
Smell, 444
Smog, 960–1
Smoke, 686, 687–8
Smoke detectors, 657, 658, 659, 660
Smoke tubes, 576–7
Smoking, 654–5
Smoothing data, 277
Smouldering fires, 651
SMSR see Supply of Machinery
Regulations
SNVQs role, 76
Social Committee (EcoSocC), 70
Social expectations, health and safety,
74–5
Social partners, 74
Social responsibility, 971–2
Social Security, 147, 157, 306
Societal risk, 249
Society, 307–8
Society of
Light and Lighting, 587–8
Occupational Health Nursing, 427
Occupational Medicine, 427
Sodium lamps, types, 584
Software, computers, 297–302
Solids, properties, 640–1
Solvents, 468–73
Sound, 542–50, 557–8
see also Noise
Source waste reduction, 914–15
Space
employees, 611
plant design, 617
Special damage assessment, 173
Special waste, 911–12, 931–2, 944,
946–7
see also Hazardous waste
Specialists, 228–9
Specific energy absorption rate (SAR),
540
Specific Performance remedy, 85
Spectrometry, 940
Speculative risks, 194
Speech privacy, 563
Spillage, waste, 905, 906, 915
Index 1025Spinal cord/column physiology,
441–2, 598–602
Spontaneous combustion, 651
Spreadsheets, 301
Sprinkler systems, 673, 674–5, 699
SREDIM principle, 237
SRSC (Safety Representatives and
Safety Committee Regulations
1977), 102–3
SSP (Statutory Sick Pay), 146
Stability, buildings, 688–9
Stacking aisle widths, 727
Staff training, 686–7, 921–2
Stain detector tubes, 495–9
Stakeholders, 972
Standards
airborne contaminants exposure,
572–4
airborne contamination levels, 507–10
alignment, 311–12
colour coding, 610
of duty, 39–40
emergency lighting, 591
fire alarm systems, 663
hygiene, 513
machinery, 704–8, 713, 724–5, 731–2
making procedure harmonisation,
73–4
personal protective equipment, 517,
520
see also British Standards Institution;
BS…; EN…; ISO…
Standing, 597, 598–600
State insurance scheme, 145–7
State of matter
gases, 637–8
liquids, 638–40
solids, 640–1
Statements, 121–2, 889
Static electricity, 757, 759
Static goods hoists, 813–14
Static risks, 194
Statistical packages, numeric data
programs, 301
Status, EAW Regulations, 747
Statute law, 309
see also Acts of Parliament
Statutory examinations, 767–91
Statutory interpretation, 31–2
Statutory nuisances, 932–3
Statutory Sick Pay (SSP), 146
Steam boilers see Pressure systems
Stereotypes, control actions, 618
Stimuli for change, 381–2
Stimulus response learning, 379
Stockholm scale, 479
Stop doors, smoke, 686, 687–8
Stop now orders, 141–2
STOP (Safety Training Observation
Program), 402
Storage
chemicals, 837–41
drum compounds, 837–40
Duty of Care audit, 949
gas cylinders, 841
non-flammable liquids, 839
tanks, 837–40
waste, 903–4, 949
Strain
definition, 643
eye, 582, 609
repetitive strain injury, 616
static body positions, 598–600, 606
Strategy, health risk protection, 522
Strength of materials, 643–5
Stress
conflicts, 226
definition, 643
ergonomics, 621–2
factors, 375
health risk, workplaces, 429
human body, 445
occupational disease, 490
territorialism, 611
using incident models, 412
Stroboscopic effects, 591, 613
Structural feedback approach, 401–2
Structure
Environmental Management
Systems, 884
human body, 432–47
matter, 524–5
organisations, 210–13
Structure of matter, 629–31
Structure models, 210–13
Structured alphanumeric data
programs, 298–300
Subcontractors, 795
Subjective costs, 257
Subsidiarity, law, 31
Substances, definitions, 823
Substitution, 185, 514
Successful Health and Safety Management
(HSE), 251–2
Sulphur dioxide, 474
Summary trial, 8
Summit (European Council), 70
Superior courts, 7–8
Supervision, employer’s liability, 169
Supervisor behaviour, 406–11
1026 IndexSupply of electricity, 744–6
Supply of goods issues, 89, 127–8,
166–7
Supply of Machinery Regulations
(SMSR), 704, 705–8, 729, 774
Supports, excavation, 797, 798
Surface finishes, 681
Surface flame spread, 688
Surface water, 942, 950
Suspension notices, 130, 132–3
Sustainability, 865–7, 893–4, 969–71
Swan Hunter Shipbuilders case, 795
Switches, 716–23, 733
Symbols, 630–1, 834
Synthesis route, 933–4
Systems
humans as, 342–3
job safety analysis, 239, 241
limitations, 331
risk control, 186
safety, 241–3, 246–7
theory, 243–6
Tankers off-loading chemicals, 840
Taste, 444
Taxation, 926, 968
Technical evaluations, 919–20
Technical files, 706
Technologies, 649–52, 863, 871, 873
Teeth, 491
Telephones, 621
Temperature
global warming, 959
human body, 446–7, 485
ignition, 698, 700
monitoring atmosphere, 938–9
property of matter, 635–6
see also Thermal environment
Tennis elbow, 485
Tenosynovitis, 485
Tensile loads, 644–5
Terminology, fire, 698–700
Territorialism, 611
Test coefficients, 730
Test of reasonableness, 106
Testing equipment/products, 645–6,
764, 778, 784
Tests, toxicology, 451–3
Tetrachloroethylene, 472
Theory X and Theory Y, 218–20
Thermal environment, 571–2, 611–12
Thermocouples, 938
Third party duties, 42–3
Thorough examination requirement,
776, 777–8, 786
Three day accidents, 303
Three-part plant acceptance systems,
251
Three-phase systems, 744
Threshold Limit Values (TLVs), 507–8,
512–13
Time delays, guards, 721, 722
Time weighted averages (TWA),
509–10, 568
Timing of consequence, 397
TLVs see Threshold Limit Values
Toluene, 472
Tools
construction sites, 802, 806, 817
electricity, 762–3, 784–5
power presses, 781
Tort, 41–2, 43, 161–5
Total exposure, 828
Towers, site access, 809–11
Toxicity, 449, 454, 469–70, 514, 869
Toxicology, 451–5
Tracks, courts, 20
Trade descriptions, 118–22
Trade effluent see Liquid waste
Trade unions, 86–7, 223
Training, 386, 408–10, 430, 884–5
chemicals safety, 853
construction sites, 795
machinery operators, 709, 713, 725
risk minimisation, 830
stress reduction, 622
waste minimisation, 921–2
Transactional leadership styles, 415
Transfer of risk, 196
Transfer of waste, 902, 909–10, 912–13,
946
Transformational leadership styles, 415
Transmissiometers, 939
Transmission, sound, 542, 548–9, 555–6
Transportation, 535–6, 833–4, 841–2
Trapped key interlocks, 719
Travel distance, 682, 683, 700
Treatment works, 906–8, 945
Trenching methods, 797, 798–801
Trend analysis, accident and incident
data, 275–83
data comparisons, 281–3
graphs, 276–80
steady state, 276–80
variable conditions, 280–3
Trespass, 161–2
Trial on indictment, 8
Trichloroethane, 473
Trichloroethylene, 470–1
Trip devices, 723–4
Index 1027‘Triple bottom line’ reporting, 971
Trucks, 725–8, 777
Truth in lending, 125–6
Tuberculosis, 489
Tunnel guards, 715
Turnbull reports, 188, 232
TWA see Time weighted averages
Two-hand control devices, 724
UGR (Unified Glare Rating System),
589
UKAS see United Kingdom
Accreditation Service
Ultrasonic examination, 771
Ultraviolet radiation, 537–8
Ultraviolet spectrometry, 940
Underground cables, 755, 799–801, 802
Unfair contracts, 89–91, 138–41, 166
Unfair dismissal, 114–15
Unfired pressure vessels, 736, 772–4
Unhealthy environments, 803–7
Unified Glare Rating System (UGR),
589
Uninsured costs, 206, 257–8
United Kingdom Accreditation Service
(UKAS), 786
United Kingdom reporting
requirements, 302–6
United Kingdom see also England;
Northern Ireland; Scotland;
Wales
United Nations Scientific Committee
on the Effects of Atomic
Radiation (UNSCEAR), 868
United States of America (USA), 429,
957
see also American…
Unsafe acts/conditions, 291–2
UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific
Committee on the Effects of
Atomic Radiation), 868
Upper explosive limits, 700
Urban wastewater treatment
Regulations, 905
USA see United States of America
Valves, 716, 718, 770–1
Vanadium, 468
Vapours and gases, 495–501, 502–3,
940–1
VCM see Vinyl chloride monomer
Vdt see Visual display terminals
Vehicles, road traffic, 59
Velocities, air flows, 576–8
Ventilation, 781–3
contaminants, 515–16
ergonomics, 614–15
noise enclosures, 557
workplaces, 567, 574–9
Ventricular fibrillation, 750
Vibration
construction sites, 806
ear, 443–4
ergonomics, 620–1
health risks, 564–5
induced white finger, 153, 479, 564
occupation disease factor, 479
see also Noise
Vicarious liability, 167, 169
Video smoke detectors, 660
Vinyl chloride monomer (VCM), 478,
513
Visual communication, 386
Visual display terminals (vdts), 583,
588, 608, 622–3
Vividness, 368
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs),
960
Volenti non fit injuria defence, 151,
171–2
Voltage, 744, 746–9, 751, 753, 763
Volume, 636
Voting, 69–70
Wages, 88
Wales, 892, 894
Walls, 681, 688
Warehouses, 840–1
Warnings, 360–2, 623–4
Waste
categorisation, 898–9
contractors, 947
costs, 259
definition, 895–7, 931
Environmental Management
Systems, 878
handling and deliveries, 904, 915,
949
leakage prevention, 915
liquid, 905–9
lists, 911
national strategies, 893–4
radioactive, 535
recycling and re-use, 875–6
Regulations, 911
segregation, 915
source identification, 916–18
spillage and emergency procedures,
905, 906, 915
storage, 903–4, 949
1028 Indexstreams, 898, 918–19
transferring, 902, 909–10, 912–13, 946
transfers, 912–13
Waste disposal, 931–2
authorities, 892–3
duty of care, 944–52
environmental harm, 961–2
radioactive substances, 535
see also Waste management
Waste electronic and electrical
equipment (WEEE), 923
Waste hierarchy see Waste
Management Hierarchy
Waste management, 891–927
chemical pollution, 931–2, 934,
944–52
defining waste, 895–7
developing strategies, 944–5
failure costs, 924–5
good practices, 903–5
legislation, 892–3, 898–9, 910–11,
922–5
licensing, 901–3
national strategies, 893–4
off-site, 909–13
on-site, 900–9
practising, 897–913
selecting best option, 899–900, 934
shared responsibility, 968–9
Waste Management Hierarchy, 865–7,
875, 897–8, 944
Waste minimisation, 913–22
benefits, 913–14
feasibility of options, 919–20
goals, 921
implementing programmes, 916–22
senior management commitment,
914
techniques, 914–16
Wastewater treatment, 905
Water
abstraction, 924
chemical properties, 635
Duty of Care audit, 950
fire extinguishers, 666, 668
mist systems, 675–6
‘polluter pays’ principle, 967–8
pollution, 924, 941–3
recycling, 909
service companies, 905, 907–9
waste sources, 918
WBGT see Wet Bulb Globe
Temperature index
WEEE see Waste electronic and
electrical equipment
‘Weighted’ votes, 69–70
Weighting, decibels, 547–8, 609
Weil’s disease, 487–8, 805–6
Welding operations, 803
Welfare facilities, 815–16
WELs (Workplace Exposure Limits),
454, 471, 472–3, 508–10, 537, 573
Wet Bulb Globe Temperature index
(WBGT), 572
Wet chemical fire extinguishers, 667–9
Wet and dry bulb hygrometers, 506
Wet environments, 804
Wet scrubbers, 937
White Papers, 32
Wind chill index, 572
Windows system software, 298–9
Wiring, 662, 744, 746, 752, 765
Withdrawal notices, 130
Witnesses, 22–3
Woolf Report, 18–19, 23
see also Civil Procedure Rules; PreAction Protocols
Word processors, 299
Word use see Language
Word for Windows, 299
Work
at heights Regulations, 808
definitions, 50, 57
and energy, 641–2
equipment, 253, 704
groups, 216–18
permits-to-work, 853–4, 855
space requirements, 611
worker compensation, 145–7
Work-related upper limb disorders
(WRULD), 485–6
Working time discrimination, 103–4
Workplace
behaviour intervention process, 400
chemicals safety systems, 852–4
electricity precautions, 752–3
employee suspension, 87
employer’s liability, 168
environments, 609–15, 759–62, 803–7
ergonomics, 609–15
exposure limits, 454, 471, 472–3,
508–10, 573
informal organisational structures,
213–14
inspections, 231
job safety analysis, 239, 241
pollution, heat and ventilation,
567–80
Regulations, 7
stress factors, 621–2
Index 1029Workplace safety, 627–860
chemical management, 821–60
construction sites, 792–820
electricity, 743–66
engineering science, 629–48
fire precautions, 649–703
machinery, 704–42
plant and equipment, 767–91
World Meteorological Organisation,
864
Wrist, 602–6
Writer’s cramp, 485
Written communication, 293–4, 386,
624
WRULD (work-related upper limb
disorders), 485–6
X-rays, 526
Xylene, 472
Young persons, 60, 101–2
Zero tolerance approach, 393–4
Zones, hazardous areas, 761

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