Reliability, Quality, and Safety for Engineers

Reliability, Quality, and Safety for Engineers
اسم المؤلف
B.S. Dhillon
18 أبريل 2019

Reliability, Quality, and Safety for Engineers
B.S. Dhillon
1 Introduction
1.1 Need for Reliability, Quality, and Safety
1.2 History
1.2.1 Reliability
1.2.2 Quality
1.2.3 Safety
1.3 Terms and Definitions
1.4 Useful Information on Reliability, Quality, and Safety
1.4.1 Journals
1.4.2 Standards
1.4.3 Conference Proceedings
1.4.4 Organizations
1.4.5 Books
1.5 Problems
2 Reliability, Quality, and Safety Mathematics
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Mode, Median, Range, Arithmetic Mean, Root Mean
Square, Mean Deviation, and Standard Deviation
2.2.1 Mode
2.2.2 Median
2.2.3 Range
2.2.4 Arithmetic Mean
2.2.5 Root Mean Square
2.2.6 Mean Deviation
2.2.7 Standard Deviation
2.3 Boolean Algebra Laws
2.4 Probability Definition and Properties
2.5 Useful Mathematical Definitions
2.5.1 Probability Density and Cumulative
Distribution Functions
2.5.2 Expected Value
2.5.3 Variance
2.5.4 Laplace Transform
2.5.5 Laplace Transform: Final-Value Theorem
2.6 Solving First Order Differential Equations
with Laplace Transforms
2.7 Statistical Distributions
2.7.1 Normal Distribution2.7.2 Binomial Distribution
2.7.3 Poisson Distribution
2.7.4 Exponential Distribution
2.7.5 Rayleigh Distribution
2.7.6 Weibull Distribution
2.8 Problems
3 Introduction to Reliability
3.1 Need for Reliability
3.2 Bathtub Hazard Rate Curve
3.3 General and Specific Hazard Rate Functions
3.3.1 Hazard Rate for Exponential Distribution
3.3.2 Hazard Rate for Weibull Distribution
3.3.3 Hazard Rate for General Distribution
3.4 General and Specific Reliability Functions
3.4.1 Reliability Function for Exponential
3.4.2 Reliability Function for Weibull Distribution
3.4.3 Reliability Function for General Distribution
3.5 Mean Time to Failure
3.5.1 Equation (3.19) Derivation
3.5.2 Equation (3.20) Derivation
3.6 Failure Rate Estimation
3.7 Failure Data Collection, Sources, and Failure
Rates for Selected Items
3.7.1 Failure Rates for Selected Items
3.8 Problems
4 Static Reliability Evaluation Models
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Series Network
4.3 Parallel Network
4.4 k-Out-of-m Network
4.5 Series-Parallel Network
4.6 Parallel-Series Network
4.7 Bridge Network
4.8 Problems
5 Dynamic Reliability Evaluation Models
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Series Network
5.2.1 Series System Reliability and Mean Time
to Failure with Weibull Distributed Units’
Times to Failure
5.2.2 Series System Reliability with Nonconstant
Failure Rates of Units5.3 Parallel Network
5.4 k-Out-of-m Network
5.5 Series-Parallel Network
5.6 Parallel-Series Network
5.7 Standby System
5.8 Bridge Network
5.9 Problems
6 Reliability Evaluation Methods
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Network Reduction Method
6.3 Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) Method
6.3.1 Fault Tree Symbols and Basic Steps for Developing
a Fault Tree
6.3.2 Probability Evaluation of Fault Trees
6.4 Markov Method
6.5 Decomposition Method
6.6 Failure Modes and Effect Analysis (FMEA) Method
6.7 Common Cause Failure Analysis Method
6.8 Problems
7 Reliability Testing
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Types of Reliability Testing
7.3 Tests for Determining the Validity of an Item’s
Exponentially Distributed Times to Failure
7.3.1 Test I
7.3.2 Test II
7.4 Confidence Limit Estimation on Mean Item Life
7.4.1 Method I
7.4.2 Method II
7.5 Economics of Testing
7.6 Problems
8 Reliablity Management and Costing
8.1 Introduction
8.2 General Management Reliability Program-Related
Responsibilities and Guiding Force Associated
Facts for an Effective Reliability Program
8.3 An Approach for Developing Reliability Goals
and Useful Guidelines for Developing
Reliability Programs
8.4 Reliability Engineering Department Responsibilities
and Tasks of a Reliability Engineer
8.5 Reliability Cost8.6 Reliability Activity Cost Estimation Models
8.6.1 Reliability Prediction Manhour
Estimation Model
8.6.2 Reliability Modeling/Allocation Manhour
Estimation Model
8.6.3 Reliability and Maintainability Program Plan
Manhour Estimation Model
8.6.4 Reliability Testing Manhour Estimation Model
8.6.5 Failure Modes and Effect Analysis (FMEA)
Manhour Estimation Model
8.6.6 Failure Reporting and Corrective Action System
(FRACAS) Manhour Estimation Model
8.6.7 Reliability and Maintainability Management
Manhour Estimation Model
8.7 Problems
9 Introduction to Quality
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Comparisons of Modern and Traditional Products,
Direct Factors Influencing the Quality of Product
and Services, and Quality Design Characteristics
9.3 Quality Goals
9.4 Quality Assurance System Elements
9.5 Design for Quality
9.6 Total Quality Management (TQM)
9.6.1 TQM Elements and Goals for TQM
Process Success
9.6.2 Deming Approach to TQM
9.6.3 Obstacles to TQM Implementation
9.6.4 Selected Books on TQM and Organizations
that Promote the TQM Concept
9.7 Problems
10 Quality Analysis Methods
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Quality Control Charts
10.2.1 The p-Charts
10.2.2 The R-Charts
10.2.3 The -Charts
10.2.4 The c-Charts
10.3 Pareto Diagram
10.4 Quality Function Deployment (QFD)
10.5 Scatter Diagram
10.6 Cause-and-Effect Diagram
10.7 Hoshin Kanri
10.8 Design of Experiments (DOE)
X10.9 Fault Tree Analysis (FTA)
10.10 Failure Modes and Effect Analysis (FMEA)
10.11 Problems
11 Quality Management and Costing
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Upper and Middle Management Quality-Related Roles
11.3 Quality Control Engineering Functions
and Quality-Related Responsibilities
Among Various Organizational Groups
11.4 Steps for Planning the Quality Control Organizational
Structure and Quality Control Organizational Methods
11.5 Quality Manager Attributes, Functions,
and Reasons for Failure
11.6 Quality Control Manual and Quality Auditing
11.7 Procurement Quality Control
11.7.1 Useful Guidelines for Controlling Incoming
11.7.2 Incoming Material Inspection
11.7.3 Formulas for Determining Accuracy and Waste
of Inspectors and Vendor Quality Rating
11.8 Quality Costs
11.8.1 Classifications of Quality Costs
11.9 Quality Cost Indexes
11.9.1 Index I
11.9.2 Index II
11.9.3 Index III
11.10 Problems
12 Introduction to Safety
12.1 Need for Safety
12.2 Safety-Related Facts and Figures
12.3 Engineers and Safety
12.4 Product Hazard Classifications and Common
Mechanical Injuries
12.5 Statute, Common, Administrative, and Liability
Laws and Product Liability
12.6 Workers’ Compensation
12.7 Problems
13 Safety Analysis Methods
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Cause and Effect Diagram (CAED)
13.3 Fault Tree Analysis (FTA)
13.4 Control Charts
13.5 Markov Method13.6 Failure Modes and Effect Analysis (FMEA)
13.7 Hazards and Operability Analysis (HAZOP)
13.8 Technic of Operations Review (TOR)
13.9 Interface Safety Analysis (ISA)
13.10 Job Safety Analysis (JSA)
13.11 Safety Indexes
13.11.1 Disabling Injury Severity Rate (DISR)
13.11.2 Disabling Injury Frequency Rate (DIFR)
13.12 Problems
14 Safety Management and Costing
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Safety Management Principles and Developing
a Safety Program Plan
14.3 Safety Department Functions
14.4 Functions and Qualifications of Safety Professionals
14.4.1 Safety Manager
14.4.2 Safety Engineer
14.5 Safety Committees and Motivating Employees
to Work Safely
14.6 A Manufacturer’s Losses or Cost due to an Accident
Involving its Product
14.7 Safety Cost Estimation Methods and Models
14.7.1 The Simonds Method
14.7.2 The Heinrich Method
14.7.3 Total Safety Cost Estimation Model
14.8 Safety Cost Indexes
14.8.1 Index I
14.8.2 Index II
14.8.3 Index III
14.9 Problems
15 Robot, Software, and Medical Device Safety
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Robot Safety
15.2.1 Facts and Figures
15.2.2 Robot Safety Problems
15.2.3 Types of Robot Accidents
15.2.4 Robot Hazard Causes
15.2.5 Robot Safeguard Methods
15.3 Software Safety
15.3.1 Facts and Figures
15.3.2 Software Safety vs. Reliability
15.3.3 Software Hazard Causing Ways
15.3.4 Basic Software System Safety Tasks
15.3.5 Software Hazard Analysis Methods15.4 Medical Device Safety
15.4.1 Facts and Figures
15.4.2 Medical Device Safety vs. Reliability
15.4.3 Types of Medical Device Safety
15.4.4 Patient Injury and Medical Device
Accident Causes
15.4.5 Medical Device Safety Requirements
15.5 Problems
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