Reactive Polymers Fundamentals and Applications – A Concise Guide to Industrial Polymers

Reactive Polymers Fundamentals and Applications – A Concise Guide to Industrial Polymers
اسم المؤلف
Johannes Karl Fink
التاريخ
16 مايو 2023
المشاهدات
219
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Reactive Polymers Fundamentals and Applications – A Concise Guide to Industrial Polymers
Johannes Karl Fink
Table of Contents

  1. Unsaturated Polyester Resins
  2. Poly(urethane)s
  3. Epoxy Resins
  4. Phenol/Formaldehyde Resins
  5. Urea/Formaldehyde Resins
  6. Melamine Resins
  7. Furan Resins
  8. Silicones
  9. Acrylic Resins
  10. Cyanate Ester Resins
  11. Bismaleimide Resins
  12. Terpene Resins
  13. Cyanoacrylates
  14. Benzocyclobutene Resins
  15. Reactive Extrusion
  16. Compatibilization
  17. Rheology Control
  18. Grafting
  19. Acrylic Dental Fillers
  20. Toners
    Table of Contents
    Plastics Design Library (PDL)
    PDL Series Editor’s Preface
    Preface
    Preface to Second Edition
    How to Use this Book
    Index
    Acknowledgments
    Chapter 1. Unsaturated Polyester Resins
    1.1 History
    1.2 Monomers
    1.3 Special Additives
    1.4 Curing
    1.5 Properties
    1.6 Applications and Uses
    1.7 Special Formulations
    References
    Chapter 2. Poly(urethane)s
    2.1 History
    2.2 Monomers
    2.3 Special Additives
    2.4 Curing
    2.5 Properties
    2.6 Applications and Uses
    2.7 Special Formulations
    References
    Chapter 3. Epoxy Resins
    3.1 History
    3.2 Monomers
    3.3 Special Additives
    3.4 Curing
    3.5 Properties
    3.6 Applications and Uses
    3.7 Special Formulations
    References
    Chapter 4. Phenol/Formaldehyde Resins
    4.1 History
    4.2 Monomers
    4.3 Special Additives
    4.4 Curing
    4.5 Properties
    4.6 Applications and Uses
    4.7 Special Formulations
    4.8 Testing Methods
    References
    Chapter 5. Urea/Formaldehyde Resins
    5.1 History
    5.2 Synthesis of Resin
    5.3 Special Additives
    5.4 Curing
    5.5 Measurement of Curing
    5.6 Properties
    5.7 Applications and Uses
    5.8 Special Formulations
    References
    Chapter 6. Melamine Resins
    6.1 History
    6.2 Monomers
    6.3 Special Additives
    6.4 Properties
    6.5 Applications and Uses
    6.6 Special Formulations
    References
    Chapter 7. Furan Resins
    7.1 History
    7.2 Monomers
    7.3 Special Additives
    7.4 Curing
    7.5 Properties
    7.6 Applications and Uses
    References
    Chapter 8. Silicones
    8.1 History
    8.2 Monomers
    8.3 Modified Types
    8.4 Curing
    8.5 Crosslinking
    8.6 Properties
    8.7 Applications and Uses
    8.8 Special Formulations
    References
    Chapter 9. Acrylic Resins
    9.1 History
    9.2 Monomers
    9.3 Special Additives
    9.4 Curing
    9.5 Properties
    9.6 Applications and Uses
    9.7 Special Formulations
    References
    Chapter 10. Cyanate Ester Resins
    10.1 History
    10.2 Monomers
    10.3 Special Additives
    10.4 Curing
    10.5 Properties
    10.6 Applications and Uses
    10.7 Special Formulations
    References
    Chapter 11. Bismaleimide Resins
    11.1 Monomers
    11.2 Special Additives
    11.3 Curing
    11.4 Properties
    11.5 Applications and Uses
    11.6 Special Formulations
    References
    Chapter 12. Terpene Resins
    12.1 History
    12.2 Monomers
    12.3 Curing
    12.4 Properties
    12.5 Applications and Uses
    12.6 Special Formulations
    References
    Chapter 13. Cyanoacrylates
    13.1 Monomers
    13.2 Special Additives
    13.3 Curing
    13.4 Properties
    13.5 Applications and Uses
    References
    Chapter 14. Benzocyclobutene Resins
    14.1 Modified Polymers
    14.2 Crosslinkers
    14.3 Applications and Uses
    References
    Chapter 15. Reactive Extrusion
    15.1 Extruder
    15.2 Compositions of Industrial Polymers
    15.3 Biodegradable Compositions
    15.4 Chain Extenders
    15.5 Related Applications
    References
    Chapter 16. Compatibilization
    16.1 Equipment
    16.2 Basic Terms
    16.3 Interpenetrating Polymer Networks
    16.4 Compatibilization by Additives
    16.5 Reactive Compatibilization
    16.6 Starch Polyester Blends
    16.7 Functionalization of End Groups
    References
    Chapter 17. Rheology Control
    17.1 Melt Flow Rate
    17.2 Rheology Control Techniques
    17.3 Peroxides for Rheology Control
    17.4 Scavengers
    17.5 Mechanism of Degradation
    17.6 High Melt Flow Poly(propylene)
    17.7 Irregular Flow Improvement
    17.8 Heterophasic Copolymers
    17.9 Poly(propylene)
    References
    Chapter 18. Grafting
    18.1 The Techniques in Grafting
    18.2 Polyolefins
    18.3 Other Polymers
    18.4 Terminal Functionalization
    18.5 Grafting onto Surfaces
    References
    Chapter 19. Acrylic Dental Fillers
    19.1 History
    19.2 Methods of Development
    19.3 Polymeric Composite Filling Materials
    19.4 Monomers
    19.5 Radical Polymerization
    19.6 Inhibitors
    19.7 Additives
    19.8 Properties
    19.9 Applications
    References
    Chapter 20. Toners
    20.1 Toner Components
    20.2 Toner Resins
    20.3 Manufacture of Toner Resins
    20.4 Characterization of Toners
    References
    Index
    Index 757
    GENERAL
    Ablative properties
    allyl boron compounds, 419
    AC-calorimeters, 194
    Acceleration
    gelation, 168
    polymerization, 42, 477
    Accelerators, 38
    crosslinking, 331
    crown ethers, 478
    cyanoacrylates, 477
    dental polymers, 669
    ester-type, 264
    Acetals
    cosolvents for UF, 286
    cyclic, 91, 658
    dichlorobenzaldehyde, 206
    melamine/urea/formaldehyde
    resins, 286
    Acetylation
    sisal, 553
    starch, 639
    Acid-base reactions, 697
    Acidolysis reaction
    poly(carbonate), 561
    polyester, 555
    Acoustic ceiling tiles, 303
    Acrylic resins
    films, 365
    Adhesion
    amino-functionalized
    polysiloxane, 345
    coupling agent, 391
    coupling sites, 269
    cyanate ester resin, 391
    dental polymer, 682
    graphite/bismaleimide composite,
    435
    hybrid resins, 160
    interfacial, 523
    interlaminar, 19
    plasma activation, 648
    self-assembling polymers, 343
    sisal fibers, 553
    tackifiers, 456
    terpene phenol resin, 463
    to glass fibers, 8, 23
    to Kevlar fiber, 434
    to nonpolar substrates, 483
    to oily surfaces, 156
    Aerobic degradation, 519
    Aerodams, 517
    Aerospace applications, 24, 197, 322
    Aerospaceapplications, 373
    Agave sisalana, 552
    Agricultural applications, 245, 295,
    308
    Alder-ene reaction, 400, 642, 643
    Alkenoylcarbamates, 352
    Allophanate, 92
    Amalgam replacement, 657
    Amphiphilic polymers, 141
    Anti-punk properties, 255
    Antibodies, 433
    Anticarcinogenic activity, 142
    Antifoaming agents, 340
    Antifouling compositions, 344
    Antioxidants, 338
    chewing gum, 466
    grafted, 632
    Antiplasticizers, 159
    hyperbranched polymers, 144
    Antistatic formulations, 167, 360
    Aryl cyanates
    hydrolysis, 375
    Autocatalysis
    isocyanate, 114
    phenol, 179
    Autocatalytic curing, 379, 382, 427
    Autocatalytic polyol, 88
    Automotive applications, 98, 160, 203,
    241, 322, 517
    Backbiting, 423, 520
    Backcoats, 343
    Bagasse, 24, 307758 Reactive Polymers Fundamentals and Applications
    Base-catalyzed
    equilibration polymerization, 325
    inorganic bases, 253
    Batch cell method, 353
    Batteries, 167, 363
    lithium, 122
    Benzene yellow, 695
    Beverage containers, 525
    Binders
    abrasive, 266
    friction, 266
    glass fibers, 251, 266, 294, 316
    petroleum recovery, 266
    sand, 266, 316
    Bioabsorbable polymers, 488
    Biocomposites, 363
    Biodegradability
    poly(lactide), 521
    starch, 522
    Biodegradable
    composites, 161
    compositions, 517
    epoxy-polyester resins, 205
    grafted polymer, 518
    Lysine-diisocyanate, 73
    poly(lactide), 521
    polyesters, 52
    terpene resins, 459
    Biofibers, 161
    Biuret, 92, 96
    Blow molding, 524
    Blowing
    chemical, 94
    epoxy resins, 203
    formic acid, 95
    physical, 95
    Blowmolding, 517
    Bonding
    adhesive, 648
    adhesives, 475
    chemical, 24, 154, 254
    covalent, 648
    hydrogen, 122, 488, 639
    interfacial, 22, 161, 212
    interphase, 152, 535
    polyolefin substrates, 485
    primers, 482
    Bone cement, 49, 52, 688
    Bookbindery, 462
    Boron trifluoride complexes, 175, 179
    Bottles, 46, 519
    Bragg reflector mirrors, 504
    Brake composites, 273
    Bridges
    dental, 672
    ether, 286
    methylene, 248, 251, 286, 312
    methylene-ether, 310
    phenoxy, 261
    silicon groups, 402
    Brittleness, 1, 155, 255, 397, 466, 501,
    519, 700
    Brunauer Emmett Teller equation, 543
    Bubbles, 38, 273, 356, 462
    Building materials, 47, 204, 340, 360,
    365, 368
    Bumpers, 517
    Cables, 341, 631
    Calcification, 120
    Capacitors, 164, 363
    Capillary flow microreactor, 304
    Carbon
    glass-like, 271, 313
    Carbon black, 694
    Carbonylation
    propyne, 353
    urethane, 70
    Carboxybetaine
    grafting, 119
    Carboxylation, 272
    Caries, 682
    Cashew nut shell liquid, 25
    Cassava, 544
    Cast elastomers, 69
    Casting, 47, 116, 182, 204
    polymerization, 358Index 759
    sand binders, 313
    steel, 294
    syrups, 349
    Catalysis
    acidolysis, 561
    copolyesterification, 14
    enzymatic degradation, 488
    isomerization, 6
    latent, 107
    titanium dioxide, 428
    urethane, 103
    zwitterions, 103
    Catalysts
    addition-fragmentation, 190
    delayed-action, 103, 179
    latent, 107, 176, 184, 311, 386
    organometallic, 106
    Cavitation
    shear banding, 152
    ultrasonic curing, 312
    Ceiling temperature, 482, 510, 511,
    617, 620
    Cement
    bone, 52
    dental, 669
    furan resins, 313
    Ceramics
    aluminum nitride, 421
    microcellular, 338
    synthesis by pyrolysis, 336
    Chain
    branching, 608
    entanglements, 26, 166
    reversible termination, 567
    Chain extenders, 110, 121, 156, 400,
    514, 524
    diols, 31
    for polyesters, 52
    glycols, 92
    photosensitive, 92
    waterborne, 93
    Chain extension
    BCB, 498
    Diels-Alder reaction, 407
    diglycidyl compound, 525
    Michael addition, 407
    polyaddition, 524
    Chain scission, 534, 590
    shear induced, 614
    UV, 365
    Chain stoppers, 330, 498
    undecanol, 3
    Chain transfer, 184, 343, 514, 587, 631
    mercaptan, 82, 641
    Charge carrier, 51
    Charge control
    toner, 51
    Charring
    agents, 112
    aromatic polyesters, 89
    Chelates, 38, 122, 123, 182
    Chemoreceptors, 189
    Chewing gums, 465
    Chitin
    N-deacetylation, 118
    Chlorodioxins, 292
    Chlorofluorocarbons
    blowing, 95
    Chlorosulfonation, 434
    Chromatography
    packing materials, 314
    stationary phases, 189
    Chrome yellow, 695
    Chromophore
    conjugated furans, 317
    Disperse Orange 3, 209
    maleimide, 427
    phenylazo-benzothiazoles, 210
    Clay, see also Oganoclays,162
    Hectorite, 18
    macroporous, 271
    nanocomposites, 540
    organo, 162
    organophilic, 20
    Rectorite, 109
    Cloud point, 152, 157, 195, 454, 458760 Reactive Polymers Fundamentals and Applications
    Co-condensation
    melamine and urea, 302
    urea resins, 286
    Co-continuous phase, 27, 167, 389,
    390, 417, 543
    Coagulation, 304
    Coal-tar pitches, 315
    Coalescence
    dispersed droplets, 211
    dispersed phase, 538, 540
    prevention, 546
    viscosity dependence, 211
    Coatings, 1, 3, 48, 86, 120, 180, 203,
    322, 365, 422, 463
    waterborne, 203
    Coconut shells, 270
    Coefficient
    diffusion, 687
    extinction, 192
    friction, 50, 199, 465
    heat transfer, 509
    thermal conductivity, 509
    thermal expansion, 146, 375, 400
    Cohesion, 352, 461, 701
    Cohesion energy density, 621
    Colloidal silica, 688, 695
    Colorant, 51, 466
    Colorants, 694
    Coloration, 15
    Coloring agents
    toners, 694
    Comb-like polymers, 82, 87, 484
    Combustion, 30, 116, 292, 336, 666
    Comonomer assisted grafting, 633
    Compatibilizers
    block copolymers, 157
    epoxy resins, 212
    grafted polymers, 615
    UP resin, 49, 53
    Composites, 397
    hydrophobic, 665
    rigid rod-like, 498
    wood flour, 541
    Condensation
    base-catalyzed, 471
    Calixarenes, 189
    crosslinking, 334
    hydrolytic, 322
    intermolecular, 330
    Knoevenagel, 472
    resols, 247
    Conducting glues, 167
    Conducting paints, 167
    Conductivity
    electric, 207
    ionic, 123
    thermal, 19, 207, 377, 386, 421,
    509
    Consolidation
    restoration materials, 205
    sand, 317
    Controlled-release
    drugs, 304
    fertilizers, 206
    Coordination catalysts, 182
    Copolymerization
    cationic, 187
    Corona discharge, 482, 646
    Corrosion
    problems, 96, 103, 379
    resistance, 12, 51, 203, 313, 378
    Cotackifiers, 456
    Coupling agent, 328
    for compatibilization, 548
    for sisal fibers, 25
    silane, 24, 161, 343, 658
    Crack front, 158
    Crack front bowing, 158
    Crack propagation, 158
    Crack trapping mechanism, 23
    Crazing, 358
    Critical solution temperature, 461
    Crosslinkers, 472, 501
    Crosslinking inhibitor
    N,N-dimethylformamide, 623
    Crown ethersIndex 761
    accelerators, 478
    polymerization retarder, 187
    Crystallinity reduction, 89, 122, 213,
    543, 564
    Curing
    fluorescence response, 196, 381
    microwave, 198, 427, 498, 676
    ultrasonic, 312
    Cycloaddition, 317, 410, 495
    anisotropic, 208
    Cyclocondensation
    phenols, 248
    Cyclotrimerisation, 379, 382
    Cyclotrimerization, 379, 388
    Cytocompatibility
    polyurethane, 120
    Cytotoxicity, 687
    HEMA monomer, 663
    spiroorthocarbonates, 185
    Deep-drawing, 559
    Degradation
    acid, 115
    competitive crosslinking, 53
    controlled rheology, 618
    enzymatic, 366
    glycolytic, 200
    hydrolytic, 118, 431
    mechanism, 601
    microbial, 459
    photo, 365
    thermal, 21, 116, 387
    Dehydrobromination, 645
    Dehydrochloration, 148
    Dehydrochlorination, 101, 204, 637,
    645
    Dehydrodecarboxylation, 410
    Dendrimers, 80, 144, 484
    Depolycondensation
    polyurethane, 116
    Depolymerizable systems, 488
    Depolymerization, 45, 459, 526
    Devices
    electronic, 164, 167, 211
    electrophotography, 693
    medical, 341
    optical, 209
    photocopying, 341
    Diacyl peroxides, 36, 593
    Diatomaceous earth, 539
    DiBenedetto equation, 424
    Dicarboxylic acid
    α,β-unsaturated, 19
    Dielectric analysis
    α-relaxation, 195
    Dielectric loss factor, 195
    Diels-Alder polymerization, 410, 428
    Diels-Alder reaction, 15, 309, 400,
    411, 434, 643
    o-xylylene, 495
    retro, 260, 313, 410, 433
    Diisocyanates
    blocked, 79
    Dimer
    α-methyl styrene, 641
    Dimerization
    isocyanates, 106
    Dinnerware, 303
    Dip-coating, 270
    Discoloration, 87, 98, 669
    Dispersive mixing, 518
    Disproportionation termination, 605
    Diterpenes, 448
    Donor-acceptor complex, 144
    Drug release, 366
    Dual initiator system, 28
    Dynamic fracture toughness, 22
    Elasticity
    improvement, 269, 300
    melt, 517, 538
    Electrochromic devices, 122
    Electrochromic windows, 207
    Electrodeposition, 203
    Electroless plating, 215
    Electrolytes
    gel-type, 207
    photosensitive, 317762 Reactive Polymers Fundamentals and Applications
    solid, 122, 207, 363
    Electronparamagnetic resonance, 646
    Electrophotography, 693, 694
    Emission suppressants, 11, 18, 255
    End groups
    amino, 565
    carboxyl, 214
    functionalization, 569
    Enzymatic synthesis, 84
    Epoxidation reaction, 146, 147
    Estrogenic activity
    dental resins, 687
    Exchanger
    cation, 481
    Exfoliation
    nanoclays, 111
    nanocomposites, 163
    Expandable graphite, 33, 111
    Explosive polymerization, 190
    Fermentation, 517, 521
    Ferroelectric film, 362
    Fibers, 161, 332
    Aramid, 310
    binder, 257, 294, 321
    biodegradable, 521
    carbon, 24
    coupling agent, 161
    cure inhibiting, 24
    fused-silica, 96
    glass, 23, 678
    graphite, 385
    insulation, 267
    jute, 25
    Kevlar, 434
    mineral wool, 317
    natural, 24
    poly(ethylene) dyeing, 646
    polyester, 89
    sisal, 552
    strength improvement, 315
    Fillers, 19, 259, 331, 677
    dental, 84
    flame retardant, 378
    natural fibers, 24
    plant-based, 21
    Film blowing, 524
    Flame retardants, 31, 111, 168, 291,
    356
    Flammability, 33, 303, 378, 501
    Flash point, 336, 600
    Flexibility enhancers, 154
    Flip-chip manufacturing, 206
    Flocculation
    sewage treatment, 265
    Flory-Huggins interaction parameter,
    533
    Flow improvers, 52
    Fluorescence response, 196
    Fluorocarbons
    blowing, 95
    Flyash, 21
    Foams, 109, 266, 273
    ceramic, 122
    flexible, 86
    floral applications, 266
    microcellular, 338
    PET, 524
    rigid, 76, 86
    Footwear, 560
    Formaldehyde
    dispersions, 257
    exothermic hazards, 254
    free, 275
    hydroxylamine titration, 275
    low emission types, 255
    ratio to phenol, 250
    reduction, 256
    resol resins, 257
    scavengers, 256
    Foundries
    furan binders, 316
    Foundry sands, 294
    Fragrant oil
    encapsulation, 304
    Friedel-Crafts
    alkylation, 569Index 763
    catalysts, 311, 452
    reaction, 405
    Fries rearrangement, 514
    Furan
    photosensitive polymer
    electrolyte, 317
    Functionalization
    block copolymers, 542
    macromonomer, 82
    montmorillonite, 20
    of nitrile rubber, 560
    poly(lactide), 520
    poly(propylene), 546, 617
    star branched polymers, 163
    terminating reagents, 567
    Furniture coatings, 37, 47
    Gardner scale, 458
    Gel coat, 5, 10, 12, 18
    Gel point, 41, 194, 388, 424
    thermal mechanical analysis, 42
    Gelling, 96
    catalysts, 94
    hybride resins, 30
    inhibition, 338
    preliminary, 16, 322
    reduced contraction, 676
    viz. blowing, 101
    Gels
    drug delivery system, 206
    thermoreversible, 435
    Glass transition temperature
    IPN, 29
    modelling, 153
    structure properties relationships,
    44
    Gloss polyesters, 19
    Glue resins, 283
    Graphite, 694
    Gratings, 504, 644
    Grignard
    reagents, 321
    synthesis, 328
    Halomethylation, 272
    Hantz reaction, 284
    Hanza yellow, 695
    Hardeners, 176, 263
    Hemp, 23
    Hildebrand solubility parameter, 452,
    455
    Himalaya pine, 449
    Hindered amine light stabilizers, 36
    Hock process, 140
    Holography, 209, 644
    Hot-melt adhesive, 459, 462
    reactive, 114
    Hot-melt extrusion
    adhesives, 460
    Household applications, 203, 341, 360,
    361, 368
    Hydrocarbonylation
    ethene, 353
    Hydrogels, 205
    Hydroperoxides, 590
    Hydrosilylation, 328, 616, 643
    aromatic compounds, 328
    crosslinking, 335
    inhibitors, 333
    platinum complexes, 333
    silicones, 199
    Hydrosylilation, 391
    Ignition point
    peroxides, 591
    Image
    latent, 693
    Indene resins, 462
    Inhibitor
    coloring, 17
    silicones, 327
    trimerization, 106
    Inhibitors
    anionic polymerization, 480
    crosslinking, 623
    grafting, 623
    hydrosilylation, 333
    radical polymerization, 16, 17,
    328, 352, 677764 Reactive Polymers Fundamentals and Applications
    Iniferter Method, 567
    Initiation
    ultrasonic, 628
    Initiator systems
    dual, 676
    Initiators
    anionic, 428, 485
    atom transfer radical
    polymerization, 461
    cationic, 183
    controlled rheology, 589
    dental polymers, 669
    dual, 28
    encapsulated, 384
    functionalized, 624
    iniferter method, 567
    latent, 186
    peroxide, 35
    radical, 358, 387
    redox, 658
    UV-sensitive, 48
    Insertion
    carbene, 631
    epoxide, 182
    epoxy, 386
    intercalation, 162
    vinyl monomer, 568
    Intercalation, 162, 540
    melt processing, 109
    Interfacial slip, 534
    Interlayers
    charged, 162
    Intramolecular cyclization, 423
    Intumescence, 113, 526
    Ionomers
    acrylic modified polyolefins, 554,
    555
    polyurethane, 110
    Iron black, 694
    Isocyanates
    comb-like, 82
    phosgene-free synthesis, 70
    Isomerization
    allyl ether, 10
    oxazoline, 386
    propylene oxide, 87
    unsaturated polyester, 6
    Jute, 23, 25, 259
    Karstedt catalysts, 328, 333, 391
    Keratinization, 487
    Ketone Peroxides, 36
    Kinetics
    autocatalytic curing, 153, 257
    crosslinking, 117
    curing, 40, 114, 166, 669
    cyclotrimerization, 389
    grafting, 623
    infrared spectroscopy, 423
    intragallery curing, 163
    isomerization, 6
    monitoring, 193
    peroxide decomposition, 599
    photopolymerization, 675
    polyesterification, 14
    polymerization, 249
    self-catalyzed reaction, 16
    water content, 262
    Knoevenagel reaction, 472
    Laminates
    continuous fibers, 161
    hyperbranched polymers, 145
    printed circuit boards, 385
    Lenses, 208
    Lignin, 523
    Low-profile additives, 21, 26
    Lubricants, 160
    Macroradicals, 516, 612, 618, 621,
    624, 633
    poly(propylene), 547
    Mandioca, 544
    Manicure compositions, 486
    Manihot, 544
    Manioc, 544
    Mannich
    bases, 179
    reaction, 264Index 765
    Marble
    artificial, 361
    conservation, 365
    Masterbatches
    peroxides, 595
    Mechanochemistry, 612
    Melt condensation, 14, 16
    Melt phase boundaries, 531
    Membranes
    carbon, 270
    dialysis, 636
    drug release, 366
    molecular sieves, 270
    polyurethane, 109
    reactive, 206
    thermally stable, 435
    Mercury porosimetry, 543
    Mesomorphic phases, 553
    Metallocene catalyst, 642
    terminal unsaturation, 569
    Metallocene salts, 485
    Methylene blue, 695
    Methylolation, 286
    Michler’s ketone, 189
    Microcapsules, 296
    controlled-release of drugs, 304
    Microcracking, 44, 159
    Microfibrils, 555
    Microfiltration membranes, 270
    Microgels, 151, 698, 699
    Microvoids, 26, 44
    Microwave curing, 197
    Mixer
    batch, 53, 566
    Brabender, 550
    cavity transfer, 612
    extruder, 513, 531
    Plasti-Corder, 555
    static, 612
    Modifiers
    alkenyl, 374
    conductivity, 161
    epoxy adhesives, 203
    epoxy resins, 112
    impact strength, 606
    interphase, 537
    liquid rubber, 156
    melt strength, 524
    polyterpene resins, 462
    tiazone, 289
    toughness, 212, 290, 389, 417
    unaturated polyester, 6
    urea resins, 300
    Modulus
    compression, 21
    elastic, 121, 199, 377
    flexural, 20, 21, 378, 389, 590
    shear, 434
    storage, 388, 405, 643
    tensile, 20, 45, 544, 553
    Moisture barriers, 460
    Molecular sieve, 270, 522
    Monomer reactivity ratios, 28, 40, 635
    Monoterpenes, 448
    Multi-initiator systems, 676
    Multiring monomers, 405
    Multivariate analysis, 196, 432
    Müller-Rochow process, 327
    Nail chapping, 486
    Nanocomposites, 22, 532, 540
    clay, 540
    intercalation, 20
    layered silicate, 111, 162
    montmorillonite, 111
    rectorite, 109
    silica, 110
    silicate, 377
    Nanofibers, 678, 680
    Nanofillers
    silsesquioxane, 421
    Nanoparticles
    layered silicate, 164
    metal oxide, 678
    titanium dioxide, 22
    Nanotubes, 161
    Natural rubber, 366, 449766 Reactive Polymers Fundamentals and Applications
    epoxidized, 22
    Nematic
    acrylics, 663
    film, 208
    network, 146
    Neoprene rubber, 461
    Network
    breaking, 201, 313
    hybrid, 31, 167
    interlock, 29
    interpenetrating, 28, 29, 117, 164,
    210, 388, 429
    liquid crystalline, 146
    nonazeotropic composition, 40
    porous, 435
    reduction of crosslink density, 374
    reinforcement, 247
    reversible, 201
    silicone, 331
    unsaturated polyester, 1
    Nigrosine, 694
    Nitroxides
    cyclic, 568
    Nitroxyl radicals, 602
    Nonlinear optics, 209, 435
    Novolak, 142
    bismaleimide-modified, 421
    cyanate ester, 377
    diallyl bisphenol A, 400
    epoxy resin, 168, 387
    resin, 241, 247
    thermoplastic, 640
    toughener for, 466
    Nucleation, 304, 390, 551
    Number
    acid, 16
    Avogadro, 621
    hydroxyl, 89
    Sherwood, 510
    Optical applications, 141, 176
    benzocyclobutene, 504
    Optical resins, 207
    Organisms
    aquatic, 344
    Organoclays, 18, 20, 162
    Oxamides, 103
    Ozone
    depletion potential, 95
    resistance, 340, 461, 560
    treatment, 503
    Paintability, 571
    Paper release agents, 341
    Paraffin wax, 19, 455
    Particle collisions, 538
    Peresters, 36, 595
    Peroxides
    flash points, 600
    half-lifes, 600
    Phase transfer catalyst, 148, 514
    Phosgenation, 73, 74
    Phosgene
    reaction of bisphenol, 514
    Phosphorylation, 272
    Photo curing, 197, 485
    Photoalignment method, 208
    Photochemical
    bromination, 645
    chlorination, 645
    generation of dienes, 411
    reaction, 209, 317
    Photodimerization
    chalcone, 208
    Photoinitiators, 36, 52, 186, 384, 673
    cationic, 188
    radical, 193
    visible light, 190
    Photopolymerization, 30, 675
    cationic, 186, 189
    postpolymerization, 187
    radical, 206
    Photoresist
    gratings, 504
    negative, 92, 384
    positive, 268
    Photostability, 209
    Photostabilizers, 681Index 767
    Phytotoxicity, 317
    Pine resin, 450
    Plasma treatment, 644
    Plasticizers
    cyanoacrylate esters, 475
    Plasticizersepoxy resins, 167
    Polyamide 6
    γ-crystals, 551
    Polyesterimides, 418
    Polymerization
    anionic, 485
    coordinative, 182
    emulsion, 154, 555
    Enthalpy, 511
    Entropy, 511
    furfuryl alcohol, 316
    living, 82
    metathesis, 512
    multibranching, 144
    suspension, 340, 696
    Polymers
    heat-resistant, 110, 325, 342, 414,
    428
    hyperbranched, 144, 212, 412,
    484
    self-healing, 296
    telechelic, 568
    Polyphosphazenes, 208
    Polyurea resins, 92
    Polyurethane
    waterborne, 122
    Postcure treatment, 197, 414, 425, 675
    Postpolymerization
    photo curing, 187
    Pot life, 17, 40, 42, 179, 182, 384
    Pour point depressants, 49, 52
    Powder coatings, 48
    Prepregs, 386, 397
    Pressure-sensitive adhesive
    hot-melt, 642
    Primers, 482, 483, 688
    Printed circuit boards, 162, 204, 332,
    342, 385
    Printing inks, 186, 454
    Printing medium
    ink-jet, 368
    toner, 693
    Promoters
    adhesion, 615, 663, 682
    amine, 29
    dental polymers, 668
    redox, 37
    silicone synthesis, 327
    visbreaking, 274
    Pulse-cure method, 676
    Pyrones
    cycloadduct, 410
    Quinoline yellow, 695
    Radical
    β-scission, 593, 608
    branching, 516
    chlorination, 645
    copolymerization, 40
    coupling, 534
    diffusion control, 29
    grafting, 521, 541, 611, 614
    grafting kinetics, 623
    induced decomposition, 627
    inhibitor, 670
    initiator, 34
    photoinitiator, 186
    polymerization kinetics, 42
    scavenger, 643
    stable, 601, 614
    telomerization, 82
    Radical polymerization
    atom transfer, 567–569
    bismaleimides, 412
    chain transfer, 343
    cyanoacrylate, 485
    living, 567
    ring opening, 665
    Reactive solvents, 210, 246
    Reactors
    bent loop, 509
    Recombination termination, 618768 Reactive Polymers Fundamentals and Applications
    Reductive amination, 92, 104
    Reinforcing materials
    epoxides, 161
    unsaturated polyesters, 23
    Relaxation
    dipol, 195
    viscoelastic, 389
    Renewable resources
    vegetable cellulose, 307
    Residence time, 507, 508, 513, 571,
    590, 608, 613, 698
    Resistance
    hydrolytic, 3, 90
    impact, 22, 31, 554, 571
    thermal, 20, 50
    Reworkable resins, 201
    Rigidity control, 8, 44, 89
    Ring and ball method, 458
    Rubber tackifier, 6
    Rutherford back-scattering technique,
    646
    Salicylates
    ultraviolet absorbers, 356
    Sanitary products, 47, 341, 361, 462,
    558
    Sawdust, 21, 24
    Scaffold, 119
    Scavengers
    acid, 90
    formaldehyde, 251, 256
    Schiff bases, 147
    Schotten-Baumann reaction, 663
    Schulz-Flory distribution, 88
    Scission
    homolytic, 601
    Sealants, 341, 460
    Self-extinguishing
    unsaturated polyesters, 32
    Sequence length
    reactivity, 14
    Sesquiterpenes, 448
    Sewage treatment
    phenol/formaldehyde resins, 265
    Shrinkage, 35, 42, 107, 198, 662
    cationic polymerization, 666
    control, 27
    cyclic monomers, 665
    low profile additive, 28
    measurements, 28
    strain, 676
    Silacrown compounds
    preparation, 478
    promoter, 478
    Silaferrocenophanes, 325
    Silly putty, 321
    Silsequioxane resins, 322
    Sisal, 23
    Sizing agents, 463
    Softening point, 458, 462
    Soil amendment, 295
    Solubility parameters
    peroxides, 621
    solvents and polymers, 457
    Solvents
    aprotic, 412
    Solvolysis, 37, 114, 200
    Spin-coating, 210
    Spoilers, 517
    Stabilizers
    acid, 472
    efficiency, 622
    foam, 340
    polyvinyl chloride, 204
    storage time, 79, 480
    UV, 573
    Starch
    acetylated, 639
    amylose, 639
    blend, 522, 523
    cassava, 545
    corn, 248, 639
    esterification, 639
    grafted, 517, 637, 639
    modified, 523
    rice, 629
    sago, 544Index 769
    tapioca, 545
    thermoplastic, 559
    Steam
    activation, 272
    distillation, 450
    hydrolysis, 526
    treatment, 259
    Stereolithography, 367
    Steric hindrance, 14, 101, 166, 424,
    425, 427, 639
    Storage time
    inhibitors, 17
    phenolic resin, 268
    unsaturated polyester resin, 18
    Strength
    bond, 475
    cohesive, 472
    compressive, 13, 19, 267, 498,
    663
    flexural, 20, 21, 24, 25, 322, 332,
    384, 388, 389
    peel, 156, 199, 385, 456
    tensile, 22, 29, 111, 117, 121,
    159, 291, 389, 431, 435, 484,
    544, 563, 630
    Sulfonation, 272
    Supercritical carbon dioxide, 618
    Superglues, 471
    Surface metallization, 215
    Swelling
    chromatography support, 315
    drug delivery system, 206
    jute, 259
    Syrups
    casting, 349
    Tackifier, 366, 456
    Tackifying resin
    waterborne, 460
    Tapes
    adhesive, 203, 342, 462
    Tapioca, 544
    Tempera paintings, 366
    Tetraterpenes, 448
    Thermal cracking, 274
    Thermal transfer ribbons, 342
    Thermochromic dyes, 686
    Thermolabile linkages, 201
    Thermolysis, 184
    peroxyketals, 626
    recycling, 200
    Thermotropic polymers, 498, 553
    Thickeners, 480
    Thixotropic
    additives, 18
    resins, 13
    Tint agents
    dental polymers, 659, 682
    Tissue adhesives, 487, 488
    Toners
    bisphenol A fumarate, 51
    low fix temperature, 698
    styrene-acrylic resin, 698
    textile printing, 700
    Top coat, 5
    Tougheners, 212, 417
    dendrimers, 144
    rubbers, 156
    Toxicity
    isocyanates, 79
    maleic anhydride, 622
    silacrown ethers, 478
    tissue adhesives, 487
    Transesterification, 5, 89, 200, 264,
    472, 478, 515, 525, 554
    zinc acetate, 45
    Trimerization, 381
    Triterpenes, 448
    Trommsdorff effect, 29, 42
    Ultrasonic
    assisted extrusion, 532
    curing, 312
    initiation, 628
    reactor, 115
    Ultraviolet absorbers, 36, 356
    Ultraviolet stabilizers, 36
    Unsaturated polyesters770 Reactive Polymers Fundamentals and Applications
    π-interactions, 30
    waterborne, 10
    Urdiol, 84
    Urethane dimethacrylates, 84
    Uretonimine, 77
    Vector fluids, 549
    Vinyl offset, 698
    Vinyl staining, 98, 105
    Visbreaking, 274
    Viscosity
    branched polymers, 525
    chain stopper, 668
    controlled rheology, 590
    grafting, 618
    hot-melt adhesives, 462
    interfacial slip, 534
    intrinsic, 524, 573
    liquid crystalline polymer, 554,
    663
    reactive diluents, 400
    thickeners, 480
    vis-breaking processes, 606
    Visible light sensitizer, 190
    Vitrification, 166, 195, 367
    Wagner-Jauregg reaction, 425
    Wastewater treatment plants, 519
    Water sorption, 431, 678, 686
    Wetting agent, 317
    Whiskers, 161
    Xanthens, 259
    Yucca, 544
    Zwitterionic salts, 103

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