Professional Sheet Metal Fabrication (Motorbooks Workshop)

Professional Sheet Metal Fabrication (Motorbooks Workshop)
اسم المؤلف
غير معروف
التاريخ
12 يوليو 2022
المشاهدات
42
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
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Professional Sheet Metal Fabrication (Motorbooks Workshop)
Cutting, shaping, and joining metal for any project
Fabrication from simple patch panels to complex body parts
Detailed instruction for welding, grinding, hammering, and shaping processes
Contents
Introduction
CHAPTER 1: Getting Started
CHAPTER 2: Special Techniques for Welding Sheet Metal 24
CHAPTER 3: Brazing, Soldering, and Riveting
CHAPTER 4: Cutting Sheet Metal with the Oxyacetylene Torch and Plasma Cutter 79
CHAPTER 5: Beginning Sheet Metal Shaping
CHAPTER 6: The Small Gas Tank Project
CHAPTER 7: Advanced Sheet Metal Shaping
CHAPTER 8: Building a Fender from Concept to Completion . 187
CHAPTER 9: Making It Beautiful: Straightening, Grinding, and Surface Finishing 211
CHAPTER 10: Building a Custom Pedal Car
CHAPTER 11: Floorpans, Rocker Panels, and Rear Quarter Panels 255
CHAPTER 12: Repairing Doors
CHAPTER 13: Repairing Fenders, Hoods, and Trunk Lids . 280
Resources & Bibliography
Index
Index
abrasive blasting, removing paint by, 213–214
acetylene, rate of flow, 80
acetylene cylinders
about, 24–25
capacity, 80
fittings for regulator and hose, 28–30
moving and storing, 25–26, 28
obtaining/refilling, 25, 27–28
opening, 26–27
safety precautions, 25–27
shutting down, 34
acid core solder, 65–66
Aircraft Sheet Metal (Bonacci), 78
alignment, maintaining, 41–42
aluminum
annealing, 98
brazing compared to torch welding, 62
buffing, 239
removing paint from, 213
shaping using stumps, 115, 116–120
thumbnail shrinking, 189–190
TIG welding, 48, 56, 58–60, 253
torch welding, 43–46
unreceptive to welding, 60
See also fender construction project
Aluminum Association website, 43
aluminum oxide, for blasting corroded steel, 214
Amco 22 aluminum welding flux, 43
annealing, 10, 98
antique fender modification project, 219–223
argon
for MIG welding, 48
for TIG welding, 55
Austin-Healey boot lid repair, 297
auto-darkening welding helmets, 47
Automotive Body Solder (Cowan), 72, 73
back purging, 60
backfires, 35
backhand welding, 37
Barton, Timothy Paul, 161
batteries, 5
bead rollers, 18
beading
preparation of surface, 139
process, 140–145
with reciprocating machines, 166–169
bending, 95, 115, 135–136
Beverly shears, 15–16
blasting, removing paint by, 213–214
body hammers
defined, 10
types, 11
body solder
adhesion of lead to sheet metal, 67
advantages and disadvantages of, 67
defined, 10
lead sleds, 72–73
metal percentages in, 66–67
process, 67–71
safety, 67, 68, 72
Bonacci, Nick, 78
bonnet repairs, 298–300
boot lid repair, 297
boots, 5
brass, 65, 239
brazing
advantages and disadvantages of, 62
process, 63–65
rods, 62–63
Bridigum, Todd, 24
bucks
defined, 10
making wood, using Styrofoam models,
183–186
buffing and polishing, 238–241, 242
bull’s-eye picks, 10, 13–15
bumping hammers, 10, 11
Butler, Fay, 94–95, 161, 166
butt joints
making on aluminum by TIG welding, 59
making on steel by TIG welding, 58
making with MIG welders, 52
making with oxyacetylene torches, 40–42
small floor repairs, 255–256
carbon dioxide, for MIG welding, 48
carbon steel, torch cutting, 80–81
carburizing flames, 31, 33
cast-iron and torch cutting an, 81
Caswell Plating, 239, 241
chemical dip stripping, 212
chemical paint strippers, 213
Chevy fender repair project, 286–288
chrome plating, 242, 243
clecos, defined, 10
clothing, safety. See protective clothing
cold-shrink, defined, 10
cold-working, defined, 10
combination hammers, 11
compasses, using, 147–148
compound curves, making using English wheels,
128–131
conditioning treatments, 214, 215
copper
buffing, 239
safety precautions, 73
silver solder and, 65
copying shapes, 146–149
corking tools, 10, 13
corrosion
dissimilar metals and, 76
priming to avoid, 212, 213, 215, 292
Cowan, T. N., 72, 73
crimping. See tucking
crisp lines, making using English wheels, 136–139
crowns, making using English wheels, 128–131
curves, making reverse, 169–173
custom pedal car project
background of, 244–245
exhaust system fabrication, 248–252
grille fabrication, 252–253
steering wheel fabrication, 253–254
track nose fabrication, 245–248
wheel arch fabrication, 252
cut lines, 274
definitions of terms, 10
dents, tools for small, 15
designs, cutting tips, 83
detail work, making crisp lines using English
wheels, 136–139
dies, choosing, 162
dinging hammers, 10, 11
documentation, importance of, 8–9
dolly blocks, 10, 11–12
doors
gap repairs, 278–279
skin replacement project, 270–278
straightening project, 229–234
drag, described, 85
Drake power hammer, 161–162, 169
driving tools, 10, 13
Durbin, Bill, 214
dzus fasteners, 10, 78, 247
Eastwood Tinning Butter, 66, 67, 68–69
Eastwood tools, using, 16–18
elastic limit, described, 10, 161
electrical connections, solder for, 67
electroplating, 241–243
English wheels
about, 10, 19
making bends using, 135–136
making compound curves using, 128–131
making crisp lines using, 136–139
tips for using, 132–134
envelope (of flame), 31
ER specification, explained, 48
eyewear, safety, 5, 34
face shields, 34
Fairmount tools, 10
feather (of flame), 31
fender construction project
final adjustments, 203, 206–207
first steps, 188–190
options, 187–188
planishing, 203, 208–210
step-by-step first section construction,
190–201
welding, 201–206
fenders
Chevy repair project, 286–288
dent repair project, 219–223
Ford repair project, 284–285
making shapes like, 169–173
Model A repair project, 289–293
Mustang repair projects, 281–284, 285
patch panels, 280
files, 16
filing, described, 220
filler rods
for aluminum, 43–44, 46
for stainless steel, 60
for steel, 38–40
TIG welding and, 56–57, 58
flame colors (oxyacetylene welding), meanings
of, 31–32
flange welds, 38
flexible patterns, 148
floorpan repairs, 255–257
floorpans
large repairs, 256–257
small repairs, 255–256
flux
for brazing, 63
for lead solders, 65303
for TIG welding of stainless steel, 60–61
for torch-welding of aluminum, 43, 45
flux-core wire arc welders, upgrading for MIG
welding, 49
Ford fender repair project, 284–285
Ford grille shell project, 173–180
Ford Model A rear quarter panel repair project,
263–266
form/forming, defined, 95
Fournier Enterprises, 44
Franklin hood (1928) project, 294–296
gas welding. See oxyacetylene welding
Glover, John, 19, 289
gloves, 5, 34
gouging
described, 88
nozzle shield usage, 89
process, 91–92, 93
grains of metal, action of, 216, 218
grille shell project, 173–180
grinding welds, 237–238
GTAW (gas tungsten arc welding).
See TIG welding
hammerforms
described, 10, 111, 112
fabricating wheel arches, 252
using, 111–114
hammers, 10–12, 97, 99
See also specific types of hammers
hand-operated shrinkers/stretchers (Eastwood
tools), 16–18
heat-shrinking
described, 10, 102
example, 107–108
steel, 223–227
helium for TIG welding, 55
holes, filling, 54
hood repairs, 293–296, 298–300
How to Restore Metal Auto Body Trim (Lilly), 239
How to Weld (Bridigum), 24
hydrogen for welding aluminum, 43
hydrostatic test dates, 25
Hypertherm 45 (for plasma cutting), 89–90
jack stands, 7
kerf, described, 81
The Key to Metal Bumping (Sargent), 216
Knight, Scott, 235
labeling, importance of, 8–9
lead body solder
adhesion of lead to sheet metal, 67
advantages and disadvantages of, 67
lead sleds, 72–73
metal percentages in, 66–67
process, 67–71
safety, 67, 68, 72
lead-free solder, 73–74
lead sleds, 72–73
leaf spring mounts, 7
Lilly, Jeff, 239
linear stretching dies/hammers, 10, 97
mallets, 15
Mar-Hyde Tal-Strip II, 213
Martin tools, 10
metal inert gas welding. See MIG welding
metal memory, 214, 216
Metalshaping: The Lost Sheet Metal Machines
(Barton), 161
MIG welding
advantages and disadvantages of, 47
butt joints, 52
cut line, 274
equipment, 47, 48–50, 54
gases for, 48
grinding beads, 238
machine set-up, 50, 51
patching tips, 291, 293
process, 47–48
running beads, 50, 52–54
safety, 47
wire selection, 48
mini-power hammers, 161–162
Model A fender repair project, 289–293
MSC Industrial Supply, 295
Mustang fender repair projects, 281–284, 285
Mustang wheel arch repair project, 267–269
neutral flames, 31, 33
nickel plating, 242, 243
non-ferrous metals, torch cutting, 81
nozzle shields, 89
on and off dolly, defined, 10
oxidation, removing, 212–214, 215
oxidizing flames, 31, 33
oxyacetylene cutting torches. See torches
(oxyacetylene cutting)
oxyacetylene welding
aluminum, 43–46
butt joints, 40–42
clothing for, 34
equipment set-up, 28–30
with filler rods, 38–40
hydrostatic testing of tanks, 25
lighting and adjusting torch, 30–33
manipulating torch, 35–37
metal for practicing, 34
running beads, 35, 37
shutting down torch, 34
supplies, 24–28
torch safety, 24, 34–35
work area, 34
See also acetylene cylinders; oxygen cylinders
oxygen cylinders
about, 24–25
fittings for regulator and hose, 28–30
moving and storing, 25–26
obtaining/refilling, 25
opening, 26
safety precautions, 25–27
shutting down, 34
paint, removing old, 212–214, 215
parts, keeping track of, 8–9
pasty ranges, described, 67
patches, making, 197–198
pedal car project. See custom pedal car project
picking, described, 220
piercing, 91, 92
planish/planishing hammers, 168
described, 10
making reverse curves with, 169–173
planning, 6–7
plasma cutters
cutting ability of basic, 79
parts of, 88–89
piercing vs. cutting capacity, 91
plasma cutting
advantages of, 87–88
air pressure requirements, 89, 90
process, 87, 90–91
safety, 88
using Hypertherm 45, 89–90
plastic blasting media, 214
Plumb tools, 10
pneumatic combination hole punch and
flanging tools (Eastwood tools), 16–18
polishing and buffing, 238–241, 242
pop rivets, 75
power hammers, 161–162
The Practical Sheet Metal Worker (Glover), 289
priming, to avoid corrosion, 212, 213, 215, 292
profile gauges, using, 146–147
projects
antique fender modification, 219–223
Chevy fender, 286–288
door straightening, 229–234
fender dent, 219–223
fender shapes, 169–173
Ford fender, 284–285
Ford grille shell, 173–180
Ford Model A rear quarter panel, 263–266
Franklin hood (1928), 294–296
Model A fender, 289–293
Mustang fender, 281–284, 285
Mustang wheel arch, 267–269
shape copying, 121–128, 146–149
shot bags, 20–23
skin replacement, 270–278
small gas tank, 150–159
See custom pedal car project; fender
construction project
protective clothing, 5
for lead soldering, 67, 68
for MIG welding, 47
for torch cutting, 84
for torch welding, 34, 35
Proto tools, 10
prying tools, 13–15
puckers. See tucking
puddles, creating, 34–35, 36
with filler rods, 40
pure movement, described, 161
quarter panel repairs
access problems, 261–262
Ford Model A rear, 263–266
Mustang wheel arch, 267–269
planning, 260–261, 262
using ready-made panels, 259–260
reducing flames, 31, 33
resistance welders, 227–228
respirators, 67, 72
riveting
making corrections, 78
process, 76–78
rivet selection, 75–76
rocker panel repairs, 257–259
rotisseries, 7
safety
buffing, 240
clothing, 5
lead soldering, 67, 68, 72
MIG welding, 47
oxyacetylene torch cutting, 83, 84
oxygen and acetylene cylinders, 25–27304
INDEX
plasma cutting, 88
sanding, 212
torch welding, 24
torch welding aluminum, 44
torch welding steel, 34–35
tungsten electrodes, 56
working with copper, 73
sand bags, 121
sanding, dangers of, 212
Sargent, Frank T., 216
Schelin, Wray, 235
shape/shaping
copying, 121–128, 146–149
defined, 94–95
thickness and surface area relationship, 94–97
shears, 15–16
sheet metal brakes, 15–16
shoes, 5
short-circuit transfer gas metal arc welding. See
MIG welding
shot bags
making, 20–23
using for shaping, 120–128
shrink, defined, 10
shrinking
by cold tucking, 100–107
counteracting, 289
by heat tucking, 102–104, 106, 107–108
straightening and, 217–219
with thumbnail dies, 162–165
torch-shrinking steel, 223–227
using planishing hammers, 169–173
using resistance welders, 227–228
using shrinking discs, 235–237
using simple mechanical shrinkers, 109–111
using stud guns, 227, 228–229
using stumps, 115–116
shrinking discs, 235–237
shrinking hammers, 11
silver soldering, 65–66
slappers (slapping spoons), 10, 13
slip rolls, 19–20
small gas tank project, 150–159
smoothing, 115
Solar flux, 60–61
soldering
lead-free, 73–74
silver, 65–66
soft, 65–66
See also lead body solder
solid rivets, 75
spoons, 10, 12–13
stainless steel
buffing, 239
TIG welding, 60–61
torch cutting and, 81
stakes, defined, 10
steel
aluminum oxide for blasting corroded, 214
shrinking, 103–104, 106, 107–108
TIG welding, 48
torch cutting, 80–81
torch shrinking, 223–227
torch-welding
butt joints, 40–42
with filler rods, 38–40
flange welds without filler rods, 38
manipulating torches, 35–37
practicing, 34
safety when, 34–35
straight lines, cutting tips, 83
straightening
metal memory and, 214, 216–217
shrinking and, 217–219
stretching and, 217–219
torch shrinking steel, 223–227
work-hardening and, 214, 216
stretching
defined, 10
straightening and, 217–219
using English wheels, 128–131
using mini-power hammers, 166
using planishing hammers, 169–173
using shot bags, 120–128
using shrinking hammers, 11
using simple mechanical stretchers, 109–111
using stumps, 115, 116–120
stretching metal, 97–99
stud guns, 227, 228–229
stumps
described, 114–115
shrinking using, 115–116
stretching using, 115, 116–120
Styrofaom models, using, 183–186
surface finishing
buffing and polishing, 238–241
grinding welds, 237–238
t-stakes, defined, 10
tare weight, 27
task lists, 6
templates
location and relationship marking, 263
making, 146
terms, 10
thoriated tungsten, 56–57
thumbnail dies
defined, 10
shrinking with, 162–165, 169, 189–190
TIG welding
advantages and disadvantages of, 55
aluminum, 43, 46, 58–60, 253
cut line, 274
gases used, 55
grinding beads, 238
patching tips, 289, 291
process, 55–56, 57–58
stainless steel, 60–61
tungsten electrodes, 56–57
tin in solder, 66–67
Tinning Butter, 66, 67, 68–69, 72
tips (cutting)
fuel usage of, 80
importance of size, 80, 85, 86
operation of, 81, 83, 85, 86
swapping welding and, 80
TM Technologies, 44
tools
bead rollers, 18
corking, 10, 13
dolly blocks, 10, 11–12
driving, 10, 13
English wheels, 19
files, 16
hammers, 10–12, 97, 99
keeping track of, 8–9
for making wrinkles, 100
mallets, 15
prying, 13–15
purchasing, 160
quality, 10
shears, 15–16
sheet metal brakes, 15–16
slip rolls, 19–20
spoons and slappers, 10, 12–13
for structural repairs, 7
Vise-Grips, 15, 38, 40, 76–77
welding rods, 38–40
See also entries beginning with torches
torch pops, 35
torch-shrinking steel, 223–227
torches (oxyacetylene cutting)
cutting ability of basic, 79
process, 81–83, 84–87
safety, 83, 84
torches (oxyacetylene welding)
filler rods and, 38–40
flange welds, 38
grinding beads, 238
grips, 34, 36
lighting and adjusting, 30–33
making butt joints using, 40–42
manipulating, 35–37
patching tips, 289
shrinking steel, 223–227
shutting down, 34
torches (TIG welding), 55, 58–59
trunk lid repair, 297
tucking
process of cold, 101–107
process of hot, 102, 106, 107–108
tools, 10, 100
tungsten electrodes, 56–57
The Universal Sheet Metal Machine (Butler), 166
Victory White Metals, 67
Vise-Grips, 15
flange welds using, 38
making butting joints using, 40
using in riveting, 76–77
voltage, effect of changing, for MIG welders,
50, 53
weld grinding, 237–238
Weld Thru, 292
welding. See specific types of welding
welding rods, 38–40
wheel arch, creating shape, 268
wheeling
direction of, 263
pressure while, 271
process, 128–131
tips, 132–134
wire buck building, 180–183
wire edges, making, 142–145
wood bucks, based on Styrofaom models,
183–186
work-hardening, 10, 214, 216
wrinkles, tools for making, 100

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