Process Control for Sheet-Metal Stamping

Process Control for Sheet-Metal Stamping
اسم المؤلف
Yongseob Lim , Ravinder Venugopal , A Galip Ulsoy
التاريخ
16 يوليو 2020
المشاهدات
التقييم
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Process Control for Sheet-Metal Stamping
Process Modeling, Controller Design and Shop-Floor Implementation
Advances in Industrial Control
Yongseob Lim , Ravinder Venugopal , A Galip Ulsoy
Contents
1 Introduction 1
1.1 Manufacturing Automation . 1
1.2 Process Control in Manufacturing 2
1.3 Stamping Process . 4
1.4 Stamping Process Control 6
1.5 Purpose and Scope . 8
References 9
2 Equipment and Material Flow Control . 11
2.1 Types of Stamping Presses . 11
2.2 Mechanical Presses 12
2.3 Hydraulic Presses . 13
2.4 Variable Binder Force Control 17
2.5 Overview of Machine and Process Control 19
References 21
3 Recent Advances in Stamping Control . 23
3.1 Developments in Stamping Control . 23
3.1.1 Die Try-Out 23
3.1.2 Closed-Loop Machine Control . 24
3.1.3 In-Process Control 26
3.1.4 Cycle-to-Cycle Control 28
3.2 Active Binder Control Systems 29
3.2.1 Segmented Blank Holder System . 30
3.2.2 Pulsating BHF Control System . 30
3.2.3 Active Drawbead Control System . 31
3.2.4 Reconfigurable Discrete Die . 32
3.3 Process Variables and Sensors . 34
3.3.1 Punch Force 34
3.3.2 Draw-In . 34
3.3.3 Wrinkling 36
3.4 Concluding Remarks . 37
References 37
ix4 Machine Control . 41
4.1 Machine Control Objectives 41
4.2 Design of Variable Binder Force Systems 42
4.3 Controller Design . 44
4.4 Controller Implementation . 47
4.5 Experimental Results . 49
References 51
5 Laboratory Development of Process Control . 53
5.1 Background on Process Control for Stamping 53
5.2 Experimental Facility and Model Development . 55
5.3 Establishing the Reference Punch Force 56
5.4 Process Controller Design 56
5.5 Punch Force Reference Trajectory Design 60
5.6 Concluding Remarks . 62
References 63
6 Process Control 65
6.1 Process Modeling and Control 65
6.2 System Identification . 67
6.2.1 Experimental System 67
6.2.2 Experimental Data for System Identification . 67
6.2.3 Process Model Structure . 70
6.2.4 Parameter Estimation for Process Modeling 72
6.3 Process Control Design Based on MIMO Model 76
6.3.1 Design of the PI Process Controller 77
6.3.2 Simulation Results with PI Controller Based
on Estimated Model 79
6.3.3 Experimental Results 81
6.4 Concluding Remarks . 83
References 84
7 Auto-Tuning and Adaptive Control . 87
7.1 Automatic Tuning and Adaptive Process Control . 87
7.2 Stamping Process Model and Estimation . 90
7.3 Preliminary Experiment with Process Variables . 90
7.4 Auto-Tuning Based on Relay Feedback 91
7.4.1 Structure of the Process Controller 91
7.4.2 The Auto-Tuning Method 92
7.5 Design and Implementation of Direct MRAC 93
7.5.1 Direct MRAC Process Controller Structure 93
7.5.2 Robustness of MRAC to Parameters Variations . 98
7.5.3 Parameter-Constrained Estimation . 99
7.6 Simulation Results . 100
x Contents7.7 Experimental Validation . 103
7.7.1 Lubrication Change . 103
7.7.2 Material Thickness Variation 104
7.8 Concluding Remarks . 105
References 106
8 Direct and Indirect Adaptive Process Control 109
8.1 Adaptive Control Applications 109
8.2 Prior Information for Adaptive Control 112
8.2.1 Perturbation Process Model Structure 113
8.2.2 Process Controller Structure . 114
8.3 Direct and Indirect Adaptive Control 114
8.3.1 Direct Model Reference Adaptive Control (MRAC) 114
8.3.2 Indirect Adaptive Control Using Look-Up Table . 115
8.4 Simulation and Experimental Results 122
8.4.1 Simulation Results . 122
8.4.2 Experimental Validation . 125
8.5 Discussion and Remarks . 129
8.6 Summary and Conclusions . 130
References 131
9 Concluding Remarks 133
9.1 Summary . 133
9.2 Benefits of Process Control in Stamping . 134
9.3 Future Research and Extensions . 136
References 137
Index .
Index
A
Adaptive control (AC), 2, 93, 109, 134
Auto-tuning, 88, 91, 92, 110, 134
B
Binder force, 114
Binder See Blank holder
Blank holder force (BHF), 4, 23, 54, 67
variable BHF, 17, 30, 41, 135
Blank holder, 4, 42
flexible binder, 19
C
Computer numerically controlled (CNC), 2
Constrained parameter estimation, 99
Cost, 1, 133
Cycle-to-cycle control, 23, 28
D
Die, 4, 6
Die try-out, 6, 8, 23, 29, 41, 65, 133, 135
Direct AC, 3, 110, 112
Disturbance, 2, 8, 26, 66, 76, 88, 103
Dominant poles, 116
Draw cushion, 17
Drawbead, 4, 19, 24, 65, 136
active drawbead, 19, 31
Draw-in, 7, 26, 33, 68, 70
F
Feedback linearization, 44
Finite element analysis (FEA), 5, 23, 136
Flexibility, 1
Forming-limit diagram, 4
Friction force, 4, 26, 70
H
Hydraulic actuator, 7, 19, 67, 87, 134
Hydraulic fluid, 14, 42
I
Indirect AC, 110, 115, 130
L
Look-up table, 112, 115, 117, 130, 137
Lubrication, 59, 71, 82, 88, 91, 103
M
Machine control, 7, 19, 23, 41, 44, 55, 66, 73,
103, 113, 134
Material thickness, 88, 104, 127
Model reference adaptive control (MRAC), 3,
88, 93, 110, 114
Multi-input multi-output (MIMO), 7, 21, 29,
66, 87
N
Nitrogen cylinder, 5, 7, 17, 134
Nonminimum-phase, 110, 129
P
Pole placement, 116
Process control, 2, 6, 7, 23, 26, 53, 66, 76, 81,
87, 103, 134
Productivity, 1, 133
Proportional-integral (PI), 32, 77, 88, 111, 114
Proportional-integral-derivative (PID), 26, 44,
55
Punch force, 4, 5, 24, 27, 33, 54, 56, 59, 68,
71, 87, 103, 114
Punch stroke, 4, 70, 103
Y. Lim et al., Process Control for Sheet-Metal Stamping,
Advances in Industrial Control, DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4471-6284-1,
Springer-Verlag London 2014
139Q
Quality, 5, 26, 66, 135
springback, 5, 7, 24, 27, 56, 65, 133
tearing, 5, 7, 65, 82, 133
wrinkling, 5, 7, 35, 65, 82, 91, 133
R
Real-time, 47, 67, 77, 137
Reconfigurability, 1, 32, 134
Recursive least squares (RLS), 97, 115
Reference, 24, 41, 54, 56, 60, 66, 68, 90, 114
Robustness, 98
S
Sensor, 12, 27, 32, 44, 67, 136
Servo-valve, 11, 14, 44, 134
Sheet metal, 4, 54
Single-input single-output (SISO), 7, 29, 58
Splitting See Quality: Tearing
Stamping press, 11
hydraulic press, 11, 14
mechanical press, 11, 44, 67
press curve, 12
press-line, 11
Stamping process, 4, 36
System identification, 67, 73, 90, 112
T
Tonnage, 12, 20, 48, 51
Transfer function, 3, 67, 73, 90, 113
U
U-channel forming, 55, 58, 66
User interface, 20, 48, 135
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