Principles of Metal Manufacturing Processes

Principles of Metal Manufacturing Processes
اسم المؤلف
J. Beddoes & M. J. Bibby
التاريخ
31 يناير 2021
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Principles of Metal Manufacturing Processes
J. Beddoes & M. J. Bibby
Carleton University, Canada
Contents
Preface
1. Metal processing and manufacturing
1.1 Introduction
1.2 The manufacturing engineering discipline
1.3 Materials used in manufacturing
1.4 Raw materials to finished product
1.5 Primary manufacturing processes – steelmaking
1.6 Primary manufacturing processes – aluminium production
1.7 Secondary manufacturing
1.8 Problems
2. Solidification and casting processes
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Major casting techniques
2.3 Solidification mechanism
2.4 Solidification volume shrinkage
2.5 Heat transfer during solidification
2.6 Defects produced during casting
2.7 Shape casting materials
2.8 Design of shape castings for manufacturing
2.9 Problems
Case study 1″ Manufacture of can body stock – 1. Casting
Case study 2″ Cosworth-Ford casting process
3. Stress and strain during deformation
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Engineering stress-strain
3.3 True stress and true strain
3.4 Relationship between engineering and true stress-strain
3.5 Deformation work
3.6 Physical significance of the strain hardening exponent
91 vi Contents
3.7 Hot deformation
3.8 Superplasticity
3.9 Problems
4. Bulk deformation processes
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Friction during bulk deformation
4.3 Forging
4.4 Extrusion
4.5 Drawing
4.6 Rolling
4.7 Analytical methods for bulk deformation processes
4.8 Problems
Case study 3: Manufacture of can body stock – 2. Rolling
5. Sheet forming processes
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Formability
5.3 Shearing
5.4 Bending
5.5 Stretch forming
5.6 Deep drawing
5.7 Effect of anisotropic sheet properties on formability
5.8 Pressworking of metals
5.9 Problems
Case study 4: Manufacture of can body stock – 3. Sheet forming
6. Powder metallurgy
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Powder production
6.3 Powder characteristics
6.4 Powder compaction
6.5 Metal injection moulding
6.6 Problems
7. Machining processes
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Mechanical machining methods
7.3 Nontraditional machining processes
7.4 Comparison of methods
7.5 Problems
8. Joining processes
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Welding
8.3 Brazing
263 Contents vii
8.4 Soldering
8.5 Problems
Case study 5: Processing to produce automobile radiators
Case study 6: Manufacture of stainless steel automotive exhaust systems
9. Surface modification for wear resistance
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Types of wear
9.3 Diffusional processes
9.4 Flame and induction hardening
9.5 Plating processes
9.6 Thin film coatings
9.7 Problems
Appendix A: Useful constants 309
Appendix B: Useful conversion factors 310
Appendix C: Hardness conversion 312
Index 313
Index
abrasion 58, 280
abrasive 202
waterjet machining 191,223-4
acetylene 241-2, 265
acrylates 221
activation energy 183, 291-2
adaptive control 223
adhesion 214, 280-1
adhesive 232-3, 264, 280, 282-3
alcohols 221
alligatoring 130-1, 138
alumina 12, 70, 203, 219, 243, 306
aluminium 3, 4, 55, 66, 137, 295
319.2, 62
AA-1100 79, 90, 120, 135, 136, 163, 208
AA-2017 79
AA-3003 270-4
AA-3004 69, 79, 170-2
AA-4004 272
AA-4047 272
AA-4104 272
AA-4343 272-4
AA-5050 265
AA-5052 163
AA-5182 69
AA-6061 265
AA-7072 272
AA-7075 79, 208
A356.2 62
C355.2 62
G6290 62
alloys 206
brazing 267
cans 67-71
casting alloys 60-2
chloride 296
continuous casting 22-3
deep drawing 159
degassing 54
density 260
die casting 30
grain refinement 35
hydrogen solubility 52-3
ingot 18, 20-1, 41, 138
killed steel 19, 152
limiting draw ratio 160
lubrication 102
machining 212, 223, 229
powder 181,268
primary processing 12-15
radiators 270-4
shape casting 27, 72
shrinkage 36
smelter 38
sow 38-40, 69
specific heat 260
thermal conductivity 260
welding 237, 238, 240, 243, 252, 269
aluminizing 286, 296
amalgams, dental 174
amides 221
ammonia 178, 294-5
ammonium iodide 297
anisotropic sheet 158-62
anisotropy 106
mean 159, 276
planar 276
plastic 159-64, 276
anneal 52, 68, 97, 140, 155, 162, 171, 178,
253, 276-7
anode 223, 225, 300
antifoaming additive 221 314 Index
antifreeze 270, 274
antimicrobial agents 221
antimisting additive 221
antimony 268
apparent density 180-1
arc 177
argon 54, 70, 176-7, 185, 237-8, 304-5
argon-oxygen-decarburization 276, 278
Arrhenius relationship 291
aspiration 55-6
atomic diffusion 183
atomic weight 301-3, 308
atomization 174, 175-7
centrifugal 177-8
gas 176-7, 188
water 175-7, 188
attrition mill 179
austenite 58-9, 256-9, 285-8, 292, 295-6,
297, 299
austenitization 255-6
automobile
body 142, 143, 162, 241,244
camshaft 253
connecting rod 174, 253
crankshaft 174, 253, 301
exhaust 275-8, 296
fuel injection 225
gas tanks 245
radiators 270-4
piston rings 302-3
Avogadro constant 309
back-up rolls 122-3, 125-7, 140
bacteria 221
bainite 258, 261
ball mill 179-80
barrelling 104, 109
basal plane 161
basic oxygen furnace 9, 12, 16
bauxite 4, 12, 70
Bayer Process 12-14, 16, 70
bend radius 147-8
bending 146, 148-50, 155, 162
bending jacks 125, 141
Bernoulli’s equation 56-7
Bessemer 1, 21
converter 7-8, 9, 12, 16, 276
beverage cans 21, 23, 67-71,142, 152, 158,
166, 230, 284
billet 115, 119, 120, 135
biocides 221
bismuth 208, 268, 273
blankholder 152-4
blast furnaces 4-7, 12, 59
blisters 52
blowholes 19
body centred cubic 161,275
bodymaker 166-70
borates 221
boring 193-6
boron nitride 97
brass 220, 270
brazing 218, 232-3, 250, 263-7, 269
dip 267
fluxless 273
furnace 265-7, 270
sheet 272-3
torch 265, 267
brinelling 280, 284-5
bronze 30, 131,220
buckling 115
built-up edge 215-16, 220-1
burr 144-5, 223
cadmium 253, 268, 302
calciners 14
calcium carbonate 5
camshaft 253
can body stock 138-41, 166-72
canmaking 166
capacitor 300
capillary 264
car body 142, 143, 162, 241,244
carbide 214, 216-17, 220, 303
carbon 7, 8, 9, 12, 14-15, 57-60, 66, 216,
242, 257, 276-7, 296, 306
dioxide 8, 15, 19, 27, 185, 228, 235, 287
electrodes 10, 12
equivalent concentration 261
interstitial in steel 143
monoxide 5, 8, 9, 12, 15, 185, 287
oxidize 178
steel 9, 206-8, 215, 253, 285, 299
carbonaceous 184, 285
carbonitriding 286, 295-6
carburizing 285-95, 306
flame 242
gas 286, 287-8, 307
liquid 286, 288
pack 286, 287
case 285, 288, 295-6, 307
case depth 286, 288, 292-3 Index 315
cast iron 5, 27, 36, 57-61, 66, 72, 206, 229
ductile 60-1
gray 58-9, 220
malleable 60
nodular 60-1
white 57-60
cast cobalt tool 216-17
casting 18-75, 107, 190
continuous 12, 16, 21-3, 24, 35, 47-9, 63,
71, 76, 122, 171,179, 276
die 27-8, 30, 62
direct chill 20-1, 35, 70
electromagnetic 21, 70, 140
gravity 27, 30
Hazelett 23
ingot 16, 18-21, 23, 24, 63, 76, 115, 122,
170-1
investment 29-30, 187
lost-wax 29-30
permanent mould 27-30
sand 25-7, 30, 36-8, 55-6, 61-2, 73,
216
shape 16, 23-30, 57-61, 63, 229, 290
catalytic converters 245, 275, 276
cathode 225, 300, 302, 308
cathodic 274
caustic soda 12
cavitation 280-1,282
cementation 296-7, 308
cemented carbide 173
cementite 58-60, 256
centrifugal atomization 177-8
ceramic 217-18
characteristic hardness curve 258, 261
charcoal 287
checkers 8
chemical vapour deposition 304-6
chill crystals 31-5
chip 190-1,209-11, 221,223
thickness 209-10, 213, 230
undeformed thickness 194, 196, 198, 201,
203-7
chlorine 54, 70, 221
chromic acid 302
chromium 179, 216, 227, 263, 268, 276, 295,
297, 302
chromium carbides 276
chromium sesquioxide 268
chromizing 286, 296-7
chuck 192-3
Chvorinov’s rule 46-7
clad 253, 272
coal 5
coated carbides 218, 305
cobalt 216, 227
coils 123, 140, 142, 238, 254
induction 299
magnetic 226
transformer 254, 298
coke 5-6, 178
cold isostatic pressing 182
Coldstream process 179-80
collapsible tube 115
columnar grains 32-5, 39, 234
combustion 140
comminution 179
compaction
cold 174, 181-3, 185, 187, 188
hot 174, 181,185
computer 140, 162, 188, 222, 246
aided design 223
aided manufacturing 223
integrated manufacturing 223
concrete 5
connecting rod 173-4
constituent particles 170-1
continuous casting 12, 16, 21-3, 24, 35,
47-9, 63, 71, 76, 122, 171,179, 276
continuous cooling transformation diagram
257-8
continuous path control 222
contouring control 222
cope 25-6, 61
copper 4, 21-3, 33-4, 174, 179, 204, 224,
230, 240
cutting energy 206
density 181, 184, 260
hydrogen solubility 53
limiting draw ratio 160
machining 208, 212
plating 302-3
radiator 270
roll bonding 253
shrinkage 36
specific heat 260
thermal conductivity 260
thermal expansion 36
tubing 299
welding 242, 252
copper sulphate 179
core 25-6, 62, 74
coring 34, 49, 66 316 Index
corrosion 220, 234, 242, 253, 262-3, 270,
274, 276-7, 279, 296, 302-3
corrosion inhibitors 221
Cosworth process 27, 61, 72-5
counterboring 200
countersinking 200
crankshaft 174, 253, 301
creep 278
crucible 243-4
cryolite 15
cupper 166, 167
cupping 143, 166-8
cutting 144-6, 195
depth 191,195, 201,204-5, 207, 209-10,
213-15, 219-20, 229, 230
edge 191-2, 194, 196, 198-9, 201-6, 213,
229
efficiency 204-7
feed 191-2, 207
fluid 190, 220-2
laser 227-8
mechanics 209
specific energy 203-7
speed 191, 192, 194, 207, 214, 215, 219,
220, 222
thread 194
tool 190, 215, 222
cyanide 296
cyaniding 296
dead metal zone 115-16
deep drawability 276
deep drawing 68, 152-5, 157-9, 162, 164-7
deformation
bulk 16, 24, 76, 99-137, 147
cold 95
elastic 77-8, 81-2, 86, 254
homogeneous 78, 86-8, 98, 108
hot 91-4, 97, 98, 111, 187
ideal work of 89-90, 96, 108, 136, 230
inhomogeneous 93, 129, 130-1, 138
local 251-2, 254
mechanical 251
plane strain 111
plane stress 111
plastic 58, 77-8, 80-2, 86, 91, 97, 99,
143-5, 158-60, 170, 182, 190, 246, 254,
281,284
pressure 119
resistance 119
shear 211
sheet 16, 76
work 88-91,121,211
degas 22, 54-5, 68, 70
degree of densification 181
dendrite 32-4, 41, 49-50, 63, 107
dendritic 173, 179
density 4, 42-5, 47, 183, 187-9, 260, 308, 310
apparent 180-1, 187
energy 240
full 181,187
green 182, 185
powder 180
power 226, 227
tap 180-1
detergent 221
dewaxing 184
die
blocker 103-4
casting 27-8, 30, 62
clearance 144-5
closed 103-4, 112-13
extrusion 115, 117
finishing 103-4
geometry factor 148-9
holder 117
impression 104
open 103-4, 112, 113
wiping 149, 163
dielectric 224-5
diffuse 177, 242, 288, 290, 294, 296
diffusion 92, 187, 221,230, 253, 285-97
activation energy 193, 291-2
atomic 42, 183
bonding 254, 264
constant 183, 289-94, 306
flow 288-91
flux 289-90
frequency factor 183, 291-2
grain boundary 96, 183
hydrogen 236
layer 264-5
surface 183
volume 183
direct reduction 7
dislocation 58, 78, 92, 143, 172
draft 61-2, 105
drag 25-6, 61
drawing 99-100, 102, 117, 121-2, 128, 133,
155-6, 162
deep 68, 152-5, 157-9, 162, 164-7
re- 154-8, 166-8, 172, 230 Index 317
drill bit 197-9
drill press 195, 198, 205
drilling 190, 196-9, 206, 223, 227, 229
dry scrubber 15
ductile tears 83
ductility 80, 82, 171
dynamic recovery 92, 96, 127
dynamic recrystallization 92, 96, 127
earing 159, 171,277
ears 159, 170-1,276
eddy current 298-9
Einstein equation 293
elastic limit 3
elastic modulus 77, 148, 149, 248, 310
elastic-plastic method 135
electric arc furnace 9, 16, 22, 276
electric arc welding 233-40
electrical discharge machining 191,224-6
electrochemical 300
electrochemical machining 191,223-5
electrode 10, 12, 224-5, 233-40, 244, 257
electrode coating 235-6
electrodeposition 302
electroless 300, 303
electrolysis 174, 179, 301
electrolyte 179, 225, 300, 302
electrolytic cell 179, 223, 300
electromagnetic
casting 21, 70, 140
pumping 72-3
electron 226, 236, 237
beam drilling 226-7
beam heating 304
beam machining 191,226-7, 244
beam welding 233, 241,244
charge 309
rest mass 309
volt 309
electroplating 300, 302-3, 308
elongation 79, 80, 96, 98, 171
emulsion 169, 221
engineering strain 77, 80-2, 85, 87, 97, 136
engineering stress 76-8, 80-1, 87-8, 96, 97
equivalent carbon concentration 261
erode 279
erosion 223, 280-1
cavitation 280-1,282
impingement 280-1,282
resistant 304
slurry 280-1,282
Euler bending formula 248
eutectic 50, 57-9, 61, 65
eutectoid 58-9, 258
exothermic 187, 243
explosion 39, 140, 187, 288
explosive welding 233
extreme pressure additive 221
extrusion 82, 99-100, 115-21,128, 133, 134
backward 115-16
cold 117-20, 135
forward 115-17
hot 120-1
impact 115-16, 120, 164, 165
lubrication 102
multiplying factor 118
pressure 117-18
ratio 118
face centred cubic 161-2
facing 193-4, 204, 206, 229
Faraday’s laws 300-3
fatigue
failure 177
strength 253
surface 279, 280, 284-5
fatty oils 102
feed rods 193
feed screws 193
ferric oxide 178
ferrite 59-60, 208, 256, 258, 261
ferromanganese 19
ferrosilicon 19
Fick’s first law 289-90
Fick’s second law 290
filler metal 232, 236, 238, 24071, 243, 250,
263-7
finite element method 134-5
fire extinguishers 120-1
flame carburizing 242
flame hardening 297-8
flank 192, 198, 199, 202
flash gutters 103-4
flask 25-6
flat rolling 111,146
flatness 141, 166
flexible manufacturing 223
flow stress 107, 110, 113, 121
fluid mechanics 18
incompressible 133
inviscid 133
fluorides 15, 54, 272 318 Index
flute 198-9
flux 9, 12, 54, 70, 235, 239, 272, 289-90, 298
fool’s gold 5
forging 34, 82, 99-100, 102, 103-15, 128,
133, 134, 211
closed die 103-4, 112-13
cylinders 107-11
impression 103-4, 112-13
open die 103-4, 112, 114, 135
rectangular parts 111-12, 129
formability 34, 69, 91, 95, 142-4, 151, 158,
162, 171,270, 276-7
forming limit 151
forming limit diagram 152, 17 i
fossil fuel 8, 52, 69, 72, 140, 185
four-high mill 122-3, 125, 129, 136, 138-41
Fourier 42
frequency factor 183, 291-2
fretting 280-1,282-3
friction 91, 97, 100-3, 109, 115, 123, 127,
128-9, 132, 135, 136, 157, 170, 279
angle 211-12
chip-tool 210-11
coefficient of 100-2, 109-11, 119, 122,
129, 135, 136, 137, 213-14, 220, 230,
282
multiplying factor 109-10
pressure 119
resistance 119
slipping 101
sticking 101, 109, 119, 129
welding 233, 252
furnace 72, 173, 263, 287
basic oxygen 9, 12, 16
batch 140
blast 4-7, 12, 59
brazing 265-7, 270
continuous 266
electric 72-3, 185
electric arc 9, 16, 22, 276
elements 174
explosion 288
holding 69, 73
reheat 22
reverberatory 69
vacuum 274
fusion welding 232, 254
fusion zone 234-5, 239, 255-60
galling 280, 282-4
galvanizing 296
gangue 5, 178
garnet 223
gas
atomization 176-7, 188
carbonitriding 295
carburizing 282, 287-8, 307
constant, universal 183
de- 22, 54-5, 68, 70
metal arc welding 233
natural 287, 295
nitriding 294
porosity 52-5, 63, 66, 177, 236, 237
turbine 174, 186-7, 223, 282, 304, 306
welding 233, 241-4
Gaussian error function 42-3, 290-1
generalized tool life equation 219-20
glass 102-3
glycol 270
gold 5, 174, 210, 303
Goldschmidt process 268
grain
boundary 31, 96, 276
boundary diffusion 183
boundary sliding 96
columnar 32-5, 39, 234
equiaxed 34-5, 127
growth 127
rearrangement 96
refine 34_5, 68, 70
size 27, 40, 95-6
structure 106, 140
graphite 18, 58-60, 72, 102-3, 111,186, 224,
253-4
gravity casting 27, 30
green density 182, 185
green strength 181
grinding 190, 196, 202-3, 205-6, 230, 243,
280
haematite 5
Hall-Hrroult 1, 12, 14-16, 70
hard chromium plating 302-3
hardenability 257-8
hardness 91, 92, 95, 171, 173, 214, 216-17,
257, 260-1,269, 281,285, 296
Hazelett casting 22
headstock 192-4
health and safety
acne 221
antimisting additive 221
carbonitriding 296 Index 319
carburizing 287-8
casting 22, 39-40, 47
degassing 54
dermatitus 221
explosion 39, 140, 187, 288
eye damage 235
metallic dust 187
tumours 221
welding safety 235, 244
hearth 6, 69
open 8, 16
heat
affected zone 234-5, 239, 252, 255-64,
269
capacity 42-3, 221
conduction 183
conductive flow 290
exchangers 245, 253-4
flux 41, 43-4, 64
latent 31-2, 44-5, 47, 64, 69, 255, 256
dimensionless 47
sink 42
specific 45, 47, 259-60, 311
transfer 18, 20, 33, 38, 40-9, 246, 258-9,
270, 287-8
treatment 3, 15-16, 52, 63, 174, 208, 227,
258, 279, 296, 308
helium 237
hexagonal close packed 161, 164
high speed steels 216-17, 220
Hrgan~is process 178
Hollomon equation 85, 87-90, 97, 98, 107,
113
homogenization 68, 71,170
Hooke’s law 77, 86
hot cracking 62
hot isostatic pressing 185-7, 189
hot line 138-40
hydrocarbons 185
hydrofluoric acid 306
hydrogen 19, 52-4, 66, 70, 72, 178, 185, 236,
262, 294, 302
ice 36
ideal deformation work 89-90, 96, 108, 136,
230
incandescent light bulbs 173
inclusions 55, 69-70, 72, 171,177
Inconel 208, 223
indentor 251
induction coil 299-300
induction hardening 297-300, 306, 308
induction heating 298-300
industrial revolution 1, 7
ingate 25, 57
ingot 16, 23, 38, 63, 76, 99, 103, 115, 122,
129, 171,253, 272
aluminium 20-1, 41, 69-70, 138
capped 19-20
killed 19
rimmed 19-20
semikilled 19
steel 18-20
injection moulding 187-8
interdendritic 34, 49
internal energy 133
interstitial 143-4, 291
investment casting 29-30, 187
inviscid 133
ions 236, 238, 304
iron 9, 170, 216, 243, 291
density 260
hydrogen solubility 53
powder 174, 178
specific heat 260
thermal conductivity 260
iron ore 4, 5, 8
iron oxide 9, 243, 280
iron powder 177-8, 181
iron pyrite 5
ironing 68, 70, 157-8, 166-72, 230, 284
isostatic pressing 174, 189
cold 182
hot 185-7, 189
joining 16, 76, 232-74
Kelly, William 1
keyhole method 240
kinetic energy 281
ladle 5-6, 15, 21, 25, 30, 38, 54, 69, 72
laser
carbon dioxide 228
cutting 227-8
machining 191,227-8
neodymium doped yttrium aluminium
garnet 228
neodymium-glass 228
latent heat 31-2, 44-5, 47, 64, 69, 255, 256
lathe 192-3, 204-6, 229, 230
launder 20, 55, 69-70 320 Index
lead 22-3, 179, 208, 212, 253, 268, 302
lime 8, 9, 12
limestone 5, 8, 178
limit analysis 133
limiting draw ratio 155-6, 160
linear control 222
liquid carbonitriding 296
liquid carburizing 286, 288
liquidus 33
lost-wax 29-30
lower bound 133
lubricant 101-3, 119, 125, 127, 131,135,
136, 137, 140-1,166-7, 170, 174, 181,
184, 198, 208, 220-1,279, 282, 285
lubrication 101-3, 129, 136, 157, 169, 181,
221,284
Liiders lines 143-4
luminous zone 241-2
machinability 60, 91,207-9, 222, 233
machining 16, 20, 30, 76, 91, 107, 173, 188,
190-231
boring 193-6
comparison of methods 228-9
electrical discharge 191,224-6
electrochemical 191,223-5
electron beam 191,226-7, 244
laser 191,227-8
mechanical 191-223
Merchant’s analysis 21 O- 12, 230
metal removal rate 191, 194-6, 198,
203-7, 228-9
multiple point 196-203
nontraditional 223-9
orthogonal 209, 213, 214, 230
power 203-7, 228
single point 191-6
time 191
waterjet 191,223-4, 229
machinist 222
macroporosity 37, 39, 46, 49, 52, 65
magnesium 4, 35, 60, 66, 170, 237, 243, 268,
273
magnetic 298, 305
magnetic permeability 299
magnetite 5, 178
magnetrons 305
malleable 253
manganese 7, 9, 12, 70, 170, 179, 216, 257,
263, 295
martensite 208, 256-9, 262-3, 277, 285, 297
martensitic 257-8, 260-2, 269, 294, 299
mass transport 183, 290, 293
mean anisotropy 159
mechanical fasteners 232-3
mechanical machining 191-23
Merchant’s analysis 21 O- 12, 230
metal inert gas arc welding 237-8, 241,260,
267, 277
metal injection moulding 187-8
metal removal rate 191, 194-6, 198, 203-7,
228-9
metal powder 173, 174
metallic dust 187
methane 287
microelectronics 268
microporosity 49-52, 57, 66
microsegregation 34, 49, 57
mill
attrition 179
ball mill 179-80
breakdown 122, 124, 138-9, 272
cold 136
end 202
face 202
four-high 122-3, 125, 129, 136, 138-41
hot 71
mini- 12, 22
peripheral 202
planetary 126
reversing 122, 127
.rolling 23, 122-32, 136, 253
scale 178
Sendzimir 125-7, 129
stiffness 129
tandem 123, 125, 127, 138-40
tumbler ball mill 179-80
two-high 122-4, 136
vibratory ball 179
milling 190, 196, 199-202, 205-7, 222, 230
mineral oil 102, 11 O, 131, 136, 137, 221
mini-mill 12, 22
Mohr’s circle 171
molybdenum 174, 179, 180, 216, 227, 263,
295
molybdenum disulfide 103
moment of inertia 249, 311
Mond process 305
monel 34
mould 18, 20-8, 31-3, 36, 41, 43, 47, 63, 64,
70-1, 72-3, 182, 243
multiple point tool 191, 196 Index 321
mushy zone 33, 49-51
near net shaping 173, 186
necking 78, 80, 82-3, 91, 93, 95, 96, 98, 122,
143, 151-2, 157, 160, 164, 171-2, 276
neodymium doped yttrium aluminium
garnet laser 228
neodymium-glass laser 228
neutral axis 147-8, 247, 249-50
neutral flame 241
neutral point 128
nickel 4, 33-4, 53, 179, 186, 216, 227, 253,
260, 263, 276, 302-3, 305
nickel carbonyl 305
nickel sulphate 303
niobium 35, 216, 277
nitralloy 295
nitriding 286, 294.-5
nitrogen 8-9, 12, 16, 54, 70, 72, 143, 185,
189, 239, 244, 276-7, 288, 294-6
NOCOLOK 272
numerically controlled 190-1,222-3
octahedral planes 161-2
olivine sand 223
Olsen cupping test 143, 162
open hearth 8-9
orange peel 143
outer envelope 241-2
oxidation 185, 187, 234, 265, 268, 278, 297,
304
oxidative wear 280, 283-5
oxidizing flame 242
oxyacetylene 296, 297
pack carburizing 286, 287
parallel axis theorem 249
parting line 63
passivate 188
pasteurization 170
pattern 25-6, 36, 61
pearlite 58-9, 208, 258, 261
pentlandite ore 305
permanent mould casting 27-30
petroleum solvents 221
phase diagram 51
A1-Si 65
Cu-Ni 34
Fe-C 58
phosphorus 7, 9, 12, 59
photon 227
physical vapour deposition 304-5
piezoelectric 254
pig iron 4, 7, 8, 12, 16, 17, 18
pipelines 235
pitting 280, 284-5
planar anisotropy 277
plane strain 111,129
plane stress 111
planetary mill 126
planing 190, 195-7, 205-6
plasma 233, 305
plasma arc welding 233, 240
plastic anisotropy 159-64, 276
plastic injection moulding 187
plastics 4, 91,187, 303
plate 122, 138, 253
plate shear 138-9
platen 107-11,135, 253
plating 300-3, 308
polybutanes 221
polyglycols 221
polymers 4
porosity 173
casting 19, 28, 63, 73
gas 52-5, 63, 66, 177, 236, 237
macro 37, 39, 46, 49, 52, 65
micro 49-52, 57, 66
residual 184
solidification 63
potassium fluoraluminate 272
potassium silver cyanide 308
potential function 133
potline 15, 69
pots 15, 38
pouring basin 25, 55
powder 268
density 180
metallurgy 173-89
production 175-80
power 133, 136, 137, 165
acoustical 254
cutting 215
extrusion 119-21
forging 108
machining 191,203-7, 228
rolling 126, 128-32
precipitators 13-14
preheating 262-3, 269
press brake 146-7
pressure vessels 235, 239
pressure welding 250-1 322 Index
pressworking 162
printed circuit boards 254
prismatic plane 161
propane 265
propellors 281
pulverization 174, 175, 179-80
punch pressure 119-20
punch-stretch test 151
pyramidal planes 161
Pyron process 178
pyrophoric 187
Pythagoras’s theorem 129
quench 287, 296, 299
quench hardened 285, 294, 297
radiator 268, 270-4
rails 8, 244
reaming 199-200
recrystallization 34, 92, 99, 107, 113, 115,
127
recrystallize 140, 276
recycle 12, 69, 223
red mud 13-14
redrawing 154-8, 166-8, 172, 230
reducing flame 265
reduction in area 80, 96, 148
reduction, of metal oxides 177-9
redundant work 90-1,109
refrigerators 252, 254
regenerators 8
residual stress 62, 245-9, 256
resistance welding 233, 244-5
resistivity 299
reverse polarity 236-8, 241,267
rigid-viscoplastic method 135
ring compression test 114
riser 25-7, 36, 37-8, 46, 51, 57, 59, 63, 64-5
rivet 233, 285
Rockwell 286, 287, 294, 312
roll bonding 233, 253-4, 272
rolling 82, 99-100, 102, 117, 122-34, 163
breakdown 253
can stock 138-41
cold 123, 125, 127, 129, 131,136, 138-44,
152, 158, 171,272, 277
flat 111,128-9, 142, 146
forces 128-32
hot 127, 129, 138-41, 170-1,272
mill 23, 122-32, 136, 253
power 128-32
separating force 132, 136
torque 130, 132
rotating electrode process 177-8
runners 25, 57
salt 267, 274, 275, 288, 296, 303
sand
casting 25-7, 30, 36-8, 55-6, 61-2, 73,
216
olivine 223
silica 223
zircon 73-4
scalp 20, 68, 71
scoring 170, 284
scuffing 284
segregation 20, 173
micro- 34, 49, 57
seizure 280, 282-3
semi-conductor 254
Sendzimir mill 125-7, 129
sensitization 276-7
shape analysis 162
shape casting 16, 23-30, 57-61, 63, 229, 290
shape sensor roll 141
shaping 190, 195-7, 205-6, 229
shear
angle 209, 212, 215, 230
plane 209-12
spinning 150
strength 119, 145, 211,230
stress 101, 171
shearing 144-6, 162, 170
sheet forming 142-72
sheet metal 82, 99, 136, 142, 144-7, 244
shielded (manual) metal arc welding 233,
235-7, 240, 260, 267, 269
shipbuilding 239
shrinkage 244
centreline 63
liquid 36
solid 36
solidification 25, 36-41, 53, 59, 62, 186,
245
volume 36
SiAION 219
siderite 5
Sievert’s law 53
silica 73, 223
silicon 7, 9, 15, 19, 27, 61, 71,170, 253, 257,
268, 297
silicon carbide 203 Index 323
silicon nitride 219
siliconizing 286, 296-7
silver 5, 174, 268, 303, 308
single point tool 191-6
sinter 173-4, 187-8
sintering 181, 183-5, 187
skin effect 299
skip incline 5-6
slag 5-6, 7, 8, 9, 12, 19, 21, 54, 70, 171,
235-6, 243
slip-line analysis 133-5
slip systems 143, 159-62
slipping friction 101
slitter 138-9
slitting 68, 1.46, 272
slug 115-16, 120, 165
smelter 38, 68-9
soap 102, 222
sodium
aluminate 13-14
carbonate 296
chloride 296
cyanate 296
cyanide 288, 296
hypophosphite 303
solderability 270
soldering 232, 250, 267
solid solution 170
solid state welding 232, 250-4
solidification 18-75, 107, 171, 176, 239
directional 234
expansion 268
mechanism 30-5
pipe 37-8
porosity 63
shrinkage 25, 36-41, 53, 59, 62, 186,
245
time 43-4
solidus 33, 263, 270, 272, 274
solute atmosphere 143-4
sow 38-40, 69
spalling 280, 284-5
specific cutting energy 203-7
specific energy 88
specific heat 45, 47, 259-60, 311
spinning 150
split ends 130
spray can 115
springback 147-9, 269
sprue 25-7, 55-7, 63
sputtering 304-5
stainless steel 186, 213,
austenitic 207-8, 260, 276, 308
exhaust systems 275-9
ferritic 275-8, 296, 308
lubrication 102
martensitic 260
nitriding 295
roll bonding 253
sensitization 276-7
type 302 79, 86, 91, 110-11,230
type 304 208
type 409 276
type 410 79, 86, 189
welding 238, 240, 242
stamping 162
steadite 59
steel 3, 18, 102, 212, 223
AISI 1008 79, 163
AISI 1015 79
AISI 1016 214
AISI1020 207, 208
AISI 1035 220
AISI 1040 208
AISI 1045 79
AISI 1060 220
AISI 1112 207, 208
AISI 3140 208
AISI 4140 208
AISI 4350 220
AISI 8620 79
alloy 206
aluminium killed 152
aluminized 275
carbon 9, 206-8, 215, 253, 285, 299
continuous casting 21-2
converters 7-12, 16
degassing 54
deoxidized 19
ductile 155
embrittle 8
grain refinement 35
high carbon 220
high speed 216-17, 220
ingot casting 18-20
integrated mills 12
limiting draw ratio 160
low alloy 9, 257-8, 260, 263, 269, 277
low carbon 76-8, 143, 162, 208, 229, 285,
297, 308
low interstitial 144
lubrication 102 324 Index
steel cont.
mild 23, 230, 275
mini-mill 12, 22
nitralloy 295
nitriding 295
plain carbon 12, 263, 277
SAE1010 291
scrap 7, 12
shrinkage 36
tool 135, 162, 180
steelmaking 4-12, 178, 185, 189
sticking friction 101, 109, 119, 129
stimulated emission 227
straight line control 222
straight polarity 236-7, 240-1,267
strain
elastic 78
engineering 77, 80-2, 84-5, 97, 136
hardening 78, 91, 96, 99, 108, 117, 123,
127, 133, 137, 155, 157, 172, 182
hardening exponent 79, 85-6, 91, 95, 96,
107, 143, 151,162, 164, 208, 276
incremental 81-2
inhomogeneous 83
major 152
minor 152
plane 111,129
plastic 78
rate 92-3, 95, 96, 97, 98, 107-9, 113, 115,
120, 130, 133-5
rate sensitivity exponent 79, 94, 108, 151
rate strength constant 79, 93, 108
true 80-9, 93, 96, 97, 99, 107-8, 135, 136,
147-8, 163, 276
strand 21, 76
stream function 133
strength constant 79, 85, 96, 107, 164
stress
0.2% offset yield 78
corrosion cracking 262
drawing 121
elastic 86
engineering 76-8, 80-1, 87-8, 96, 97
flow 107, 110, 113, 121
mean true flow 89, 96, 117, 129, 130-1
plane 111
relieving 63, 263
residual 62, 245-9, 256, 263
shear 101,171
thermal 62, 246
true 80-2, 86-9, 93, 96, 98, 99, 113, 120
yield 78, 135, 148, 154
stretch forming 150-2, 162
stretcher strain marks 143
strip 123, 128-9, 136, 142, 144
sublimation 228
submerged arc welding 233, 239, 241,260,
268
sulphate 302
sulphonates 221
sulphonic acids 221
sulphur 5, 7, 9, 12, 178, 221,239
sulphur dioxide 15
superalloys 174, 208, 223
superplasticity 95-6, 97, 98
surface
diffusion 183
energy 31, 183-4
machined 191,193, 197, 200
tension 183
transient 191,193, 197, 200
work 191,193, 197
swarf 223
tailstock 150, 193
talc 25
tandem mill 123, 125, 127, 138-40
tantalum 216
tap density 180-1
Taylor tool life equation 219-20, 230
temper 171-2
temper roll 143
texture 140, 159-62, 171,276-7
thermal
conduction 255
conductivity 41, 42, 45, 47, 74, 214, 216,
259-60, 270, 311
diffusivity 42, 183
distortion 185
expansion 123
expansion coefficient 36, 74
gradients 245
shock 294
shock resistance 216
shrinkage 105
stress 62, 246
undercooling 33-4
welding 233, 241-5
thermally activated 183, 187, 291,294-5
thermit welding 233, 241,243-4, 268
thermoplastic 187
thin film 303-6 Index 325
tin 212, 253, 268, 302
titanium 13, 35, 161,186, 223, 277, 295
density 4, 260
diboride 35, 70
limiting draw ratio 160
powder 177
specific heat 260
thermal conductivity 260
welding 244
tool
age 1
carbide 214, 303, 305-6
face 191-2
feed 193
generalized life equation 219-20
life 207-8, 214, 219-20
materials 214-19
multiple point 191
post 192-3,211,230
rake angle 209, 212, 214, 230
single-point 191-6
Taylor life equation 219-20, 230
wear 191, 213-20
top gas 5
torch 241-2, 265, 267, 296
toxicity 221
transformer 254, 298
transistor inverter 300
transport, mass 183, 290, 293
Tresca 101, 119
tribological 279
tribology 279
true strain 80-9, 93, 96, 97, 99, 107-8, 135,
136, 147-8, 163, 276
true stress 80-2, 86-9, 93, 96, 98, 99, 113,
120
tumbler ball mill 179-80
tundish 21-4, 175-6
tungsten 173, 177- 9, 180, 216, 223, 227, 238,
240, 295
tungsten carbide 180, 216, 223, 230
tungsten inert gas arc welding 233, 238-9,
260, 267, 277
turbine
airfoils 224
blades 30
discs 174
gas 174, 186-7, 223, 282, 304, 306
turning 190-6, 220, 230
tuy+res 7, 276
two-high mill 122-4, 136
ultimate tensile strength 62, 78, 79, 98, 141,
148, 164, 276
ultrasonic welding 233, 254-5, 277
ultraviolet 305
undeformed chip thickness 194, 196, 198,
201,203-7
undercool 31-2, 33-4
constitutional 33-4
thermal 33-4
universal gas constant 183, 291,309
upper bound 114, 130,. 133
upsetting 107-11
cold 107-8, 110-11
hot 108-9
valence 301-3, 308
vanadium 35, 216
vibratory ball mill 179
Vickers pyramid hardness 257, 261-2, 312
viscoelastic 4
viscosity 102
visioplasticity 134
volume
constancy 83, 85, 94, 110, 133
diffusion 183
expansion 244
water atomization 175-7, 188
water glass 27
waterjet machining 191,223-4
WC-Co 216-18
wear 101-2, 253, 279-308
adhesion 280-1
adhesive 280, 282-3
impact 280, 284-5
oxidative 280, 283-5
polishing 280
tool 191,213-20
weldability 233, 276-7
welding 214, 232-63, 264, 282, 303
butt 234, 240, 245-7, 249-50, 255, 269
cold 182, 183
cooling time 258-63
current 260
distortion 245-50
electric arc 233
electron beam 233,241,244
explosive 233
fillet 234, 246-7, 249
forge 249-50
friction 233, 252 326 Index
welding cont.
fusion 232-50, 254, 256
gas 233, 241-4
gas metal arc 233
heat affected zone 234-5, 239, 252,
256-64, 269
heat transfer efficiency 260, 268
laser 227
metal inert gas arc 237-8, 241,260, 277
microstructure 254-63
plasma arc 233, 240-1
preheating 262-3, 269
pressure 250-2
properties 254-63
resistance 233, 244-5
roll bonding 233, 253-4
seam 233, 244-5, 272
shielded (manual) metal arc 233, 235-7,
240, 260, 267, 269
solid state 232, 250-4
speed 259-62, 269
spot 233, 244-5, 250
submerged arc 233, 239, 241,260, 268
thermal 233, 241-5
thermit 233, 241,243-4, 268
torch 241-2
tungsten inert gas arc 233, 238-9, 241,
260, 277
ultrasonic 233, 254-5, 277
voltage 260
wet 264
wire 121,237-9
work 310
deformation 88-91,121,211
hardening 91-2, 97, 172
ideal deformation 89-90, 96, 108, 136, 230
redundant 90-1, 109
rolls 122-3, 125-7, 129, 136, 140-1
surface 191,193, 197
X-ray gauge 138-9
yeasts 221
yield strength 3, 62, 79, 97, 121-2, 141,149,
159, 171-2, 213, 246, 276
yield stress 78, 135, 148, 154
Young’s modulus 77, 86
zinc 4, 5, 22-3, 30, 160-1, 164, 165, 268,
274, 296, 302
zircon 73-4
zirconium 244, 277
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