رسالة ماجستير بعنوان Pressure Distribution and Performance Impacts of Aerospike Nozzles on Rotating Detonation Engines

رسالة ماجستير بعنوان Pressure Distribution and Performance Impacts of Aerospike Nozzles on Rotating Detonation Engines
اسم المؤلف
Mark C. Schnabel
التاريخ
25 يوليو 2022
المشاهدات
145
التقييم
Loading...

رسالة ماجستير بعنوان
Pressure Distribution and Performance Impacts of Aerospike Nozzles on Rotating Detonation Engines
by
Mark C. Schnabel
Ensign, United States Navy
B.S., United States Naval Academy, 2016
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the
requirements for the degree of
MASTER OF SCIENCE IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
from the
NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL
June 2017
Approved by: Christopher M. Brophy
Thesis Advisor
David F. Dausen
Second Reader
Garth V. Hobson
Chair, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
TABLE OF CONTENTS
I. INTRODUCTION 1
A. OVERVIEW .1
B. MOTIVATION 4
C. OBJECTIVES AND APPROACH .4
II. BACKGROUND 7
A. THRUST .7
B. NOZZLES .10

  1. Basic Design 10
  2. Shortcomings of Conventional Nozzles 10
  3. Altitude Compensation: An Alternative to Conventional
    Nozzles .13
    C. INTRODUCTION TO AEROSPIKE NOZZLES 14
    D. CLASSIFICATION OF AEROSPIKE NOZZLES 16
  4. Annular Aerospike Nozzles .16
  5. Linear Aerospike Nozzles 18
  6. Truncation of Aerospike Nozzles 19
    E. FLOW PHYSICS OF PLUG NOZZLES 20
  7. Flow Features in Quiescent Air 21
  8. Flow Features in a Supersonic Free Stream 25
    F. FLOW PHYSICS OF THE NOZZLE BASE 27
  9. The Open Wake Regime 27
  10. The Closed Wake Regime .28
  11. Open/Closed Transition .28
  12. Base Pressure Prediction .32
    III. NOZZLE DESIGN METHOD .35
    A. INTRODUCTION 35
    B. DESIGN APPROACH: THE SIMPLE APPROXIMATE
    METHOD .36
    C. DERIVATION 37
    IV. NOZZLE DESIGN FOR THE RDE 43
    A. NOZZLE DESIGN ASSUMPTIONS .43
  13. Assumption of Purely Axial Flow .43
  14. Nonuniform Throat Conditions 44
  15. Expected Pressure Ratio 46viii
  16. Ideal Design Pressure Ratio 47
    B. APPLICATION TO THE CURRENT RDE .48
  17. Determination of Input Parameters .48
  18. Computed Results 49
    C. SOLIDWORKS DESIGN .53
    V. CFD ANALYSIS 57
    A. OVERVIEW .57
    B. FLUID DOMAIN .57
    C. COMPUTATIONAL MESH PARAMETERS .58
  19. Common Mesh Settings .59
  20. Face Sizing and Meshing .60
    D. CFD ASSUMPTIONS .61
  21. Non-Reacting Flow Modeled as Combustion Products 61
  22. Uniform Inlet Flow in the Radial and Circumferential
    Directions 63
    E. SOLVER DEFINITION AND BOUNDARY CONDITIONS .64
    F. TEST MATRIX 68
    VI. CFD RESULTS 69
    A. QUIESCENT AIR 69
  23. Nondimensional Wall Distance and Turbulence Modeling .69
  24. Validation of the Experimental Nozzle Design 70
  25. Steady-State Pressure Distribution along the Aerospike .72
  26. Steady-State Base Pressure Distribution .74
  27. Steady-State Thrust Computation 75
  28. Steady-State Thrust Coefficient 79
    B. SUPERSONIC FREE-STREAM 81
    C. MESH SENSITIVITY AND TURBULENCE MODELING .83
    VII. SUMMARY 85
    A. DESIGN GUIDELINES 85
    B. FUTURE WORK .85
    APPENDIX A. MATLAB CODE 87
    APPENDIX B. CEA DETONATION ANALYSIS .91
    APPENDIX C. TRANSITION PRESSURE RATIO ANALYSIS .95ix
    APPENDIX D. CEA DEFLAGRATION ANALYSIS 97
    LIST OF REFERENCES 101
    INITIAL DISTRIBUTION LIST
    LIST OF FIGURES
    Figure 1. Numerical Simulation of a Generic RDE. Source: [1]. .2
    Figure 2. Unrolled Numerical Simulation of a Hydrogen-Air RDE. Source:
    [2] .3
    Figure 3. Engine Diagram—Exploded View. Source: [1]. .5
    Figure 4. Pressure Distribution on a Simplified Rocket Casing. Adapted from
    [11] .7
    Figure 5. Internal Total Pressure and Thrust Distribution in a Turbojet Engine.
    Adapted from [11] 8
    Figure 6. Well-Prescribed Control Volume for a Simplified Rocket Geometry.
    Source: [11] 9
    Figure 7. Nozzle Configurations. Source: [14]. 11
    Figure 8. Bell Nozzle Exhaust Plume Comparison. Adapted from [14] .13
    Figure 9. Annular Aerospike Nozzle. Source: [18] .14
    Figure 10. Aerospike Exhaust Plume Comparison. Adapted from [14]. 15
    Figure 11. Completely External Aerospike. Adapted from [20] .16
    Figure 12. Internal-External Aerospike. Adapted from [20] .17
    Figure 13. Completely Internal Aerospike. Adapted from [20] 17
    Figure 14. Alternate Combustion Chamber Arrangement. Source: [24]. .18
    Figure 15. Linear Aerospike Nozzle. Source: [26]. 19
    Figure 16. Aerospike Terminology. Adapted from: [27]. .21
    Figure 17. Flow Features of a Plug Nozzle. Adapted from [29] .22
    Figure 18. Mach Isolines and Jet Boundary in a Linear Full-Length Plug.
    Source: [27] 24
    Figure 19. Plug Nozzle Flow Field at Various Jet Pressures. Adapted from [15]. .25xii
    Figure 20. Schematic View of the Interaction Between Exhaust and External
    Supersonic Jets Behind the Primary Nozzle External Shroud. Source:
    [27] .26
    Figure 21. Schematic View of Closed Wake Operation. Source: [37] 29
    Figure 22. Closed-Open Wake Transition. Source: [37] .29
    Figure 23. Schematic of Characteristic Lines at Closed-Open Wake Transition.
    Source: [37] 30
    Figure 24. Expansion Characteristic Lines 36
    Figure 25. Throat Angle Orientation with Respect to Contour Geometry 37
    Figure 26. Local Characteristic Line Geometry 38
    Figure 27. Approximate Method Contour Geometry 39
    Figure 28. Inlet (Solid) and Outlet (Dashed) Velocities as a Function of
    Azimuthal Location for a Generic RDE Simulation. Source: [49] 44
    Figure 29. Inlet (Solid) and Outlet (Dashed) Pressures and Temperatures as a
    Function of Azimuthal Location for a Generic RDE Simulation.
    Source: [49] 45
    Figure 30. Expected Nonuniform Throat Conditions 46
    Figure 31. Aerospike Contour for PRdesign = 10:1 .50
    Figure 32. Cowl Contour for PRdesign = 10:1 .50
    Figure 33. Spike and Cowl Configuration for PRdesign = 10:1 .51
    Figure 34. Spike and Cowl Configuration for PRdesign = 25:1 .52
    Figure 35. Spike and Cowl Configuration for PRdesign = 40:1 .52
    Figure 36. Aerospike SolidWorks Model 53
    Figure 37. Cowl SolidWorks Model .54
    Figure 38. Center Body SolidWorks Model 54
    Figure 39. Integration with Current RDE Hardware .55
    Figure 40. Experimental Fluid Domain Geometry for PRdesign = 10:1 58xiii
    Figure 41. ANSYS Domain Mesh for PRdesign = 10:1 .60
    Figure 42. Variability of Properties with Ratio of Specific Heats. Source: [10]. .62
    Figure 43. Boundary Conditions for the PRdesign = 10:1 Case .64
    Figure 44. Mach Number Distribution along the Nozzle Exit Plane at Various
    Pressure Ratios for the Quiescent Air Hydrogen Fuel Case, PRdesign =
    10:1 71
    Figure 45. Steady-State Nozzle Pressure Distribution at Various Pressure
    Ratios for the Quiescent Air Hydrogen Fuel Case, PRdesign = 10:1 .72
    Figure 46. Steady-State Nozzle Pressure Distribution at Various Pressure Ratios
    for the Quiescent Air Hydrogen Fuel Case, PRdesign = 25:1 .73
    Figure 47. Steady-State Nozzle Pressure Distribution at Various Pressure Ratios
    for the Quiescent Air Hydrogen Fuel Case, PRdesign = 40:1 .74
    Figure 48. Steady-State Base Pressure Distribution at Various Pressure Ratios
    for the Quiescent Air Hydrogen Fuel Case, PRdesign = 10:1 .75
    Figure 49. Designation of the RDE Control Volume 76
    Figure 50. Control Surfaces Over Which ANSYS Force Function Was Applied
    in the X-Direction, PRdesign = 10:1 .77
    Figure 51. Thrust Contribution for Control Surfaces 1, 2, and 6 for the
    Quiescent Air Hydrogen and Ethylene Fuel Cases, PRdesign = 10:1 .78
    Figure 52. Gross Thrust vs Pressure Ratio for H2 Fuel Case 79
    Figure 53. Thrust Coefficient vs Pressure Ratio for H2 Fuel Case 80
    Figure 54. Plot of Mach Numbers for Supersonic Free-Stream Case, No Base
    Bleed 81
    Figure 55. Mach Number Distribution along the Nozzle Exit Plane at Various
    Pressure Ratios for the Supersonic Free-Stream Hydrogen-Air Case .82
    Figure 56. Steady-State Nozzle Pressure Distribution at Various Pressure Ratios
    for the Supersonic Free-Stream Hydrogen-Air Case, PRdesign = 10:1 82
    Figure 57. Effect of Base Bleed on Base Pressure Distribution, PRdesign = 10:1,
    H2 Fuel Case 83
    Figure 58. Mesh Sensitivity and Turbulence Model Analysis 84
    LIST OF REFERENCES
    [1] P. J. Ellsworth, “Performance testing of a low-loss high performance lobedinjector for rotating detonation engines,” M.S. thesis, Dept. Mech. Eng., Naval
    Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA, 2016.
    [2] D. A. Schwer and K. Kailasanath, “Rotating detonation-wave engines,” NRL,
    2011 Naval Research Laboratory Review, Washington DC, 2011, pp. 88–94.
    [3] K. Kailasanath, “The rotating-detonation-wave engine concept: A brief status
    report,” in 49th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting including the New Horizons
    Forum and Aerospace Exposition, Orlando, FL, 2011, pp. 1–8.
    [4] J. D. Giesemann, “Computational study of low-loss non-premixed injection
    manifolds for rotating detonation engines,” M.S. thesis, Dept. Mech. Eng., Naval
    Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA, 2014.
    [5] K. Kailasanath, “Research on pulse detonation combustion systems—A status
    report,” in 47th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting Including the New Horizons
    Forum and Aerospace Exposition, Orlando, FL, 2009.
    [6] A. D. Chaves, “Effect of combustion chamber length and annulus width on
    rotating detonation wave combustor operation and performance,” M.S. thesis,
    Dept. Mech. Eng., Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA, 2014.
    [7] C. A. Khol, “Characterization of detonation wave structure in an optically
    accessible rotational detonation engine,” M.S. thesis, Dept. Mech. Eng., Naval
    Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA, 2015.
    [8] J. Crane, “Characterization of ignition and stability of an optically accessible
    rotational detonation engine,” M.S. thesis, Dept. Mech. Eng., Naval Postgraduate
    School, Monterey, CA, 2012.
    [9] L. H. Thomason, “Performance measurement of a rotating detonation engine,”
    M.S. thesis, Dept. Mech. Eng., Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA, 2013.
    [10] G. P. Sutton, Rocket Propulsion Elements, 8th ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley &
    Sons, 2010, pp. 33,35,75,76,79,84.
    [11] P. G. Hill and C. R. Peterson, Mechanics and Thermodynamics of Propulsion, 2nd
    ed. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1992, pp. 145,146, 521.
    [12] T. Benson. (2015, October 22). Nozzle Design. [Online]. Available:
    https://spaceflightsystems.grc.nasa.gov/education/rocket/nozzle.html102
    [13] G. V. R. Rao, “Exhaust nozzle contour for optimum thrust,” Journal of Jet
    Propulsion, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 377-382, 1968.
    [14] R. A. O’Leary and J. E. Beck. (1992). Nozzle Design. Pratt & Whitney
    Rocketdyne’s Engineering Journal of Power Technology, 1992. [Online].
    Available: http://www.k-makris.gr/RocketTechnology/Nozzle_Design/Pics/
    nozzle4.jpg. Accessed: March 27, 2017.
    [15] W. J. Bannink, E. M. Houtman, and M. M. J. Schoones, “On the interaction
    between a linear plug nozzle exhaust flow and supersonic external flow,” in Third
    European Symposium on Aerodynamics for Space Vehicles, Noordwijk, The
    Netherlands, 1998.
    [16] T. J. Mueller and W. P. Sule, “Base Flow Characteristics of a Linear Aerospike
    Nozzle Segment,” J. of Engineering for Industry, 1973.
    [17] M. Nazarinia, A. Naghib-Lahouti, and E. Tolouei, “Design and numerical analysis
    of aerospike nozzles with different plug shapes to compare their performance with
    a conventional nozzle,” in Eleventh Australian International Aerospace Congress,
    Melbourne, Australia, 2005.
    [18] C. Thomas. (2004, April 16). A closeup of one of the Cesaroni Technology,
    Inc.—constructed aerospike nozzles used in the Dryden Aerospike Rocket Test.
    [Online]. Available: https://www.dfrc.nasa.gov/Gallery/Photo/Aerospike_Rocket/
    HTML/EC04-0113-146.html
    [19] “Linear aerospike engine—propulsion for the X-33 vehicle,” NASA, Huntsville,
    AL, Fact Sheet FS-2000-09-174-MSFC, 2000.
    [20] K. Berman and F. W. Crimp, “Performance of plug-type rocket exhaust nozzles,”
    ARS J., pp. 18-23, Jan. 1961.
    [21] M. Onofri, “Plug nozzles: summary of flow features and engine performance,” in
    40th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, NV, 2002.
    [22] E. Besnard, H. H. Chen, and T. Mueller, “Design, manufacturing, and test of a
    plug nozzle rocket engine,” in 38th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion
    Conference & Exhibit, Joint Propulsion Conferences, Indianapolis, IN, 2002.
    [23] J. E. Jackson, E. Espenschied, and J. Klop, “The Control System for the X-33
    Linear Aerospike Engine,” NASA, Huntsville, AL, Tech. Rep. CR-1998-207923,
    Jan. 1998.
    [24] M. Easter. (2015, October 21). It Really is Rocket Science: Firefly Space System
    designs rocket with Stampede supercomputer. [Online]. Available:
    https://www.tacc.utexas.edu/firefly/103
    [25] E. D. Flinn, “Aerospike Engine Powers RLV Savings,” Aerospace America, vol.
    34, no. 11, pp. 18-19, Nov. 1996.
    [26] (2010, July 17). Twin Linear Aerospike XRS-2200 Engine. [Online]. Available:
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Twin_Linear_Aerospike_XRS-
    2200_Engine.jpg
    [27] F. Nasuti and M. Onofri, “Prediction of open and closed wake in plug nozzles,” in
    Proceedings of the 4th European Symposium on Aerothermodynamics for Space
    Applications, Capua, 2002, pp. 585-592.
    [28] G. Angelino, “Approximate method for plug nozzle design,” AIAA J., vol. 2, no.
    10, 1964.
    [29] G. Hagemann, I. Immich, T. Van Nguyen, and G. E. Dumnov, “Advanced rocket
    nozzles,” J. of Propulsion and Power, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 620-634, 1998.
    [30] C. Wang, Y. Liu, and L. Qin, “Aerospike nozzle contour design and its
    performance validation,” Acta Astronautica, vol. 64, no. 11, pp. 1264-1275, 2009.
    [31] A. Martinez, “Interim report aerodynamic nozzle study: volume 2,” NASA,
    Huntsville, AL, Tech. Rep. CR-68910, 1965.
    [32] R. Silver, “Final report: advanced aerodynamic spike configurations: analytical
    and cold flow studies,” Rockwell International Corporation, Tech. Rep. AFRPLTR-67-246, 1971.
    [33] K. Chutkey, B. Vasudevan, and N. Balakrishnan, “Flowfield analysis of linear
    plug nozzle,” J. of Spacecraft and Rockets, vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 1109-1119, 2012.
    [34] K. Chutkey, B. Vasudevan, and N. Balakrishnan, “Analysis of annular plug
    nozzle flowfield,” J. of Spacecraft and Rockets, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 478-490, 2014.
    [35] K. Chutkey, B. Vasudevan, and N. Balakrishnan, “Flow and performance analysis
    of annular cluster truncated plug nozzle,” J. of Propulsion and Power, vol. 32, no.
    6, pp. 1442-1453, 2016.
    [36] J. Ruf and P. McConnaughey, “The plume physics behind aerospike nozzle
    altitude compensation and slipstream effect,” in 33rd Joint Propulsion
    Conference and Exhibit, Seattle, WA, 1997.
    [37] F. Nasuti and M. Onofri, “Theoretical analysis and engineering modeling of
    flowfields in clustered module plug nozzles,” J. of Propulsion and Power, vol. 15,
    no. 4, pp. 544-551, 1999.104
    [38] T. Ito, K. Fujii, and A. K. Hayashi, “Computations of the axisymmetric plug
    nozzle flowfields: flow structures and thrust performance,” J. of Propulsion and
    Power, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 254–260, 2002.
    [39] D. M. Davidenko, Y. Eude, and F. Falempin, “Optimization of supersonic
    axisymmetric nozzles with a center body for aerospace propulsion,” Progress in
    Propulsion Physics, vol. 2, pp. 675-692, 2011.
    [40] G. Hagemann and H. Immich, “Critical assessment of the linear plug nozzle
    concept,” in 37th Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, Salt Lake City, UT,
    2001.
    [41] T. Tomita, H. Tamura, M. Takahashi, “An experimental evaluation of plug nozzle
    flow field,” in AIAA, ASME, SAE, and ASEE, Joint Propulsion Conference and
    Exhibit, Lake Buena Vista, FL, 1996.
    [42] A. H. Shapiro, The Dynamics and Thermodynamics of Compressible Fluid Flow,
    vol. 1 and 2, pp. 294-295, 694-695.
    [43] B. L. Denton, “Design and analysis of rocket nozzle contours for launching PicoSatellites,” M.S. thesis, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY, 2008.
    [44] L. V. Kumar and K. S. Reddy, “Design and flow simulation of truncated
    aerospike nozzle,” International J. of Research in Engineering and Technology,
    vol. 3, no. 11, pp. 122-131, Nov. 2014.
    [45] D. J. Choudhari and U. V. Asolekar, “Efficiency analysis of an aerospike nozzle,”
    International J. of Engineering Research and Applications, ISSN: 2248-9622, pp.
    146-150, 2012.
    [46] J. J. Korte, “Parametric model of an aerospike rocket engine,” in 38th Aerospace
    Sciences Meeting & Exhibit, Reno, NV, 2000.
    [47] T. Tomita, M. Takahashi, and H. Tamura, “Flow field of clustered plug nozzles,”
    AIAA paper 97-3219, 1997.
    [48] H. Immich and M. Caporicci, “Status of the FESTIP rocket propulsion technology
    program,” in 33rd Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, Seattle, WA, 1997.
    [49] D. A. Schwer and K. Kailasanath, “Numerical investigation of rotating detonation
    engines,” in 46th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference & Exhibit,
    Nashville, TN, 2010, pp. 1–15.
    [50] S. Gordon, and B. J. McBride. (1996). Computer Program for Calculation of
    Complex Chemical Equilibrium Compositions and Applications. [Online].
    Available: https://www.grc.nasa.gov/www/CEAWeb/. Accessed May 26, 2017.105
    INITIAL DISTRIBUTION LIST
  29. Defense Technical Information Center
    Ft. Belvoir, Virginia
  30. Dudley Knox Library
    Naval Postgraduate School
    Monterey, California

كلمة سر فك الضغط : books-world.net
The Unzip Password : books-world.net

تحميل

يجب عليك التسجيل في الموقع لكي تتمكن من التحميل
تسجيل | تسجيل الدخول

التعليقات

اترك تعليقاً