تجميعه رموز الدوائر الهيدروليكية – Pooyan Hydraulics – Basic Symbols

تجميعه رموز الدوائر الهيدروليكية – Pooyan Hydraulics – Basic Symbols
اسم المؤلف
Pooyan
التاريخ
26 مايو 2022
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تجميعة رموز الدوائر الهيدروليكية
Pooyan Hydraulics – Basic Symbols
2) L= Length of dash, E = Thickness of line, D = Space between lines
DESCRIPTION SYMBOL APPLICATION
BASIC SYMBOLS
Line

  • continuous
  • long dashes
  • short dashes
  • double
  • long chain thin
    (optional use)
    Circle, semi-circle
    mechanical connections (shafts, levers, pistonrods)
    Enclosure for several components assembled
    in one unit
    As a rule, energy conversion units (pump,
    compressor, motor)
    Measuring instruments
    Non-return link, roller, etc
    Mechanical link, roller, etc.
    Semi-rotary actuator
    E } flow lines
    DESCRIPTION SYMBOL APPLICATION
    d d ≈ 5E
    Square, rectangle
    Diamond
    Miscellaneous
    symbols
    Triangle:
  • solid
  • in outline only
    Arrow
    Sloping arrow
    FUNCTIONAL
    SYMBOLS
    As a rule, control valves (valve) except for nonreturn valves
    Conditioning apparatus (filter, separator,
    lubricator, heat exchanger)
    Flow line connection
    Spring
    Restriction:
  • affected by viscosity
  • unaffected by viscosity
    The direction of flow and the nature of the fluid
    Hydraulic flow
    Pneumatic flow or exhaust to atmosphere
    Indication of:
  • direction
  • direction of rotation
  • path and direction of flow through valves.
    For regulating apparatus as in 3.4 both
    representations, with or without a tail to the
    end of the arrow, are used without distinction
    As a general rule the line perpendicular to the
    head of the arrow indicates that when the
    arrow moves, the interior path always remains
    connected to the corresponding exterior path
    Indication of the possibility of a regulation or a
    progressive variabilityI S O F L U I D P O W E R G R A P H I C S Y M B O L S
    DESCRIPTION SYMBOL USE OF THE EQUIPMENT
    OR EXPLANATION OF THE SYMBOL
    OUTLET
    INLET
    BALL CHECK
    U
    PUMPS AND
    COMPRESSORS
    Fixed capacity
    hydraulic pump:
  • with one
    direction of flow
  • with two
    directions of flow
    Variable displacement
    hydraulic pump:
  • with one
    direction of flow
  • with two
    directions of flow
    Fixed capacity
    compressor (always
    one direction of flow)
    To convert mechanical
    energy into hydraulic or
    pneumatic energy.
    The symbol is a
    combination of 2.1.1.1
    and 1.2.3 (sloping
    arrow)
    The symbol is a
    combination of 2.1.1.2
    and 1.2.3 (sloping
    arrow)I S O F L U I D P O W E R G R A P H I C S Y M B O L S
    DESCRIPTION SYMBOL
    SPRING
    To convert hydraulic or
    pneumatic energy into rotary
    mechanical energy
    The symbol is a combination of
    2.2.1.1 and 1.2.3 (sloping arrow)
    The symbol is a combination of
    2.2.1.2 and 1.2.3 (sloping arrow)
    The symbol is a combination of
    2.2.3.1 and 1.2.3 (sloping arrow)
    The symbol is a combination of
    2.2.3.2 and 1.2.3 (sloping arrow)
    MOTORS
    Fixed capacity
    hydraulic motor:
  • with one
    direction of flow
  • with two
    directions of flow
    Variable displacement
    hydraulic motor:
  • with one
    direction of flow
  • with two
    directions of flow
    Fixed displacement
    pneumatic motor:
  • with one
    direction of flow
  • with two
    directions of flow
    Variable displacement
    hydraulic motor:
  • with one
    direction of flow
  • with two
    directions of flow
    Oscillating motor:
  • hydraulic
  • pneumatic
    USE OF THE EQUIPMENT
    OR EXPLANATION OF THE SYMBOLI S O F L U I D P O W E R G R A P H I C S Y M B O L S
    DESCRIPTION SYMBOL
    PUMP/MOTOR UNITS
    Fixed displacement
    pump/motor unit:
  • with reversal of the
    direction of flow
  • with one single
    direction of flow
  • with two directions
    of flow
    Variable displacement
    pump/motor unit:
  • with reversal of the
    direction of flow
  • with one single
    direction of flow
  • with two directions
    of flow
    VARIABLE SPEED DRIVE
    UNITS
    CYLINDERS
    Single acting cylinder:
  • returned by an
    unspecified force
  • returned by spring
    USE OF THE EQUIPMENT
    OR EXPLANATION OF THE SYMBOL
    Unit with two functions,
    either as pump or as rotary
    motor
    Functioning as pump or
    motor according to direction
    of flow
    Functioning as pump or
    motor without change of
    direction of flow
    Functioning as pump or
    motor with either direction of
    flow
    The symbol is a combination
    of 2.3.1.1 and 1.2.3 (sloping
    arrow)
    The symbol is a combination
    of 2.3.1.2 and 1.2.3 (sloping
    arrow)
    The symbol is a combination
    of 2.3.1.3 and 1.2.3 (sloping
    arrow)
    Torque converter. Pump
    and/or motor are variable
    capacity. Remote drives, see
    8.2
    Equipment to convert
    hydraulic or pneumatic
    energy into linear energy
    Cylinder in which the fluid
    pressure always acts in one
    and the same direction (on
    the extension stroke)
    General symbol when the
    method of return is not
    specified
    Combination of the general
    symbols 2.5.1.1 and 1.1.5.2
    (spring)
    Detailed SimplifiedI S O F L U I D P O W E R G R A P H I C S Y M B O L S
    DESCRIPTION SYMBOL
    Double acting cylinder:
  • with single piston
    rod
  • with double-ended
    piston rod
    Differential cylinder
    Cylinder with cushion:
  • with single fixed
    cushion
  • with double fixed
    cushion
  • with single
    adjustable cushion
  • with double
    adjustable cushion
    Telescopic cylinder:
  • single acting
  • double acting
    USE OF THE EQUIPMENT
    OR EXPLANATION OF THE SYMBOL
    Cylinder in which pressure
    fluid operates alternately in
    both directions (extend and
    retract strokes)
    The action is dependent on
    the difference between the
    effective areas on each side
    of the piston
    Cylinder incorporating fixed
    cushion acting in one
    direction only
    Cylinder with fixed cushion
    acting in both directions
    The symbol is a
    combination of 2.5.4.1 and
    1.2.3 (sloping arrow)
    The symbol is combination
    of 2.5.4.2 and 1.2.3
    (sloping arrow)
    The fluid pressure always
    acts in one and the same
    direction (on the extend
    stroke)
    The fluid pressure operates
    alternately in both
    directions (extend and
    retract strokes)I S O F L U I D P O W E R G R A P H I C S Y M B O L S
    DESCRIPTION SYMBOL
    PRESSURE
    INTENSIFIERS:
  • for one type of fluid
  • for two types of
    fluid
    AIR-OIL ACTUATOR
    METHOD OF
    REPRESENTATION OF
    VALVES (EXCEPT 7.3
    AND 7.6)
    One single square
    Two or more squares
    USE OF THE EQUIPMENT
    OR EXPLANATION OF THE SYMBOL
    CONTROL
    VALVES
    Detailed Simplified
    Equipment transforming a
    pressure x into a higher
    pressure y
    E.g. a pneumatic pressure x is
    transformed into a higher
    pneumatic pressure y
    E.g. a pneumatic pressure x is
    transformed into a higher
    hydraulic pressure y
    Equipment transforming a
    pneumatic pressure into a
    substantially equal hydraulic
    pressure or vice versa
    Made up of one or more
    squares 1.1.3 and arrows
    In circuit diagrams hydraulic
    and pneumatic units are
    normally shown in the
    unoperated condition
    Indicates unit for controlling
    flow or pressure, having in
    operation and infinite number
    of possible positions between
    its end positions so as to vary
    the conditions of flow across
    one or more of its ports, thus
    ensuring the chosen pressure
    and/or flow with regard to the
    operating conditions of the
    circuit
    Indicate a directional control
    valve having as many distinct
    positions as there are
    squares. The pipe
    connections are normally
    represented as representing
    the unoperated condition (see
    3.1). The operating positions
    are deduced by imagining the
    boxes to be displaced so that
    the pipe connections
    correspond with the ports of
    the box in questionI S O F L U I D P O W E R G R A P H I C S Y M B O L S
    DESCRIPTION SYMBOL
    Simplified symbol for
    valves in cases of
    multiple repetition
    DIRECTIONAL
    CONTROL VALVES
    Flow paths:
  • one flow path
  • two closed ports
  • two flow paths
  • two flow paths
    and one closed port
  • two flow paths
    with cross connection
  • one flow path in a
    bypass position, two
    closed ports
    Non-throttling
    directional control
    valve
    USE OF THE EQUIPMENT
    OR EXPLANATION OF THE SYMBOL
    3 The number refers to a note
    on the diagram in which the
    symbol for the valve is given
    in full
    Units providing for the
    opening (fully or restricted)
    or the closing of one or
    more paths (represented by
    several squares)
    Square containing interior
    lines
    The unit provides distinct
    circuit conditions each
    depicted by a square
    Basic symbol for 2-position
    directional control valve
    Basic symbol for 3-position
    directional control valve
    A transitory but significant
    condition between two
    distinct positions is
    optionally represented by a
    square with dashed endsI S O F L U I D P O W E R G R A P H I C S Y M B O L S
    DESCRIPTION SYMBOL
    Designation: The first
    figure in the
    designation shows the
    number of ports
    (excluding pilot ports)
    and the second figure
    the number of distinct
    positions
    Directional control
    valve 2/2:
  • with manual control
  • controlled by
    pressure operating
    against a spring (e.g.,
    on air unloading valve)
    Directional control valve
    3/2:
  • controlled by
    pressure in both
    directions
  • controlled by
    solenoid with return
    spring
    Directional control
    valve 4/2:
  • controlled by
    pressure in both
    directions by means of
    pilot valve (with single
    solenoid and spring
    return)
    Directional control
    valve 5/2:
  • controlled by
    pressure in both
    directions
    USE OF THE EQUIPMENT
    OR EXPLANATION OF THE SYMBOL
    Detailed
    Simplified
    Directional control valve
    with 2 ports and 2 distinct
    positions
    Directional control valve
    with 3 ports and 2 distinct
    positions
    Indicating an intermediate
    condition (see 3.2.2.3)
    Directional control valve
    with 4 ports and 2 distinct
    positions
    Directional control valve
    with 5 ports and 2 distinct
    positionsI S O F L U I D P O W E R G R A P H I C S Y M B O L S
    DESCRIPTION SYMBOL
    Throttling directional
    control
  • with 2 ports (one
    throttling orifice)
  • with 3 ports (two
    throttling orifices)
  • with 4 ports (four
    throttling orifices)
    Electro-hydraulic
    servo valve:
    Electro-pneumatic
    servo valve:
  • single-stage
  • two-stage with
    mechanical feedback
  • two-stage with
    hydraulic feedback
    USE OF THE EQUIPMENT
    OR EXPLANATION OF THE SYMBOL
    T B P A T
    Torque motor
    armature
    Torque motor
    Spool
    The unit has 2 extreme
    positions and an infinite
    number of intermediate
    conditions with varying
    degrees of throttling
    All the symbols have
    parallel lines along the
    length of the boxes. For
    valves with mechanical
    feedback see 5.3
    Showing the extreme
    positions
    Showing the extreme
    positions and a central
    (neutral) position
    For example: Tracer valve
    plunger operated against a
    return spring
    For example: Directional
    control valve controlled by
    pressure against a return
    spring
    For example: Tracer valve,
    plunger operated against a
    return spring
    A unit which accepts an
    analog electrical signal and
    provides a similar analog
    fluid power output
  • with direct operation
  • with indirect pilot
    operation
  • with indirect pilot
    operationI S O F L U I D P O W E R G R A P H I C S Y M B O L S
    DESCRIPTION SYMBOL
    NON-RETURN VALVES,
    SHUTTLE VALVE,
    RAPID EXHAUST
    VALVE
    Non-return valve
  • free
  • spring loaded
  • pilot controlled
  • a pilot signal
    closes the valve
  • a pilot signal
    opens the valve
  • with restriction
    Shuttle valve
    Rapid exhaust valve
    PRESSURE CONTROL
    VALVES
    Pressure control valve:
  • 1 throttling orifice
    normally closed
    USE OF THE EQUIPMENT
    OR EXPLANATION OF THE SYMBOL
    P
    Outlet
    Drain
    Pilot
    Valves which allow free flow
    in one direction only
    Opens if the inlet pressure is
    higher than the outlet
    pressure
    Opens if the inlet pressure is
    greater than the outlet
    pressure plus the spring
    pressure
    As 3.3.1.1 but by pilot control
    it is possible to prevent
    Unit allowing free flow in one
    direction but restricted flow
    in the other
    The inlet port connected to
    the higher pressure is
    automatically connected to
    the outlet port while the other
    inlet port is closed
    When the inlet port is
    unloaded the outlet port is
    freely exhausted
    Units ensuring the control of
    pressure. Represented by one
    single square as in 3.1.1 with
    one arrow (the tail to the
    arrow may be placed at the
    end of the arrow). For interior
    controlling conditions see
    5.2.4.3
    General symbolsI S O F L U I D P O W E R G R A P H I C S Y M B O L S
    DESCRIPTION SYMBOL
  • 1 throttling orifice
    normally open
  • 2 throttling
    orifices, normally
    closed
    Pressure relief valve
    (safety valve):
  • with remote pilot
    control
    Proportional pressure
    relief
    Sequence valve
    Pressure regulator or
    reducing valve
    (reducer of pressure):
  • without relief port
  • without relief port
    with remote control
  • with relief port
    USE OF THE EQUIPMENT
    OR EXPLANATION OF THE SYMBOL
    System
    T
    P T
    Outlet
    P T
    Outlet
    Inlet pressure is controlled
    by opening the exhaust port
    to the reservoir or to
    atmosphere against an
    opposing force (for example
    a spring)
    The pressure at the inlet
    port is limited as in 3.4.2 or
    to that corresponding to the
    setting of a pilot control
    Inlet pressure is limited to a
    value proportional to the
    pilot pressure (see
    5.2.4.1.3)
    When the inlet pressure
    overcomes the opposing
    force of the spring, the valve
    opens permitting flow from
    the outlet port
    A unit which, with a
    pressure variable inlet
    pressure, gives substantially
    constant output pressure
    provided that the inlet
    pressure remains higher
    than the required outlet
    pressure
    As in 3.4.5.1, but the outlet
    pressure is dependent on
    the control pressureDESCRIPTION SYMBOL
  • with relief port,
    with remote control
    Differential pressure
    regulator
    Proportional pressure
    regulator
    FLOW CONTROL
    VALVES
    Throttle valve:
  • with manual
    control
  • with mechanical
    control against a
    return spring (braking
    valve)
    Flow control valve:
  • with fixed output
  • with fixed output
    and relief port to
    reservoir
    USE OF THE EQUIPMENT
    OR EXPLANATION OF THE SYMBOL
    I S O F L U I D P O W E R G R A P H I C S Y M B O L S
    Detailed Simplified
    Inlet Outlet
    Inlet Outlet
    Fixed orifice
    Control orifice
    As in 3.4.5.3, but the outlet
    pressure is dependent on the
    control pressure
    The outlet pressure is
    reduced by a fixed amount
    with respect to the inlet
    pressure
    The outlet pressure is
    reduced by a fixed ratio with
    respect to the inlet pressure
    (see 5.2.4.1.3)
    Units ensuring control of
    flow excepting 3.5.3
    positions and method of
    representation as 3.4
    Simplified symbol (does not
    indicate the control method
    or the state of the valve)
    Detailed symbol (indicates
    the control method of the
    state of the valve)
    Variations in inlet pressure
    do not affect the rate of flow
    As 3.5.2.1 but with relief for
    excess flow
    1998/1999 Fluid Power Handbook & Directory A/239DESCRIPTION SYMBOL
  • with variable
    output
  • with variable
    output and relief port
    to reservoir
    Flow dividing valve
    SHUT-OFF VALVE
    SOURCES OF ENERGY
    Pressure source
    Hydraulic pressure
    source
    Pneumatic pressure
    source
    Electric motor
    Heat engine
    FLOW LINES AND
    CONNECTIONS
    Flow line:
  • working line,
    return line and feed
    line
  • pilot control line
    USE OF THE EQUIPMENT
    OR EXPLANATION OF THE SYMBOL
    I S O F L U I D P O W E R G R A P H I C S Y M B O L S
    M M
    Control chamber
    Vent connection
    Inlet
    Tank
    Outlet
    As 3.5.2.1 but with
    arrow 5.2.3 added to the
    symbol of restriction
    As 3.5.2.3 but with relief
    for excess flow
    The flow is divided into
    two flows in a fixed ratio
    substantially
    independent of pressure
    variations
    Simplified symbol
    Simplified general
    symbol
    Symbols to be used
    when the nature of the
    source should be
    indicated
    Symbol 113 in IEC
    Publication 117.2
    A/240
    ENERGY TRANSMISSION AND CONDITIONINGI S O F L U I D P O W E R G R A P H I C S Y M B O L S
    DESCRIPTION SYMBOL
  • drain or bleed line
  • flexible pipe
  • electric line
    Pipeline junction
    Crossed Pipelines
    Air bleed
    Exhaust port:
  • plain with no
    provision for
    connection
  • threaded for
    connection
    Power take-off:
  • plugged
  • with take-off line
    Quick-acting coupling:
  • connected, without
    mechanically opened
    non-return valve
  • connected, with
    mechanically opened
    non-return valves
  • uncoupled, with
    open end
  • uncoupled, closed
    by free non-return
    valve (see 3.3.1.1)
    USE OF THE EQUIPMENT
    OR EXPLANATION OF THE SYMBOL
    Flexible hose, usually
    connecting moving parts
    not connected
    On equipment or lines, for
    energy take-off or measurementI S O F L U I D P O W E R G R A P H I C S Y M B O L S
    DESCRIPTION SYMBOL
    Rotary connection:
  • one way
  • three way
    Silencer
    RESERVOIRS
    Reservoir open to
    atmosphere:
  • with inlet pipe
    above fluid level
  • with inlet pipe
    below fluid level
  • with a header line
    Pressurized reservoir
    ACCUMULATORS
    FILTERS, WATER
    TRAPS, LUBRICATORS
    AND MISCELLANEOUS
    APPARATUS
    Filter or strainer
    Water trap
    USE OF THE EQUIPMENT
    OR EXPLANATION OF THE SYMBOL
    Air or gas
    Bowl
    Filer
    element
    Line junction allowing angular
    movement in service
    The fluid is maintained under
    pressure by a spring, weight
    or compressed gas (air,
    nitrogen, etc.)I S O F L U I D P O W E R G R A P H I C S Y M B O L S
    DESCRIPTION SYMBOL
  • with manual
    control drain
  • automatically
    drained
    Filter with water trap:
  • with manual
    control
  • automatically
    drained
    Air dryer
    Lubricator
    Conditioning unit
  • Detailed symbol
  • Simplified symbol
    HEAT EXCHANGERS
    USE OF THE EQUIPMENT
    OR EXPLANATION OF THE SYMBOL
    Float
    Desiccant

Inlet air
Lubricated
air
Combination of 4.5.1 and
4.5.2.1
Combination of 4.5.1 and
4.5.2.2
A unit drying air (for
example, by chemical
means)
Small quantities of oil are
added to the air passing
through the unit, in order
to lubricate equipment
receiving the air
Consisting of filter,
pressure regulator,
pressure gage and
lubricator
Apparatus for heating or
cooling the circulating
fluidI S O F L U I D P O W E R G R A P H I C S Y M B O L S
DESCRIPTION SYMBOL
Temperature controller
Cooler
Heater
Mechanical
components
Rotating shaft:

  • in one direction
  • in either direction
    Detent
    Locking device
    Over-center device
    Pivoting devices:
  • simple
    USE OF THE EQUIPMENT
    OR EXPLANATION OF THE SYMBOL
    The fluid temperature is
    maintained between two
    predetermined values. The
    arrows indicate that heat
    may be either introduced or
    dissipated
    The arrows in the diamond
    indicate the extraction of heat
  • without representation of
    the flow lines of the coolant
  • indicating the flow lines
    of the coolant
    The arrows in the diamond
    indicate the introduction of
    heat
    The arrow indicates rotation
    A device for maintaining a
    given position
  • The symbol for unlocking
    control is inserted in the
    square
    Prevents the mechanism
    from stopping in a dead
    center position
    CONTROL MECHANISMSI S O F L U I D P O W E R G R A P H I C S Y M B O L S
    DESCRIPTION SYMBOL
  • with traversing
    lever
  • with fixed fulcrum
    CONTROL METHODS
    Muscular control:
  • by pushbutton
  • by lever
  • by pedal
    Mechanical control:
  • by plunger or
    tracer
  • by spring
  • by roller
  • by roller, operating
    in one direction only
    Electrical control:
  • by solenoid
    USE OF THE EQUIPMENT
    OR EXPLANATION OF THE SYMBOL
    The symbols representing control
    methods are incorporated in the
    symbol of the controlled
    apparatus, to which they should be
    adjacent. For apparatus with
    several squares the actuation of
    the control makes effective the
    square adjacent to it.
    General symbol (without indication
    of control type)
  • with one winding
  • with two windings operating in
    opposite directionsI S O F L U I D P O W E R G R A P H I C S Y M B O L S
    DESCRIPTION SYMBOL
  • by electric motor
    Control by application
    or release of pressure
    Direct acting control:
  • by application of
    pressure
  • by release of
    pressure
  • by different control
    areas
    Indirect control, pilot
    actuated:
  • by application of
    pressure
  • by release of
    pressure
    Interior control paths
    Combined control:
  • by solenoid and
    pilot directional valve
  • by solenoid or pilot
    directional valve
    USE OF THE EQUIPMENT
    OR EXPLANATION OF THE SYMBOL
    M
  • with two windings operating in
    a variable way progressively,
    operating in opposite direction
    In the symbol the larger rectangle
    represents the larger control area,
    i.e., the priority phase
    General symbol for pilot
    directional control valve
    The control paths are inside the
    unit
    The pilot directional valve is
    actuated by the solenoid
    Either may actuate the control
    independently

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