Polymer Tribology

Polymer Tribology
اسم المؤلف
Sujeet K Sinha, Brian J Briscoe
16 يناير 2018

Polymer Tribology
Sujeet K Sinha
National University of Singapore, Singapore
Brian J Briscoe
Imperial College London, UK
Editorial Polymer Tribology — A Preface
Part I Bulk Polymers
Chapter 1 Adhesion and Friction of Polymers
1 Introduction
2 Polymers and Polymer Composites
3 Mechanical Behaviour of Polymer-Based Materials
4 Adhesion of Polymers
4.1 Thermodynamic Approach (Specific Surface Energy)
4.2 Contact Adhesion
4.3 Contact of Rough Surfaces
4.4 Contact of Rough Surfaces with Adhesion
4.5 Measurement of Adhesion
5 Friction of Polymer over the Hard Counterface
5.1 Effect of Load on Friction
5.2 Effect of Sliding Velocity on Friction
5.3 Effect of Temperature on Friction
6 Wear of Polymers
6.1 Abrasive Wear
6.2 Adhesive Wear and Friction Transfer
6.3 Fatigue Wear
6.4 Frictional Behaviour of Polymer Materials with Nanofillers
7 Conclusions
Chapter 2 Tribophysical Interpretation of Polymer Sliding
1 Introduction
2 Experimental Techniques
2.1 Raman Spectroscopy
2.2 Thermal Analysis
2.3 Other Techniques
3 Polymer Surface Analysis
3.1 Depositions of Internal Lubricant
3.2 Conformational Changes
3.3 Crystallisation
3.4 Polymerisation
3.5 Thermal Degradation
3.6 Physico-Chemical Degradation
4 Polymer Wear Debris Analysis
5 Conclusions
Chapter 3 Scaling Effects in Tribotesting of Polymers
1 Introduction
2 Tribotesting Facilities at Different Scales
2.1 Meso-Scale Testing
2.2 Small-Scale Testing
2.3 Large-Scale Testing
2.4 Field Testing
3 Meso-Scale to Small-Scale Correlation
3.1 Influence of Deformation and Contact
3.2 The Influence and Efficiency of Internal Lubrication
4 Small-Scale to Large-Scale Correlation
4.1 Single Parameter Model: Effect of Contact
4.2 Two-Parameter Model: pv-Limit
4.3 Macroscopic Geometry Model
4.4 Influence of Controlled Temperature on
Small-Scale Testing
5 Large-Scale to Full-Scale Correlation
6 Summary and Conclusions
Chapter 4 Scratch Experiments and Finite Element
Simulation: Friction and Nonlinearity Effects
1 Introduction
2 Experimental Observations
3 Finite Element Modelling
4 Finite Element Results
4.1 Plastic Strain Field
4.2 Mean Contact Strain
4.3 Contact Geometry
5 Discussion
5.1 Relationship between Contact Geometry
and Mean Contact Strain
5.2 Influence of the Mesh Size
5.3 Definition of the Representative Volume
5.4 Influence of the Strain Hardening
6 Conclusion
Chapter 5 Nanoindentation and Indentation Creep of Polymeric Materials
1 Introduction
2 Brief Summary of Basic Nanoindentation Analysis
2.1 Doerner and Nix’s Analysis Method
2.2 Oliver and Pharr’s Analysis Method
3 Problems of Nanoindentation of Polymeric
4 Approaches to the Nanoindentation of
Polymers or Other Soft Materials
4.1 Load Relaxation Experiments
4.2 Time-Dependent Properties
4.3 Nanoindentation with Continuous
Stiffness Measurement
4.4 Fitting of Unloading Curve of
Nanoindentation Polymers
4.5 Rate-Dependent Properties
5 Indentation Creep Experiments and Analysis
5.1 Basic Indentation Creep Analysis
5.2 Meaning of the Fitting Parameters
5.3 Factors Affecting the Indentation Creep
5.4 Modelling of Indentation Creep
5.5 Other Creep Functions and Comparison
6 Theoretical Analysis of Nanoindentation of
7 Nanoindentation Using Scanning Probe
8 Summary, Conclusions and Implications
Chapter 6 Effects of Physiological Factors on Wear of
UHMWPE for Joint Prosthesis
1 Introduction
2 Physiological Factor Relating to Joint
2.1 Shape of Sliding Pathways in Joint
Prostheses During Walking
2.2 Effect of Multidirectional Sliding Motion
on Wear of UHMWPE
2.3 Wear Characteristics of UHMWPE
Evaluated in Multidirectional Sliding
Wear Test
3 Physiological Factor Relating to Joint
3.1 Degradation of UHMWPE in Human Body
3.2 Effect of Macromolecules on Friction
and Wear
3.3 Effect of Protein and Lipid on Wear of
4 Summary
Chapter 7 Biopolymer Tribology
1 A Brief History of Biopolymers in Total
Hip Replacements
2 The Use of Biopolymers in Other Prostheses
3 Biopolymer Wear and Wear Debris
4 Wear Testing of Biopolymers
4.1 Implant Wear Testing
4.2 Biopolymer Wear Testing
5 Influence of Counterface Roughness on Wear
6 Influence of Lubricant on Wear
7 Soak Controls
8 Theoretical Lubrication Analysis
9 Friction
10 Other Polymers (Nonpolyethylene)
11 All-Polymer Articulations
12 Future Developments in Biopolymers
13 Future Challenges
14 Summary
Chapter 8 Frictional Behaviour of Miniature Journal
Polymer-on-Polymer Bearings
1 Introduction
2 Experimental Studies
2.1 Investigation of Friction Coefficient and
Time Needed to Start to Operate of Bearing
2.2 Investigation of Surface Topography of
Rubbing Components by Use of AFM
2.3 Experimental Investigation of Elasticity
Modulus of Surface Layers of Polymeric
Bearing Materials
2.4 Experimental Studies of Surface Free
Energy of Polymer
3 Model of Contact and Predicting of Friction
3.1 Model of Force Interactions between
Contacting Polymeric Surfaces —
Static Contact
3.2 Model of Force Interactions Occurring
between Polymeric Rubbing Surfaces —
Phase of Transition from Stationary State
to Movement
3.3 Results of Modelling
4 Comparison of Predicted and Experimentally
Determined Frictional Behaviours of Studied
5 Conclusions
Chapter 9 State-of-the-Art of Rubber Tribology
1 Introduction
2 Rubber Friction
2.1 Sliding Friction on Self-Affined Rough
2.2 Friction of Polydimethylsiloxane
(PDMS) Elastomers
2.3 The Other Topics
3 Rubber Lubrication
3.1 Effects of Surface Roughness on the
Tribological Behaviours of Rubber under
Lubrication Conditions
3.2 Wet Sliding Friction of Elastomers
3.3 Robust Molecular Lubrication Layers
4 Rubber Wear
4.1 Wear Behaviour of Elastomers
4.2 Wear Behaviour of Rubber Composites
and Coatings
5 Wear of Metal by Rubber
5.1 A Brief Historic Background
5.2 Wear of Steel by Rubber in the Presence
of Liquid Media
6 Tribology of Rubber Assemblies
6.1 Tires
6.2 Elastomeric Seals
6.3 Brakes
6.4 Rubber Journal Bearing and Rubber
Acetabular Bearing Materials
7 Concluding Remarks
Part II Reinforced Polymers
Chapter 10 Wear of Polytetrafluoroethylene and PTFE
1 Processing and Structure
2 Sliding Friction
3 Wear
4 PTFE Composite Wear Reduction Mechanisms
4.1 Transfer Film Adhesion
4.2 Preferential Load Support
4.3 Debris Size Control
5 Polymer-Filled PTFE Composites
6 Radiation-Induced Wear Resistance in PTFE
7 Tomorrow’s Challenges: Understanding
Nano-Filled PTFE
Chapter 11 Polymer Composites for Tribological Applications
in a Range between Liquid Helium and Room
1 Introduction to Cryotechnology
2 Materials and Tribological Characterisation
2.1 Materials
2.2 Tribotests at Room Temperature and
Cryogenic Environments
3 Friction and Wear of PTFE-Based Composites
at Room Temperature
4 Tribology of Selected PEEK- and PTFE-Based
Composites in Cryogenic Environments
4.1 Room Temperature Air vs. 77K Liquid
4.2 Influence of the Cryogenic Medium
5 Conclusions
Chapter 12 Mechanical and Tribological Behaviour of Polymers
Filled with Inorganic Particulate Fillers
1 Introduction
2 Effect of Fillers on Mechanical Properties
2.1 Stiffness Modulus
2.2 Strength
2.3 Toughness
3 Effect of Fillers on Friction and Wear
3.1 Microparticle Fillers
3.2 Nanoparticle Fillers
4 Mechanisms of Wear Modification
4.1 Sharing of Load by Hard Particles
4.2 Transfer Film Topography
4.3 Transfer Film Bonding
5 Concluding Remarks
Chapter 13 The Sliding Wear of Polypropylene and Its Blends
1 Introduction
2 Polypropylene
3 Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene
4 Polyethylene Terephthalate/Polypropylene
(PET/PP) Blends
5 Recycled Polyethylene Terephthalate
6 Wear Properties of PP/PET Blends
6.1 Influence of Addition of RPET on Wear
of PP
6.2 Effect of UHMWPE Addition on Wear
Rate of PP and Its Blends
Chapter 14 Engineering Polymers and Composites for Machine
1 Introduction and Overview
2 Rolling-Sliding Tests by the Twin-Disc
2.1 Principles
2.2 Unreinforced Thermoplastics —
Polyoxymethylene and Polyamide 66
2.3 Fibre-Reinforced Thermoplastics —
2.4 Internal Lubricants and Additives — PTFE
2.5 Comparison of Results and Validity
of Data
3 Gears and Gear Testing
4 Thermal Aspects of Polymeric Gearing
4.1 Heat Generation
4.2 Operating Temperatures of Polymeric
4.3 Bulk Temperature Estimation
5 Failure Modes of Polymer Gears
5.1 Thermal Failure
5.2 Fatigue
5.3 Other Forms of Failure
6 Wear of Polymer Gears
6.1 Commercial against Experimental Wear
6.2 Wear Manifestation
6.3 Wear Rates of Various Polymers
7 Mechanical Efficiencies of Polymer Gears
7.1 Theoretical Efficiencies
7.2 Experimental Efficiencies and Coefficients
of Frictions
8 Polymer Gears in High Performance
8.1 Power Density Comparisons
8.2 Elastohydrodynamic Aspects of Polymer
8.3 Novel Forms of Lubrication
Chapter 15 Brake Friction Materials
1 Introduction
2 Ingredients of Brake Friction Materials
2.1 Binder Resins
2.2 Reinforcements
2.3 Property Modifiers
2.4 Manufacturing Parameters
3 Sliding Interface
4 Friction Materials and Environmental Issues
5 Friction Evaluation Tests
6 Concluding Remarks
Chapter 16 Study of Tribological and Mechanical Properties
of Mold-in-Colour Polypropylene Used in
Automobile Industry
1 Introduction
2 Tested Samples
3 Preliminary Tests for Tip Selection
4 Progressive Load Scratch Tests
5 Constant Load Scratch Tests
6 Quantitative Characterisation of Scratch
7 Indentation Tests
8 Correlation
9 Summary
Part III Polymer Films
Chapter 17 Mechanical Properties of Thin Polymer Films
Within Contacts
1 Introduction
2 Contact Mechanics of Confined Polymer
2.1 Oedometric Approximation for the
Normal Indentation of Confined Layers
2.2 Lateral Contacts
3 Visco-Elastic Properties of Confined Polymer
Films in the Glass Transition Range
3.1 Linearity of the Contact Lateral Response
3.2 Pressure Dependence of the Linear
Visco-Elastic Modulus
4 Plastic Properties of Confined Polymer Films
4.1 Plastic Imprints under Normal Indentation
4.2 Elastic/Plastic Indentation Limit for
Confined Polymer Films
5 Conclusions
Chapter 18 Tribological Behaviour of Polymer Brush Prepared
by the “Grafting-from” Method
1 Introduction
1.1 Definition of Polymer Brush
1.2 Tribology of Polymer Brush Prepared by
“Grafting-to” Method
1.3 Advantage of Polymer Brush Prepared
by the “Grafting-from” Method Combined
with Living Polymerisation
2 Preparation of High-Density Polymer Brush on
2.1 Initiator-Immobilised Silicon Substrate
2.2 General Procedure for Surface-Initiated
3 Frictional Property of High-Density Polymer
3.1 Dependence of Solvent Quality
3.2 Water Lubrication by Hydrophilic Polymer
3.3 Effect of Graft Density on Wear Resistance
4 Conclusions
Chapter 19 AFM Testing of Polymeric Resist Films for
Nanoimprint Lithography
1 Introduction
2 Process of Imprint
3 NIL Problems
4 Testing of Materials for NIL
4.1 Introduction
4.2 AFM Studies of Surface Topography,
Friction and Adhesion of Ultrathin
Resist Films
4.3 Wettability Studies
4.4 Studies of Properties of Polymeric Resist
Films versus Temperature
5 Studies of Friction between Mold Surface and
Resist Film
6 Studies of Anti-Stiction Layers
7 Summary
Chapter 20 Tribological Studies of Ultra-High Molecular
Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) Thin Films on
Silicon Surface
1 Introduction
1.1 General Background on Polymer Thin
1.2 Tribological Properties of Polymer Thin
1.3 Motivation and Objectives of the Present
2 Materials and Sample Preparation
2.1 Materials
2.2 Preparation of UHMWPE Film on Si
2.3 Experimental Procedures
3 Results and Discussion
3.1 Characterisation of the UHMWPE Film
on Si Surface
3.2 Effect of PFPE Overcoating onto
UHMWPE Film Modified Si Surface on
Tribological Properties
4 Conclusions
Chapter 21 Tribology of UHMWPE Thin Films on Si with
Interfacial Layers and Modifications
1 Introduction
2 Experimental Procedures
2.1 Materials
2.2 Preparation of Different Layers on Si
2.3 Surface Analysis
2.4 Friction and Wear Tests
3 Friction and Wear Results
3.1 Comparison of UHMWPE Film with and
without DLC Interface
3.2 Effect of UHMWPE Thickness on the
Friction and Wear Properties of
3.3 Comparison of UHMWPE Film with
Different Interfaces
4 Discussion
5 Conclusions
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