Plumbing – Mechanical Services Book 2

Plumbing – Mechanical Services Book 2
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G.J. Blower
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25 مارس 2021
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Plumbing – Mechanical Services Book 2
Fifth Edition
G.J. Blower
Eng Tech (CEI), MIP, LCGI, Technical Teachers Cert.
Formerly Senior Lecturer, Plumbing Mechanical
Services Section, College of North East London.
Currently an NVQ Visiting Assessor
Contents
Foreword viii
Preface to fifth edition ix
Acknowledgements x
1 Welding and brazing processes 1
Introduction 1
Welding safety 1
The flame 3
Set-up of welded joints 4
Lead welding 5
Defects in welds 7
Lap welds on lead sheet 8
Angle seams 10
Lead-welded pipe joints 10
Bronze welding 10
Brazing processes 13
Fusion welding low-carbon steel 17
Further reading 17
Self-testing questions 18
2 Gas installations 19
Legislation 19
Properties of natural gas 22
Combustion and gas burners 22
Combustion air 23
Installation of pipework 25
Gas meters 26
Testing appliance pressures and
gas rates 27
Pressure 27
Gas pipe sizing 28
Testing for soundness 30
Purging domestic installations 33
Ventilation 33
Flues 35
Flue terminals 43
Gas controls 47
Ignition devices 57
Flame failure devices 57
Flame conduction and rectification 60
Gas fires and back boiler units 63
Servicing gas appliances 71
Decommissioning 72
Further reading 72
Self-testing questions 72
3 Cold water supply 74
The Water Regulations (1999) 74
Types of cold water supply 76
Large water storage cisterns and
associated pipework 83
Noise in cold water systems 85
Pollution of water supplies 88
Backflow prevention 92
Non-mechanical backflow devices 93
Mechanical backflow protection 96
Application of backflow-prevention
devices in domestic premises 100
Backflow protection in multi-storey
public and commercial buildings 104
Sterilisation of cold water systems 107
Provision for fire-fighting in buildings 107
Water treatment 114
Base exchange water softening 114
Hydraulic pressure testing 118
Decommissioning 120
Distribution pipe sizing in hot and
cold water services 120
Further reading 124
Self-testing questions 125
4 Hot water supply 126
Corrosion and scale formation in
hot water systems 126
Supplementary storage systems 127
High-level flow systems 127
Dual boiler systems 128
Unvented hot water systems 130Combination boilers 137
Pumped systems 140
Storage vessels 140
Support and connections to
horizontal hot storage vessels 142
Towel rails 144
Fuels used for hot water and
central heating 146
Water heaters 147
Electric water heating 148
Introduction to solar heating 151
Heat pumps 155
Micro combined heat and power
(micro CHP) 157
Legionnaires’ disease 157
Further reading 157
Self-testing questions 158
5 Hot water heating systems 159
Space-heating systems 159
Heat emitters 160
Central heating components 163
Boilers 166
Pipework systems used for heating 169
Heating systems 171
Mini-bore systems 174
Sealed heating systems 175
Heating controls 178
Central heating design 186
Domestic heating calculators 189
Under-floor central heating 194
Commissioning and maintaining
central heating systems 197
Noise in hot water supply and
heating systems 198
Corrosion in heating systems and
its prevention 199
Further reading 200
Self-testing questions 201
6 Oil firing 202
Fuel oils 202
Oil-fired boilers 202
Oil storage tank accessories 208
Tank overfill prevention 211
Pipework systems for oil supply 213
Types of oil burner 217
Installation of oil-fired boilers 224
Digital combustion analysers 230
Flues for oil boilers 230
Servicing oil-fired boilers 231
Further reading 232
Self-testing questions 233
7 Sanitary appliances 234
Introduction 234
WC macerators 234
Flushing troughs 236
Ablutionary fittings 237
Anti-scald valves 239
Showers 242
Urinals 252
Disposal of chemical wastes 259
Hospital appliances (general) 260
Sanitary accommodation 260
Washing and WC facilities for the
disabled 262
Further reading 262
Self-testing questions 265
8 Sanitary pipework 266
Building Regulations relevant to
sanitary pipework 266
Standards relating to sanitary
pipework 267
Sanitary pipe sizes 268
Trap seal loss 268
Ventilation of sanitary pipework 269
Compression and its prevention 269
Modern pipework systems 269
Branch positions in discharge stacks 274
Ventilation of branch discharge pipes
to single appliances 275
Ranges of appliances 276
Special notes relating to
ventilating pipes 278
Access for cleaning and
maintenance 280
Pipe ducts 280
Inspection and testing 281
Maintenance 282
Further reading 283
Self-testing questions 284
vi CONTENTS9 Underground drainage materials,
fittings and systems 285
Regulations relating to building
drainage 285
Functions of drainage systems 285
Health and safety 286
Materials 286
Drainage fittings 286
Support for above-ground drains 295
Flexibility 297
Bedding for underground drains 297
Protection of drains near or above
ground level or subject to
imposed loads 298
Types of drainage system 300
Ventilation of drains 304
Access to drains 306
Connections to existing drains 307
Working principles of a good
drainage scheme 308
Invert and soffit 309
Determining drain levels 310
Setting out the incline of a drain 310
Ramps and backdrops 312
Testing drains for soundness 312
Tracing drains 316
Maintenance of underground
drainage systems 316
Decommissioning 316
Further reading 316
Self-testing questions 317
10 Sheet lead roof weatherings 318
Introduction 318
Contact with other materials 319
Metal lining of gutters constructed
of timber 320
Gutter outlets 322
Covering large flat areas with
lead sheet 322
Wood rolls 324
Hollow roll work 324
Dormer windows 327
Mansard roofs 334
Lead-welded details 335
Metal cladding of buildings
with preformed panels 340
Patenation oil 342
Inspection and maintenance of
sheet weatherings 343
Further reading 343
Self-testing questions 343
11 Electrical systems 345
Regulations governing the
installation of electrical supplies 345
Distribution of electricity 346
Electrical units 347
Electrical safety 349
Earthing and bonding 351
Distribution of supplies in the
property 354
Current-carrying capacity of
conductors (cables) 359
Cables 360
Inspecting and testing electrical
installations 365
Ancillary components 367
Regulations relating to electrical
appliances in bathrooms 370
Further reading 371
Self-testing questions 372
Appendix A: Assignments 373
Appendix B: NVQ in plumbing —
Levels 2 and 3 377
Appendix C: Central heating control
systems 380
Appendix D: Whole house boilersizing method for houses 386
Index 38
Index
3, 4, 5 rule 333
ablutionary fittings 237–9
acetylene 1, 3, 6, 21
see also oxy-acetylene
acid receiver 259
acrylic 242
air 177
air admittance 101
valve 279
air bricks 34–5
air conditions, unstable 268
air deflector plate 219
air elimination 166, 167, 178
air gap 92, 93–5
A6 102
AA 76, 94, 96, 100, 103, 104, 107, 113, 116
AB 94, 107, 113
AC 94
AD 94, 107, 113
AF 94
AG 94–5, 100, 259
AUK 95
AUK1 100
AUK2 102
AUK3 134
air purger 177
air requirements for combustion and ventilation 224
air testing 281, 312, 313–14, 315
air vents in series 34
alarms, audible 211
alloys 13–14
aluminium 3
cold water supply 116
gas installations 38
hot water heating systems 167, 186
hot water supply 127
radiators 160
sheet lead roof weatherings 319, 340
angle iron 296
angle seams 10
anti-corrosion paints 75
anti-flood fittings 291–2
anti-gravity valve 160
anti-scald valves 239–41
anti-vacuum valves (vacuum breaker) 100, 133–4
appliance pressures, testing of 27
Approved Document 74
B 21
F 21
G3 137
H 266, 285, 299
J 21
L 21
M 262
P 345–6
apron detail 329, 330
area of unburned gas 3
assignments 373–6
atomising burners (pressure jet burners) 218–20
AU2 type 243
BA device 80, 113
Bacharach scale 226
back boiler units see gas fires and back boiler units
backdrops 312, 313
backfilling 298, 312
backfiring 3
backflow 89, 90–2, 94, 95
configurations 101
devices, non-mechanical 92, 93–6
prevention 92–3, 100–4
protection, mechanical 96–100
protection in multi-storey public and commercial
buildings 104–7
secondary 106
balancing 164
ball test 315
base exchange 114–18
basins 238, 239, 276–7
connections, single 277
waste 268, 269
see also washbasins
bathrooms 370–1
baths 275–6
bay sizes on roof pitches 319
bays in lead gutters, maximum
superficial areas recommended for 319
bedding 298, 299
bench-mark, temporary 310
bends 269, 289, 290
bent bolt 14, 15390 INDEX
bidets 102, 104–5, 238
bimetallic strip flame failure device 57, 59
bitumen 75
bituminous paints 208
blocking 181
blowholes 10, 11
blowpipes 6, 7, 9, 10, 12, 16
model ‘O’ 5–6
boilers 166–9
combination 137–40
condensing 167–9
dual 128–30, 131
energy manager 181–2
hopper-fed 129–30
interconnecting 130
low-water-content 166–7
oil fired 202–8
output rating 187
sizing 192
thermostats 179
bonding 351–4, 355
main 351
supplementary 351
wire, temporary 25
boning rods 310–11
boosters 82–3
borax 1, 12
bossed roll ends 325, 326
bottle traps 243, 259
branch discharge pipes 275–6
branch joints, working up in copper tubes using hand
tools 15
brass 255
screws 332
brazing 3
hearth 16
see also welding and brazing processes
breeching piece 109
brick relieving arch 300
bright steel rod 296
British Board of Agrément 137, 279
British Coal Utilisation Research Association 159
British Gas Transco 20
British Plumbing Employers Confederation 318
bronze:
filter 222
hot water heating systems 178
-welded branch joints 15
welding 3
welding filler metals 13
Building Act 1984 232
Building Control Officers 232, 236, 285
Building Regulations 21
Building Regulations 1965 269, 270
Building Regulations 1985: Part H 266, 313
Building Regulations 2005 167
Building Regulations:
hot water heating systems 159, 186, 187, 190, 195
hot water supply 137, 139
oil firing 203
Part G 260
Part H 271, 298
Part J 64, 69, 70, 204, 205, 230, 232
Part L 64, 137, 178
Part P 20, 185
sanitary appliances 243, 262
sanitary pipework 266–7, 279, 281
underground drainage 285, 299, 305, 306
see also Approved Document
Building Standards 21
bunding (secondary containment) 204, 205
burners:
efficiency 225–30
post-aerated 24
pre-aerated 24
pressure setting 27
burning in 10
burning velocity 23
butane 16
butt joint 5–7
butt weld 4, 337
butt-type bronze-welded joints 12
bypass valve 185
C2 (28) second oil 202, 208
cables 360–5
accidental damage 350
bell wire 361
conductors to components, termination of 363–4
cross-sectional area 359, 364
fixings and installation techniques 362–3
flat section 360–1
and flex sizes and ratings 362
flexible 362
multi-core 362
safe isolation 364–5
security at terminations 363
sheathed flexible 361–2
stripping 363
supports 363
three-core 362
cadmium 13, 14
calcium 116
carbonate 253
calorific value 22, 26, 146
cam-operated ignitor 57
capacitors 368–9
carbon dioxide 22, 23, 24
hot water heating systems 167
hot water supply 128
oil firing 227, 229, 230, 232
carbon monoxide 22, 24, 27, 28, 45, 63INDEX 391
carbonates 128
cast iron 11
hot water heating systems 167, 199
hot water supply 129
radiators 160
sanitary appliances 255
underground drainage 286–7, 289–92, 295–8, 300,
308
catchpit 322
category 5 risk 103
cathodic protection 129
cavitation 245–7
CE mark 20
cement products 167
central heating:
components 163–6
design 186–9
systems: commissioning and maintaining 197–8
under-floor 178, 194–7
wet 159
centrifugal pump 221
ceramic-disc taps 86
certification 19
chambers, junctions used in 290
channel bends 291, 307
channel section cable cover 360
chase wedges 324
check and vacuum breakers 99
check valves 92, 98–9, 101, 133
A 98
B 98
C 98
double 98–9
single 98
chemical inhibitor 200
chemical tests 315
chemical waste disposal 259–60
chimney updraught 226
Chinaman’s hat 230, 231
chlorine 017
cholera 90
chute method 322
circuit:
breakers, miniature 350–1
lengths 193
neutraliser 129, 130
protection devices 350–1
sizing 194
circulating head 143
clayware 167
sanitary appliances 239, 252, 260
underground drainage 286, 289, 290, 292, 297, 298,
308
coal tar substances 75
cobalt 116
coefficient of performance 156
cold water supply 74–125
assignment 373–4
backflow prevention 92–3
backflow prevention in domestic premises 100–4
backflow protection in multi-storey public and
commercial buildings 104–7
base exchange and water softening 114–18
decommissioning 120
distribution pipe sizing in hot and cold water services
120–4
general requirements 75–6
hydraulic pressure testing 118–20
indirect boosting with a header 77–9
indirect hydropneumatic systems 79–80
indirect systems 77
large water storage cisterns and associated pipework
83–5
maintenance and inspection 82
mechanical backflow protection 96–100
noise 82–3, 85–8
non-mechanical backflow devices 93–6
pollution 88–92
pumped systems 76–7
pumps, pump components and siting 80–2
sterilisation of cold water systems 107
water fittings, requirements of 74
water fittings, restrictions on use of 74
Water Regulations 1999 74–6
water treatment 114
work, notification of 75
see also fire-fighting, provision for in buildings
collar bosses 274
combustible materials 40
combustion:
air 23–5
digital combustion analysers 230
gas 24
and gas burners 22–3
gas installation 52
incomplete 25
oil firing 224, 225–30
composite control 48
compression 268, 269
compressor 155
concrete and concrete products 167, 299, 300, 306, 316,
320
condensation 43
condenser 155
conductors 347
continuity 365, 366
conduit 360
conservancy system 286
constant pressure governors 55
constantan 59
consumer unit 354
consumption, undue 74392 INDEX
control box 195, 220–1
Control of Pollution Regulations 204
convection 36
convector 160
heaters 162–3
copper 2, 11, 14
brazing processes 15
cold water supply 75, 88, 116, 121
gas installation 25, 28, 29, 68, 72
hot water heating systems 174, 194, 199
hot water supply 129, 141, 143, 151
oil firing 213
-phosphorus alloy 13, 14
pipe-sizing chart 122
sanitary appliances 235, 245, 255
sheet lead roof weathering 340
-tin 14
towel rail 144
-zinc 14
corner post 330
corrosion 126–7, 199–200
COSHH risk assessment 157
Council of Registered Gas Installers (CORGI) 19–20
cracking 202
creep 319, 343
creosote 75
current (symbol I) 347
current-carrying capacity of conductors (cables) 359–60
cylinder storage 2
cylinder thermostats 180
cylinder valves 2
D (35) second oil 202, 230
DA type 100
data tabulation 29
DB type 99, 100
decommissioning 72
cold water supply 120
drains 316
delayed optimum start feature 181
delta temperature 162
Department of the Environment, Transport and Regions
74, 89
Department of Health 157, 240
dew point 43, 167, 169
dezincification 75
digital combustion analysers 230
dilution 43
direct boosting 76–7
direct current 60
disabled people and sanitary appliances 262
discharge pipes 136–7, 235–6
showers 243
urinals 255
discharge stacks, branch positions in 274–5
discharge stacks, low connections on 279
distillation 202
distribution pipe sizing in hot and cold water services
120–4
diversity factor 356
diverter with automatic return 100
domestic heating calculators 189–94
dormer windows 327–34
cheek cladding 330
cheeks 329–33
gutters 334
sill details 329
tops 333–4
weathering assignment 373
weatherings 328–9
double entry radiator valve 176
double-pitched roof see mansard roof
double-pole switch 357
downdraught diverters 45–7
downstream 90
drainage:
above-ground, support for 295–7
chutes 290–1
combined system 303
partially separate system 304
pipelines, sizing of 309
separate system 303
suspended 296, 297
see also underground drainage materials, fittings and
systems
drainage fittings 286–95
anti-flood fittings 291–2
bends and junctions 289, 290
drain chutes 290–1
duck foot or rest bends 289–90
grease disposal 292–5
gulleys 287–8
intercepting traps 288–9
level invert open channel junctions 290
level invert taper pipe 291
rainwater shoes 288
rust pockets 291
stepped channel bends 290
draining down 96
drainpipe adaptor 286
draught gauge 227
draught stabilisers 217
draught sterilizers 218
draw-offs 119
drip plate 324, 337
drips in gutters 321–2
dry riser 110
duck foot or rest bends 289–90
E6 meters (ultrasonic meter) 27, 33
EA check valve 98
earthenware 252, 259
earthing 351–4, 355
eaves 339, 340INDEX 393
EB valve 98
EC valve 98
Economy Seven heating 147, 151
ED valve 99
electric instantaneous heater 251
electric water heating 148–51
electrical circuit, simple 349
electrical control 257–8
for dual boiler schemes 131
Electrical Equipment Regulations 346
electrical switches and controls in shower rooms 371
electrical switching 251
electrical systems 345–72
alternating current 347
capacitors 368–9
circuits supplying electric immersion heaters 357–9
current (symbol I) 347
current-carrying capacity of conductors (cables)
359–60
direct current 346–7
earthing and bonding 351–4
electromagnets 369
for fire safety control 214
inspecting and testing 365–7
power 348
regulations 345–6
regulations for bathrooms 370–1
resistance (symbol R) 347–8
resistors 368
ring circuits 354–6
safety 349–51
simple electrical circuits 348–9
single-phase supplies 346
transformers 370
voltage (symbol V) 347
see also cables
Electrical Wiring Regulations 346
Electricity at Work Regulations 1989 346
Electricity Supply Regulations 1988 21, 346
electrode assembly housed in blast tube 220
electrolysis 127
electromagnets 61, 369
electronic eye 63
electronic water conditioners 116–17
enamelled steel 38, 127
Energy Saving Trust 186
environmental pollution 204
environmental safety 3
equipotential bonding 353–4
evaporator 155
expanding plugs 312
expansion valve 134, 155
expansion vessel 134, 177–8, 179
explosion, avoiding dangers of 2
explosive materials 3
exposed conductive part 351
extraneous conductive parts 351, 353, 354
fail-safe equipment 220
fatigue cracking 343
fibreglass 252
filler metal 1
filler rods 6, 7, 9, 10, 12, 13, 14
flux-impregnated 11–12
fillet weld 4, 10, 17
fire, avoiding dangers of 2
Fire Officers Committee 114
fire risks 204–5
fire valves 212–13
fire-fighting, provision for in
buildings 107–14
hose reels 107–8
sprinkler installations 111–14
wet risers 109–11
fireclay 260
fixing bays 319
flame 3–4
adjustment 5
bronze welding 10–11
carburising 3
characteristics 4
conduction and rectification 60–3
failure devices 57–60
neutral 3
oxidising 3, 10
reducing 4
setting 9
stabilisation 23
flammability, limits of 22–3
flammable materials 3
flat roof 323
flats 323
float-operated valves 86, 100
Aylesbury 80, 82, 83
delayed action 79–80, 81
Portsmouth 80
floating floor 194
flow rate testing 119
flueless appliances 35–6
flues 35–47
boxes 70
common gas 39
condensation 43
downdraught diverters 45–7
fitting appliances to existing flues 40–1
flueless appliances 35–6
function 35
gas temperature 37, 229, 230
height 37
insulation 43
lining details with flexible stainless steel flue linings
44
materials 37–8
for multi-storey buildings 39–41
for oil boilers 230–1394 INDEX
flues (continued ):
open flues (natural draught) 36–7
operation 36
passing through combustible materials 40
pipe disconnection for cleaning and maintenance
37
pipes and weathering 40
pre-cast flue blocks 39
restrictor plate 67
room-sealed appliances 47, 48
runs 37
terminals 43–7
testing for updraught 41–2
twin-wall piped 49–50
fluid fire valve, heat-sensitive 214
flushing cisterns 255–6
flushing troughs 236–7
flushing valves 258, 259
fluxes 2, 12
force pump 118
free-fall fire valves 215, 216
fresh air inlet 304
frost thermostats 185, 186
fuel contents gauge 212, 213
fuel oils 202
light, characteristics of 203
low-temperature effects 208
fuel storage 204–8, 209
fuels used for hot water and central heating 146–7
fully pumped systems 171–4
fume hazards 3
furring pieces 323
fuses 350
fusion welding 3, 4
galvanised steel 38, 75, 127, 236
galvanometer 59
Gas Act 1995 20, 22
gas appliance governor, simple 55
Gas Appliance Safety Regulations 20–1
gas carcass 30
gas controls 47–57
constant pressure governors 55
main burner controls 49
multifunctional controls 55–7
service governor 53–5
solenoid valves 49–50
thermostats 50–3
gas fires and back boiler units 63–71
decorative fuel effect (DFE) fires 69–70
flue boxes 70
flues, methods of sealing into chimneys 66
gas back boilers with combined fires 64–7
gas fires — conventional type 67–8
hearths for gas fires 70–1
live fuel effect (LFE) fires 68–70
room sealed gas fires 70
gas installations 19–73
appliance pressures and gas rates, testing of 27
combustion air 23–5
combustion and gas burners 22–3
decommissioning 72
flame conduction and rectification 60–3
flame failure devices 57–60
ignition devices 57
leaks 71–2
legislation 19–22
meters 26
natural gas, properties of 22
pipe sizing 28–30
pipework, installation of 25–6
pressure 27–8
pressure drops, permissible 32
purging domestic installations 33
ratings 29
servicing appliances 71–2
soundness, testing for 30–3
ventilation 33–5
see also flues; gas controls; gas fires and back boiler
units
Gas Safety (Installation and Use) Regulations 20
Gas Safety (Management) Regulations 20
Gas Safety Regulations 20, 21, 25, 27, 48
Gas Safety (Rights of Entry) Regulations 20
gas storage heaters 148
gas-fired hot water storage heater 150
gauges 211–12
gear pump 221
Germany 254
glass 259, 260
enclosed fuel effect fire 69
goggles 3
gradient 308–9
incidence board 310
granular infill 298, 299
gravity, specific 22
grease converter 295
grease disposal 292–5
greywater 90
gulleys 287–8, 316
trapless 288
gutters 52, 320–2
box 320, 321, 323, 336
dormer 334
falls in 321
parapet wall 320
tapering 337
tapering valley 320, 321
HA valve 99
hammer 14, 15
hand bellows 312
hand punner 298
hand tools in brazing processes 15INDEX 395
hand-washing facilities, industrial 239
hard water 127
HC type 100
head loss 121
Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 20, 119, 157, 346
Health and Safety Executive 19, 20, 21, 157
health and safety and underground drainage 286
hearths for gas fires 70–1
heat application methods for brazing 16
heat emitters 160–3
heat exchangers 155
heat leak 128, 129
heat loss 186–7, 188
Heat Pump Association 156
heat pumps 155–6
heat requirements tabulation 189
heaters, multi-point 147
heating controls 178–86
boiler energy manager 181–2
boiler thermostats 179
cylinder thermostats 180
delayed optimum start feature 181
frost thermostats 185
room thermostats 181
temperature control interlock 182
thermostatic radiator valves (TRVs) 183–5
time control 179–80
weather-compensating controls 182–3
wiring electrical control systems 185–6
zone control 181
heating pump 166
heating requirements 187
heating systems, sealed 175–8
Heating and Ventilating National Joint Council 17
herringbone pattern 7
high-level flow systems 127–8, 129
high-velocity flow 88
holding down 324
hollow roll work 322, 324–7
horizontal lapped weld 9
hose reels 107–8
hose restraining ring 244
hose union taps — backflow protection 99
hoses, flexible 103–4
hospital appliances 260
hospital bedpan sluice 260
hot water heating systems 159–201
boilers 166–9
central heating components 163–6
central heating design 186–9
commissioning and maintaining central heating systems
197–8
corrosion 199–200
domestic heating calculators 189–94
fully pumped systems 171–4
heat emitters 160–3
mini-bore systems 174–5
noise 198–9
pipework systems 169–71
pumped heating, gravity hot water systems 171
sealed heating systems 175–8
space-heating systems 159–60
under-floor central heating 194–7
see also heating controls
hot water services, connection of to pumped showers 246
hot water supply 126–58
assignment 373–4
combination boilers 137–40
corrosion and scale formation 126–7
dual boiler systems 128–30
electric water heating 148–51
fuels used for hot water and central heating 146–7
heat pumps 155–6
high-level flow systems 127–8
Legionnaires’ disease 157
micro combined heat and power 157
pumped systems 140
solar heating 151–5
storage vessel, unvented 136
storage vessels 140–2
supplementary storage systems 127
support and connections to horizontal hot storage
vessels 142–4
towel rails 144–6
water heaters 147–8
see also unvented hot water systems
HUK1 valve 99
hydraulic mean depth 309
hydraulic pressure testing 118–20
hydrocarbons 22, 23, 24
hydrogen 200
hydropneumatic boosted cold water system 78
hypotenuse 332
ignition devices 57
ignition temperature 22
immersion heaters 148–51, 152, 153, 357–9
electric 151, 359
impact type ignitor 57
inclination 308, 309, 310–12
inclined seam 8
inclined vertical weld 9
inclusion 8
index circuit 193
indirect boosting with a header 77–9
indirect hydropneumatic systems 79–80
indirect supply 76
indirect system of hot water supply 145
indirect systems 77
inflatable air bag or stopper 312, 313
inspection chambers 306, 307, 313, 316
installation tests 365
Institution of Electric Engineers 236
Regulations 25, 185, 250, 346, 354, 359, 371396 INDEX
insulation 43
resistance test 365–7
intercepting traps 288–9, 304
interceptor 316
sizing 294
interlocking of controls 183
intermediate fixings 330
internal corners 338, 340
invert 309–10, 312
open channel junctions, level 290
taper pipe, level 291
iron 59, 116
black magnetic oxide 129
see also cast iron
joint design for brazing 14–15, 16
kilowatts, conversion of meter reading to 26
L-shaped cleat 329
lap joints 322
lap weld 4
lead 3, 8, 17
burning 1
cold water supply 75, 114
strip casting mould 6
-welded drips in box gutters 336
-welded joints 322
-welded overcloaks 339
welding patterns 7
welding wood-cored rolls 338
see also sheet lead roof weatherings
Lead Sheet Association 10, 318, 319, 326, 340
leftward method 6, 7
Legionnaires’ disease 157
lever locking stopper 289
lift-off 6, 23
light back 23, 24
light conduit 360
lime scale deposits 283
load 348
loading units 120–1, 124
lockout 63, 221
low-carbon steel 17
hot water heating systems 199
hot water supply 129
oil firing 205
underground drainage 296
low-temperature effects and fuel oils 208
macerators in WCs 234–6
magnesium 129
magnetic hydrodynamics (MHD) 116
Maguire’s rule 309
mains spark ignition 57, 59
manifolds 195
manometer 27
mansard roofs 326, 334–5
Mean Water Temperature 162
mechanical backflow 94
mechanical extractor 37
mechanical joints 274
‘Mega’ 365
meniscus 30
mercury vapour flame safety valve 60, 62
metal cladding of buildings with preformed panels
340–2
micro combined heat and power 157
mid position valves 173
mini-bore systems 174–5
mirror test 315, 316
mixing valve 238
modified primary ventilated stack system (modified single
stack system) 272–3
molten pool 7, 9
mortar 320
multifunction test meter 365, 366
multifunctional controls 48, 55–7
National Gas Emergency Service Provider 20, 21, 72
neutral point 165
nickel 116
nitric acid 167
nitrogen 22, 24, 134, 177
nitrous oxide 167
noise:
cold water systems 85–8
from pumps or boosters 82–3
hot water supply and heating systems 198–9
reduction in pumping equipment 84
sanitary pipework 267
non-concussive valves 239
non-return valves 80
non-verifiable disconnector with different pressure zones
(type CA) 80, 98
nozzle:
assembly, incorrect positioning of 226
delivery pipe, effect on entrapping air in 225
in oil burners 222–3
size for welding 5–6
NVQ 318, 377–9
O H terminal 43
Office of Gas Supply (OFGAS) 22
OH cowl 231
Ohm’s law 347–8
oil burner, types of 217–24
atomising burners 218–20
control box 220–1
nozzles 222–3
oil pumps 221–2
preheaters 223–4
transformers 224
vaporising burners 217–18INDEX 397
oil filters 211
oil firing 202–33
assignment 374–5
boilers 202–8
digital combustion analysers 230
flues for oil boilers 230–1
fuel oils 202
oil pipe supplies to burners 216
oil storage requirements for public or commercial
buildings 208
oil storage tank accessories 208–11
pipework systems for oil supply 213–17
pollution control 205
servicing oil-fired boilers 231–2
tank overfill prevention 211–13
see also oil burner, types of; oil-fired boilers,
installation of
Oil Firing Technical Education Council (OFTEC) 211
oil-fired boilers, installation of 224–30
air requirements for combustion and ventilation 224
commissioning and testing 224–5
pressure 226
testing combustion and burner efficiency 225–30
one-pipe system 169, 170
onion 17
outlet 250
oval conduit 360
over-gassing 27
overcloaks 8, 9, 337, 339
overcurrent 349
overflow pipes 85
overhand method 338
overlap 8
overloading 349
oxy-acetylene 4, 16
oxygen 1, 3, 4, 6, 10
barrier layer 197
deficiency 24
see also vitiation
depletion valve 63
gas installation 23
hot water heating systems 177, 198, 199
hot water supply 128
P4 (D4) meter 32
parallel circuit 349
parent metal 1
patenation oil 342
patent boss for fitting immersion heaters 152
pattern staining 162
penetration 7, 8
perfect square 333
performance testing 282, 283
personal safety 2
petroleum products, oils and phenols 75
phosphoric acid 11
photo-electric resistor 63, 64
piezoelectric ignition 57, 58
pin-holing 199
pipe:
adaptor, multi-discharge 274–5
ducts 280–1
interrupter 95–6
interrupter with vent and moving element 99–100
length calculation 124
lengths, equivalent 121
and oil supply 213
runs, diagrammatic layout of 192
sizes distribution 123
-sizing chart 122
sizing tabulation schedule 124
see also pipework
pipeline switch 79
pipework:
installation 25–6
schemes and showers 247
system and towel airers 145
systems for oil supply 213–17
systems used for heating 169–71
plaster sinks 260, 261
plastic:
cold water supply 75
gas installation 25
gutters and protection from hot products of combustion
52
hot water heating systems 167, 178, 194, 197
oil firing 204, 205, 213
sanitary appliances 236
testing 119
see also polypropylene; polytetrafluoroethylene;
polythene; PVC
plug cock 86
plugs 198
Plumbing Joint Industrial Board 17
pluming 169
point heaters, single 147
polarity testing 367, 368
pollution:
cold water supply 88–92
showers 243, 244
polypropylene 259
polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) 26, 116
polythene 205, 255, 260
ponding 323
power 348, 354
preheaters 223–4
pressure 27–8, 76
absolute 28
atmospheric 28
back 93, 98
control valves (hydraulic valve) 256–7
-flushing cisterns 259
gauge 28
-reducing valves 88, 89, 133398 INDEX
pressure (continued):
regulation of oil pump 222
standing 28
testing 118
working 28
primary ventilated stack system (single stack system)
270–1
primary winding 370
probability theory 120
programmers 179–80
progressive head 121
propane 16
Public Gas Transporters 20
pump duty selection graph 194
pumped heating, gravity hot water systems 171
pumped systems 76–7, 140
pumps, pump components and siting 80–3, 164–6
purge period 221
purging domestic installations 33
push-fit joint for single-wall stainless steel flue pipe 38
push-fit rubber ring joints 274
PVC:
electrical systems 361
hot water heating systems 174
sanitary appliances 235, 255
underground drainage 286, 287, 290, 295, 296, 297,
298, 307, 308, 311
quarter-turn taps 86
radiant enclosed fuel effect fire 69
radiators 160–2
aluminium 160
cast iron 160
column 160, 162
emptying by air pressure 199
hospital 160
panel 160, 162
schedule 192
sizing chart 192
steel 160, 162
union with integral drain cock 199
valves 163–4
radio mark symbol 181
rainwater shoes 288
ramps 312
reciprocating pump 221
recovery chart 142
red oxide 208
red rust 129
reduced pressure zone (RPZ) backflow prevention valve
96–8, 107, 113
reinforcement 7
runs to strengthen joint 5
relays 369
Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous
Occurrences Regulations (RIDDOR) 21
residual current circuit breaker 352–3
resistance (symbol R) 347–8
resistors 368
respirator 11
right-angled triangle 332–3
ring circuits 354–6, 358
ripple effect 7
rocker pipes 299
rodding eye bend 306
roll ends 339, 340
roll inline method 324
rolls 324
roof pitch 319
room temperature and ventilation rates 187
room thermostats 181
room-sealed appliance terminals 51, 52
rotary thermometer 229
rubber 178
rust pockets 291, 316
S cleat 330
saddle 308
safety 1–3
controls 134–5
devices 178
electrical systems 349–51
salmonella 90
sanitary appliances 234–65
ablutionary fittings 237–9
anti-scald valves 239–41
chemical waste disposal 259–60
flushing troughs 236–7
hospital appliances 260
sanitary accommodation 260–2
washing and WC facilities for the disabled 262
WC macerators 234–6
see also showers; urinals
sanitary pipework 266–84
access for cleaning and maintenance 280
basins 276–7
branch positions in discharge stacks 274–5
Building Regulations 266–7
compression and its prevention 269
inspection and testing 281–2
maintenance 282–3
modified primary ventilated stack system 272–3
pipe ducts 280–1
pipe sizes 268
primary ventilated stack system 270–1
requirements 267
secondary ventilated stack system 271–2
standards 267
stub stack system 271, 272
trap seal loss 268–9
urinals 278
ventilated system 273–4
ventilating pipes 278–80INDEX 399
sanitary pipework (continued ):
ventilation 269
ventilation of branch discharge pipes to single
appliances 275–6
WCs 277–8
sanitation and drainage assignment 375–6
scale:
formation 126–7
prevention, chemical methods of 117–18
reducers 116, 117
scent tests 315
screw-down taps 86
SEDBUCK A or B rated 137
self-siphonage 267, 268
service governor 53–5
service tank system 217
set on method 17
set off method 17
set square 333
shave hook 5
Sheet Lead Manual 318
sheet lead roof weatherings 318–44
contact with other materials 319–20
covering large flat areas 322–3
gutter outlets 322
hollow roll work 324–7
inspection and maintenance 343
internal corners 338
mansard roofs 334–5
metal cladding of buildings with preformed panels
340–2
metal lining of gutters constructed of timber 320–2
patenation oil 342
setting out for welded joints 335–8
welded cleats 338–40
wood rolls 324
see also dormer windows
sheet metal and brazed joints 15
sheet steel and hot water heating systems 199
shiplap boarded cheeks 334
shiplap hoardings 328
short circuit 349–50
showers 242–52, 275–6
cavitation 245–7
discharge pipes 243
electric 247–51
head arrangements 246
maintenance 251–2
mixing valves 244
pipework schemes 247
pollution risks 243, 244
pumped 245
shower trays 242–3
thermostatic controls, commissioning and testing of
244–5
trays 243
sight rails 310–11
silicon 12
silver brazing alloys 13
silver-copper alloy 13, 14
single-pole switch 357
sinks 276
siphonage 90–1
back 91, 93, 98
induced 268
see also self-siphonage
skirting heating 162
small-bore principle 171–2
smoke match 41–2
smoke testing 42, 226–30
soakaways 302–4
sodium chloride 114, 116
soffit 308, 309–10
soft water 128, 129
solar heating 151–5
soldering 3
solenoid (magnetic) valve 49–50, 52, 59, 60, 61, 63,
369
soot 6
soundness testing 30–3, 281–2, 312–15
space-heating systems 159–60
spillage tests 42
splash laps 324
spray taps 277
spring-loaded non-return valve 83
sprinkler installations 111–14
stack system, single 269
staggered rolls 324
stainless steel:
cold water supply 88
gas installations 37, 38, 43, 44
hot water heating systems 167
pipe-sizing chart 122
sanitary appliances 239, 245, 252, 255, 260
trough urinals 253–4
steel 2, 3, 8, 10, 11, 17
enamelled 38, 127
galvanised 38, 75, 127, 236
gas installation 25, 28
hot water heating systems 199
hot water supply 133
low-carbon 17
mandrel, multi-diameter 14
oil firing 205, 213
radiators 129, 160, 162
see also low-carbon; stainless steel
stelliting 3
step irons 316
step-by-step technique 9
stepped channel 290, 291
sterilisation of cold water systems 107
Stirling engines 157
stoichiometric mixture 22
storage systems, supplementary 127, 128400 INDEX
storage vessels 140–2
straight channel 291
strainers 133
stratification 141–2
stub stack system 271, 272
studding 296
submerged inlets 102–3
sulphuric acid 230
sulphurous acid 167
surrey flange 140, 141
switches, types of 359
tank alarm unit 204
taps 237–9
Technical Standards 21
tees showing where allowances for resistance to flow
must be allowed for 30
temperature:
control of domestic hot water with motorised valve
180
control interlock 182
-controlled cut-outs 135
relief valves 135–6
terminations 364
test lamp 364
thermal storage systems 138–40
thermal transmittance (conduction) 187–9
thermistors 63
thermocouple lead 61
thermoelectric valve 57–60, 61
thermostatic controls in showers 244–5
thermostatic mixer valve for wash basins 241
thermostatic mixing valves 245
thermostatic radiator valves (TRVs) 183–5
thermostatic temperature control 210
thermostats 50–3, 135
fluid expansion 53, 54
rod-type 50, 52, 53
three-pin plug 356
three-pipe system (reversed return system) 170
three-port motorised valve 173
thumbnail effect 7
Tiger Loop System 214, 216
tile hanging 328
tile-hung cheeks 334
timber 320–2
time control 179–80
time switches 179
tinning 338
TNCS system 353, 354
TNS system 352
towel rails 144–6
transformers 224, 370
step-down 370
step-up 370
trap seals 267, 268–9
depth checking 282
traps, internal diameter and depth of seal of 266
TT system 352–3
tumbling bay see backdrops
tun-dish 98, 104, 134, 135
two-pipe system 169, 170–1
U gauge (manometer) 31, 32, 55, 312
U-values 187, 189, 190
U6 gas meter dial 26, 27, 32, 33
ullage 204
undercloak 5, 9, 337
undercutting 7–8, 10
underground drainage materials,
fittings and systems 285–317
access 306–7
bedding 297–8
combined system 300–1
connections to existing drains 307–8
decommissioning 316
drain levels 310
flexibility 297
functions 285–6
health and safety 286
incline 310–12
invert and soffit 309–10
maintenance 316
materials 286
partially separate system 302–4
projection of drains near or above ground level or
subject to imposed loads 298–300
ramps and backdrops 312
regulations 285
separate system 301–2
soundness testing 312–15
support for above-ground drains 295–7
tracing drains 316
ventilation 304–6
working principles of good drainage scheme 308–9
see also drainage fittings
underlays 320
United States 254
unvented hot water systems 130–7
anti-vacuum valve 133–4
check valve 133
discharge pipes 136–7
expansion valve 134
expansion vessel 134
legislation 137
methods of heating 137
pressure-reducing valves 133
safety controls 134–5
strainers 133
system layout 132–3
temperature relief valves 135–6
temperature-controlled cut-outs 135
thermostats 135
updraught 41–2INDEX 401
upright joint 8
upstream 90
uric acid 253
urinals 252–9, 275, 278
automatic flushing cistern control 256
bowl 253
cleaning discharge pipes 255
electrical control 257–8
flushing cisterns 255–6
flushing valves 259
joints for slab and stall 252–3
pressure control valves (hydraulic valve) 256–7
pressure-flushing cisterns 259
slab 252
stainless steel trough 253–4
stall 252
waste fittings 254–5
waterless 254
vaporising burners 217–18
velocity (speed of flow) 308–9
vent pipe connections, incorrect 278
ventilation 33–5
adventitious 33
of branch discharge pipes to single appliances
275–6
drains 304–6
and draught-proof wall 36
oil firing 224
pipe terminations 85
pipes 278–80
sizing 279–80
sanitary accommodation 262
sanitary pipework 269
stack system, secondary 271–2, 273–4
WC compartments 261
viscosometer, diagrammatic 203
visual inspection 365
vitiation 3, 24, 43, 45, 63
sensing devices 65
vitrified china 252
Vokera instantaneous water heater 149
voltage drop 359
voltage (symbol V) 347
warning pipes 85
wash fountains 276
washbasins 241, 276
washing fountain 241
washing troughs 240, 276
waste discharge into gulley 287
waste fittings in urinals 254–5
Water Act 21
Water Advisory Service 119
Water Bylaws 1986 75, 86
hot water supply 131
sanitary appliances 239, 255
Water Bylaws 1996 102
water carriage system 286
water categories 1–5 89–90
Water Fittings and Materials Directory 74
water flow, reducing velocity of to float-operated valves
87
water hammer 80, 86–8
water hardness 126
water loss, permissible 314
Water Regulations 21, 85, 87, 90, 92, 93, 101, 102, 104,
119
Water Regulations 1996 132
Water Regulations 1999 74–6, 89, 259
Water Regulations:
Guide 106
hot water supply 137, 139
sanitary appliances 243, 255
Water Research Centre 102
water softener 115, 250
water storage cisterns, large 83–5
water storage requirements 76
water supply to hose reels 108
water testing 282, 312, 313–14
water vapour 22, 23, 24
water-to-water heat exchange 138
WCs 275, 277–8
compartments 261
macerators 234–6
weather-compensating controls 182–3
welded cleats 338–40
welded drips in tapering gutters 337
welded joints 331, 335–8
welding and brazing processes 1–18
angle seams 10
brazing processes 13–16
bronze welding 10–13
defects in welds 7–8
flame 3–4
fusion welding low-carbon steel 17
lap welds on lead sheet 8–10
lead welding 5–7
lead-welded pipe joints 10
safety 1–3
set-up of welded joints 4–5
vertical welding 9
weld pool 3, 4, 8, 13
weld ripples 12
welding nozzle 9
welting 327, 332
wet risers 109–11
wetting 11
wind effect on natural draught (conventional) flues
41
winding, secondary 370
wiring electrical control systems 185–6
Wiring Regulations 365
wood rolls 324402 INDEX
wood-cored rolls and drips 322, 323
work, notification of 75
yard gulley 288
zeolites 114, 116
zero potential 351
zinc 10, 11, 13, 14, 129
cold water supply 75
gas installations 38
oxide 10–11
zone control 181
zoned system of heating 182
zones 370–1
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