Organizational Behavior 19th Edition

Organizational Behavior 19th Edition
اسم المؤلف
Stephen P. Robbins, Timothy A. Judge
التاريخ
25 نوفمبر 2023
المشاهدات
245
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
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Organizational Behavior 19th Edition
Global Edition
Stephen P. Robbins
San Diego State University
Timothy A. Judge
The Ohio State University
Brief ContentsThis page is intentionally left blank5
1 What Is Organizational Behavior? 36
Management and Organizational Behavior 38
Who’s Who in the World of Work 39 • Management Activities 40 •
Management Roles 40 • Management Skills 42 • Effective Versus
Successful Managerial Activities 42 • Organizational Behavior (OB) Defined 43
Complementing Intuition with Systematic Study 44
Building on Big Data with Artificial Intelligence 45
Myth or Science? Management by Walking Around Is the Most Effective
Management 46
Disciplines That Contribute to OB 49
Psychology 49 • Social Psychology 50 • Sociology 50 • Anthropology 51
There Are Few Absolutes in OB 51
Challenges and Opportunities 51
Workforce Diversity and Inclusion 52 • Continuing Globalization 52 •
Technology and Social Media 54 • (Un)ethical Behavior 55 •
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) 56
Toward a Better World Ben & Jerry’s: The Scoop on What It Takes to Be a
CSR-Oriented Company 57
Positive Work Environments 58 • The Gig Economy 58 • OB During Crises 60
Coming Attractions: Developing an OB Model 60
An Overview 60 • Inputs 60 • Processes 61 • Outcomes 61
An Ethical Choice What Should You Do If Your Values Do Not Align with
Your Company’s? 65
Employability Skills 66
Employability Skills That Apply Across Majors 67
Summary 69
Implications for Managers 69
Point/Counterpoint Business Books: Facts? Or Just Fads? 70
Questions for Review 71
Experiential Exercise Managing Remote Teams 71
Ethical Dilemma Credit Where Credit Is Due 72
Case Incident Work–Life Balance at R.G. & Company 72
Contents
Preface 21
1 Introduction6 Contents
2 The Individual
2 Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion in Organizations 74
Understanding Diversity 76
Levels of Diversity 77 • Biographical Characteristics 77
Myth or Science? Bald Is Better 79
Prejudice and Discrimination in Organizations 82
Prejudice and Implicit Bias 82 • Discrimination, Disparate Impact,
and Treatment 83 • Subtle Discrimination in the Workplace 85
Theoretical Perspectives on Prejudice, Discrimination, and Diversity 85
Social Categorization 85 • Stereotyping, Stereotype Threat, and Stigma 86
Toward a Better World Hot Chicken Takeover: Putting Restorative Justice
into Practice 88
System Justification and Social Dominance 89 • Intersectionality and the Cultural
Mosaic 90
Diversity Dynamics 92
Group Composition 92 • Fault Lines 93
Cross-Cultural Organizational Behavior (OB) 94
Hofstede’s Framework 94 • The GLOBE Framework 95 • Cultural Tightness
and Looseness 97 • Religion 98 • Expatriate Adjustment 99 • Cultural
Intelligence (CQ) 99
Implementing Diversity Management 100
An Ethical Choice Affirmative Action for Unemployed Veterans 101
Theoretical Basis Underlying Diversity Management 102 • Diversity Management
Practices 103 • Cultures and Climates for Diversity 106 • The Challenge
of Diversity Management 106
Summary 107
Implications for Managers 108
Point/Counterpoint Using Artificial Intelligence for Hiring Leads
to Greater Diversity 109
Questions for Review 108
Experiential Exercise Differences 110
Ethical Dilemma Should You Question an Employer About Its DEI Policy? 110
Case Incident Encouraging Female Engineers 111
3 Job Attitudes 112
Attitudes 114
Attitudes and Behavior 116
Job Attitudes 117
Job Satisfaction and Job Involvement 118
An Ethical Choice Office Talk 118Contents 7
Organizational Commitment 119 • Perceived Organizational
Support 120 • Employee Engagement 120 • Job Attitudes in the Gig
Economy 121 • Are These Job Attitudes All That Distinct? 121
Job Satisfaction 122
How Do I Measure Job Satisfaction? 122 • How Satisfied Are People in Their Jobs? 123
What Causes Job Satisfaction? 125
Job Conditions 125 • Personality and Individual Differences 126 • Pay 127
Outcomes of Job Satisfaction 127
Job Performance 127
Toward a Better World Nvidians: Together Transforming Communities Around
the World 128
Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) 128 • Customer Satisfaction 129 •
Life Satisfaction 129
The Impact of Job Dissatisfaction 129
Counterproductive Work Behavior (CWB) 130
Myth or Science? Happy Workers Means Happy Profits 132
Managers Often “Don’t Get It” 132
Summary 133
Implications for Managers 133
Point/Counterpoint Earning That Promotion May Be Key to Higher Job Satisfaction 134
Questions for Review 134
Experiential Exercise Managing Political Views in the Office 135
Ethical Dilemma Tell-All Websites 136
Case Incident Jobs, Money, and Satisfaction 136
4 Emotions and Moods 138
What Are Emotions and Moods? 140
Positive and Negative Affect 141 • The Basic Emotions 142 •
Moral Emotions 143 • Experiencing Moods and Emotions 144 •
The Function of Emotions 145
Sources of Emotions and Moods 146
Personality 146 • Time of Day 146 • Day of the Week 148 • Weather 148 •
Stress 148 • Social Interactions 148 • Sleep 150 • Exercise 150 • Gender
Identity 150
Emotional Labor 151
Controlling Emotional Displays 151
Myth or Science? All Employees Experience Emotional Labor in the Same Way 152
Affective Events Theory 153
Emotional Intelligence 153
An Ethical Choice Should Managers Use Emotional Intelligence (EI) Tests? 155
Emotion Regulation 156
Emotion Regulation Influences and Outcomes 156 • Emotion Regulation
Techniques 157 • Ethics of Emotion Regulation 158
OB Applications of Emotions and Moods 158
The Selection Process 158 • Decision Making 159 • Creativity 159 •
Motivation 160 • Leadership 160 • Negotiation 161 • Customer
Service 161 • Work–Life Conflict 1618 Contents
Toward a Better World Scream Agency: Harnessing Customer Emotions to
Bolster CSR 162
Unethical Workplace Behaviors 163 • Safety and Injury at Work 163
Summary 164
Implications for Managers 164
Point/Counterpoint Sometimes Yelling Is for Everyone’s Good 165
Questions for Review 165
Experiential Exercise Mindfulness at Work 166
Ethical Dilemma Data Mining Emotions 166
Case Incident Performance Review Shock: Being Told How to Feel and Act 167
5 Personality and Individual Differences 168
Linking Individuals to the Workplace 170
Person–Job Fit 171 • Person–Organization Fit 172 • Other Dimensions of Fit 172
Toward a Better World Uber: In the Median or Back on the Road Again? 173
Personality 174
What Is Personality? 174
Personality Frameworks 176
The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator 176 • The Big Five Personality Model 177 •
The Dark Triad 181 • Other Frameworks 182
An Ethical Choice Do Certain Personality Traits Make You More Unethical? 183
Other Personality Attributes Relevant to OB 184
Core Self-Evaluations (CSEs) 184 • Self-Monitoring 185 • Proactive Personality 185
Myth or Science? We Can Accurately Judge Individuals’ Personalities a Few
Seconds After Meeting Them 186
Personality and Situations 187
Situation Strength Theory 187 • Trait Activation Theory 188
Ability 189
Intellectual Abilities 189 • Physical Abilities 191
Values 192
Terminal Versus Instrumental Values 193 • Generational Values 193
Summary 195
Implications for Managers 195
Point/Counterpoint Millennials Are More Narcissistic Than Other Generations 196
Questions for Review 196
Experiential Exercise Acing the Interview 197
Ethical Dilemma How Long Should You Wait Before Deciding If a Job Is
Not a Good Fit? 198
Case Incident Sky Energy 198
6 Perception and Individual Decision Making 200
What Is Perception? 202
Factors That Influence Perception 203
Person Perception: Making Judgments About Others 204
Attribution Theory 204Contents 9
Toward a Better World Volkswagen: Going Green or Just Greenwashing? 207
Common Shortcuts in Judging Others 208 • Specific Applications of Shortcuts
in Organizations 209
Myth or Science? All Stereotypes Are Negative 211
The Link Between Perception and Individual Decision Making 211
Decision Making in Organizations 212
The Rational Model, Bounded Rationality, and Intuition 212 • Common Biases and
Errors in Decision Making 214
Influences on Decision Making: Individual Differences and Organizational
Constraints 219
Individual Differences 219 • Organizational Constraints 220
Ethics in Decision Making 222
Three Ethical Decision Criteria 222 • Choosing Between Criteria 223 •
Behavioral Ethics 223 • Lying 224
An Ethical Choice Are We as Ethical as We Think We Are? 225
Creativity, Creative Decision Making, and Innovation in Organizations 225
Creative Behavior 226 • Causes of Creative Behavior 227 • Creative
Outcomes (Innovation) 229
Summary 229
Implications for Managers 230
Point/Counterpoint Implicit Assessment 231
Questions for Review 231
Experiential Exercise Bringing Life to a Food Desert 232
Ethical Dilemma Max’s Burgers: The Dollar Value of Ethics 232
Case Incident Warning: Collaboration Overload 233
7 Motivation Concepts 234
Motivation Defined 237
Classic Theories of Motivation 238
Hierarchy of Needs Theory 238 • Two-Factor Theory 238 • McClelland’s
Theory of Needs 240 • Contemporary Theories: A Primer 241
Contemporary Theories of Motivation: Content-Based 242
Self-Determination Theory 242
Myth or Science? Work Has to Be Purposeful to Be Motivating 243
Regulatory Focus Theory 244 • Job Engagement Theory 244
Contemporary Theories of Motivation: Context-Based 245
Reinforcement Theory 245 • Social Learning Theory 246
An Ethical Choice Motivated by Big Brother 247
Contemporary Theories of Motivation: Process-Based 247
Expectancy Theory 247 • Goal-Setting Theory 249 • Self-Efficacy
Theory 253
Organizational Justice 255
Equity Theory 255 • Distributive Justice 257 • Procedural Justice 258 •
Interactional Justice 258 • Justice Outcomes 259 • Culture and Justice 26010 Contents
Integrating Contemporary Theories of Motivation 260
Toward a Better World Kroger: Zero Hunger, Zero Waste 262
Summary 263
Implications for Managers 263
Point/Counterpoint Feel-Good Messaging Is More Motivating Than Instrumental
Messaging 264
Questions for Review 265
Experiential Exercise How Do You Motivate an Employee? 265
Ethical Dilemma Follies of Reward 266
Case Incident Why Lead by Example? 266
8 Motivation: From Concepts to Applications 268
Motivating by Job Design: The Job Characteristics Model (JCM) 271
Elements of the JCM 272 • Efficacy of the JCM 272 • Motivating Potential Score
(MPS) 273
Job Redesign 273
Job Rotation and Job Enrichment 273 • Relational Job Design 274
Alternative Work Arrangements 275
Flextime 276
Myth or Science? Job Crafting Is a Practical Way to Reduce Boredom
and Burnout 277
Job Sharing 278 • Telecommuting 278
Employee Involvement 281
Examples of Employee Involvement Programs (EIP) 281 • Cultural Considerations
in Implementing EIP Programs 282
Using Extrinsic Rewards to Motivate Employees 283
What to Pay: Establishing a Pay Structure 284 • How to Pay: Rewarding Individual
Employees Through Variable-Pay Programs 285
An Ethical Choice Workers’ Cooperatives 290
Using Benefits to Motivate Employees 291
Flexible Benefits: Developing a Benefits Package 291
Toward a Better World Sociabble Trees: Rewarding Through Reforestation 292
Using Intrinsic Rewards to Motivate Employees 293
Employee Recognition Programs 293
Summary 294
Implications for Managers 295
Point/Counterpoint Gainsharing: Fair Shares? 296
Questions for Review 296
Experiential Exercise Developing an Organizational Development and Compensation
Plan for Automotive Sales Consultants 297
Ethical Dilemma Playing Favorites? 297
Case Incident JP Transport 298Contents 11
9 Foundations of Group Behavior 300
Defining and Classifying Groups 302
Social Identity 303
Stages of Group Development 305
Group Property 1: Roles 306
Role Perception 306 • Role Expectations 306 • Role Conflict 308
Myth or Science? Gossip and Exclusion Are Toxic for Groups 308
Group Property 2: Norms 309
Norms and Emotions 309 • Norms and Conformity 309 • Norms and
Behavior 310 • Positive Norms and Group Outcomes 311 • Negative Norms
and Group Outcomes 312 • Norms and Culture 313
Group Property 3: Status and Group Property 4: Size and Dynamics 314
Group Property 3: Status 314
An Ethical Choice Managing a Narcissist in the Group 316
Group Property 4: Size and Dynamics 316
Group Property 5: Cohesion 318
Toward a Better World Whirlpool: Building Cohesion Through Volunteering 319
Group Decision Making 319
Groups Versus the Individual 320 • Groupthink and Groupshift 321 •
Group Decision-Making Techniques 322
Summary 323
Implications for Managers 323
Point/Counterpoint Conformity Is Counterproductive and Should Be Avoided 325
Questions for Review 326
Experiential Exercise Surviving the Wild: Join a Group or Go It Alone? 326
Ethical Dilemma Follow the Leader? 328
Case Incident Cultural Context and Group Dynamics 328
10 Understanding Work Teams 330
Differences Between Groups and Teams 332
Types of Teams 333
Problem-Solving Teams 334 • Self-Managed Work Teams 334 • Cross-Functional
Teams 335 • Virtual Teams 336 • Multiteam Systems 336
An Ethical Choice The Size of Your Meeting’s Carbon Footprint 337
Creating Effective Teams 338
Team Context 338 • Team Composition 340
Toward a Better World Hershey: Advancing Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion Through
Groups and Teams 343
Team Processes and States 344
3 The Group12 Contents
Myth or Science? Teams Should Practice Collective Mindfulness 345
Turning Groups of Employees into Teams 349
Selecting: Hiring for Team Effectiveness 349 • Training: Creating Effective
Teams 349 • Rewarding: Providing Incentives for Exceptional Teams 350
Beware! Teams Aren’t Always the Answer 351
Summary 352
Implications for Managers 352
Point/Counterpoint Team Building Exercises Are a Waste of Time 353
Questions for Review 354
Experiential Exercise Should You Use Self-Managed Teams? 354
Ethical Dilemma When Your Cycling Skills Matter! 354
Case Incident Psychological Safety and Team Effectiveness 355
11 Communication 356
Interpersonal Communication 359
Oral Communication 359
Myth or Science? Better Listening Is the Key to Better Working Relationships 362
Written Communication 364 • Nonverbal Communication 367
Choosing Communication Methods 370
Choosing Communication Methods 370 • Handling Barriers to Effective Communication 372
Toward a Better World Mobile Citizen and Mobile Beacon: Two Companies Enhancing Access to Smartphones and the Internet 374
Advancements in Virtual Communication 375
Videoconferencing 375 • Blogging, Vlogging, and Podcasting 377 •
E-collaboration and E-learning 378 • The Currency of Virtual Communication:
Emojis, Usernames, Selfies, and More 378
Smartphones, Social Media, and Cybersecurity 379
Smartphones (and Other Smart Devices) 380 • Social Media 381
An Ethical Choice What Should You Do If an Employee Is Being Cyberbullied or
Harassed Online? 383
Cybersecurity 384
Cross-Cultural Communication 385
Cultural Context 385 • The Interface Between Cultures 387 • Aspects of
Cultural Communication 388 • A Guide to Cross-Cultural Communication 389
Summary 391
Implications for Managers 391
Point/Counterpoint Work Friendships Are Not a Good Idea 392
Questions for Review 393
Experiential Exercise Choosing the Right Modes of Communication 393
Ethical Dilemma BYOD 394
Case Incident How Do You Communicate That You Are Passionate During
an Interview? 395Contents 13
12 Leadership 396
Trait Theories 399
Personality Traits and Leadership 399 • Emotional Intelligence and
Leadership 401
Behavioral Theories 402
Initiating Structure 402 • Consideration 402
An Ethical Choice The Ethics of Nudging 403
Summary of Trait Theories and Behavioral Theories 404
Contingency Theories 404
The Fiedler Model 404 • Situational Leadership Theory 405 • Follower Contingency Theories 407 • Leading in Times of Crisis 409
Positive Leadership Styles and Relationships 410
Leader–Member Exchange (LMX) Theory 410 • Charismatic Leadership 411 •
The Full Range Leadership Model 414 • Integrating and Evaluating Positive
Leadership Styles 416
The (Un)ethical Aspects of Leadership 418
Authentic Leadership 418
Toward a Better World The Institute for Corporate Social Responsibility (iCSR):
Training Leaders to Work Toward a Better Tomorrow 420
(Un)ethical Leadership 421 • Servant Leadership 422 • Abusive Supervision 422
Leadership and Trust 424
Trust 424
Challenges and Opportunities to Our Understanding of Leadership 426
Leadership Challenges 427 • Leadership Opportunities 429
Myth or Science? Leaders Can Be Trained 430
Summary 432
Implications for Managers 432
Point/Counterpoint CEOs Start Early 434
Questions for Review 435
Experiential Exercise What’s in a Leader? 435
Ethical Dilemma Innocent, but What About Trust? 436
Case Incident Andrea Illy: Leading a Family Company Responsibly 436
13 Power and Politics 438
Power and Leadership 441
Bases of Power 442
Formal Power 442 • Personal Power 443 • Which Bases of Power Are Most
Effective? 444
Dependence: The Key to Power 444
The General Dependence Postulate 444 • What Creates Dependence? 445 •
Formal Small-Group Networks 446 • Social Network Analysis: A Tool for
Assessing Resource Dependence 447
Influence Tactics 449
Using Influence Tactics 449 • Automatic and Controlled Processing of
Influence 451 • Applying Influence Tactics 45214 Contents
Toward a Better World Old Mutual: Realizing a Sustainability Vision Through
Influence 453
How Power Affects People 454
Power Dynamics 454 • Sexual Harassment: Unequal Power in the Workplace 455
Politics: Power in Action 456
Political Behavior 457 • The Reality of Politics 457 • Gossip and the Grapevine 458
The Causes and Consequences of Political Behavior 458
Factors Contributing to Political Behavior 458 • Factors Contributing to Political
Behavior Acquiescence 460 • How Do People Respond to
Organizational Politics? 460
Myth or Science? Office Politics Should Be Avoided Altogether 462
Voice and Silence 462 • Impression Management 465
An Ethical Choice How Much Should You Manage Interviewer Impressions? 467
The Ethics of Behaving Politically 468 • Mapping Your Political Career 468
Summary 470
Implications for Managers 471
Point/Counterpoint Emphasize the Strategies Women Can Use to Get Ahead 472
Questions for Review 473
Experiential Exercise The Turnaround Task Force 473
Ethical Dilemma Sexual Harassment and Office Romances 474
Case Incident Imperium Omni 474
14 Conflict and Negotiation 476
A Definition of Conflict 478
(Dys)functional Conflict 479 • Types of Conflict 479 • Loci of Conflict 481
The Conflict Process 482
Stage I: Potential Opposition or Incompatibility 483 • Stage II: Cognition and
Personalization 485 • Stage III: Intentions 485 • Stage IV:
Behavior 487 • Stage V: Outcomes 488 • Managing Conflict 489
Negotiation 491
Bargaining Strategies 491
The Negotiation Process 495
Preparation and Planning 495 • Definition of Ground Rules 496 •
Clarification and Justification 497 • Bargaining and Problem
Solving 497 • Closure and Implementation 497
Myth or Science? Good Negotiators Rely on Intuition 497
Individual Differences in Negotiation Effectiveness 498
Personality Traits in Negotiations 498 • Moods and Emotions in
Negotiations 499 • Culture and Race in Negotiations 500 • Gender
in Negotiations 501
Negotiating in a Social Context 502
Reputation 502
Toward a Better World ALDI: Downstream Environmental and Social Implications of
Supplier Negotiations 503
Relationships 504
An Ethical Choice Ethical Challenges in Negotiation 504Contents 15
Third-Parties in Negotiations 505
Summary 505
Implications for Managers 506
Point/Counterpoint Nonunion Positions and the Gig Economy Are Bad for
Workers 508
Questions for Review 509
Experiential Exercise A Negotiation Role Play 509
Ethical Dilemma To Intervene or Not to Intervene? 510
Case Incident Disorderly Conduct 511
15 Foundations of Organization Structure 512
What Is Organizational Structure? 514
Work Specialization 515 • Departmentalization 517 • Chain of
Command 519 • Span of Control 520 • Centralization and
Decentralization 521 • Formalization 522 • Boundary Spanning 522
Common Organizational Frameworks and Structures 524
The Simple Structure 524 • The Bureaucracy 525
Myth or Science? Bureaucracy Is the Enemy of Innovation and Productivity 526
The Matrix Structure 526
Newer Trends in Organizational Design 528
The Virtual Structure 528 • The Team Structure 530
An Ethical Choice Flexible Structures, Deskless Workplaces 531
The Circular Structure 532
The Leaner Organization: Downsizing 532
Why Do Structures Differ? 534
Organizational Strategies 535
Toward a Better World Grove Collaborative: Innovating in the CSR and Sustainability
Market Space 536
Organization Size 538 • Technology 538 • Environment 538 •
Institutions 539
Organizational Designs and Employee Behavior 540
Span of Control 540 • Centralization 540 • Predictability Versus Autonomy 541 •
National Culture 541
Summary 542
Implications for Managers 542
Point/Counterpoint Open-Air Offices Inspire Creativity and Enhance
Productivity 543
Questions for Review 543
Experiential Exercise Remote Work 544
Ethical Dilemma The Ethics of Layoffs 544
Case Incident Kuuki: Reading the Atmosphere 54516 Contents
4 The Organization System
16 Organizational Culture and Change 546
What Is Organizational Culture? 549
A Definition of Organizational Culture 549 • Do Organizations Have
Uniform Cultures? 551
Strong Versus Weak Cultures 552
Myth or Science? An Organization’s Culture Is Forever 552
How Employees Learn Culture 553
Stories 553 • Rituals 553 • Symbols 554
Language 554
An Ethical Choice A Culture of Compassion 555
Creating and Sustaining Culture 556
How a Culture Begins 556 • Keeping a Culture Alive 557
What Do Cultures Do? 561
The Functions of Culture 561 • Culture Creates Climate 562 • Culture as an
Asset 564
Toward a Better World Morgan Stanley: Sustainable and Ethical Organizational
Cultures Influence Investment Decisions 566
Culture as a Liability 567
Influencing Organizational Cultures 569
Developing a Positive Culture 570 • Developing an Ethical Culture 571 •
Developing an Innovative Culture 572
Change 574
The Nature of Change 575 • Resistance to Change 575 • The Politics of
Change 578
Approaches to Managing Organizational Change 579
Lewin’s Three-Step Model 579 • Kotter’s Eight-Step Plan 580 • Action
Research 580 • Organizational Developme nt 581 • The Change Paradox 583
Summary 583
Implications for Managers 584
Point/Counterpoint Organizational Change Management Is Not Worth the Effort 585
Questions for Review 585
Experiential Exercise Culture Architects 586
Ethical Dilemma Toxic Culture 586
Case In cident Culture of Fear 587
17 Human Resource Systems and Practices 588
Recruitment 590
Applicant Attraction 591 • The Ubiquity of Referral Hiring 591 •
The Role of Recruiters 592 • Realistic Job Previews 593Contents 17
Selection 594
How the Selection Process Works 594 • Initial Selection 594
Substantive and Contingent Selection 598
Written Tests 599 • Performance-Simulation Tests 600 • Interviews 601 •
Contingent Selection Tests 602
Training and Development 603
Training Content 605 • Training Methods 605 • Evaluating
Effectiveness 607
Performance Management 607
What Do We Evaluate? 608 • Who Should Do the Evaluating? 610 •
Methods of Performance Evaluation 611 • Improving Performance
Evaluations 612
An Ethical Choice Eliminating Bias from Performance Reviews 614
Providing Performance Feedback 614
Myth or Science? The 24-Hour Workplace Is Harmful 615
Accessible Workplaces 615
Accommodations for Physical Disabilities 616 • Accommodations for
Hidden Disabilities 616
Human Resources (HR) Leadership 617
Toward a Better World Kawasaki: Learning from Each Other at Takumi Juku
and Manabiya 618
Communicating HR Practices 618 • Drafting and Enforcing Employment
Policies 619
Summary 620
Implications for Managers 621
Point/Counterpoint Employers Should Check Applicants’ Criminal
Backgrounds 622
Questions for Review 622
Experiential Exercise Designing a Virtual Assessment Center Exercise 623
Ethical Dilemma Should I Pay the Staff More and Reduce the Company’s Profit? 624
Case Incident Fired via Video Message 624
18 Stress and Health in Organizations 626
The Nature of Stress in Organizations 629
Stressors 630 • Strain 632 • Eustress 632
Physical Health at Work 633
Sleep 634 • Illness and Injury 634
Myth or Science? When You Are Working Hard, Sleep Is Optional 635
Mental Health at Work 636
Job Insecurity 636
Toward a Better World Freelancers Union: Advocating for Gig Workers Faced with
Consistent Job Insecurity 637
Workaholism 638 • Psychological Distress at Work 63818 Contents
Mechanisms of Health and Stress 639
Conservation of Resources 639 • Effort-Reward Imbalance Model 640 •
Job Demand-Control-Support Model 640 • Job Demands-Resources Model 641
Work–Life Balance 643
The State of Work–Life Balance: A New Normal? 643 • Work–Life
Boundaries 643 • Work–Life Spillover 645 • Flexible and Supportive
Policies 647
Managing Stress and Health 648
Individual Approaches 649
An Ethical Choice Talking About Mental Health Without Overstepping
Boundaries 652
Organizational Approaches 653
Summary 656
Implications for Managers 657
Point/Counterpoint Companies Should Encourage Stress Reduction 658
Questions for Review 659
Experiential Exercise Micro-Stressors 659
Ethical Dilemma The Fear of Redundancy and Ceasing Operations 659
Case Incident Burnout Despite Flexibility: Working Parents and COVID-19 661
Appendix Research in Organizational Behavior 662
Comprehensive Cases 668
Glossary 681
Endnotes 691
Organization Index 780
Subject Index 783
Organization Index
100,000 Jobs Mission, 101
A
Abercrombie, 99
Accurate Biometrics, 247
Ace hardware, 553
Admiral, 571
Adobe, 362, 564, 655
ADP, 604
Adrian, 292
Aer Rianta International (ARI), 350
Airbus, 111
Air Berlin, 659
Air Canada, 129
Air India, 635
Akashi Works, 618
ALDI, 503
Alibaba, 547
Alibaba’s Tmall, 317
Amazon, 47, 48, 140, 243, 344, 363, 526, 531, 535,
538, 575, 612, 646
Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk), 508, 516
Amazon Prime, 528
AMD, 530
American Automobile Association (AAA), 162
American Express, 420, 533, 582
American Water, 434
Analysis Group, 573
Animoto, 434
Apple, 75, 82, 444, 513, 573, 574
Arcature, 549
Armed Forces Journal, 386
ArtLeadHER, 575
Asana, 363
Ascendle, 529
Aspera, 434
AT&T, 593
AU Optronics, 530
Autodesk, 554, 655
Aveda, 191
AvtoVAZ, 534
Away, 555–556
B
BAE Systems, 47
Baidu, 554
Bain and Company, 104, 569
Banana Link, 503
Bank of America, 247, 601
Bank of China, 54
Bank of the West, 47
Baptist Health of South Florida, 126
BASF, 527
Beats by Dre, 444
Ben & Jerry’s, 57, 515–516, 589
BeyGOOD, 575
Biogen, 655
BlackRock, 566
Blockbuster, 535
Bloomberg Media, 472
BMW, 523
The Body Shop, 590
Boeing, 136, 536, 549
Bon Appétit magazine, 377
Boston Consulting Group, 104
Box, 654
Bread Winners Café, 48
British Council, 358
British Home Stores, 659
Buchanan Ingersoll & Rooney, 655
Bureau of Labor Statistics, 165
Burger King, 52, 360
C
Calendar, 350
Cambridge University, 436
Capital One, 420
Care.com, 174
Careerbuilder.com, 154
Caterpillar, 121
Catron, 544–545
Center for Open Hiring, 590
Charles Schwab, 655
Charli, 643
Chicago Public Schools, 269–270
Chief, 348–349
Chrysler, 604
Cisco, 39, 336, 444
Coca-Cola, 136, 167, 202, 292, 518, 531, 540
Collins, 543
Costco, 284
D
Dallas Mavericks, 227
Dallas Museum of Art, 47
Deepwater Horizon, 505
Deliveroo, 354–355
Dell, 530
Deloitte Consulting, 569, 655
Deluxe, 593
Disney, 562, 601
Disney+, 528
DLA Pipper, 56
DoorDash, 508, 575
Dreamworks, 623
Droga5, 565
Dunkin’ Donuts, 529
Duracell, 191
DVD.com, 530
Dynegy Inc., 552
E
easyJet, 659–660
eBay, 47, 549
Economist Intelligence Unit, 358
Eco Safety Products, 226
Edward Jones, 39, 132
Emotient Inc., 167
Enron, 365
Environmental Protection Agency
(EPA), 207, 226
Epic, 655
Essar Oil & Gas, 558
Etsy, 104
ExtraHop, 335
F
Facebook, 47, 49, 54, 56, 75, 84, 114, 210,
233, 358, 378, 379, 381, 389, 443, 535,
597, 654
Fagor, 290
Fast Company, 536
Federal Trade Commission (FTC), 207
FedEx, 399, 557
Feeding America, 262
Female Quotient (FQ), 358
Fiat-Chrysler, 289
Five Guys Burgers and Fries, 221
Focus Consulting Group, 276
Forbes, 419, 558, 565
Ford Motor Company, 553
Forrester, 222
Fortune, 120, 553, 555
Fox, 620
Freelancers Union, 637
Fuji Heavy Industries, 500
G
Gartner, 276
Genentech, 554, 655
General Electric (GE), 45, 252
General Motors (GM), 178, 207, 494, 568
Gilead Sciences, 445
Girlboss, 377
GitHub, 276, 428
Givelocity, 57
Glassdoor, 136, 140, 450, 458, 555, 647
GlaxoSmithKline, 531
Goldman Sachs, 104, 555, 643
Google, 47, 75, 114, 132, 136, 264, 292, 355, 375,
378, 394, 514, 526, 531, 554, 661
GoPro, 412
Gorky Automobile Factory (GAZ), 533–534
Graze.com, 47
Greyston Bakery, 589–590
Grove Collaborative, 536
GTE, 582
The Guardian, 587
Guava, 71
Gucci, 575
H
Habitat for Humanity, 319
Harima Works, 618
Harlem Educational Activities Fund, 434
Harvard Business School, 355
Harvard University, 81, 231, 289, 430, 558
Hawthorne Western Electric, 48
Hay Group, 569
Hershey Company, 343
Hewlett-Packard, 46, 136, 472
Hilton, 39, 132
Hitachi, 285, 654
HKScani Rakvere, 505
Hoa’s Tool Shop, 226
Hochtief, 464
Home Depot, 429
Honda, 167
Honeywell International, 531Organization Index 781
Hospital Policlinica Gipuzkoa, 525
Hot Chicken Takeover, 88–89
Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 434
HSBC, 659
Huawei, 547–548, 574
Hulu, 528
Hyatt Hotels, 162
Hyundai, 556
I
IAC, 530
IBH Solutions, 628
IBM, 94, 420, 488, 530
iCSR, 420
IDEO, 554
IKEA, 243, 285, 557
Illycaffè, 436
Imperfect Foods, 262
Indusgeeks, 558
Innocent Drinks, 436
Instagram, 84, 379, 381
Intel, 655
International Civil Aviation Organization, 508
International Raiffeisen Union (IRU), 290
Intuit, 293, 377, 419
Ixia, 335
J
Jack in the Box, 132
JCPenney, 429
Jeep, 273
Jimmy John’s, 529
John Deere, 377
Johns Hopkins University, 420
Johnson & Johnson, 656
JP Morgan Chase, 526, 555
JP Transport, 298–299
K
Kaplan University, 54
Kawasaki Heavy Industries, 618
Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC), 133
Kimpton Hotels & Restaurants, 553
Koch Industries, 622
Kodak, 535
KPMG, 56
Kroger, 47, 262
L
L’Oréal, 292, 385, 527
Lean In, 472
LinkedIn, 38, 293, 304, 381
Lockheed Martin, 530
Lowes, 175
Lyft, 173, 508
M
Magellan Health, 376
Manifesto, 357
MAPPA studio, 528
Marriott International, 420, 552
Marsh & McLennan, 618
Mary Kay Cosmetics, 248
Massachusetts General hospital (MGH), 627
Max’s Burgers, 232–233
McDonald’s, 52–53, 175, 301–302, 444, 529, 531
McKinsey & Co., 104, 280
Medtronic, 275
Mellow Mushroom, 162
Men’s Wearhouse (MW), 482
Merrill Lynch, 559, 636
Metro Bank, 250
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (MGM), 528
Microsoft, 75, 104, 114, 243, 292, 375, 378, 518–519,
554, 556, 601
Minneapolis Institute of Arts, 47
Mitsubishi, 618
Mobius, 262
Molson Coors, 121
Monarch, 659
Mondragón, 290
Morgan Stanley, 566
MovieLens, 382
Myspace, 535
N
Nassar Group, 232
NASA, 226, 336, 567
National Association of Background Screeners
(NABS), 597
National Basketball Association (NBA),
284, 288
National Bureau of Economic
Research, 402
National Football League (NFL), 190, 478
National Guard of the United States, 101
National Hockey League (NHL), 284, 347
Nationwide, 654
NBC Universal, 567, 620
Netflix, 47, 101, 136, 528, 530, 535,
558, 565
New York Daily News, 384
The New York Times, 231
The New Yorker, 45
Nick’s Pizza and Pub, 419
Nielson Holdings, 47
Nike, 553, 559
Nikola, 414
Nissan, 303
Nordstrom, 54, 384
Northwestern University, 566
Nvidia, 128
O
O’Brien Veterinary Group, 334
O.C. Tanner, 570
Ohio State University, 482
Old Mutual, 453
Old Navy, 567–568
OPPO, 574
Optum Healthcare, 378, 580
Orchard Hardware Supply, 602
Oticon A/S, 530
OutMatch, 109
Outokumpu, 659–660
P
Panduit, 293
Paramore, 434
PayPal, 655
PayScale, 284, 450
PEN America, 383
Pepsi, 202
PepsiCo, 384, 540
Pfizer, 526
Pingboard, 350
Pixar, 623
P&O Ferries, 624–625
Polen Capital Management, 276
Practice Fusion Inc., 440
Princeton University, 211
Proctor & Gamble, 167, 292, 444, 601
Project Implicit, 231
Public Utilities Board (Singapore), 79
Purdue Pharma, 439–440
PwC, 420
Q
Qualcomm, 420
Quora, 558
R
R.G. & Company, 72–73
Raiffeisenbanken, 290
Rainforest Alliance, 503
realme, 574
Recreational Equipment, Inc. (REI), 132,
307, 554
Reverb.com, 549–550
Right Management, 415
RMT, 625
Roadway Express, 582
Rochdale Society of Equitable Pioneers, 290
Rodgers, Aaron, 315
Ryanair, 624
S
Safelite AutoGlass, 571
Sahara, 54
Salary.com, 450
Salesforce.com, 39, 120, 235–236
Sam’s Club, 284, 398
Samsung Electronics, 52, 513–514, 527, 564, 567,
574, 575
Sarku Japan, 600
SAS Institute, 132, 554
Scream Agency, 162
SearchUnify, 350
Sephora, 377
7-Eleven, 529
Seventh Generation, 564
SHIFT, 56
SHL, 593
Shopify, 363, 654
Sider Road, 358
Siemens, 565
Singapore Airlines, 274
Slack, 366
Slalom, 647
Slice, 403
Smartsheet.com, 434
SmartTrade, 292
Snapchat, 537
SoaPen, 332
Sociabble, 292
Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM),
276, 283, 595, 599
SoftBank, 37
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, 47
Southwest Airlines, 139–140, 557, 601
SpaceX, 569
Spark Hire, 596
Sports Direct, 587
Spotify, 527–528, 661
Stanford University, 165, 169, 440
Staples, 150782 Organization Index
Starbucks, 83, 158, 397
State Street, 566
Steinway, 445–446
Sterling-Rice Group, 276
Stouffers, 81
Street Soccer USA, 319
Stryker, 275
Subaru, 500
Subway, 191
Sue Weaver Cause, 622
Symantec Corporation, 293
T
Taco Bell, 221
Target, 78, 429, 536
Tata Consultancy Services (TCS), 350
Tesla, 478, 535
Theranos, 169–170, 414
Threadless, 554
TikTok, 84
Tofutti, 80
Tom’s Marine Sales, 303
TOMS Shoes, 178
TopCoder, 516
Tortuga, 173
Towers Watson, 132
Toyota, 332, 517, 568
Trader Joe’s, 377
TRANSCO, 103
Translation, 444
Tree-Nation, 292
Trex, 434
TripAdvisor, 65
Tripwire, 385
Tronc, 384
20th Century Fox, 528
Twitter, 47, 56, 59, 146–147, 210, 303–304, 381, 384,
558, 654
TWT Group, 458
U
U-Haul, 191
U.S. Department of Labor and Department of
Health and Human Services, 619–620, 656
U.S. Department of Transportation, 603
U.S. Department of Veterans, 629
U.S. Small Business Administration, 336
Uber, 47, 173, 354–355, 508, 637
UBS, 341
UKG, 39
Ulta Beauty, 106
UNICEF, 332
Unilever, 57, 167, 292
United Auto Workers (AUW), 494
United States Air Force, 158–159, 521
United States Navy, 582
University of Birmingham, 659–660
University of Chicago, 585
University of Denver, 469
University of Exeter, 266
University of Kentucky, 210
University of Manchester, 659–660
University of Michigan, 482
University of North Carolina–Chapel Hill, 55
University of Queensland, 266
V
Valve Corporation, 428
Vanguard, 566
Verizon, 604
Viacom, 420, 620
Vimeo, 530
Vincero, 334
Virgin Group, 202, 557
Visa, 136
Vistra Energy, 552
Vitals, 434
vivo, 574
Volkswagen, 207, 280, 283
W
W. L. Gore & Associates, 428,
557–558, 648
W&P Design, 543
Walgreens, 397
Walmart, 101, 284, 398, 526
Walt Disney World, 293
Warby Parker, 569
Warner Bros., 528
Wegmans Food markets, 39, 558, 590
Wells Fargo, 109, 192, 221, 222, 421
Wellspring, 552
Wendy’s, 303–304
Western Electric Company, Hawthorne Works,
310–311
Westin Hotels, 117
WeWork, 37–38
Whirlpool, 319
Whole Foods Market, 589
Women’s Bean Project, 401
Workday, 39
Workhuman, 293
Working Mother Research
Institute, 472
World Wildlife Fund (WWF), 262
Wyeth Pharmaceuticals, 585, 590
X
Xerox, 160, 175, 530
Xiaomi, 547, 574
Y
Yamaha, 446
Z
Zappos, 44, 129, 531
Zoom, 152, 363, 375, 376–377, 575, 624–625, 654,
661783
Subject Index
A
Abbreviations, 379
Abilene Paradox, 321
Ability
cognitive ability tests and employment, 599
defined, 189
intellectual, 189–191
mental, influence on decision making, 220
of team members, 340–341
physical, 191–192
trust development, 425
Absenteeism
age and, 79
counterproductive work behavior (CWB) and,
130–131
emotional labor and, 152
job dissatisfaction and, 131
outcomes of OB model and, 62–64
reduced by flextime, 277
Abusive supervision, 422–423
Accessible workplaces, 615–617
Accommodating, conflict and, 485, 486, 487
Accommodations
for hidden disabilities, 616–617
for physical disabilities, 616
Achievement, intrinsic factor of motivation, 239,
240, 261
ACT test, 190
Action research, organizational change and,
580–581
Active learning, 606
Active listening, 361
ADDIE model of training, 605–606
Adhocracy, 550
Administrators, 39. See also Managers
Advancement motivation, 239
Affect, 141–142
Affect intensity, 139, 146
Affective commitment, 119
Affective component of attitude, 115
Affective events theory (AET), 153
Affective mechanism of transformation leadership,
417
Affectively charged decision making, 214
Affiliative aspects of leaders, 400
Affirmative action
diversity management and, 100
ethics and, 101
Age
emotion regulation and, 156
in workforce, 79–80
job redesign and, 273
mood, emotions and, 150
values and, 193–194
Age Discrimination in Employment Act
(ADEA), 84
Ageism, 75, 82
Agentic aspects of leaders, 400
Aggression
as deviant workplace behavior, 313
cross-cultural communication and, 389
unethical workplace behaviors and, 163
Aggressive-defensive cultures, 551
Aggressiveness, characteristic of organization’s
culture, 551
Agreeableness, 178, 180–181, 341, 382, 400
All-channel network, formal small-group networks
and, 446–447
Allostasis, 642
Allostatic load, 641–642
Alternative work arrangements, 275–281
“Always on” technology, 48
Ambiguity, tolerance for, 227
Ambiguous responsibility, 320
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), 98, 603, 615
Americans with Disabilities Act Amendments Act
(ADAAA), 616
Analysis, action research, 580–581
Anchoring bias, 215–216
Anger
effects of, 165
in negotiations, 499
Anger management, workplace and, 165
Anthropology, OB and, 51
Antisocial behavior, 182, 313
Anxiety, communication apprehension and, 373
Apologies, impression management technique, 466
Applicant tracking systems (ATSs), 595–596
Application attraction, 591
Application forms, 595–597
Appreciative inquiry, OD and, 582–583
Arbitrator, 206, 505
Arousal, 254
Artifacts, 554
Artificial intelligence (AI)
big data and, 45–49
communication and, 367
digital assistants and smart-homes, 380–381
for hiring, diversity and, 109
in corporate board decision making, 478
information flow modeling, 449
leadership effectiveness and, 399
recognizing emotion in speech, 143
substitutability of skills and, 446
to combat bias, 210
Aspiration range, 492
Assertiveness, 400, 485
Assessment centers, 601, 623
Assist, downsizing strategy, 534
Asynchronous communication, 359–360
Atmosphere, reading the, 545
Attitudes
behaviors and, 116–117
components of, 115
defined, 114
job (See Job attitudes)
outcomes of OB model and, 61–62
work-life satisfaction, 161–163
Attitudinal mechanism of transformational
leadership, 417
Attribution theory, 204–206, 427
Audience tuning, 360
Authentic leadership, 106, 418–420
Authority
chain of command and, 519
political behavior and, 460
Automatic processing of influence, 451
Autonomy
e-learning and, 378
employee preferences and, 541
Gig Economy and, 637
job characteristics model and, 271, 272
psychological need for, motivation and, 243
smartphones and stress, 380
Availability bias, 216
Avoidance demands crafting, 277
Avoiding
conflict and, 485, 486, 487, 511
cross-cultural communication approach, 387
B
Background checks for employment,
596–597, 622
Baldness, masculinity and, 79
Bargaining strategies, 491–495
BATNA (best alternative to a negotiated agreement), 496
Behavior
attitudes and, 116–117
conflict management and, 487–488
creative, 226–227
defensive, 462
internally/externally caused, 205
motivated by employee tracking, 247
norms and, 310–311
organization’s focus on, 244
organizational citizenship and, 244
organizational designs and, 540–541
performance evaluations and, 609
stress and, 632
Behavioral component of attitude, 115
Behavioral ethics, 223–224
Behavioral science, big data and, 44–49
Behavioral strain, 632
Behavioral theories of leadership, 402–404
Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales (BARS), 611
Behaviorism, 246
Benefit programs
flexible, 291–292
HR and, 619
Benevolence, trust development, 425
Benevolent prejudice, 82
Bias
anchoring, 215–216, 492
availability, 216
common in decision making, 206
confirmation, 216
gender, 80
hindsight, 218
ideator’s, 227
in artificial intelligence, 109
in performance evaluations, 614
in-group, 490
intuition in negotiation and, 497
job applications and, 596
outcome, 218–219
overconfidence, 214–215
recruiters and, 592
reducing, errors and, 215
self-serving, 206
social loafing and, 317
values and, 193
Big data, use of in business
background of, 45–49
current usage, 47
e-mail communications and, 448–449
limitations, 48
new trends, 47–48784 Subject Index
Big Five Personality Model
agreeableness, 178, 180–181
benefits of, 176
body language and, 368
conscientiousness, 177, 178–179
creativity and, 227
decision making and, 219
emotional stability, 177, 179
extroversion, 177, 179
HEXACO model and, 183–184
model of how traits influence OB criteria, 180
openness, 178, 179–180
overview, 177–178
personality of team members, 341
predicting behavior at work, 178
social media and, 382
trait activation theory and, 189
trait theories of leadership, 399–400
traits in negotiation, 498
Biographical characteristics, of employees, 77–82
Black Lives Matter movement, 52
Black Swan (film), 620
Blink (Gladwell), 218
Blogging, 377
Bluetooth-enabled devices, 381
Bluffing, defensive behavior, 463
Board representatives, type of representative participation, 282
Body language, 368–369
Bonus pay, 285, 288–289
Boredom, 274, 277
Boundaries at work, 392, 643–645, 652
Boundary spanning
organizational structure and, 522–523
teams, 337
Bounded rationality, 202, 213–214, 540
Brainstorming, groups and, 322
Breaking Bad (television), 70
Bribery, 224
Buck passing, defensive behavior, 463
Bureaucracy, as organizational structure, 525–526
Burnout, 277, 627–628, 638–639
BYOD (bring your own device), ethics and, 394–395
C
Capacity, environment and, 538
Capitalism, 436
Carbon footprint, 337
Career management, 68, 493
Career, in organizational behavior, 51–60
Caring climate, 564
Centralization, organizational structure and, 521,
540
CEOs
early leadership roles, 434
ethical dilemma, 436
Certified B Corporations, 57
Chain network, formal small-group networks and,
446–447
Chain of command, organizational structure,
519–520
authority, 519
unity of command, 519
Challenge stressors, 630
Change
forces for, 574–575
Kotter’s eight-step plan for implementing, 580
Lewin’s Three-Step Model, 579
paradox theory, 583
planned, 575
politics of, 578–579
resistance to, 575–578
unfreezing the status quo, 580
Change agents, 575
Change crafting, 577
Channel richness, 375
Charismatic leadership
attribution theory of leadership and, 427
crises leadership and, 409
dark side of, 413–414
defined, 411–412
influence followers, 413
key characteristics of, 412
situational, 413
theory of, 411–414
transformational vs., 416–417
Circular structure, organizational, 532
Civil Rights Act, 84, 100
Clan type, organizational culture, 550
Clarification, negotiation process and, 497
Clarity, situation strength, 187
Climate, organizational, 562–563, 607
Cliques at work, 392
Closure, negotiation process and, 497
Cluster hiring, 349
Coalitions, influence tactic, 449
Coercion
coercive power, 442
resistance to change and, 578
Cognitive ability tests and employment, 599
Cognitive component of attitude, 114
Cognitive dissonance, 116–117
Cognitive evaluation theory (CET), 242, 260–261
Cognitive flexibility, 220
Cognitive reappraisal, 157
Cohesiveness, of group, 318–319
Collaboration
conflict and, 485, 486, 487
Corporate Social Responsibility and, 453
employability skill, 67, 68
gossip vs., 458
overload, 233
social media for, 358
Collaborative cultures, 568–569
Collective bargaining, 508
Collective identification, 304
Collective turnover, 130
Collectivism and collective cultures
agreeableness and, 180
attribution bias and, 206
conflict resolution and, 389
cultural context and, 386
employee embeddedness and, 132
in GLOBE framework, 95–97
in Hofstede’s framework, 94–95, 97–98
norms and culture, 313–314
organizational culture and, 548
person–job fit and job satisfaction, 171
team vs. individual negotiations, 490
work–life conflict and, 646
Common ingroup identity model, 102
Communicate, downsizing strategy, 534
Communication
apprehension, 372–373
barriers to, 372–375
choosing methods for, 370–375
cross-cultural, 385–390
cybersecurity and, 384–385
defined, 358
employability skill, 67, 68
friendships at work and, 392
HR practices and, 618–619
managers and, 42
modes of, 393–394
nonverbal, 367–370
of ethical expectations, 571
oral, 359–364
processes, model of, 375
resistance to change and, 576–577
smartphones and devices, 380–381
social media and, 381–384
teams and, 360
telecommuting success and, 281
virtual, 375–379
workplace, 357–358
written, 364–367
Communication channel, 375
Communication process, 375
Commuting, 645
Company policies, 240
Compassion, organizational culture and, 555
Compensation
benefits as employee motivators, 291–292
hygiene factor of motivation, 240
pay structure, establishing, 284
variable-pay program, 285–290
Competence, psychological need for, 243
Competition
between teams, 351
change and, 574
conflict and, 485, 487
Complementary in content, culture/leadership
style, 558
Complexity, environment and, 539
Compromising
conflict and, 485, 486–487
cross-cultural communication approach, 387
Computer-based job training, 607
Conceptual skills, of managers, 42
Conciliator, 505
Confirmation bias, 216
Conflict
avoiding, 485, 486, 487, 511
cross-cultural communication and, 389
defined, 478
ethical, 346
interrole conflict, 308
levels, in teams, 346–347
loci of, 481–482
management, 487
relationship, 346, 347
task, 346–347
unit performance and, 480
Conflict cultures, 568–569
Conflict management techniques, 487
Conflict process
behavior, 487–488
cognition and personalization, 485
intentions and, 485
model of, 483
outcomes, 488–489
potential opposition or incompatibility, 483–484
Conflict-handling intentions, 485
Conflict-intensity continuum, 487
Conformity
as impression management technique, 466
avoiding, 325
norms and, 309–310, 314
pressures, 320, 322
Conscientiousness
at work, 178–179
dimension, of personality, 177
influence on decision making, 219
leadership and, 400
team composition and, 341
voice, organizational politics and power, 462
Consensus, 205–206
Consequences, situation strength, 187
Conservation of resources (COR) theory, 639–640Subject Index 785
Consideration, leadership and, 402–403
Consistency
in action, 205–206
situation strength, 187
Consistency/commitment, political behavior and,
460
Constraints, situation strength, 187
Constructive cultures, 551
Consultation, influence tactic, 449
Contact hypothesis, 102–103
Context
cross-cultural communication and, 386, 388
perception and, 204
team context, 338–340
Contingency theories of leadership, 404–409
Fiedler model, 404–405
follower contingency theories, 407–409
followership theory, 408–409
leader–participation model, 407
shared leadership theory, 407–408
Situational Leadership Theory (SLT), 405–407
Contingency variables, 51
Contingent reward leadership, 416
Contingent selection methods for employment, 598
Contingent selection tests, 602–603
Continuance commitment, 119
Contract workers, 39. See also Gig Economy
Contrast effects, 208
Controlled processing of influence, 451
Controlling, as managerial role, 40
Conversations, discussions, and listening, 360–362
Cooptation, resistance to change and, 578
Core self-evaluations (CSE), 126, 184
Core values, 551
Corporate Equality Index, 81, 82, 173
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)
carbon footprint and, 337
circular structure and, 532
CSR-related rewards, 292
customer emotions and, 162
defined, 56
employee volunteering, 275
food waste and hunger, 262
greenwashing and, 207
leadership and, 420
motivation to, 263
norms and, 311
OB as career and, 56–57
organizational strategies, 536
supplier negotiations and, 503
sustainability vision through influence, 453
Cost optimization, 537
Cost-minimizing organizations, 536–537
Counterproductive conflicts, 489
Counterproductive work behavior (CWB)
abusive supervision and, 423
agreeableness and, 180
cognitive reappraisal and, 157
conscientiousness and, 178
deviance and, 312
emotional intelligence testing and, 154
job dissatisfaction and, 130–132
Machiavellianism and, 181
moods/emotions and, 163
narcissism and, 182
organizational culture and, 560
sleep and, 634
unethical behavior and, 55
Cover letters, 596
COVID-19 pandemic
alternative work arrangements and, 275–276,
279–281
burnout and, 627–628
cultural looseness and, 98
decentralized organization and, 521
emotion regulation and, 156
emotional labor and, 152
financial outcomes of, 441
gender and decision making, 220
home schooling in, 661
in-house delivery service, 354
Internet access and, 374
IT outsourcing and, 529–530
job engagement and, 120
layoffs and, 140
leadership during, 409
OB during crises and, 60
organizational culture and, 562–563
organizational decision making and, 222
pay strategies and, 285–286
psychological safety, 355
reward during, 285
stigmatizing labels for virus, 556
stress for working parents, 661
team training and, 350
telecommuting and remote work, 55, 643, 654
touch in workplace and, 369
turnover rates and, 63
unemployment and, 624, 637
videoconferencing and, 375–376
virtual teams and, 336, 348–349
work–life balance and, 643
working while sick and, 634
Zoom fatigue and, 363
Coworking, 37–38, 370
Creative outcomes, 229
Creativity
causes of, 227–229
creative environment, 228
defined, 225
employability skill, 67, 68
environment and, 228–229
ethics and, 228
expertise and, 227
idea evaluation, 227
idea generation, 226
information gathering and, 226
innovation and, 229–230
intelligence and, 227
OB, moods/emotions and, 159
personality and, 227
problem formulation and, 226
teams vs. individuals, 228
three-stage model for, 226
Credit checks and employment, 598
Criminal records
employment check and, 598, 622
restorative justice, 88–89
Crises. See also COVID-19 pandemic
communication barriers and, 373–375
decision making in times of, 222
leadership during, 409
OB during, 60
power and financial dependence, 441
teams and, 340
Critical incidents, performance evaluations and, 611
Critical thinking, employability skill, 67
Cross-cultural communication
aspects of, 388–389
cultural context, 385–386
guide to, 389–390
interaction approaches, 387
interface between cultures, 387–388
Cross-cultural conflict management, 490–491
Cross-cultural negotiations, 500–501
Cross-cultural organizational behavior
cultural intelligence (CQ), 99–100
cultural tightness and looseness, 97–98
expatriate adjustment, 99
GLOBE framework, 95–97
Hofstede’s framework, 94–97
religion, 98–99
Cross-functional teams
chain of command and, 520
self-managed work, 335–336
Cross-hierarchical teams, 530
Cross-training (job rotation), 273–274
Cultural context, 328–329
Cultural context, communication and, 385–390
Cultural differences, 329
decision making and, 220
employee behavior and, 541
stress at work and, 646
in teams, 329
Cultural identity, 94
Cultural intelligence (CQ), 99–100
Cultural mosaic beliefs (CMBs), 91
Cultural tightness and looseness, 97–98
Culture clashes, 569
Culture of fear, 587
Culture, organizational.
See Organizational culture
Culturizing, 390
Customer satisfaction
harassment and, 302
job satisfaction and, 129
relational job design and, 274–275
Customer service, 161
Cyberbullying, 383
Cyberloafing, 612
Cybersecurity, 335, 384–385
D
Dark Triad personality traits, 181–182, 382, 400–401
Data breaches, 384–385
Data mining
communication and, 367
emotions, 166–167
Data, behavioral science and, 44–49
Day of week, emotions, moods and, 148, 149
Decentralization, organizational structure and, 521
Decision making
affectively charged, 214
biases and errors in, 214–219
bounded rationality, 213–214
effects of collaboration overload, 233
ethics and, 222–225
group, 319–323
importance of creativity, 225–229
in organizations, 212–219
individual differences in, 211–212, 219–220,
320–321
intuition and, 497
intuitive decision making, 201–202, 219–220
management by objectives (MBO)
programs, 252
OB, moods/emotions and, 159
organizational constraints, 220–221
perception and individual, 211–212
rational, 212–213
satisficing, 213
Decision role, of managers, 41–42
Decisional role, of managers, 41–42
Decisions, 211–212
Decisiveness, characteristic of organization’s culture,
551
Deductive reasoning, intellectual ability, 190
Deep acting, 152, 157786 Subject Index
Deep-level diversity
defined, 77
group composition and, 92–93
Defensive behaviors, 462–463
Demands, stress and work and, 640
Demographics
biographical characteristics, 77–82
diversity and, 77, 342
leadership and, 427
workforce, 52
workforce diversity and inclusion, 52
Deonance, 223
Departmental objectives, 252–253
Departmentalization, 517–519
Dependence, power and
creation, 445–446
defined, 441
formal small-group networks, 446–447
general dependence postulate, 444–445
importance, 445
nonsubstitutability, 445–446
scarcity, 445
social network analysis, 447–449
Depersonalization, 639
Depression, 639
Design, step of appreciative inquiry, 582–583
Destiny of organization, step of appreciative inquiry,
583
Detail orientation, characteristic of organization’s
culture, 551
Deviant workplace behaviors
criminal background checks and, 622
in work groups, 312–313
moods/ emotions and, 163
negative norms and group outcomes, 312–313
types of (OB Poll), 312
typology of, 313
Diagnosis, action research, 580–581
Digital assistants, 380–381
Digital natives, 379
Direct messages (DMs), 366
Direction, individual effort for goal achievement,
237
Disaster environments, teams and, 340
DiSC framework, 182–183
Discovery, step of appreciative inquiry, 582
Discrimination and prejudice
cultural mosaic, 91–92
cyberbullying and, 383
defined, 83–84
disparate impact and treatment, 84
forms of, 83
gender, 80
implicit bias, 82–83
in workplace, forms of, 83–84
intersectionality, 90
job applications and, 596
organizational culture and, 556
physical disabilities and, 616
prejudice, 82
race/ethnicity, 78
religious, 98–99
sexual orientation/gender identity and, 81
social categorization, 85–86
social dominance theory, 89–90
stereotype threat, 86–87
stereotyping, 86
stigma, 87–88
subtle, 85
system justification theory, 89
workforce diversity and inclusion, 52
Discussions, 360–362
Diseconomies of work specialization, 516
Disparate impact and treatment, 84
Displayed emotions, 151–152
Dissatisfaction, motivation and, 239–240
Disseminator role, of managers, 41
Dissonance, job attitudes and behavior, 116–117
Distinctiveness, 205–206
Distractions, 380
Distributive bargaining, 491–494
Distributive justice, 257–258
Disturbance handler role, of managers, 41–42
Diversity
biographical characteristics, 77–82
emotion regulation and, 156
leadership and, 397–398
levels of, 77
of team members, 228, 342–343
in the tech industry, 75–76
workplace, 52
Diversity climate, 106
Diversity culture, 106
Diversity dynamics
fault lines, 93–94
group composition, 92–93
Diversity management
challenges of, 106–107
cultures and climates for diversity, 106
defined, 100
practices, 103–105
theoretical basis underlying, 102–103
Diversity training and development, 105
Diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI) policies, 88,
100–102, 110–111, 343, 397–398
Division of labor, 516
Divisional objectives, 252–253
Dominant culture, 551, 587
Double jeopardy, 90
Downsizing, organizational structure, 532–534
Dreaming, step of appreciative inquiry, 582
Driving forces, 579
Drug testing and employment, 602–603
Dual relationships, 392
Due process, performance evaluations and, 613
Dyadic conflict, 481
Dynamic environments, 538
Dysfunctional conflict, 479
Dysfunctional outcomes, conflict and, 489
Dysfunctions of organizational culture, 568–569
E
e-collaboration, 378
e-learning, 378, 607
e-mail
AI and tracking flow of, 448–449
collaboration overload, 233
communication method choices and, 371
cross-cultural communication and, 388
masking emotional leakage through, 152
time spent checking at work, 365
written communication, 364–366
Economic factors, resistance to change and, 576
Economic shocks, change and, 574
Economic uncertainties and stress, 631
Economies of work specialization, 516
Effective managers, 42–43
Effectiveness
defined, 64
evaluating group, model of, 322–323
of group decision making, 320–321
team effectiveness model, 338, 355
Efficiency, 64, 320–321
Effort–performance relationship, 248
Effort–reward imbalance (ERI) model, 639
Electronic performance monitoring (EMP),
611–612
Embracing, cross-cultural communication approach,
387
Emojis, 378–379
Emotion regulation
ethics of, 158
influences/outcomes, 156–158
techniques, 157–158
Emotional Competence Inventory (ECI-36), 155
Emotional contagion, 161
Emotional dissonance, 152–153
Emotional exhaustion, 638
Emotional intelligence (EI), 153–156, 167, 401–402
Emotional intelligence assessment, 155
Emotional labor, 151–153
Emotional stability, dimension of personality, 177,
179, 382, 400, 639
Emotional states (OB Poll), 145
Emotional suppression, 157
Emotions
Affective Events Theory (AET), 153
anger, at work, 165
conflict and, 487–488
creativity, 159
crises leadership and, 409
customer service, 161
data mining emotions, 166–167
decision making and, 159
defined, 141
deviant workplace behavior, 163
emotional labor, 152
emotional states (OB Poll), 145
ethics and, 143–144
experiencing, 144–145
functions of, 145–146
irrationality and, 145–146
leadership, 160–161
moods and, 140–146
moral emotions, 143–144
motivation, 160
negotiations and, 161, 499–500
nonverbal communication and, 369
norms and, 309
OB applications, 158–164
positive/negative affect moods, 141–142
safety/injury and work, 163–164
selection, 158–159
smart devices and support, 379
smell and, 369
sources of, 146–151
types of emotions, 140–141
work-life satisfaction, 161–163
Empathy
leadership and, 401
negotiations and, 497, 500
Employability Skills Matrix (ESM)
communication, 357
conflict and negotiation, 477
diversity, equity, and inclusion, 75
emotions and moods, 139
foundations of group behavior, 301
human resource systems and practices, 589
job attitudes, 113
leadership, 397
motivation applications, 269
motivation concepts, 235
organization structure, foundations of, 513
organizational behavior, 68
organizational culture and change, 547
overview, 67–68
perception and individual decision making, 201
personality and individual differences, 169Subject Index 787
power and politics, 439
stress and health in organizations, 627
work teams, understanding, 331
Employee Assistance Programs (EAP), 652, 655
Employee engagement, job attitudes and, 120–121
Employee involvement and participation (EIP),
281–283
Employee recognition program, 293–294
Employee Stock Ownership Plan (ESOP), 285,
289–290
Employee tell-all websites, 136
Employee turnover, 62–64
Employee(s)
behavior, organizational structure and, 540–541
benefits, use to motivate, 291–292
burnout, 54
culture, learning, 553–556
firing, 624–625
intrinsic rewards, motivation and, 293–294
learning organizational culture, 553–556
motivation, 266–267
organizational politics, response to, 460–462
performance incentive to, 296
rewards to motivate, 283–290
sabbaticals, stress and, 655
silence, organizational politics and power,
464–465
socialization and expectations of (OB Poll), 559
socialization, organizational culture and, 558–561
strengths, organizational culture and, 570
stress at work (OB Poll), 629
telecommuting, 278–281
tracking/monitoring at work, 247
variable-pay program, 285–290
voice, organizational politics and power, 462–463
volunteering and, 275
well-being, at work, 54–55
withdrawal behavior, 62–64
Employment interview. See Interview
Employment options, in organizational behavior, 51
Employment policies, HR and, 619–620
Empowerment, 119
Enacted cultural values, 563
Enactive mastery, 254
Encounter stage, of socialization, 559–560
Engagement, social media and, 382
Engineering, female rate in, 111
Enhancement, impression management technique,
466
Enterprise social software, 381
Entrenchment of organizational culture, 567–568
Entrepreneur role, of managers, 41
Entrepreneurship and Gig Economy, 58
Entry socialization options, 560
Environment, organizational structure/strategy and
capacity and, 538
complexity and, 539
creativity and, 228–229
three-dimensional model of, 539
volatility and, 538–539
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 207, 226
Environmental stressors, 631
Environmental, social, and governance (ESG)
values, 566, 618
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
(EEOC)
background checks and, 598, 622
establishment of, 100
organizational culture and, 556
physical disabilities, defined, 616
restorative justice, 89
sexual harassment, 455–456
third-party negotiations, 505
Equity, 100
Equity theory, 255–256. See also Organizational
justice
Errors
common errors and biases in decision making,
206
escalation of commitment, 216–217
randomness error, 217
reducing, 215
risk aversion, 217–218
Escalation of commitment, 216–217
Espoused cultural values, 563
The Essential HR Handbook, 475
Esteem needs, 238
Ethical behavior, 49, 55–56
Ethical choices
affirmative action and unemployed veterans, 101
carbon footprints, 337
choosing to lie, 224
compassion, organizational culture and, 555
cyberbullying and harassment of employees, 383
defined, 55
flexible structures, deskless workplace, 531
interview impression management, 467
leadership and nudging, 403
managers, emotional intelligence tests and, 155
mental health, talking about at work, 652
narcissistic people in groups, 316
negotiations and, 504
office talk, 118
performance reviews, bias in, 614
personality traits and, 183
technology, employee tracking and, 247
values alignment with company, 65
workers’ cooperatives, 290
Ethical conflict, 346
Ethical culture, 564, 571–572
Ethical dilemmas
behavioral ethics and, 225
BYOD (bring your own device), 394–395
credit for ideas, 72
cyclists skill for work-group/team, 354–355
data mining emotions, 166–167
defined, 55
dollar value of, 232–233
employee tell-all websites, 136
following the leader, 328
intervening for team conflict resolution, 510
job fit, determining, 198
layoffs, 544–545
organizational politics and, 474
playing favorites, 297–298
questioning employers on DEI policies, 110–111
reducing company’s profit, 624
redundancy, fear, 659–661
rewards, 266
sexual harassment and office romances, 474
toxic culture, 586–587
Ethical leadership, 421
Ethical training, 571
Ethical work climate, 571
Ethics
behavioral, 223–224
CEO behavior, 436
creativity and, 227
decision making and, 222–225
emotions, moods and, 143–144
goal-setting and, 253
Internet access as public utility, 374
lying and, 224
of emotion regulation, 158
of political behavior, 468
of rewards, 266
power and, 441
training, 571
Ethnicity
as biographical characteristic, 78
criminal background checks and, 622
defined, 78
diversity demographics and, 77
stereotype threat, 86–87
Etiquette, 388
Eustress, 632–633
Evidence-Based Management (EBM), 44–45
Exchange, influence tactic, 449
Exclusion
in groups, 308
type of discrimination, 83
Excuses, impression management technique, 466
Exemplification, impression management technique, 466
Exercise
mood and emotions, 150
stress management and, 649–650
Exit response, 130
Expatriate adjustment, 99
Expatriate assignments, 53
Expectancy theory of motivation
integrating, 260–261
model of, 248
three relationships between rewards and performance, 247–248
Expert power, 443
Expertise
creativity and, 227
threat to, resistance to change and, 576
External causation, 205
External equity, 284
Externally caused behaviors, 205
Extreme contexts, teams and, 340
Extrinsic motivation, 239
Extrinsic rewards, 570
Extrinsic rewards to motivate employees, 283–290
bonuses, 288–289
employee stock ownership plans (ESOPs),
289–290
merit-based pay, 288
pay for performance, 286–287
pay secrecy, 286–287
pay structure, 284
piece-rate pay, 287
profit-sharing, 289
variable-pay programs, 285–290
Extroversion
at work, 179
emotional labor and, 152
flexible organizational structures and, 531
in Big Five Personality Model, 177
in Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, 176–177
leadership and, 400
person–organization fit and, 172
political skill and, 452
selfies and, 379
social media and, 382
team composition and, 341
voice, organizational politics and power, 462
Extroverted (E) versus Introverted (I), MBTI personality type, 176
F
Face validity, 600
Face-to-face vs. virtual teams, 336
Facework, 388
Facial Coding System, 167
Facial expressions, emotions and, 143, 167
Facial recognition, 76788 Subject Index
Fair Credit Reporting Act (FCRA), 598
Family issues, as stressor, 632
Family leave policies, 472
Fast data, 47
Fatigue, 634
Favoritism
ethics of, 297–298
in-group, 304–305
Favors, impression management technique, 466
Fear of unknown, resistance to change and, 576
Fear, culture of, 587
Feedback
action research, 581
gender bias and, 472
goal-setting theory and, 251
job characteristics model and, 271
management by objectives (MBO) programs,
252–253
performance evaluations and, 610–611, 614–615
self-efficacy and, 254
synchronicity in communication and, 359
Feel-good messaging, 264
Feigning ignorance, defensive behavior, 463
Felt conflict, 485
Felt emotions, 151
Femininity, 94, 386
Fidelity, 600–601
Fiedler contingency model, 404–405
Figurehead, manager as, 41
Financial Times Stock Exchange 100 (FTSE 100)
Index, 75–76
Firing employees, 63–64, 624–625
First impressions, 186
First offer anchoring, 492–493
First Step Act, 88
Fit, workplace values, personality and, 170–173
Fixed pie, 492
Fixed vs. variable socialization, 560
Flat organizations
design options for, 528–532
simple structure for, 524
Flattery, impression management technique, 466
Flexibility at work, 55, 276–279, 297–298, 661
Flexible and supportive policies to mitigate stress,
647–648
Flexible benefits, 291–292
Flexible structures, organizational structure, 531
Flextime, 276–278, 279
Floor time, 46
Follower contingency theories, 407–409
Followership theory, 408–409
“Folly of Rewarding A, While Hoping for B” (Kerr),
266
Forced comparison, 612
Formal group, 303
Formal language, 388
Formal power
coercive, 442
legitimate, 442–443
reward, 442
Formal regulations, 221
Formal small-group networks, 446–447
Formal vs. informal socialization, 560
Formalization, organizational structure and, 522
Formation stage, of group development, 306
Founders of organizations, culture and, 556
Franchise forms, of network organization, 529
Fraud, 385, 548
Freelancers, 39. See also Gig Economy
Friends
in workplace, 392
social media and, 382
Full range leadership model, 414–415
Functional conflict, 479, 488
Functional diversity, 92–93
Functional outcomes, conflict and, 488–489
Functional structure, organizational, 517
Fundamental attribution error, 206
G
Gainsharing system, 296
Gamification, 292
Gender
as biographical characteristic, 80–81
authenticity and leadership, 419–420
baldness, masculinity and, 79
bias and, 472
cross-cultural communication and, 386
differences in power, 474–475
diversity demographics and, 77
emotions, mood and, 150–151
glass ceiling, 80, 134
in Hofstede’s framework, 94
influence on decision making, 219–220
intersectionality and, 90
job dissatisfaction and, 131
leadership and, 80–81, 399, 400, 409, 592
negotiations and, differences in, 501–502
pay gap (OB Poll), 81
percentage of men/women working
(OB Poll), 53
physical abilities and, 191
salary negotiations (OB Poll), 501
sexual harassment, 455–456
stereotype threat, 86–87
stress and, 639
team composition and, 343
tokenism and, 107
Gender identity, 80, 81
General dependence postulate, power and,
444–445
General mental ability (GMA), 190
Generational values, 193–194
Geographic departmentalization, 517
Geographic organizational structure, 517
Gifs, 378–379
Gig Economy
characteristics of, 59
defined, 58
job attitudes, 121
job insecurity and, 637
nonunion positions and, 508
organizational behavior career and, 58–59
organizational identification and, 117
types of workers in, 39
Glass ceiling, 80, 134
Glass cliff, 80
Global recession (2008), 58, 60
Globalization
cultural issues, 53–54
defined, 52
entrepreneurship and Gig Economy, 58
foreign assignments, 53
managerial challenges, 52–54
GLOBE framework for cultural values, 95–97
GMAT test, 190
Goal commitment, goal-setting theory and,
250–251
Goal conflict, 252
Goal orientations, 251–252
Goal-setting theory, 249–253
conflict, 252
ethics and, 253
feedback, 251
goal commitment, 250–251
implementing, 252–253
management by objectives (MBO) programs,
252–253
orientations, 251–252
self-efficacy theory and, 253–255
task characteristics, 251
Goals
common purpose, teams, 344–345
joint effects of goals and self-efficacy on performance, 255
objective, 252–253
organizational goals and motivation, 237–238
relationship to performance, 251
self-concordance theory and, 243
specific, 249
stretch goals, 252
Goals-effort loop, 260
Gossip
counterproductive work behavior and, 130
in the office, 118, 308
power and politics, 458
status and, 314
Graduate admissions tests in business (GMAT), 190
Grapevine, 458
Graphic rating scales, performance evaluations and,
611
Gratitude, expressing, 388–389
Green practices, 207
Greenwashing, 207
Ground rules, negotiation process and, 496
Group composition and diversity dynamics, 92–93
Group decision making, 319–323
benefits of, 320
brainstorming, 322
effectiveness/efficiency of, 320–321
groupthink/groupshift, 321–322
nominal group technique, 322–323
polarization, 322
strengths of, 320
techniques, 322–323
weaknesses of, 320
Group dynamics, 328–329
Group inertia, resistance to change and, 576
Group norms, 309–314
behavior and, 310–311
conformity and, 309–310
culture and, 313–314
emotions and, 309
negative, group outcomes and, 312–313
positive, group outcomes and, 311
Group order ranking, 612
Group roles, 306–309
key/allocation of, 341–342
role conflict, 308–309
role expectation, 306–308
role perception, 306–307
Group status, 316
Group(s)
cohesion in, 318–319
conflict and, 485
conformity, avoiding, 325
defined, 302
development of, 305–306
diversity in, 92–94
dynamics, cultural context and, 328–329
effectiveness of, 322–323
fault lines and, 93–94
formal, 303
informal, 303
ingroup, 304–305
interaction, status and, 314–315
norms, 309–314
outgroup, 304
polarization in, 322Subject Index 789
processes, model of, 344
size and dynamics, 316–317
social identity theory and, 303–304
stages of development and, 305–306
status as, 314–316
teams vs., 332–333
temporary, 305–306
toxic, gossip and exclusion, 308
Groupshift, 321–322
Groupthink, 321
H
Habit, resistance to change and, 576
Hackers, 384–385
Halo effect, 208
Halo error, 612
Handshakes, 369
Happiness, 132, 274. See also Job satisfaction
Harassment, 301–302, 383
Hardline negotiating strategies, 493
Hawthorne Studies, 310–311
Heterogeneity, 539
Heuristics, 85, 208
HEXACO model, 183–184
Hidden disabilities, accommodations for, 616–617
Hierarchical groups, 316
Hierarchy of needs, Maslow, 238–239
Hierarchy type, organizational culture and, 550
High-context cultures, 386
High-Performance Work Systems (HPWS), 617–618
High-power-distance cultures, 541
Hindrance stressors, 630
Hindsight bias, 218
Hiring practices
application attraction and, 591
artificial intelligence for, 109
contingent selection tests, 602–603
discrimination and, 84
diversity and, 104–105
initial selection methods, 594–598
intelligence testing, 191
interviews, 601–602
model of, 595
moods/emotions and, 158–159
performance-simulation tests, 600–601
realistic job previews and, 593
recruiters, role of, 592
recruitment of managers (OB Poll), 593
referral hiring and, 591–592
religion and discrimination, 98–99
stereotypes and, 86–87
sustaining organizational culture, 557–558
written tests, 599–600
Historical precedents, organizational decision
making and, 221–222
Hofstede’s framework (of cultural values), 94–98,
229
Holland’s typology of personality and congruent
occupations, 171
Hollow forms, of network organization, 529–530
Homeostatic perspective, 642
Honesty-humility, dimension of personality, 183–184
Hope, trait linked to creativity, 227
Horns effect, 208
Hugging, 369
Human capital resources, 594
Human Resources (HR) management
accessible workplaces, 615–617
firing employees, 624–625
leadership role of, 617–620
managers and, 42
pay to employees, 624
performance evaluations and, 608–615
recruitment practices, 590–593
selection practices, 594–598
social media and, 54
substantive/contingent selection, 598–603
training and development programs, 603–608
Human rights, 52
Hurricane Katrina (2005), 373
Hybrid culture approach, 329
Hygiene factors
job enrichment, 274
of a job, 240
I
Idea champions, innovation and, 573
Idea evaluation, creative behavior and, 227
Idea generation, creative behavior and, 226
Ideal affect, 144–145
Ideator’s bias, 227
Identification mechanism of transformation leadership, 417
Identity theft, 385
Idiosyncratic ideals, 653
Illness and injury, 634–636
Illusory correlation, 148
Imitation strategy, 537
Implementation, negotiation process and, 497
Implicit Association Test (IAT), 82, 231
Implicit bias, 82–83, 102
Importance, power and, 445
Imposing, cross-cultural communication approach,
387
Impression management
defensive behaviors, 462–463
job interviews and, 601
of interviewer, 467
performance evaluations, 467–468
techniques, 466
In Search of Excellence, 46
Incentives, for team players, 350–351
Incivility
in e-mail communications, 365
type of discrimination, 83
Inclusion, 101
Independent contractors, 39. See also Gig Economy
Individual approaches to stress management,
649–653
Individual decision making. See also Decision making
cultural differences, 220
gender and, 219–220
group decision making vs., 320–321
mental ability, 220
perception and, 211–212
personality and, 219
Individual factors related to political behavior,
458–459
Individual objectives, 252–253
Individual practices, of socialization, 560
Individual ranking, 612
Individual sources, of resistance to change, 576
Individual task outcomes, performance evaluations
and, 608–609
Individual vs. collective socialization, 560
Individualism
conflict resolution and, 389
cultural context and, 386
in GLOBE framework, 95–97
in Hofstede’s framework, 94–95, 97
narcissism and, 182
norms and culture, 313
person-job fit and job satisfaction, 171
Inductive reasoning, intellectual ability, 190
Indulgence vs. restraint, 95
Inequity, 315–316
Influence tactics and power
application of, 452
automatic and controlled processing of, 451
gossip and, 458
political behavior and, 460
preferred, 450
sustainability vision through, 453
using, 449–450
Influencer marketing, 444
Informal group, 303
Informal language, 388
Information gathering, creative behavior and, 226
Information overload, 372
Information richness, 375
Information security, communication and, 384–385
Informational justice, 258–259
Informational role, of managers, 41
Ingratiation, influence tactic, 449
Ingroups
bias, 86, 490–491
common ingroup identity model, 102
favoritism, 304–305
leader–member exchange (LMX) theory and,
410–411
Initiating structure, leadership and, 402
Injuries. See Safety
Injustice, reactions to, 259–260
Innovation
bureaucracy and, 526
conformity and, 325
context and, 572–573
creativity, organizations and, 229–230
idea champions, 573
individual intuition igniting, 201–202
organizational culture and, 565–567, 572–574
sources of innovation, 572
Innovation companies, 543
Innovation strategy, 535–536
Innovation, characteristic of organization’s culture,
551
Inputs, OB model, 60–61
Insider lens and negotiations, 497
Insomnia, 634
Inspirational appeals, influence tactic, 449
Instant Messaging (IM), 366–367, 368, 371, 381
Institutions, organizational structure/strategy and,
539–540
Instructional system design (ISD), 605–606
Instrumental values, 193
Insults, type of discrimination, 83
Intangible assets, 566
Integrative bargaining, 491, 494–495
Integrity
employment tests and, 599–600
trust development, 425
Intellectual abilities and decision making, 220
Intelligence
creativity and, 227
physical exercise and, 650
self-efficacy and, 254
Intelligence Quotient (IQ), 189–190
Intelligence tests and employment, 599
Intensity, individual effort for goal achievement, 237
Intentions, conflict and, 485
Interacting groups, 322
Interactional justice, 257, 258–259
Interactive learning, 606–607
Intergroup conflict, 481
Intergroup development, OD and, 582
Internal causation, 205
Internal equity, 284790 Subject Index
Internally caused behaviors, 205
Internships, 619–620
Interpersonal communication
nonverbal communication, 367–370
oral communication, 359–364
written communication, 364–367
Interpersonal demands, stress and, 631
Interpersonal justice, 259
Interpersonal role, of managers, 41
Interpersonal skills, 38–39, 430
Interrole conflict, 308
Intersectionality, 90
Interunit communication, 572
Interview(s)
HR, employment selection and, 601–602
impression management, 466–467
passion, communication of, 395
perceptual judgments, 209
salary negotiations and, 493
structured, 602
unstructured, 602
Intimidation, type of discrimination, 83
Intractable problems, 213
Intragroup conflict, 481
Intrinsic motivation
creative environment and, 228
effect of job enrichment, 274
extrinsic motivation vs., 239
extrinsic rewards and, 242
factors related to job satisfaction, 239
Intrinsic rewards
creating team players, 350–351
employee motivation and, 293–294
expectancy theory and, 247
two-factor theory of motivation and, 239–240
Introversion, 152, 176–177, 531, 612
Intuition
affectively charged, 214
decision making and, 201–202, 214
defined, 45
innovation, 201–202
in negotiations, 497
systematic study and, 44–49
Intuitive decision making, 214
Invest, downsizing strategy, 534
Investiture vs. divestiture socialization, 560
Investment decisions, 566
IQ tests, 190
J
Jargon, 555
Job attitudes
distinct, 121–122
emotional intelligence and, 154
employee engagement, 120–121
Gig Economy, 121
organizational commitment, 119
perceived organizational support (POS), 120
satisfaction/involvement, 118–119
work-life satisfaction, 161–163
workplace, 113
Job characteristics model (JCM), 271–273
Job conditions, 125–126
Job crafting, 277
Job demand-control-support (JDCS) model,
640–641
Job demands-resources (JDR) model, 641–642
Job design
elements of, as motivating factors, 272
job characteristics model (JCM), 271–273
redesign elements, as motivating factors, 271
relational, 274–275
Job dissatisfaction
absenteeism and, 131
counterproductive work behavior (CWB) and,
130–132
emotional labor and, 152
hygiene factors and, 240
managerial issues, 132–133
responses to, 129–130
stress and, 632
theoretical model of, 129–130
turnover and, 131–132
two-factor theory of motivation, 238–240
Job engagement theory, 244–245
Job engagement, motivation and, 132, 245
Job enrichment, 274
Job insecurity, 636–638
Job interviews, 601–602
Job involvement, 119
Job knowledge, 611
Job performance
burnout and, 638–639
friendships at work and, 392
job satisfaction and, 127
men vs. women, 80–81
outcomes of OB model and, 62
stress and, 633
Job redesign
job enrichment, 274
job rotation, 273–274
relational job design, 274–275
Job rotation and motivation, 273–274
Job satisfaction, 114
age and, 79
average levels of, by country and facet, 123–125
benefit of flextime, 276
causes of, 125–127
conditions, 125–126
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), 128
customer satisfaction, 129
deep acting and, 152
defined, 118
disclosure of hidden disabilities and, 617
employee silence, organizational politics and
power, 464
happy places (OB Poll), 124
interpersonal skills and, 39
involvement and, 118–119
life satisfaction, 119
linked to job rotation, 274
measuring, 122–123
meetings and, 363
money and, 136–137
of workers, 123–124
Organizational Citizenship Behavior, 128
outcomes, 127–129
pay, 127
person-organization fit and, 172
personality and, 126
productivity, 127
repetitive tasks, 273
self-managed work teams, 335
telecommuting and, 280, 281
two-factor theory of motivation, 238–240
worst jobs for, 123
Job security, 240, 636–638
Job sharing, 278
Judging (J) versus Perceiving (P), MBTI personality
type, 176
Judgment of others, perception and
applications of short cuts, 208–209
attribution theory and, 204–206
contrast effects, 208
employment interviews, 209
halo and horns effects, 208
performance evaluations, 210
performance expectations, 209
remedies for, 210–211
selective perception, 208
social media and, 210
stereotyping, 208–209
Justice, 222, 255–260. See also Equity theory; Organizational justice
Justice enhancement mechanism of transformation
leadership, 418
Justice outcomes, 259–260
Justification, negotiation process and, 497
Justifying, defensive behavior, 463
K
Knowledge management, 350
Kotter’s eight-step plan for change, 580
L
Labor unions, 508, 637
Labor, emotional, 151–153
Laissez-faire, leadership behavior, 415
Language
cross-cultural communication and, 385–390
organizational culture and, 554–556
Laundromat (money laundering), 454
Layoffs, ethical dilemma, 544–545
Leader–Member Exchange (LMX) theory, 378,
410–411
Leader–member relations, 404
Leader–participation model, 407
Leaders
selecting, 429–430
training, 430
Leadership
as managerial role, 40, 41
authentic, 418–420
behavior theories of, 402–404
CEOs and, 434, 436
challenges, 427–430
charismatic, 411–414
contingency theories of, 404–409
creativity and, 228–229
culture formation and, 557
defined, 399
e-collaboration and, 378
emotional intelligence and, 401–402
employability skill, 67, 68
ethical, 421, 436
for diversity, 103–104
full range leadership model, 414–415
gender and, 80–81, 399, 400, 409, 592
groupthink and, 321
HR management and, 617–620
Leader–Member Exchange (LMX) theory, 410–411
mentoring and, 431
motivation, 266–267
multiteam systems, 337
nudging, ethics of, 403
OB, moods/emotions and, 160–161
positive styles and relationships, 410–418
power and, 441
responsible, 418–423, 436–437
servant, 422
speeches and, 364
sustainable culture and, 565
teams, structure of, 338
trait theories of, 399–401
transactional/transformational, 415–416
trust, 424–425
Leadership in Turbulent Times (Goodwin), 416
Lean communication channel, 375Subject Index 791
Lean management, 533
Legitimacy, influence tactic, 449
Legitimate power, 442–443
Lego’s workplace, 113–114
Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Questioning
(LGBTQ) employees, 52, 80–82, 87–88
Letters of recommendation, 597
Lewin’s Three-Step Model of the Change Process, 579
Liaison, managers and, 41
Lie to Me (television), 167
Life satisfaction, 79, 129
Liking, political behavior and, 460
Limited focus of change, resistance to change and, 576
Listener burnout, 360
Listening, 360–362, 652
Literature, on OB, 70
Loci of conflict, 481–482
Loneliness, social media and, 382
Long-term orientation, 95
Low-context cultures, 386
Loyalty response, 130
LSAT test, 190
Lying
e-mail and, 365
ethics and, 224
job applications and, 596
negotiations and, 504
unethical behavior, 55
M
Machiavellianism, 181, 382, 452, 459, 578
Machine learning, 47–49, 399, 449
Management by exception, 416–417
Management by objectives (MBO), 252–253
Management by objectives and results (MBOR),
252–253
Management by walking around (MBWA), 46
Managers. See also Organizational Behavior (OB)
as career
activities of, 40
allocation of activities of, by time, 43
conceptual skills of, 42
decisional roles, 42
defined, 39
diversity management practices, 103–105
effective vs. successful managerial activities, 42–43
emotional intelligence tests and, 155
employee silence, organizational politics and
power, 464–465
employee voice, organizational politics and
power, 462
informational role, 42
interpersonal role, 41
job dissatisfaction and, 132–133
job rotation, 274
job satisfaction and, 120–121
people skills of, 42
recruiting (OB Poll), 593
roles of, 40–42
sexual harassment, preventing, 456
technical skills of, 42
training of, 40
Managing up, 408–409
Manipulation, resistance to change and, 578
Market type, organizational culture, 550
Masculinity, 79, 94, 220, 386, 639
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, 238–239
Massive open online courses (MOOCs), 378
Material symbols, organizational culture and, 554
Matrix structure, organizational, 526–528
Mayer–Salovey–Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test
(MSCEIT), 155
MCAT test, 190
McClelland’s theory of needs, 240–241
Measuring
job satisfaction, 122–123
personality, 175–176
Mechanistic model, of organizational structure,
534–535
Mediator, in negotiations, 505
Medical exams and employment, 603
Meetings, communication in, 362–363, 371
Memes, 378–379
Memory, intellectual ability, 190
Mental ability, influence on decision making, 220
Mental health and stress
burnout and, 638–639
depression and, 639
individual approaches to stress management,
649–650
job insecurity and, 636–638
overstepping boundaries and talking about, 652
psychological distress and, 638–639
workaholism and, 638
Mental models, 345–346
Mentoring, 105, 398, 431, 472
Merit-based pay, 285, 288
Messaging, feel-good vs. instrumental, 264
Meta-analysis, cognitive evaluation theory and intrinsic motivation, 242
Metabolic risk factors, 636
Metamorphosis stage, of socialization, 560–56
MeToo movement, 52, 301, 369, 456

Micro-stressors, 659–660
Microaggressions, 85
Microbreaks, 651
Microinvalidations, 85
Microspecialization, 516
Migrant workers, 304
Millennial generation, 196
Mindfulness, 157–158, 166, 345, 650–652
Mintzberg’s managerial roles, 41–42
Misinterpretations, 388
Misrepresenting, defensive behavior, 463
Mobile sensors, 48
Mockery, type of discrimination, 83
Model, defined, 60
Modular structure, 530
Money, power and, 441
Monitor role, of managers, 41
Mood states, 141–143
Moods
basic, 142–143
defined, 141
emotions and, 140–146
negotiations, 499–500
positive/negative affect and, 141–142
Moral blind spots, 225
Moral emotions, 143–144
Moral norms, 223
Motivating Potential Score (MPS), 273
Motivation
alternative work arrangements, 275–281
benefits, employees and, 291–292
by job design, 271–273
cognitive evaluation theory (CET), 242
contemporary theories, 241–242
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and, 263
creativity and, 228
defined, 237
effect of deviant workplace norms, 313
employee(s), 266–267
employee involvement programs (EIP), 281–283
equity theory, organizational justice, 255–260
expectancy theory, 247–248
extrinsic rewards, employees and, 283–290
extrinsic vs. intrinsic factors in workplace, 240
goals and, 266
goal-setting theory, 249–253
hygiene factors, 240, 274
influence tactics, 452
integrating theories of, 260–261
intrinsic, 228, 239, 274
intrinsic rewards, employees and, 293–294
job characteristics model, 271–273
job engagement theory, 244–245
job enrichment, 274
job redesign, 273–275
job rotation, 273–274
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory, 238–239
McClelland’s theory of needs, 240–241
merit pay, 269–270
OB, moods/emotions and, 160
participative management, 281–282
psychological needs, 243–244
regulatory focus theory, 244
reinforcement theory, 245–246
remote work (OB Poll), 237
self-concordance theory, 243
self-determination theory, 242–244
self-efficacy theory, 253–255
social learning theory, 246–247, 266
team processes and, 347
two-factor theory, 238–240
Motivation-hygiene theory, 239
Motivational mechanism of transformation leadership, 417
Motivational Theory of Role Modeling, 266
Multicommunication, 372
Multiple equivalent simultaneous offers (MESOs),
493
Multiteam systems, 336–337
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), 176–177,
198–199
Myth or Science features
24-hour workplace, 615
bald is better, 79
bureaucracy and productivity, 526
collective mindfulness of teams, 345
emotional labor, 152
first impressions, 186
gossip/exclusion, toxic groups and, 308
happy workers, happy profits, 132
intuition in negotiation, 497
job crafting, 277
leaders, training, 430
listening and relationships, 362
management by walking around, 46
office politics, avoiding, 462
organizational culture, change and, 552
purposeful work, 243
sleep, work and, 635
stereotypes, 211
N
Narcissism
charismatic leadership and, 414
Dark Triad personality traits, 181–182, 401
decision making and, 219
in groups, challenges of, 316
Millennials and, 196
positive and negative outcomes of, 169–170
social media behavior and, 382
National culture, 541
Native Speaker (Park), 94
Natural language processing, 367
Need for achievement (nAch), 240, 261
Need for affiliation (nAff), 241, 243
Need for autonomy, 243
Need for cognition, 451
Need for competence, 243
Need for power (nPow), 241792 Subject Index
Need for relatedness, 243
Negative affect moods, 141–142
Negative leniency, evaluations, 612
Negative norms
deviant workplace behavior, 312–313
group outcomes and, 312–313
Negative stereotypes, 211
Neglect response, 130
Negotiation, 545
cross-cultural communication and, 386
distributive bargaining, 491–494
effectiveness, individual differences in, 498–502
in social context, 502–504
integrative bargaining, 494–495
OB, moods/emotions and, 161
Negotiation process
bargaining/problem solving, 497
clarification/justification, of positions, 497
closure/implementation, 497
ground rules, define, 496
preparation/planning, 495–496
Negotiator role, of managers, 41, 42
Networking
employee advancement and (OB Poll), 469
managers and, 42
Neutralizers, of leadership, 428–429
Nominal group technique, 322–323
Nonmoney-based bonuses, 289
Nonsanctioned leadership, 399
Nonsubstitutability, power and, 445–446
Nonverbal communication, 367–370
body language and movement, 368–369
contact and sense, 369
cross-cultural communication and, 386
physical space and use of time, 370
videoconferencing and, 376–377
Normative commitment, 119
Norming stage, of group development, 306
Norms
defined, 309
group, 309–314
status and, 314
Number aptitude, intellectual ability, 190
O
OB. See Organizational Behavior
Objective goals, 252–253
Objectives, management by, 252–253
Observer-rating surveys, 176
Ocean’s (movie series), 306
OD. See Organizational Development
Off-the-job training, 604
Office politics, avoiding, 462
Office romances, ethics of, 474
Office space, shrinking (OB Poll), 533
Office talk, 118
Ohio State Studies, 402–404
On-the-job training, 604
Onboarding, 558
Online applications, 595–596
Online harassment, 383
Online recruiting, 592
Open-air offices, 543
Opening hiring strategy, 589–590
Openness to experience, dimension of personality,
178, 179–180, 462
Operant conditioning theory, 246
Opioid epidemic, 439–440
Oral communication
conversations, discussion, and listening, 360–362
meetings and, 362–363
speeches and, 363–364
synchronicity and, 359–360
Organic model, or organizational structure, 534–535
Organizational approaches to stress management,
653–656
Organizational Behavior (OB)
absolutes and, 51
anthropology and, 51
applications of emotions/moods, 158–164
defined, 43–44
deviant workplace behavior, 312–313
job attitudes, 117–122
personality traits that influence, 180, 184–186
power and, 441
psychology and, 49–50
social psychology and, 50
sociology and, 50
Organizational Behavior (OB) model, 60–66
attitudes and stress, 61–62
basic model, 61
inputs, 60–61
outcomes, 61–66
processes, 61
Organizational Behavior (OB), as career, 51–60
corporate social responsibility and, 56–57
crises and, 60
culture, adapting to differing, 53
diversity in workforce, 52
employability skills, 66–68 (See also Employability
Skills Matrix)
employee well-being, at work, 54–55
ethical behavior, 55–56
Gig Economy and, 58–59
globalization and, 52–54
positive work environments and, 58
social media and, 54
work environment, positive, 58
workforce demographics, 52
workforce diversity and inclusion, 52
Organizational change
action research, 580–581
Kotter’s eight-step plan for implementing, 580
Lewin’s three-step model, 579
Organizational Development (OD) and, 581–583
Point/Counterpoint feature on, 585
stress management and, 653–656
Organizational Citizenship Behaviors (OCBs), 62
agreeableness and, 180
authenticity and leadership, 419
career and, 244
discrimination and decrease in, 84
employee selection process and, 598
followership theory and, 408
group influence on, 304
influence of psychological contracts, 307
job satisfaction and, 128
Machiavellianism and, 181
narcissism and, 182
political skill and, 452
psychological empowerment and, 119
servant leadership and, 422
transformational leaders, 417
trust and, 425
Organizational climate, culture and, 562–563
Organizational commitment
agreeableness and, 180
defined, 119
job rotation and, 274
Organizational constraints on decision making,
220–222
Organizational Culture Inventory, 551
Organizational Culture Profile (OCP), 551
Organizational culture(s)
accommodations for disabilities and, 615–616
adapting to different, 53
as asset, 564–567
culture of fear, 587
as descriptive term, 549
as liability, 567–569
benefits, as employee motivation, 291
change and, 552
climate and, 562–563
collectivist, conflict and, 490–491
communication and, 385–390
compassion and, 555
contrasting, 550
creating, 556–561
creativity and, 228–229
day-of-week mood effects across, 148, 149
defined, 549–551
dimensions of fit (job) and, 172–173
dominant, 551
effect of culture on organizational outcomes, 551
emotions and, 143
employee involvement programs and, 282–283
employee stock ownership plans and, 289
ethical decision criteria and, 220
ethical dimensions of, 571–572
flextime and, 278
functions of, 561–562
globalization, challenges of, 52–54
how culture begins, 556–557
how employees learn, 553–556
individual decision making and, 220
innovation and, 565–567
innovative dimensions of, 572–574
job sharing and, 278
justice and, 260
language and, 554–556
mood and, 144–145
negative, 567–569
negotiation and, 499–501
norms and, 313–314
piece-rate pay plan and, 287
political behavior at work and, 460
positive, 570–571
power tactics and, 452
presenteeism and, 635
psychological contracts, 307
representative participation, 282
representative participation programs, 282
rituals of, 553
selection/top management/socialization methods
of sustaining, 557–561
self-serving bias and, 206
sexual harassment and, 456
social loafing and, 317
social needs and, 238
stereotyping and, 211
stories of, 553
stress and, 639
strong vs. weak, 552–553
subcultures, 551
symbols of, 554
team composition and, 343–344
team contexts and, 339
telecommuting and, 279
toxic, 586–587
trust and, 425
uniformity, 551–552
variable-pay programs and, 285
voice, organizational politics and power, 463
wolf culture, 547–548
work–life conflict and, 646
Organizational demography, 342
Organizational Development (OD)
appreciative inquiry, 582–583
intergroup development and, 582Subject Index 793
process consultation, 581
team building and, 581–582
Organizational factors related to political behavior,
457, 460
Organizational factors, stress
recovery experiences and, 654–655
redesigning jobs, 653–654
remote work options and, 654
wellness programs and, 655–656, 658, 661
Organizational goals, rewards and, 248
Organizational identification, 117
Organizational justice
culture and, 260
defined, 256–257
definition and example of, 257
distributive, 257–258
informational, 258–259
interactional, 258–259
interpersonal, 259
job satisfaction and, 540
justice outcomes, 259–260
model of, 257
procedural, 258
Organizational politics, power and
gossip and grapevine, 458
impression management, 465–468
mapping your political career, 468–470
networking (OB Poll), 469
political behavior, 457
reality of, 457
response to, 460–462
voice and silence, 462–465
Organizational size, strategy and, 538
Organizational sources, of resistance to
change, 576
Organizational strategies, structure and
environment, 538–539
innovation strategy, 535–536
institutions, 539–540
models of, 534–535
size, 538
technology, 538
Organizational stressors, 631
Organizational structure
boundary spanning, 522–523
bureaucracy, 525–526
centralized/decentralized, 521, 540
chain of command, 519–520
circular, 532
defined, 515
departmentalization, 517–519
designing, questions and answers for, 515
determinants and outcomes, 541
downsizing, 532–534
economies/diseconomies, of work specialization,
516
employee behavior and, 540–541
environment, 538–539
flexible, 531
formalization, 522
institutions and, 539–540
matrix structure, 526–528
mechanistic vs. organic models of, 535
national culture, 541
predictability versus autonomy, 541
simple structure, 524
size, 538
span of control, 520–521, 540
strategies, 535–538
strategy/structure relationship, 537
team structure, 530–531
technology, 538
transforming hierarchy, 513–514
virtual structure, 528–530
work specialization, 515–517
Organizational survival, 65–66
Organizations
common shortcuts in, 208–209
constraints on decision making and, 220–222
decision making in, 212–219
defined, 39–40
innovation, creative outcomes and, 229
reputations of, 384
Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting
Project, 454
Organizing, as managerial role, 40
Originals: How Non-Conformists Move the World
(Grant), 325
Ostracism, 308
Outcome bias, 218–219
Outcome-orientation, characteristic of organization’s culture, 551
Outcomes
culture and, 551
equity theory, 256
organizational justice, 259–260
social media and, 382–384
Outcomes, OB model
Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB), 62
productivity, 64–65
survival, 65–66
task performance, 61
team performance and, 64
withdrawal behavior, 62–64
Outgroups, 86, 304, 410–411
Outsider lens and negotiations, 497
Overconfidence bias, 214–215
Overconforming, defensive behavior, 463
Oversharing in the office, 118
P
Paradox theory, change and, 583
Paralanguage, 369
Participation
downsizing strategy, 534
overcoming resistance to change, 577
Participative management, 281–282
Passive-defense cultures, 551
Pay structure, 284
Pay, job satisfaction and, 127
Pay-for-performance, 285–290
Peer coaches, 558
Peer pressure, 321, 325
People skills, of managers, 42
People with disabilities, 615–617
Perceived conflict, 485
Perceived inequity, 315
Perceived organizational support (POS), 120
Perceiver, perception and, 203
Perception
context and, 204
defined, 202
factors that influence, 202–204
individual decision making, 211–212
judgment and, 204–211
perceiver, 203
target, 203–204
Perceptual speed, intellectual ability, 190
Performance evaluations
360-degree evaluations, 610
behavior, 608–609
Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales (BARS), 611
bias in, 614
by whom, 610–611
critical incidents, 611
demeanor and behavior critique in, 167
electronic performance monitoring, 611–612
feedback and, 614–615
forced comparisons, 612
graphic ratings scales and, 611
impression management and, 467–468
improving, 612–613
individual task outcomes, 608–609
organizational constraints on decision
making, 220
perception, judgment and, 211
perceptions and, 210
purposes of, 608
team context and, 338
traits and, 609
written comments, 611
Performance expectations, perception and, 209
Performance feedback and motivation, 160
Performance-reward relationship, 248, 260–261, 290
Performance-simulation tests and employment,
600–601
Performing stage, of group development, 306
Perseverance, trait linked to creativity, 227
Persistence, individual effort of goal achievement,
237
Person–group fit, 172–173
Person–job fit theory, 171
Person–organization fit, 172
Person–supervisor fit, 172–173
Personal aggression, as deviant workplace behavior,
313
Personal approach, influence tactic, 449
Personal economic problems, 632
Personal growth opportunities, intrinsic reward, 240
Personal stressors, 631–632
Personality. See also Big Five Personality Model
applicant attraction and, 591
as source of emotions/moods, 146
change, acceptance of, 578
creativity and, 227
defined, 175–176
individual decision making and, 219
job crafting and, 277
job satisfaction and, 126
negotiation style and, 498–499
of team members, 341
self-efficacy and, 254
selfies and usernames, 379
situations and, 187–189
social media posts and, 381–382
training programs and, 609
trait theories of leadership, 399–401, 404
traits that influence OB, 180
traits that matter most to success, 179
undesirable traits of, 181–182
values and, 192–194
work–life conflict and, 646
workplace values and, 170–173
Personality assessments and types of positions (OB
Poll), 175
Personality frameworks
Big Five Personality Model, 176, 177–181
Dark Triad, 181–182
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), 176–177
Personality tests, 599
Personality traits, 174, 184–186
Perspective-taking, 497
Phantom anchors, 493
Phantom BATNAs, 496
Phone calls, 371
Physical abilities, of employees, 191–192
Physical contact, nonverbal communication and,
369
Physical disabilities, accommodations for, 616794 Subject Index
Physical exercise
mood and emotions, 150
stress management and, 649–650
Physical health and stress
COVID-19 pandemic and, 633
illness and injury, 634–636
sleep and, 634
Physical space, 370
Physical work conditions, 240
Physiological needs, 238
Physiological strain, 632
Physiological symptoms, of stress, 632
Piece-rate pay plan, 285, 287
Planned change, 575
Planning
as managerial role, 40
negotiation process, 495–496
Playing safe, defensive behavior, 463
Podcasting, 377
Point/Counterpoint features
artificial intelligence for hiring, 109
CEOs, leadership and, 434
conformity, avoiding, 325
criminal backgrounds, employers and, 622
feel-good vs. instrumental messaging, 264
gender bias, 472
Implicit Association Test (IAT), 231
job satisfaction and promotion, 134
literature on OB, 70
narcissism, millennials and, 196
nonunion positions and the Gig Economy, 508
open-air offices, 543
organizational change management, 585
stress reduction, organizational encouragement
of, 658
team building exercises, 354
work friendships, 392
yelling and anger, 165
Polarization, 322
Policies, company, 240, 647–648
Political behavior
acquiescence to, 460
at work, 460
defined, 457
ethics of, 468
individual/organizational factors contributing to,
458–460
Political map, your career and, 468–470
Political skill, 452
Political uncertainties and stress, 631
Political, category of deviant workplace behavior,
313
Politics of change, 578–579
Politics, organizational, power and, 456–458
Portfolio governance teams (PGTs), 335–336
Position power, 404
Positive affect moods
defined, 141
negative affect moods and, 141–142
personality trait linked to creativity, 227
teams in crisis situations and, 340
Positive leniency, evaluations, 612
Positive norms, group outcomes and, 311
Positive organizational behavior
defined, 58
employee strengths, build on, 570
Positive organizational culture, 570–571
Positive relationships, overcoming resistance to
change, 577
Positive stereotypes, 211
Positivity offset, 144
Post-Occupancy Evaluation (POE), 543
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 101
Potential, of teams, 333
Power
abuse of, 454–456
bases of, 442–444
defined, 441
dependence and, 444–449
differentials, sexual harassment and, 455–456
dynamics of, 454–455
effective types, 444
formal power, 442
influence tactics, 449–453
leadership and, 441
organizational politics and, 456–458
personal, 443–444
status and, 314
variables, 454
Power distance, 94, 120
Power dynamics, 454–455
Power relationships, resistance to change and, 576
Prearrival stage, of socialization, 559
Predictability, employee preferences and, 541
Predicting events, data analytics, 47
Prejudice, 82. See also Discrimination and prejudice
Preparation, negotiation process, 495–496
Presenteeism, 587, 634–635, 659
Pressure, influence tactic, 449
Preventing catastrophes, data analytics, 47
Prevention focus, 244
Prevention, defensive behavior, 463
Privacy, 49, 384–385, 531
Proactive personality, 185–186, 227, 341, 400
Problem, 211
Problem formulation, creativity and, 226
Problem-solving
negotiation process, 497
teams, 333, 334
Procedural justice
defined, 258
employee involvement programs (EIPs), 283
in organizational justice model, 257
Process conflict, 480–481
Process consultation, OD and, 581
Process departmentalization, 518
Processes, OB model, 61
Product departmentalization, 517
Product/service organizational structure, 526–527
Production blocking, 322
Production, category of deviant workplace, 313
Productivity
absenteeism and, 63
bureaucracy and, 526
increased by flextime, 277
of self-managed work teams, 335
outcomes of OB model and, 64–65
team composition and, 341
Profit-sharing plan, 285, 289
Promotion focus, 244
Promotional opportunities, intrinsic reward, 240
Promotions and job satisfaction, 134
Property, category of deviant workplace behavior,
313
Prosocial motivation, 274–275
Protective mechanisms, 571
Protégé, 431
Psychological contract, 307
Psychological distance, 379
Psychological distress at work, 638–639
Psychological empowerment, 119
Psychological needs, motivation and, 243–244
Psychological safety, 355, 386
Psychological strain, 632
Psychological symptoms, of stress, 632
Psychology, OB and, 49–50
Psychopathy, 182, 382, 400
Public speaking, 363–364
Punctuated-equilibrium model
model of, 305
stages of, 306
Purposeful work, 243, 274
Pygmalion effect, 209–210, 255
Q
Quality-control teams, 334
R
Race
arrest rates and, 622
as biographical characteristic, 78
bias and, 472
criminal background checks and, 622
defined, 78
diversity demographics and, 77
leader stereotypes and, 399
leadership representation in organizations (OB
Poll), 428
merit-based pay and, 288
negotiation and, 500–501
recruitment source information access and, 592
stereotype threat and, 86–87
stereotypes based on, 151, 152, 208–209, 368
team contexts and, 339
Racial-bias training, 398
Racism, 78, 82, 102, 555
Randomness error, 217
Rational, 213
Rational decision-making model, 213
Rational persuasion, influence tactic, 449–450
Reading the air (kuuki), 545
Realistic job previews, 593
Reciprocity, political behavior and, 460
Recognition cultures, 570
Recognition programs, employee, 289, 293–294
Recognition, intrinsic factor of motivation, 239, 240
Recovering ponderers, 651
Recovery experience, stress management and,
654–655
Recruiters, 592
Recruitment practices, 590–593
application attraction and, 591
for diversity, 104–105
for managers (OB Poll), 593
realistic job previews and, 593
recruiters, role of, 592
referral hiring and, 591–592
Redesigning jobs, organizational change and,
653–654
Reduced personal accomplishment, 638
Redundancy, fear, 659–661
Redundant, culture/leadership styles, 558
Reference checks for employment, 597
Reference groups, 310
Referent power, 444
Referral hiring, 591–592
Reflective listening, 361
Reflexivity, 345
Regulations, 221
Regulatory focus theory, 244
Reinforcement processes, 248
Reinforcement theory of motivation
integrating, 261
operant conditioning and behaviorism, 246
social-learning theory and, 246–247
Relatedness, psychological need for, 243
Relational identification, 304
Relational job design, 274–275Subject Index 795
Relationship conflicts, 346, 347, 479
Relationship resilience, 650
Relationship-oriented leader perspective, 404
Relationships
friendships at work, 392
negotiations and, 495–496, 504
positive, resistance to change and, 577
social media and, 382–383
working, 370
Relaxation techniques, stress and, 650–652
Religion, 98–99
Remote teams, 71
Remote work. See Telecommuting and remote work
Representative participation, 282
Reputation
negotiations and, 502–504
social media and, 384
Resilience, stress management and, 650
Resistance point, 492
Resistance to change, overcoming
coercion, 578
communication and, 576–577
fairly implement changes, 577–578
manipulation/cooptation and, 578
participation and, 577
positive relationships, 577
select individuals who accept change, 578
sources of, 576
support/commitment, building, 577
Resource allocator role, of managers, 41, 42
Resources
assessing with social network analysis, 447–449
innovation and, 572
stress at work and, 639–640
teams and, 338
Responsibility, intrinsic factor of motivation, 239, 240
Restorative justice, 88–89
Restraining forces, 579
Restraint, indulgence vs., 95
Results-oriented cultures, 569
Résumés, 596
Reward power, 442
Reward systems
contingent reward leadership, 416–417
ethics of, 266, 571
intrinsic rewards, motivation and, 293–294
organizational constraints on decision making,
221
positive organizational culture and, 570
teams, 338, 350–351
variable-pay programs, 285–290
Rewards
ethics of, 266
extrinsic vs. intrinsic motivation, 242
incentives to be a team player, 350–351
innovation and, 572
political behavior and, 460
Rewards-emphasis, characteristic of organization’s
culture, 551
Rewards–personal goals relationship, 248
Rich communication channel, 375
Rights, Internet access and, 374
Rigidity of organizational culture, 568
Risk aversion, 217–218
Risk factors, stress and, 635–636
Risk taking, trait linked to creativity, 227
Rituals, organizational culture and, 553
Robotics, 47–49
Role conflict, 308–309, 561, 631
Role demands, stress and, 631
Role model, 571
Role overload, 561
Roles
allocation in teams, 341–342
ambiguity, 457, 460
defined, 306
demands, stress and, 631
group, 306–309
perception, 306
stress, 280
Romances, office, 474
Rumors. See Gossip
S
Sabbaticals, 655
Safety
cybersecurity and, 384–385
job engagement and, 121
workplace, emotions and moods, 163–164
Safety-security needs, 238
Salary negotiations, 493, 501
SAT test, 190
Satisfaction. See also Job satisfaction
age and, 79
motivation and, 239
Satisficing, 213
Scapegoating, defensive behavior, 463
Scarcity
political behavior and, 460
power and, 445
Schadenfreude, 303
Security, resistance to change and, 576
Selection practices
application forms, 595–597
assessment centers, 601
background checks, 596–597
contingent selection tests, 598, 602–603
credit history checks, 598
criminal background checks, 598
drug tests, 602–603
initial selection, 594
integrity tests, 599–600
intelligence and cognitive ability tests, 599
interviews, 601–602
letters of recommendation, 597
medical examinations, 603
model of, 595
moods/emotions and, 158–159
performance-simulation tests, 600–601
personality tests, 599
reference checks, 597
résumés and cover letters, 596
situational judgment tests, 601
social media checks, 597–598
substantive selection methods, 598
sustaining organizational culture, 557–558
work sample tests, 600–601
written tests, 599–600
Selective information processing, resistance to
change and, 576
Selective perception, 208
Self-actualization needs, 238
Self-awareness, 401
Self-concordance theory, 243
Self-confidence, trait linked to creativity, 227
Self-determination theory, 242
Self-efficacy
increasing in others, 254–255
influence of feedback, 254
negotiation and, 498–499
trait linked to creativity, 227
Self-esteem
influence on decision making, 219
social media use and, 383
Self-fulfilling prophecy, 209, 255
Self-generated feedback, 251
Self-managed work teams, 334–335, 354, 520
Self-management, 67, 355
Self-monitoring, 185
Self-presentation, 382
Self-promotion, impression management technique,
466
Self-protection, defensive behavior, 463
Self-serving bias, 206, 219
Selfies, 378–379
Semantics, 388
Seniority, 285
Senses, nonverbal communication and, 369
Sensing (S) versus Intuitive (N), MBTI personality
type, 176
Sensory disabilities, 616–617
Serial vs. random socialization, 560
Servant leadership, 422
Service departmentalization, 517
Sex
as biographical characteristic, 80–81
emotions, mood and, 150–151
Sexism, 82
Sexual harassment
avoiding working relationships and, 472
power and, 441, 455–456, 474–475
prevention of, 456
reporting, 474–475
restaurant industry and, 301–302
type of discrimination, 83
Sexual orientation, in workforce, 52, 80–82, 87–88
Shallowing hypothesis, 382
Shared leadership theory, 407–408
Shared meaning, of cultures, 552
Short-term orientation, 95
Shortcuts in judging others, 208–209. See also
Stereotypes
Sick leave, 62, 658
Silence, organizational politics and power, 464–465
Similarity error, 612
Simple structure, organizational structure and, 524
Situation strength theory, 97, 187–188
Situational Judgment Test of Emotional Intelligence
(SJT of EI), 155
Situational judgment tests, 601
Situational leadership theory (SLT), 405–407
“Six strikes” policy, 587
Size, of groups, 316–317
Size, of organization, 538
Skills
career management, 68
collaboration, 67
communication, 67
critical thinking, 67
employability skills, 66–68 (See also Employability
Skills Matrix)
interpersonal, 38–39
job characteristics model and, 271
leadership, 67
of managers, 42
self-management, 67
social responsibility, 67
Sleep
deprivation, work and, 635
mood, emotions and, 150
smartphones and, 380
stress and, 634
Small talk, 458
Smart-homes, 380–381
Smartphones and devices, 380–381
Smell, nonverbal communication and, 369
Social activities, emotions, mood and, 148–149
Social categorization, 85–86
Social comparison, 382796 Subject Index
Social context, of negotiations, 502–504
Social dominance orientation (SDO), 89–90
Social dominance theory, 89–90
Social exchange mechanism of transformation
leadership, 418
Social identity theory, groups and, 303–304
Social learning theory, 246–247, 266
Social loafing, 317, 344, 347
Social media
big data and, 48
communication and, 381–384
cross-cultural communication and, 389
cyberbullying and, 383
defined, 381
dependence, power and, 447–449
discrimination and staffing decisions, 84
employment and checks of, 597–598
management issues and, 54
organizational outcomes and, 383–384
perceptual judgments and, 210
personal and relational outcomes of, 382–383
personality via, 381–382
in the workplace, 358
Social network analysis, assessing resources, power
and, 447–449
Social pressures, 116, 458
Social proof, political behavior and, 460
Social psychology, OB and, 50
Social responsibility, 67, 68, 436
Social sharing, emotions and, 157–158
Social support, stress at work and, 652–653
Social sustainability, 565
Social trends, change and, 574
Social-belongingness needs, 238
Socialization
employee expectations (OB Poll), 559
entry, options, 560
formal vs. informal, 560
method of sustaining organizational culture,
558–561
model, 559
Sociogram, 448, 449
Sociology, OB and, 50
Soft skills, 605
Softline negotiating strategies, 493
Span of control, organizational structure and,
520–521, 540
Spatial visualization, intellectual ability, 190
Specific goals, 249
Specificity of goals, 249, 252
Speeches, 363–364
Spokesperson role, of managers, 41
Stagnation of organizational culture, 567–568
Stalling, defensive behavior, 463
Star Wars (film), 70
Starburst form, of network organization, 530
Start-up firms, innovation, and culture, 565
Statistics, data and, 44–49
Status Characteristics Theory, 314–315
Status inequity, 315–316
Status quo, 76, 578–579, 580
Status, as group property, 314–316
Stereotype threat, 86–87
Stereotypes
cultural, 390
discrimination and, 86–87
diversity awareness and increase in use, 311
gender, 80–81, 151, 400, 501, 502
negativity of, 211
of leaders, 399, 400
of older workers, 79
perceptual judgments and, 208–209
performance evaluations and, 608
racial, 151, 152, 208–209, 368
sex, 80
Stereotyping, 86
Stigma, 87–88, 90, 339
Stories, organizational culture and, 553
Storming stage, of group development, 306
Strain
behavioral, 632
defined, 630
physiological, 632
psychological, 632
Strategy-Structure Relationship, 537
Stress
additivity of stressors, 632
allostasis and, 642
behavioral symptoms of, 632
consequences of, 632
conservation of resources (COR) theory and,
639–640
coping with, 636
defined, 630
discrimination and, 84
effort–reward imbalance (ERI) model and, 639
emotion, mood and, 148
emotional labor and, 152
employee wellness and, 661
environmental factors of, 631
eustress, 632–633
flexible and supportive policies to mitigate,
647–648
flextime and, 277
illness and injury, 634–636
impact of job, 651
individual approaches to, 649–653
job demand-control-support (JDCS) model and,
640–641
job demands-resources (JDR) model and,
641–642
job insecurity and, 636–638
job performance and, 633
managing, 648–656
mechanisms of, 639–642
mental health and, 636–639
model of, 631
organizational approaches to, 653–656
organizational factors of, 631
outcomes of OB model and, 61–62
paralyzed or invigorated by (OB Poll), 629
personal and work risk factors, 635–636
personal factors of, 631–632
physical health and, 633–636
physiological symptoms of, 632
psychological distress at work and, 638–639
psychological symptoms of, 632
in redundancy, 659–661
smartphones and, 380
sources of, 629, 630–632
strain, 632
stressors, 630–632
work–life balance and, 643–648
workaholism and, 638
for working parents on COVID-19, 661
working when sick and, 658
Stress management
individual approaches to, 649–653
organizational approaches to, 653–656
organizational encouragement of, 658
Stress reduction programs, 658
Stressors, 630–632
Stretch goals, 252
Stretching, defensive behavior, 463
Strong culture, 552–553
Structural inertia, resistance to change and, 576
Structural variables for innovation, 572
Structured interviews, 602
Subcultures, 551
Substance abuse, counterproductive work behavior
and, 130
Substantive selection methods for
employment, 598
Substitutes, for leadership, 428–429
Subtle discrimination, 85
Success, probability of, 241
Successful managers, 42–43
Sunk cost effect, 217
Superordinate framing, 243
Superstitions, 217
Supervision, 355
Supervision, quality of, 240
Supplier negotiations, 503
Support and commitment, overcoming resistance to
change, 577
Supportiveness, characteristic of organization’s
culture, 551
Surface acting, 152, 157
Surface-level diversity
defined, 77
group composition and, 92
The Surprising Science of Meetings (Rogelberg), 363
Surveillance, big data and, 48
Survival, 65–66
Sustainability, 56, 564
Sustainable cultures and climates, 564–565
Symbols, of organizational culture, 554
Synchronicity, 359–360
Synchronous communication, 359
Synergizing, cross-cultural communication approach, 387
System justification theory, 89
System-imposed time constraints, 221
Systematic study, intuition and, 44–49
Systemic racism, 78
T
Taboo words, 388
Talking, in the office, 118
Tangible assets, 566
Tardiness, counterproductive work behavior and,
130
Target point, 492
Target, perception and, 203–204
Task characteristics
goal-setting theory and, 251
motivation and, 271
repetitive tasks and employee motivation, 273
Task conflicts, 346–347, 479–480
Task demands, stress and, 631
Task identity, job characteristics model and, 271
Task performance, 62, 608–609
Task significance, job characteristics
model and, 271
Task structure, 404
Task-oriented leader perspective, 404
Teacher merit pay, 269–270
Team building exercises, 354
Team building, OD and, 581–582
Team cohesion, 348
Team composition
cultural differences and, 343–344
diversity of, 342–343
effective teams and, 338
key roles, allocation of, 341–342
member abilities, 340–341
member preferences, 344
personality, of members, 341
size of, 344Subject Index 797
Team context, 338–340
adequate resources, 339
crises and extreme contexts, 340
culture and climate, 339
leadership structure, 339
performance evaluation/reward system, 339
Team efficacy, 347–348
Team identity, 348
Team orientation, characteristic of organization’s
culture, 551
Team performance, 64
Team players, 349–351
hiring, 349
training, 349–350
Team processes, 344–349
cohesion, 348
common plan/purpose, 344–345
conflict levels, 346–347
effective teams and, 338
effects of, model, 344
efficacy, 347–348
identity, 348
mental models, 345–346
motivation, 347
social loafing, 347
states, 347
trust, 348–349
Team resilience, 661
Team scaffolds, 340
Team structure, organization, 530–531
Teams
Bluetooth-enabled devices for, 381
communication and, 360
conflict and, 346–347, 479, 481–482
creativity and, 228
cross-functional, 333, 335–336
cultural differences in, 329
disadvantages of, 351
diversity in, 228, 342–343
effectiveness, 355
four types of, model, 334
groups vs., 332–333
member preferences, 344
model of, 338
multiteam system, 336–337
popularity of, 333
problem solving, 334
reflexivity, 345
remote, managing, 71
self-managed work, 334–335, 354
size of, 344
social loafing, 347
team states, 347
tests used to determine if teams are needed, 351
Tham Luang cave rescue team, 331–332
virtual, 336
Teamwork (OB Poll), 352
Tech industry, diversity in, 75–76
Technical skills
of managers, 42
training, 605
videoconferencing and, 376
Technoference, 380
Technology
58-hour workplace, 615
change and, 574
ethics of employee tracking, 247
organizational structure/strategy and, 538
virtual teams, 336
Telecommuting and remote work. See also Virtual
teams
benefits of, 281
challenges of (OB Poll), 237–238
COVID-19 pandemic and, 55, 643, 654, 661
data analytic methods and, 210
defined, 280
drawbacks of, 279–280, 281–282
education level and (OB Poll), 280
emotional displays and, 152
for stress management, 654
jobs suited for, 280
motivation and, 237, 281
Zoom fatigue and, 363
Telepressure, 654
Temporary groups, 305–306
Temporary workers, 39. See also Gig Economy
Terminal values, 193
Terminations, 63–64
Tests, to determine if a team is necessary, 351
Text messaging
appropriateness for work, 368
communication method choices and, 371
for work purposes (OB Poll), 368
written communication, 366–367
Text of sentiment analysis, 48
Tham Luang cave rescue team, 331–332
Theft, counterproductive work behavior and, 130
Theory of needs, McClelland, 240–241
Thinking (T) versus Feeling (F), MBTI personality
type, 176
Third-party negotiators, 505
360-degree evaluations, 610
Three-stage model of creativity, 226–229
Time constraints, organizational decision making
and, 221
Time of day, emotions, moods and, 146–148, 149
Time’s Up movement, 456
Time, nonverbal communication and use of, 370
Time, trust and, 425–426
Time-management techniques, stress and, 649
Tipping Point, The (Gladwell), 218
Tokenism, 106–107
Tone differences, 388
Top management method, of sustaining organizational culture, 558
TopCoder program, 516
Touch, nonverbal communication and, 369
Toward a Better World features
CEO personalities, 173
cohesion through volunteering, 319
corporate social responsibility, 128
CSR and sustainability market space, 536
CSR stories, 162
CSR-oriented companies, 57
culture and investment decisions, 566
employee rewards and, 292
food waste and hunger, 262
gig workers and job insecurity, 637
greenwashing, 207
groups and teams, DEI and, 343
high-performance work system and ESG values,
618
Internet access as right, 374
leadership, 420
restorative justice, 88
supplier negotiations, 503
sustainability vision through influence, 453
Toxic culture, 586–587
Toxic positivity, 571
Toxicity of organizational culture, 568–569
Traditional management, 42
Training and development programs, 603–607
active learning and, 606
content of, 605
e-learning and, 607
effectiveness, evaluating, 607
for performance evaluators, 613
instructional system design, 605–606
interactive learning and, 606–607
methods of, 605–607
on- and off-the-job training, 604
transfer of training and, 604
Training leaders, 430
Trait activation theory (TAT), 188–189
Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire
(TEIQue), 155
Trait theories of leadership, 399–401, 404
Traits, performance evaluations and, 609
Transactional leadership
crises leadership and, 409
defined, 415
full range leadership model and, 415–416
transformational vs., 417
Transactive memory systems, 346
Transfer of training, 604
Transformational leadership
charismatic vs., 416–417
downsides to, 418
effectiveness of, 417–418
evaluation of, 416–418
full range leadership model and, 417
transactional vs., 417
Troika Laundromat, 454
Trust propensity, 425
Trust, leadership and, 436
culture and, 425
development/nature of, 425
outcomes of trust, 424
propensity, 425
regaining lost, 426
time and, 425–426
Trust, teams and
cross-functional teams, 335
team processes and, 348–349
virtual teams and, 336
Turnover rates
case incident, 298–299
discrimination and, 84
job dissatisfaction and, 131–132
migrant workers and, 304
outcomes of OB model and, 62–64
realistic job previews and, 593
telecommuting and, 280
Two-factor theory, of motivation, 238–240
U
U.S. Bill of Rights, 223
U.S. Small Business Administration, 340
Uncertainty avoidance, 94–95
Unemployment, 58, 101, 637
Unethical behavior, 55–56
Uniform cultures, 551–552
Uniformity of organizational culture, 568
Unions, 508, 637
Unity of command, 519
Unity, political behavior and, 460
Unstructured interview, 602
Usernames, 378–379
Utilitarianism, as ethical yard stick, 223–224
V
Vacation time, 654–655
Value system, 192
Values
alignment with company, 65
as reason for pursuing goals, self-concordance,
243
cultural, 386798 Subject Index
Values (continued)
defined, 192
dominant in workforce, 194
generational, 193–194
importance/organization of, 193
personality and individual differences, 192–194
reflected in attitude, 116
terminal vs. instrumental, 193
workplace, link to personality, 170–173
Variable-pay program, 285–290
bonus, 288–289
employee-stock ownership, 289–290
evaluation of, 290
merit-based, 288
piece-rate pay plan, 287
profit-sharing plan, 289
Venting emotions, 157–158
Verbal comprehension, intellectual ability, 190
Verbal persuasion, 254
Veterans, unemployed, 101
Vicarious modeling, 254
Video résumés, 596
Videoconferencing, 375–377
Virtual assessment centers, 623
Virtual communication
blogging, vlogging, and podcasting, 377
e-collaboration and e-learning, 378
emojis, usernames, and selfies, 378–379
videoconferencing, 375–377
Virtual management, 528–530
Virtual structure, organizational, 528–530
Virtual teams
communication apprehension and, 373
communication methods for, 371
cross-cultural communication and, 390
face-to-face teams vs., 336
hiring for, 349
importance of team identity, 348
information overload and, 371
to reduce carbon footprint, 337
trust and, 336
Vision, 413
Vision statement, 413
Vlogging, 377
Vocational Preference Inventory questionnaire, 171
Voice recognition, 76
Voice response, 130
Voice, organizational politics and power, 462–463
Volatility, environment and, 538–539
Volunteering, employee, 275, 292, 319
W
Weak culture, 552–553
Wearable digital devices and sensors, 381
Weather, emotions, moods and, 148
Wellness programs, stress management and,
655–656, 661
Wheel network, formal small-group networks and,
446–447
Whistle-blowers, 223, 456, 457
Withdrawal behavior, 62–64
Wolf culture, 547–548
Women. See Gender
Wonderlic Ability Test, 191
Word connotations, 388
Work arrangements, alternative, 275–281
flextime, 276–279
job sharing, 278
telecommuting, 278–281
Work friends, 392
Work group, 332–333
Work sample tests, 600–601
Work specialization, 515–517
Work team, 333
Work-life satisfaction, 161–163
Work–family conflict
decreased with flextime arrangements,
277–278
emotional labor and, 152
family leave policies and, 472
personality traits and, 180
role conflict and, 308–309
smart devices and, 379, 380
Work–life balance
boundaries and, 643–645
case incident, 72–73
employee well-being and, 54–55
flexible and supportive policies for, 647–648
in pandemic, 661
spillover and, 645–647
state of, 643
stress and, 643–648
telecommuting and, 279–282
workaholism and, 638
Work–life conflict, 645–646
Work–life enrichment, 646–647
Work–life initiatives, 648
Work–life spillover, 645–647
Workaholism, 615, 638
Workers, 39
Workers’ cooperatives, ethics and, 290
Workforce demographics
diversity and inclusion, 52
percentage of men and women working
(OB Poll), 53
values dominate in, 194
Workforce diversity, 52, 76, 77
and technology, 111
Workforce inclusion, 52
Workforce, changing nature of, 574
Working from home. See Telecommuting and
remote work
Workplace communication, 357–358
Workplace diversity, 85. See also Biographical characteristics, of employees
Workplace environment
discrimination, 83–85
employee wellness and, 661
positive, 58
Workplace incivility, 312
Workplace, Lego’s, 113–114
Works councils, type of representative participation,
283
World politics, change and, 574
Written comments, performance evaluations and,
611
Written communication
blogs, 377
e-mail, 364–366
instant messaging, 366–367, 368, 371, 381
natural language processing, 367
social media, 381–384
text messaging, 366–367, 368
Written tests, employment, HR and
integrity, 599–600
intelligence or cognitive ability tests, 599
personality tests, 599
Y
Yelling and anger, 165
Z
Zero-sum approach, 46

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