اسم المؤلف
Roger L. Timings
التاريخ
2 يناير 2018
المشاهدات
304
التقييم

Newnes Mechanical Engineer’s Pocket Book Third edition
Roger L. Timings
Contents
Foreword xix
Preface xxi
Acknowledgements xxvii
1 Engineering Mathematics 1
1.1 The Greek alphabet 1
1.2 Mathematical symbols 1
1.3 Units: SI 2
1.3.1 Basic and supplementary units 2
1.3.2 Derived units 2
1.3.3 Units: not SI 3
1.3.4 Notes on writing symbols 4
1.3.5 Decimal multiples of units 4
1.4 Conversion factors for units 4
1.4.1 FPS to SI units 5
1.4.2 SI to FPS units 5
1.5 Preferred numbers 6
1.6 Mensuration 6
1.6.1 Plane figures 6
1.6.2 Solid objects 9
1.7 Powers, roots and reciprocals 13
1.8 Progressions 16
1.8.1 Arithmetic progressions 16
1.8.2 Geometric progressions 16
1.8.3 Harmonic progressions 17
1.9 Trigonometric formulae 17
1.9.1 Basic definitions 17
1.9.2 Identities 18
1.9.3 Compound and double angle formulae 18
1.9.4 ‘Product and sum’ formulae 18
1.9.5 Triangle formulae 18
1.10 Circles: some definitions and properties 19
1.10.1 Circles: areas and circumferences 20
1.11 Quadratic equations 21
1.12 Natural logarithms 21
1.13 Statistics: an introduction 21
1.13.1 Basic concepts 21
1.13.2 Probability 221.13.3 Binomial distribution 22
1.13.4 Poisson distribution 23
1.13.5 Normal distribution 23
1.14 Differential calculus (Derivatives) 24
1.15 Integral calculus (Standard forms) 26
1.15.1 Integration by parts 28
1.15.2 Definite integrals 28
1.16 Binomial theorem 28
1.17 Maclaurin’s theorem 28
1.18 Taylor’s theorem 28
2 Engineering Statics 29
2.1 Engineering statics 29
2.2 Mass, force and weight 29
2.2.1 Mass 29
2.2.2 Force 29
2.2.3 Vectors 30
2.2.4 Weight 31
2.2.5 Mass per unit volume (density) 31
2.2.6 Weight per unit volume 31
2.2.7 Relative density 32
2.2.8 Pressure (fluids) 33
2.3 Vector diagrams of forces: graphical solution 34
2.3.1 Resultant forces 34
2.3.2 Parallelogram of forces 34
2.3.3 Equilibrant forces 36
2.3.4 Resolution of forces 36
2.3.5 Three forces in equilibrium (triangle of forces) 37
2.3.6 Polygon of forces: Bow’s notation 37
2.3.7 Non-concurrent coplanar forces (funicular
2.4 Moments of forces, centre of gravity and
centroids of areas 41
2.4.1 Moments of forces 41
2.4.2 Principle of moments (related terminology) 42
2.4.3 Principle of moments 43
2.4.4 Equilibrium 45
2.5 Orders of levers 47
2.5.1 First-order levers 47
2.5.2 Second-order levers 48
2.5.3 Third-order levers 49
2.6 Centre of gravity, centroids of areas and equilibrium 49
2.6.1 Centre of gravity (solid objects) 49
2.6.2 Centre of gravity of non-uniform and composite solids 49
2.6.3 Centre of gravity (lamina) 51
vi Contents2.6.4 Centroids of areas 52
2.6.5 Equilibrium 53
2.7 Friction 54
2.7.1 Lubrication 55
2.7.2 Laws of friction 55
2.7.3 Coefficient of friction 55
2.7.4 Angle of friction 57
2.7.5 Friction on an inclined plane 57
2.7.6 Angle of repose 58
2.8 Stress and strain 59
2.8.1 Direct stress 59
2.8.2 Shear stress 60
2.8.3 Direct strain 61
2.8.4 Shear strain 61
2.8.5 Modulus of elasticity (Hooke’s law) 61
2.8.6 Modulus of rigidity 62
2.8.7 Torsional stress 63
2.8.8 Hoop stress in thin cylindrical shells 64
2.8.9 Longitudinal stress in thin cylindrical shells 65
2.9 Beams 66
2.9.1 Shearing force 66
2.9.2 Bending moment 67
2.9.3 Shearing force and bending moment diagrams 68
2.9.4 Beams (cantilever) 73
2.10 Stress, strain and deflections in beams 74
2.10.1 Bending stress and neutral axis 74
2.11 Frameworks 78
2.11.1 Method of sections 79
2.12 Hydrostatic pressure 83
2.12.1 Thrust on a submerged surface 84
2.12.2 Pascal’s law 85
3 Engineering Dynamics 87
3.1 Engineering dynamics 87
3.2 Work 87
3.3 Energy 88
3.3.1 Conservation of energy 88
3.4 Power 89
3.5 Efficiency 89
3.6 Velocity and acceleration 89
3.6.1 Speed 90
3.6.2 Velocity 90
3.6.3 Acceleration 90
3.6.4 Equations relating to velocity and acceleration 90
Contents vii3.6.5 Momentum 90
3.6.6 Newton’s laws of motion 90
3.6.7 Gravity 91
3.6.8 Conservation of momentum 92
3.6.9 Impact of a fluid jet on a fixed body 92
3.6.10 Inertia 93
3.6.11 Resisted motion 93
3.7 Angular motion 96
3.7.1 The radian 96
3.7.2 Angular displacement 97
3.7.3 Angular velocity 97
3.7.4 The relationship between angular and linear velocity 97
3.7.5 Angular acceleration 98
3.7.6 Torque 98
3.7.7 Work done by a torque 100
3.7.8 Centripetal acceleration and centripetal force 101
3.7.9 Centrifugal force 102
3.8 Balancing rotating masses 103
3.8.1 Balancing co-planar masses (static balance) 103
3.8.2 Balancing co-planar masses (dynamic balance) 103
3.9 Relative velocities 106
3.9.1 Relative velocities (unconnected bodies) 106
3.9.2 Relative velocities (connected bodies) 108
3.10 Kinematics 109
3.10.1 Ballistics 109
3.11 Kinetics 110
3.11.1 Universal gravitation 110
3.11.2 Linear translation 111
3.11.3 Translation in a curved path 111
3.11.4 Conic pendulum 111
3.11.5 Rotation of a body about a fixed axis 113
3.11.6 Radius of gyration 114
3.11.7 Centre of percussion 114
3.11.8 Angular momentum 114
3.12 Simple harmonic motion 116
3.12.1 Simple pendulum 117
3.12.2 Natural vibration 118
3.13 Fluid dynamics 119
3.13.1 Rate of flow 119
3.13.2 Continuity of flow 120
3.13.3 Energy of a fluid in motion (Bernoulli’s equation) 120
3.13.4 Flow through orifices 121
3.13.5 Viscosity 121
3.13.6 Poiseulle’s formula 122
3.13.7 Stoke’s formula 122
viii Contents4 Fastenings 123
4.1 Screwed fastenings 123
4.1.1 Drawing proportions 123
4.1.2 Alternative screw heads 125
4.1.3 Alternative screw points 125
4.1.4 Hexagon socket cap head screw 126
4.1.5 Application of screwed fasteners 126
4.1.6 Acme thread form 127
4.1.7 Square thread form 127
4.1.8 Buttress thread form 127
4.1.9 V-thread form 128
4.1.10 Basic Whitworth (55°) thread form: parallel threads 128
4.1.11 ISO metric and ISO 60° unified thread forms 129
4.1.12 Introduction to screwed fasteners 129
4.1.13 BS EN ISO 4014: 2001 Hexagon head bolts –
product grades A and B 132
4.1.14 BS EN ISO 4016: 2001 Hexagon head bolts –
product grade C 139
4.1.15 BS EN ISO 4017: 2001 Hexagon head screws –
product grades A and B 145
4.1.16 BS EN ISO 4018: 2001 Hexagon head screws –
product grade C 151
4.1.17 BS EN ISO 4032: 2001 Hexagon nuts style 1 –
product grades A and B 158
4.1.18 BS EN ISO 4033: 2001 Hexagon nuts style 2 –
product grades A and B 162
4.1.19 BS EN ISO 4034: 2001 Hexagon nuts style 1 –
product grade C 165
4.1.20 BS EN ISO 4035: 2001 Hexagon thin nuts
(chamfered) – product grades A and B 167
4.1.21 BS EN ISO 4036: 2001 Hexagon thin nuts
(unchamfered) – product grade B 169
4.1.22 BS EN ISO 8765: 2001 Hexagon head bolts with
metric fine pitch threads – product grades A and B 170
4.1.23 BS EN ISO 8676: 2001 Hexagon head screws with
metric fine pitch threads – product grades A and B 177
4.1.24 BS EN ISO 8673: 2001 Hexagon nuts style 1 with
metric fine pitch threads – product grades A and B 184
4.1.25 BS EN ISO 8674: 2001 Hexagon nuts style 2 with
metric fine pitch threads – product grades A and B 187
4.1.26 BS EN ISO 8675: 2001 Hexagon thin nuts with
metric fine pitch threads – product grades A and B 190
4.1.27 BS 7764: 1994 Hexagon slotted nuts and castle nuts 192
4.1.28 BS EN ISO 898-1: 1999 Mechanical properties of
fasteners: bolts, screws and studs 196
Contents ix4.1.29 BS EN ISO 898-1: 1999 Marking 205
4.1.30 BS EN 20898-2: 1994 Mechanical properties of
fasteners: nuts with specified proof load values –
4.1.31 BS EN ISO 898-6: 1996 Mechanical properties of
fasteners: nuts with specified proof load values –
fine pitch thread 217
4.1.32 BS EN 20898-7: 1995 Mechanical properties of
fasteners: torsional test and minimum torques for
bolts and screws with nominal diameters 1–10 mm 221
4.1.33 BS EN ISO 4762: 2004 Metric hexagon socket
4.1.34 BS EN ISO 10642: 2004 Hexagon socket
countersunk head screws 230
4.1.35 BS4827 ISO metric screw threads, miniature series 235
4.1.36 BS3643-1/2 ISO metric screw threads:
constant pitch series 236
4.1.37 BS EN ISO 228-1: 2003 Pipe threads where
pressure-tight joints are not made on the threads 240
4.1.38 ISO Pipe threads, tapered: basic sizes 246
4.1.39 British Standard Whitworth (BSW) bolts and nuts 250
4.1.40 British Standard Fine (BSF) bolts and nuts 251
4.1.41 ISO unified precision internal screw threads:
coarse series (UNC) 252
4.1.42 ISO unified precision external screw threads:
coarse series (UNC) 254
4.1.43 ISO unified precision internal screw threads:
fine series (UNF) 256
4.1.44 ISO unified precision external screw threads:
fine series (UNF) 257
4.1.45 British Association thread form 258
4.1.46 BA internal and external screw threads 259
4.1.47 BA threads: tapping and clearance drills 260
4.1.48 ISO metric tapping and clearance drills,
coarse thread series 260
4.1.49 ISO metric tapping and clearance drills,
fine thread series 261
4.1.50 ISO unified tapping and clearance drills,
coarse thread series 261
4.1.51 ISO unified tapping and clearance drills,
fine thread series 262
4.1.52 ISO metric tapping and clearance drills,
miniature series 262
4.1.53 BSW threads, tapping and clearance drills 263
4.1.54 BSF threads, tapping and clearance drills 263
x Contents4.1.55 Plain washers, bright: metric series 263
4.1.56 Plain washers, black: metric series 264
4.1.57 Friction locking devices 265
4.1.58 Positive locking devices 267
4.1.59 Single coil square section spring washers:
metric series, type A 269
4.1.60 Single coil rectangular section spring washers:
metric series, types B and BP 270
4.1.61 Double coil rectangular section spring washers:
metric series, type D 272
4.1.62 Toothed lock washers, metric 273
4.1.63 Serrated lock washers, metric 276
4.1.64 ISO metric crinkle washers: general engineering 279
4.1.65 T-slot profiles 280
4.1.66 Dimensions of T-bolts and T-nuts 282
4.1.67 Dimensions of tenons for T-slots 286
4.2 Riveted joints 288
4.2.1 Typical rivet heads and shanks 288
4.2.2 Typical riveted lap joints 289
4.2.3 Typical riveted butt joints 290
4.2.4 Proportions for hole diameter and rivet length 291
4.2.5 Cold forged snap head rivets 292
4.2.6 Hot forged snap head rivets 293
4.2.7 Tentative range of nominal lengths associated with
shank diameters 294
4.2.8 POP rivets 295
4.2.9 POP range guide 296
4.2.10 Good fastening practice 297
4.2.11 Selection of POP (or blind) rivets 297
4.2.12 Design guidelines 298
4.2.13 POP ‘F’ series 302
4.2.14 Open type aluminium 3.5% magnesium alloy 305
4.2.15 Open type carbon steel 313
4.2.16 Closed end type aluminium 5% magnesium alloy 318
4.2.17 Blind rivet nuts 320
4.2.18 POP Nut Threaded Inserts: application 321
4.2.19 POP Nut Threaded Inserts: installation 322
4.2.20 POP Nut: Steel 324
4.3 Self-secured joints 328
4.3.1 Self-secured joints 328
4.3.2 Allowances for self-secured joints 329
4.4 Miscellaneous fasteners 331
4.4.1 Taper pins, unhardened 331
4.4.2 Circlips, external: metric series 335
4.4.3 Circlips, internal: metric series 338
Contents xi4.5 Adhesive bonding of metals 341
4.5.1 Anaerobic adhesives 341
4.5.2 Adhesives cured by ultraviolet light 341
4.5.3 Adhesives cured by anionic reaction (cyanoacrylates) 344
4.5.4 Adhesives cured with activator systems
(modified acrylics) 344
4.5.5 Adhesives cured by ambient moisture 345
4.5.6 Epoxy adhesives 345
4.5.7 Redux process 349
4.5.8 Bonded joints 349
5 Power Transmission 351
5.1 Power transmission: gear drives 351
5.1.1 Some typical gear drives 351
5.1.2 Simple spur gear trains 354
5.1.3 Compound spur gear train 355
5.1.4 The involute curve 356
5.1.5 Basic gear tooth geometry 357
5.1.6 Gear tooth pitch 361
5.1.7 Gear tooth height 362
5.1.8 Standard gear tooth elements (in.) 363
5.1.9 Fine pitch gear tooth elements (in.) 364
5.1.10 Standard stub gear tooth elements (in.) 365
5.1.11 Standard gear tooth elements (metric) 366
5.1.12 Letter symbols for gear dimensions and calculations 368
5.1.13 Basic spur gear calculations 369
5.1.14 Basic helical gear equations 370
5.1.15 Miscellaneous gear equations 370
5.1.16 Straight bevel gear nomenclature 371
5.1.17 Worm and worm wheel nomenclature 372
5.2 Power transmission: belt drives 373
5.2.1 Simple flat-belt drives 373
5.2.2 Compound flat-belt drives 374
5.2.3 Typical belt tensioning devices 375
5.2.4 Typical V-belt and synchronous-belt drive applications 376
5.2.5 ULTRAFLEX narrow-section wrapped V-belts 380
5.2.6 FO -Z heavy-duty cogged raw edge V-belts 382
5.2.7 MULTIFLEX classical-section wrapped V-belts 384
5.2.8 MULTIBELT banded V-belts 386
5.2.9 V-belt pulleys complying with BS 3790 and
DIN standard 2211 for FO -Z and ULTRAFLEX belts.
R
z xx refers to surface roughness 388
5.2.10 V-belt pulleys complying with DIN standard 2217
Part 1 for FO -Z and MULTIFLEX belts 390
xii Contents5.2.11 Deep-groove pulleys 392
5.2.12 Synchronous belt drives: introduction 394
5.2.13 Synchronous belt drives: belt types and sizes 398
5.2.14 Synchronous belt drives: pulleys 404
5.2.15 SYNCHROBELT HTD 410
5.2.16 SYNCHROBELT HTD synchronous (toothed) belts:
tooth profiles 411
5.2.17 Synchronous (toothed) belts: length measurement 414
5.2.18 SYNCHROBELT HTD toothed pulleys: preferred sizes 415
5.3 Power transmission: chain drives 419
5.3.1 Chain performance 419
5.3.2 Wear factors 421
5.3.3 Chain types 422
5.3.4 International Standards 423
5.3.5 Standards reference guide 424
5.3.6 Advantages of chain drives 424
5.3.7 Chain selection 426
5.3.8 Sprocket and chain compatibility 428
5.3.9 Drive layout 431
5.3.10 Selection method 433
5.3.11 Rating chart construction 440
5.3.12 European chain rating chart 441
5.3.13 ANSI rating chart 442
5.3.14 Chain suspension force 443
5.3.15 Lubrication 443
5.3.16 Lubricating methods 444
5.3.17 Lifting applications 446
5.3.18 ANSI Xtra range 448
5.3.19 Influences on chain life 448
5.3.20 Chain extension 450
5.3.21 Matching of chain 451
5.3.22 To measure chain wear 452
5.3.23 Repair and replacement 453
5.3.24 Chain adjustment 454
5.3.25 Design ideas 455
5.3.26 Table of PCD factors 457
5.3.27 Simple point to point drives: Example one 458
5.3.28 Simple point to point drives: Example two 460
5.3.29 Simple point to point drives: Example three 462
5.3.30 Safety warnings 466
5.4 Power transmission: shafts 467
5.4.1 Square and rectangular parallel keys, metric series 467
5.4.2 Dimensions and tolerances for square and
rectangular parallel keys 469
5.4.3 Square and rectangular taper keys, metric series 471
Contents xiii5.4.4 Dimensions and tolerances for square and
rectangular taper keys 473
5.4.5 Woodruff keys and keyways, metric series 475
5.4.6 Dimensions and tolerances for Woodruff keys 477
5.4.7 Shaft ends types: general relationships 479
5.4.8 Dimensions and tolerances of cylindrical shaft ends,
long and short series 480
5.4.9 Dimensions of conical shaft ends with parallel keys,
long series 482
5.4.10 Dimensions of conical shaft ends with diameters
above 220 mm with the keyway parallel to the shaft
surface, long series 484
5.4.11 Dimensions of conical shaft ends with
parallel keys, short series 485
5.4.12 Transmissible torque values 487
5.4.13 Straight-sided splines for cylindrical shafts, metric 488
5.5 Tapers 491
5.5.1 Self-holding Morse and metric 5% tapers 491
5.5.2 Tapers for spindle noses 499
5.5.3 Tapers for tool shanks 505
5.5.4 Tool shank collars 507
5.5.5 Bridgeport R8 taper 508
5.6 Fluid power transmission systems 509
5.6.1 A typical pneumatic system 510
5.6.2 A typical hydraulic system 511
5.6.3 Air compressor types 513
5.6.4 Hydraulic pumps 515
5.6.5 Actuators (linear) 521
5.6.6 Actuators (rotary) 523
5.6.7 Hybrid actuator systems 524
5.6.8 Symbols for fluid power systems 524
5.6.9 Fluid power transmission design data
(general formulae) 527
5.6.10 Fluid power transmission design data
(hydraulic cylinders) 529
5.6.11 Fluid power transmission design data
(hydraulic pipes and hoses) 531
5.6.12 Fluid power transmission design data
(hydraulic fluids, seals and contamination control) 532
5.6.13 Fluid power transmission design data
(hydraulic accumulators) 534
5.6.14 Fluid power transmission design data
(hydraulic cooling and heating) 536
5.6.15 Fluid power transmission design data
(pneumatic valve flow) 537
xiv Contents5.6.16 Fluid power transmission design data
(pneumatic cylinders) 538
5.6.17 Fluid power transmission design data
(seals, filtration and lubrication) 540
5.6.18 Fluid power transmission design data
(air compressors) 541
5.6.19 Fluid power transmission design data (tables and
conversion factors in pneumatics) 542
5.6.20 Guideline documents 546
6 Engineering Materials 548
6.1 Mechanical properties 548
6.1.1 Tensile strength 548
6.1.2 Compressive strength 548
6.1.3 Shear strength 548
6.1.4 Toughness: impact resistance 549
6.1.5 Elasticity 549
6.1.6 Plasticity 549
6.1.7 Ductility 550
6.1.8 Malleability 550
6.1.9 Hardness 551
6.1.10 Tensile test 551
6.1.11 Interpretation of a tensile test: material showing
a yield point 552
6.1.12 Interpretation of a tensile test: proof stress 553
6.1.13 Interpretation of a tensile test: secant modulus 554
6.1.14 Impact testing for toughness: Izod test 555
6.1.15 Impact testing for toughness: Charpy test 555
6.1.16 Interpretation of impact test results 556
6.1.17 Brinell hardness test 556
6.1.18 Vickers hardness test 557
6.1.19 Rockwell hardness test 557
6.1.20 Rockwell superficial hardness test 558
6.1.21 Comparative hardness scales 559
6.2 Ferrous metals and alloys 560
6.2.1 Ferrous metals: plain carbon steels 560
6.2.2 Effect of carbon content on the composition,
properties and uses of plain carbon steels 561
6.2.3 Ferrous metals: alloying elements 561
6.2.4 British standards relating to ferrous metals 563
6.2.5 Some typical steels and their applications 565
6.2.6 Some typical tool steels 572
6.2.7 Flake (grey), cast irons 574
6.2.8 BS EN 1561: 1997 Grey cast irons 575
Contents xv6.2.9 Malleable cast irons 579
6.2.10 Spheroidal graphite cast irons 582
6.2.11 Alloy cast irons 584
6.2.12 Composition, properties and uses of
some typical cast irons 585
6.3 Non-ferrous metals and alloys 586
6.3.1 Non-ferrous metals and alloys – introduction 586
6.3.2 High copper content alloys 586
6.3.3 Wrought copper and copper alloys: condition code 587
6.3.4 British Standards relating copper and copper alloys 587
6.3.5 Copper and copper alloy rods and sections 588
6.3.6 Wrought copper and copper alloys 590
6.3.7 Wrought copper and copper alloys 595
6.3.8 Copper sheet, strip and foil 597
6.3.9 Brass sheet, strip and foil: binary alloys of
copper and zinc 599
6.3.10 Brass sheet, strip and foil: special alloys and
6.3.11 Phosphor bronze sheet, strip and foil 605
6.3.12 Aluminium bronze alloys – introduction 607
6.3.13 Aluminium bronze sheet, strip and foil 608
6.3.14 Copper–nickel (cupro–nickel) sheet, strip and foil 609
6.3.15 Nickel–silver sheet, strip and foil 611
6.3.16(a) Miscellaneous wrought copper alloys 613
6.3.16(b) Miscellaneous wrought copper alloys 615
6.3.17(a) Copper alloys for casting: group A 617
6.3.17(b) Further copper alloys for casting: group A 618
6.3.18(a) Copper alloys for casting: group B 620
6.3.18(b) Further copper alloys for casting: group B 622
6.3.19(a) Copper alloys for casting: group C 624
6.3.19(b) Further copper alloys for casting: group C 626
6.3.20 Copper alloys for casting: typical properties and
hardness values 628
6.3.21 Aluminium and aluminium alloys 632
6.3.22 British Standards 632
6.3.23 Unalloyed aluminium plate, sheet and strip 634
6.3.24 Aluminium alloy plate, sheet and strip:
non-heat-treatable 636
6.3.25 Aluminium alloy plate, sheet and strip: heat-treatable 639
6.3.26 Aluminium and aluminium alloy bars, extruded
tube and sections for general engineering:
non-heat-treatable 642
6.3.27 Aluminium alloy bars, extruded tube and sections
for general engineering: heat-treatable 644
6.3.28 Aluminium alloy castings, group A: general purpose 647
xvi Contents6.3.29 Aluminium alloy castings, group B: special purpose 648
6.3.30 Aluminium alloy castings, group C: special purpose
and of limited application 649
6.3.31 Aluminium alloy castings: mechanical properties 650
6.3.32 BS EN 29453: 1993 651
6.3.33 Typical uses of soft solders 653
6.3.34 Silver soldering (hard soldering) 653
6.3.35 Group AG: silver brazing filler metals 654
6.4 Metallic material sizes 655
6.4.1 Metallic material sizes: introduction to BS 6722: 1986 655
6.4.2 Recommended diameters of wires, metric 656
6.4.3 Recommended dimensions for bar and flat products 657
6.4.4 Recommended widths and lengths of flat products 657
6.4.5 Mass of metric round and square bars 658
6.4.6 Hexagon bar sizes for screwed fasteners, metric 660
6.4.7 Gauge sizes and equivalents 661
6.5 Polymeric (plastic) materials 662
6.5.1 Polymeric (plastic) materials – introduction 662
6.5.2 Some important thermosetting polymers 664
6.5.3 Some important thermoplastic polymers 665
7 Linear and Geometric Tolerancing of
Dimensions 666
7.1 Linear tolerancing 666
7.1.1 Limits and fits 666
7.1.2 Classes of fit 667
7.1.3 Accuracy 667
7.2 Standard systems of limits and fits (introduction) 668
7.2.1 Application of tables of limits and fits 668
7.2.2 Selection of tolerance grades 670
7.3 Geometric tolerancing 672
7.3.1 Geometrical tolerance (principles) 674
7.3.2 Tolerance frame 677
7.3.3 Geometrical tolerance 677
7.3.4 Tolerance zone 678
7.3.5 Geometrical reference frame 678
7.3.6 Applications of geometrical tolerances 679
7.4 Virtual size 681
7.5 The economics of geometrical tolerancing 682
8 Computer-Aided Engineering 684
8.1 Computer numerical control 684
8.1.1 Typical applications of computer numerical control 684
Contents xvii8.1.2 Advantages and limitations of CNC 684
8.1.3 Axes of control for machine tools 685
8.1.4 Control systems 687
8.1.5 Program terminology and format 688
8.1.6 Word (or letter) address format 688
8.1.7 Coded information 689
8.1.8 Data input 692
8.1.9 Tool length offsets: milling 692
8.1.10 Cutter diameter compensation: milling 692
8.1.11 Programming techniques: milling and drilling 695
8.1.12 Programming example: milling 696
8.1.13 Tool offsets: lathe 698
8.1.14 Tool nose radius compensation: lathe 699
8.1.15 Programming techniques: lathe 700
8.1.16 Programming example: lathe 702
8.1.17 Glossary of terms 704
8.2 Computer-aided design 706
8.2.1 An introduction to computer-aided design 706
8.2.2 CAD system hardware 708
8.2.3 CAD system software 710
8.2.4 Computer-aided design and manufacture 711
8.2.5 Advantages and limitations of CAD 712
8.3 Industrial robots 712
8.3.1 An introduction to robotics 712
8.3.2 Robot control 713
8.3.3 Robot arm geometry 713
Appendix 1 BSI Standards: Sales Order and Enquiry Contacts 718
Appendix 2 Library Sets of British Standards in the UK 722
Appendix 3 Contributing Companies 726
Appendix 4 Useful References 728
Index 729
xviii Contents Foreword
كلمة سر فك الضغط : books-world.net
The Unzip Password : books-world.net

### تحميل

يجب عليك التسجيل في الموقع لكي تتمكن من التحميل
تسجيل | تسجيل الدخول