Modification of Polymer Properties

Modification of Polymer Properties
اسم المؤلف
Carlos F. Jasso-Gastinel , Jose´ M. Kenny
التاريخ
7 أغسطس 2023
المشاهدات
352
التقييم
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Modification of Polymer Properties
Edited by
Carlos F. Jasso-Gastinel
University of Guadalajara, Guadalajara, Jalisco, Me´xico
Jose´ M. Kenny
University of Perugia, Terni, Italy
Table of contents
Dedication
About the Editors
Preface

  1. Introduction: Modifiable Characteristics and Applications
    Abstract
    1.1 Development of Polymers
    1.2 Bonding in Polymers
    1.3 Classifications of Polymers With Respect to Origin, Structure, and Applications
    1.4 Morphology
    1.5 Molecular Weight and Molecular Weight Distribution
    1.6 Recycling and Degradation of Polymers
    1.7 Structure–Properties Relationship in Polymers
    1.8 Estimation of Polymer Properties
    1.9 How to Select a Polymer
    References
  2. Filled Polymer Composites
    Abstract
    2.1 Introduction
    2.2 Type of Composites and Their Properties
    2.3 Filler Effects in Polymer Properties, Applications, and Market
    2.4 Filler Surface Modification
    2.5 Properties and Applications of the Main Fillers
    2.6 Adhesion and Surface Modification
    2.7 Matrix/Filler Interface and Interactions
    2.8 Rheology of Filled Polymers
    2.9 Manufacturing of Filled Polymers
    References
  3. Nanofillers in Polymers
    Abstract
    3.1 Introduction
    3.2 Types of Nanoparticles
    3.3 Processing of Nanostructured Polymers and Composites
    3.4 Evaluation Techniques of Nanoparticles Dispersion
    3.5 Effect of Nanofillers on the Properties of Polymer Composites
    3.6 Conclusions
    References
  4. Additives in Polymers
    Abstract
    4.1 Introduction
    4.2 Protective Additives
    4.3 Plasticizers
    4.4 Impact Modifiers
    4.5 Compatibilizers
    4.6 Dyes and Pigments
    4.7 Bio-Based Additives and Formulations
    References
  5. Surface Modification of Polymers: Chemical, Physical, and Biological Routes
    Abstract
    Recent Trends in the Surface Modification of Polymers
    5.1 Chemical Methods
    5.2 Bulk Surface Modification
    5.3 Physical Methods
    5.4 Biological Routes
    5.5 Examples of Applications
    References
  6. Smart Polymers
    Abstract
    6.1 Smart Materials: Polymers and Nanocomposites
    6.2 Stimuli Responsive Materials in Smart Packaging
    6.3 Mechanisms of Shape Memory
    6.4 Mechanisms of Self-Healing
    6.5 Mechanisms of Hydrogel
    6.6 Conclusions
    Acknowledgments
    References
  7. Blends and Alloys
    Abstract
    7.1 Introduction
    7.2 Fundamental Principles and Types of Polymer Blends
    7.3 Phase Morphology of Polymer Blends
    7.4 Phase Behavior and Properties of Polymer Blend Systems
    7.5 Design and Applications of Polymer Blends
    7.6 Concluding Remarks
    Nomenclature
    References
  8. Gradients in Homopolymers, Blends, and Copolymers
    Abstract
    8.1 Introduction
    8.2 Gradients in Homopolymers and Composites
    8.3 Gradients in Blends
    8.4 Compatibility and Phase Separation in MPS
    8.5 Gradient Copolymers
    8.6 Summary
    Acknowledgments
    References
    Index
    Index
    Note: Page numbers followed by “f” and “t” refer to figures and tables, respectively.
    A
    Acrylics modifiers, 99, 99t
    Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS),
    4
    modifiers, 98-99, 99t
    properties and applications of, 31
    Additives, 87
    bio-based, 103-105, 104t
    compatibilizers, 99-100, 101t
    dyes, 100
    impact modifiers, 97-99, 99t
    pigments, 101-103, 102t
    inorganic, 101-103
    organic, 101
    plasticizers, 95-97, 97f, 98t
    protective, 88-95
    flame retardants, 90
    heat stabilizers, 89-91
    against weathering, 88-93
    role of, 87
    technological aspects of, 87-88
    Adhesion, 113
    filled polymer composites, 31-32
    Adhesives, classification of, 7t
    Alloys, 155
    Alumina trihydrate, properties and
    applications of, 31
    3-Aminopropylmethyldiethoxysilane
    (APDES), 29
    3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES),
    29
    Amorphous polymers, 7-10, 8f, 10f
    Antibacterial coatings, 111
    Antibacterial effect of polymer
    composites
    nanofillers effect on, 77-78
    Antifouling properties of polymer
    composites
    nanofillers effect on, 78
    Antioxidants (AO), 89-91
    multifunctional, 91, 91f
    in packaging materials, 136
    primary, 89t, 90, 90f
    secondary, 89t, 90-91, 90f, 91f
    Antistatic coatings, 111
    Arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD),
    122-123
    Aromatic amines, secondary, 90, 90f
    Aromatic LC polyesteramides, blends
    with, 172-173, 173f
    Atomic force microscopy (AFM), 68, 69f
    Atom transfer radical polymerization
    (ATRP), 112, 202, 202f
    Avobenzones, 91-92, 92f
    B
    Barrier properties of polymer composites
    nanofillers effect on, 76-77, 76f
    Benzophenones, 94t
    Benzotriazoles, 94t
    Bio-based additives, 103-105, 104t
    Biocompatibility of polymers, 124
    Biodegradable polymer blends, 176-179
    PHB blends, 178-179, 179f
    PLA blends, 177-178, 178f
    Biofunctionalization of polymer surfaces,
    120-121, 121f
    Biological routes, 120-124, 122t
    biofunctionalization of polymer
    surfaces, 120-121, 121f
    carbohydrate coatings, 123-124
    peptide coatings, 122-123
    protein coatings, 121-122
    Blend(s/ing), 155
    basic thermodynamics of, 156-157,
    156f
    classification of, 157-158
    design and applications of, 173-179
    biodegradable polymer blends,
    176-179, 178f, 179f
    postconsumer plastics based on PET
    and polyolefins, recycling of,
    173-176, 174t, 175f, 176f
    gradients in, 188-198
    diffusion in polymers, 191-194, 193f
    gradient IPNs, 189-191, 189f, 190f,
    194-198, 194f, 195f, 196f, 197f
    methods of mixing, 158-159
    phase morphology of, 159-164
    compatibilization methods, 162-164
    immiscible blends, 159-160, 160f
    miscible blends, 160-162, 161f
    phase transitions of, 157-158, 158f
    polymer blend systems, phase behavior
    and properties of, 164-173
    blends with liquid crystal
    components, 169-173, 170f, 171t
    polyamide/polyolefin blends,
    165-168, 167f, 168f
    polyester/polyolefin blends,
    165-168
    polyolefin/polyolefin blends,
    164-165, 164f, 166f
    Block or graft copolymers addition,
    compatibilization by, 162-163,
    163f
    Bohemite, 25f
    Bonding, in polymers, 1-2
    Boron carbide (B4C), 56-57
    Bulk surface modification, 112-113
    adhesion and wettability
    (hydrophilicity), 113
    low surface tension, hydrophobic and
    oleophobic surfaces, 112-113
    Butadiene-based graft copolymers, 98
    Butene, properties of, 2t
    C
    Calcium carbonate
    applications of, 30-31
    properties of, 30-31, 36t
    surface tension of, 33t
    Carbohydrate coatings, 123-124
    Carbon, allotropic forms of, 51-52, 52f
    Carbon black (CB), 55, 102-103
    properties of, 36t
    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs), 51-52, 54
    thermoplastic matrices, 62
    thermoset matrices, 64
    Carbon nanoparticles, 51-55
    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), 51-54
    multi-walled, 51-53
    single-walled, 51-53
    thermoplastic matrices, 62
    thermoset matrices, 64
    211Cellobiose, chemical structure of, 57f
    Cellulose fibers, properties of, 36t
    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), 57-58,
    57f
    Cellulose nanofibril, crystalline and
    amorphous domains in, 57f
    Cetyltrimethylammonium hydroxide
    (CTA-OH), 138
    Chemical elements or groups, in
    polymers, 3
    Chemical resistant/barrier coatings,
    111-112
    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD), 117
    Chitin, 59
    chemical structure of, 59f
    Chitosan, 59, 124
    chemical structure of, 59f
    Clay minerals, properties and applications
    of, 30
    Compatibilization methods, 162-164
    by block or graft copolymers addition,
    162-163, 163f
    by functional/reactive polymers
    addition, 163, 163f
    reactive blending (in situ
    compatibilization), 163-164
    Compatibilizers, 99-100, 101t
    Coniferyl alcohol, chemical structure of,
    58f
    Controlled radical polymerization (CRP),
    gradient copolymer by, 202-203,
    202f, 204f, 205f
    Corona discharge, 114, 114f
    p-Coumaryl alcohol, chemical structure
    of, 58f
    Coupling agents, 13, 26, 28, 34, 40
    Cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE), 111
    Crystallization of polymers, 7-9, 8f
    D n
    -Decane, properties of, 2t
    Degradability, in polymers, 14-15, 88f
    Degree of polymerization (DP), 8-9
    Denisov Cycle, 92
    Development of polymers, 1
    Diamond-like-carbon (DLC) films, 117
    Diffusion in polymers, 191-194, 193f
    Dyes, 100
    E
    Elastomeric matrices, 65-66
    Electrical properties of polymer
    composites
    nanofillers effect on, 72-73, 72f
    Electron microscopy, 67, 67f
    Environmental-sensitive polymers, 131
    Epoxy resin
    silica nanoparticles in, 24f
    surface tension of, 33t
    Ethylene Propylene Diene (M class)
    Rubber (EPDM), 65
    Extracellular matrix (ECM), 121-122
    F
    Fatty acids, 28-29
    Fiber-reinforced composites, 48f
    Filled polymer composites, 23
    adhesion in, 31-32
    applications of, 26-28
    compatibilization, 26, 30, 34-35
    compounding, 28, 40-42
    manufacturing of, 40-42
    matrix/filler interface and interactions,
    32-35, 33t, 35f
    reinforcement, 23-25, 28, 30-31, 34
    rheology of, 35-40, 36t, 38f, 39f
    surface modification in, 28-32
    types and properties of, 24-26
    Flame retardants (FR), 90
    Flame treatment, 114-115, 115f
    Fluorescent pigments, 103
    Fluoroalkylation of polymer surfaces, 112
    Fluorosurfactant additives, 113
    Functional/reactive polymers addition,
    compatibilization by, 163, 163f

    -irradiation, 117-118
    Glass beads, properties of, 36t
    Glass fibers
    applications of, 30-31
    properties of, 30-31, 36t
    3-Glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane,
    110-111
    Gradient IPNs
    applications of, 194-198
    chemical properties of, 196-198, 197f
    physical properties of, 194-198, 194f,
    195f, 196f
    preparation of, 189-191, 189f, 190f
    Gradients, 185
    in blends, 188-198
    diffusion in polymers, 191-194, 193f
    gradient IPNs, 189-191, 189f, 190f,
    194-198, 194f, 195f, 196f, 197f
    gradient copolymers, 199-205, 200f
    preparation of, 200-203, 202f, 204f,
    205f
    properties of, 194-198
    in homopolymers and composites,
    187-188
    polymeric gradient composite,
    187-188
    multicomponent polymer systems,
    compatibility and phase separation
    of, 198-199
    Graphene, 54-55
    thermoplastic matrices, 62
    thermoset matrices, 64
    use of CNTs in, 53, 53f
    Graphene oxide (GO), 54-55, 111
    thermoplastic matrices, 62
    thermoset matrices, 64
    H
    Halogen-based flame retardants, 95
    Heat stabilizers, 87, 94t
    Hemodialysis membranes, 124
    High density polyethylene (HDPE),
    34-35, 35f, 36f
    High temperature behavior of polymer
    composites
    nanofillers effect on, 73-76, 74f, 76f
    Hindered amine light stabilizers (HALS),
    92, 94t
    Hindered phenols, 90, 90f
    Hydrogels, mechanisms of, 146-147, 147f
    Hydrolysis-condensation reaction, 110
    Hydrophilicity, 113
    Hydrophobic surfaces, 112-113
    I
    Immiscible blends, 159-160, 160f
    Impact modifiers, 97-99, 99t
    Inorganic pigments, 101-103
    In situ compatibilization, 163-164
    In situ polymerization, 134
    Intelligent packagings, 137
    Intelligent polymers, 131
    Ion beam-assisted deposition (IBAD), 119
    Ion beam based processes, 119
    Ion implantation, 119
    Isodimensional nanoparticles, 133
    thermoplastic matrices, 62-63
    thermoset matrices, 64-65
    Isopentane, properties of, 2t
    Isotactic polypropylene/high density
    polyethylene (iPP/HDPE) blends
    phase behavior and properties of,
    164-165
    Isotactic polypropylene/low density
    polyethylene (iPP/LDPE) blends
    phase behavior and properties of,
    164-165, 164f
    K
    Kevlar fibers, properties of, 36t
    Kinetic chain-breaking antioxidants, 89
    L
    Laser-induced surface modifications,
    118-119
    Layered silicate
    arrangements of “onium” ions in,
    50-51, 51f
    structure of, 50-51, 50f
    212 INDEXLipid oxidation, 136
    Liquid crystal polymers (LCPs), 156f
    M
    Magnesium hydroxide, properties and
    applications of, 31
    Maleic anhydride, 34
    Manufacturing of filled polymers, 40-42
    Matrix/filler interface and interactions,
    32-35, 33t, 35f
    Mechanical properties of polymer
    composites
    nanofillers effect on, 69-72, 71f
    Melt-mixing, 134
    Metakaolinite, 30
    Metal complexes, 94t
    Metal hydrate flame retardants, 95
    Metallic pigments, 103
    Metallic salts, 93-94
    Methacrylate-butadiene-styrene (MBS)
    modifiers, 99, 99t
    Methane, properties of, 2t
    Mica
    applications of, 26, 30
    properties of, 26, 30, 36t
    surface tension of, 33t
    Miscible blends, 160-162, 161f
    Molecular weight (MW), of polymers,
    10-12, 11f, 12f
    Molecular weight distribution (MWD),
    11-12
    Monomers, in polymer, 3-4
    Montmorillonites (MMT), 50-51
    layered silicate, 134
    X-ray scattering of, 66f
    Morphology
    of nanocomposites, 51, 52f
    of polymers, 7-10, 8f, 10f
    Multicomponent polymer systems (MPSs),
    185-187
    compatibility and phase separation of,
    198-199
    Multifunctional antioxidants, 91, 91f
    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes
    (MWCNTs), 51-53
    N
    Nanocarbides, 56-57
    Nanoclays, 50-51
    thermoplastic matrices, 61-62
    thermoset matrices, 63-64
    Nanocomposites, 24, 24f, 47-48, 48f
    fiber-reinforced, 48f
    interphase in, 49f
    processing of, 60-66
    smart, 131-134
    Nanofillers, 47
    effect on polymer composites
    properties, 68-78
    antibacterial effect, 77-78
    antifouling properties, 78
    barrier properties, 76-77, 76f
    electrical properties, 72-73, 72f
    mechanical properties, 69-72, 71f
    thermal properties and high
    temperature behavior, 73-76, 74f,
    76f
    Nanolignin, 58
    thermoplastic matrices, 63
    thermoset matrices, 65
    Nano-oxides, 55-56
    Nanoparticles
    dispersion, evaluation techniques of,
    66-68
    atomic force microscopy, 68, 69f
    electron microscopy, 67, 67f
    Raman spectroscopy, 67-68, 68f
    small angle X-ray scattering, 66f, 67
    wide angle X-ray diffraction, 66
    geometrical shape and dimensions of,
    49t
    geometries of, 133f
    types of, 49-60
    Nanoreinforcement, 47
    Nanostructured polymers, processing of,
    60-66
    Nanotechnology, 47
    Nitroxide-mediated polymerization
    (NMP), 202
    Nonmetallic organic stabilizers, 94-95
    Nonphthalates, 97, 98t
    O
    Oleophobic surfaces, 112-113
    Oligomer, 1
    Organic nanofillers, 57-59
    cellulose nanocrystals, 57-58, 57f
    chitin, 59, 59f
    chitosan, 59, 59f
    nanolignin, 58
    Organic pigments, 101
    Organometallic compounds, 94
    Organosilane surface modifiers, 29, 29t
    P
    PAN membranes, 112
    Pearlescent pigments, 103
    n-Pentane, properties of, 2t
    Peptide coatings, 122-123
    Perfluoropolyethers (PFPEs), for surface
    modification, 112
    Peroxide decomposers, 89
    Phenol-formaldehyde resins, 25
    Phosphites, 90, 90f
    Phosphorus-based flame retardants, 95
    Photo-aging, 89
    Photodegradation, 88-89
    Photoinitiated degradation, 89
    Photostabilizers, 91-93, 92f, 93f, 94t
    Photothermal degradation, 89
    Phthalates, 97, 98t
    Phyllosilicates, 50
    Pigments, 101-103, 102t
    inorganic, 101-103
    organic, 101
    PLA/EVA-GMA blends, 177-178, 178f
    PLA-poly(hydroxybutyrate) (PLA-PHB),
    136
    Plasma-assisted coating methods,
    115-117
    Plasma enhanced chemical vapour
    deposition (PECVD), 117, 123
    Plasma polymerization, 116
    Plasma postirradiation grafting, 116
    Plasma simultaneous grafting, 116
    Plasma state polymerization, 116
    Plasticizers, 88, 95-97, 97f, 98t
    primary, 95-96
    secondary, 95-96
    Polyacids, 3
    Polyacrylic acid, 61
    Polyamide/polyolefin blends, 165-168
    Polyamide-6/high density polyethylene
    (PA6/HDPE) blends, 165-168
    Polyamide-6/low density polyethylene
    (PA6/LDPE) blends, 165-168,
    167f
    Polyamide-6 (PA-6), surface modification
    of, 113
    Polyamide-6/ultra low density
    polyethylene (PA6/ULDPE) bleds,
    165-168
    Polyamide-6/very low density
    polyethylene (PA6/VLDPE)
    blends, 165-168, 168f
    Polyamides, 3
    properties and applications of, 31
    Poly(butylenes terephthalate) (PBT), 156f
    Poly(butylenes terephthalate)/4,4’-
    terephthaloyldioxydibenzoic acid
    (PBT/HTH), 172, 172f
    Polycaprolactone (PCL), 111-112
    carbohydrate coatings, 123-124
    for surface modification, 112
    Polycarbonate (PC), 156f
    resistance to scratch and wear,
    110-111
    Polycarbonate/poly(ε-caprolactone) (PC/
    PCL), 161
    Polycondensation polymers, 34
    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS),
    antibacterial activity of, 111
    Polyesters, 3
    Polyetherimide (PEI), 156f
    Polyethersulfone (PES), 123-124
    membranes, 124-125
    Polyethylene oxide (PEO), 61-63,
    111-112
    INDEX 213Polyethylene (PE)
    antibacterial activity of, 111
    for surface modification, 112-113
    Poly(ethylene terephthalate)/high density
    polyethylene (PET/HDPE), 169
    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), 63, 111
    for surface modification, 112
    Poly(ethylene terephthalate)/poly(butylene
    terephthalate) (PET/PBT), 161
    Poly(ethylene terephthalate)/
    polypropylene (PET/PP), 169,
    170f, 171t
    Polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes
    (POSS), 59-60
    chemical structure of, 60f
    Poly(hydroxybutyrate) (PHB)
    blends, 178-179, 179f
    Poly(hydroxybutyrate)/poly(ethylene
    oxide) (PHB/PEO), 161
    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA), 111-112, 136
    Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA),
    116-117
    Polylactides (PLAs), 59, 61-63
    blends of, 159, 177-178
    Polymer composite properties, nanofillers
    effect on, 68-78
    antibacterial effect, 77-78
    antifouling properties, 78
    barrier properties, 76-77, 76f
    electrical properties, 72-73, 72f
    mechanical properties, 69-72, 71f
    thermal properties and high temperature
    behavior, 73-76, 74f, 76f
    Polymeric gradient composite (PGC)
    applications of, 188
    preparation of, 187-188
    Polymer layer interdiffusion, 34
    Polymer(s)
    additives in, 87
    applications of, 6-7, 6t
    blends, 3t, 155
    bonding in, 1-2
    chemical elements or groups in, 3
    classification of, 3-7
    components in, types of, 5
    composites, filled. See Filled polymer
    composites
    degradability in, 14-15, 88f
    development of, 1
    diffusion in, 191-194, 193f
    molecular weight of, 10-12, 11f, 12f
    monomers in, 3-4
    morphology of, 7-10, 8f, 10f
    nanofillers in, 47
    properties, estimation of, 16-17
    reaction to temperature, 5-6, 5f
    recyclability of, 13-14
    selection of, 17-18
    smart, 131
    sources of origin, 3
    space dimensions in, 4, 4f
    structure-property relationships in,
    15-16, 15t
    surface modification of. See Surface
    modification, of polymers
    Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)
    resistance to scratch and wear,
    110-111
    for surface modification, 112-113
    surface tension of, 33, 33t
    Poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone), 63
    Polyolefin composites, 34
    Polyolefin/polyolefin blends, phase
    behavior and properties of,
    164-165
    Polyolefins, 3
    Poly(phenylene sulfide) (PPS), 156f
    Polypropylene (PP), 25-26, 29, 63, 87
    photooxidative degradation of, 89
    surface modifications of, 113
    surface tension of, 33, 33t
    Polypropylene/ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol
    (PP/EVOH) blends, 168
    Polysaccharide nanocrystals
    thermoplastic matrices, 63
    thermoset matrices, 65
    Polystyrene (PS), 37, 61-62
    resistance to scratch and wear,
    110-111
    for surface modification, 112-113
    Polyurethanes, 3
    Poly(vinyl acetate), 63
    Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA, PVOH),
    61-63, 111
    Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), 63, 88, 93,
    111
    antibacterial activity of, 111
    flame treatment, 114-115
    plasticizers effect on, 96-97, 97f
    for surface modification, 112-113
    PPESK membranes, 125
    Propylene copolymers blends, phase
    behavior and properties of, 165, 166f
    Protective additives, 88-95
    flame retardants, 90
    heat stabilizers, 89-91
    against weathering, 88-93
    Protein coatings, 121-122
    PSU membranes, 125
    PVDF membranes, 125
    Q
    Quenchers, 92, 92f, 93f, 94t
    R
    Radiation-induced surface modification,
    117-119
    γ-irradiation, 117-118
    ion beam based processes, 119
    laser-induced surface modifications,
    118-119
    UV-irradiation, 118
    Radical addition fragmentation and
    transfer (RAFT), 202-203
    Radio frequency identification (RFID),
    138, 138f
    Raman spectroscopy, 67-68, 68f
    Reactive blending, 163-164
    Reactive ion etching (RIE), 117
    Recyclability of polymers, 13-14
    Rheology of filled polymers, 35-40, 36t,
    38f, 39f
    S
    Scanning electron microscopy
    (SEM), 67
    Scratch/wear resistant coatings, 110-111
    Self assembled monolayers (SAM),
    119-120
    functionalization by, 120f
    Self-healing, mechanisms of, 143-146,
    144f, 145t, 146f
    Semicrystalline polymer, 8f, 10f
    Shape memory, mechanism of, 138-143,
    139f, 140f, 141f
    Silica
    properties and applications of, 31
    surface tension of, 33t
    Silicon carbide (SiC), 56-57
    Sinapyl alcohol, chemical structure of,
    58f
    Single-walled carbon nanotubes
    (SWCNTs), 51-53
    Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), 66f,
    67
    Smart materials, 131-134
    classes of, 132f, 133f
    Smart polymers, 131
    trends of, 132f
    uses in biotechnology, 132f
    Sol-gel coatings, 66, 110-111
    hydrolysis and condensation reactions
    involved in, 110f
    Space dimensions, in polymers, 4, 4f
    Stimuli responsive polymers, 131,
    134-138, 135f, 138f
    Structure-property relationships, in
    polymers, 15-16, 15t
    Styrene-butadiene-rubber (SBR), 65-66
    Sulfhydric acid, properties of, 2t
    Surface modification, of polymers, 109
    applications, 124-125
    biocompatibility, 124
    PAN membranes, 112
    PES membranes, 124-125
    PPESK membranes, 125
    PSU membranes, 125
    PVDF membranes, 125
    214 INDEXultrafiltration and hemodialysis
    membranes, 124
    biological routes, 120-124, 122t
    biofunctionalization of polymer
    surfaces, 120-121, 121f
    carbohydrate coatings, 123-124
    peptide coatings, 122-123
    protein coatings, 121-122
    bulk surface modification, 112-113
    adhesion and wettability
    (hydrophilicity), 113
    low surface tension, hydrophobic
    and oleophobic surfaces,
    112-113
    chemical methods, 109-112, 110f
    antibacterial coatings, 111
    antistatic coatings, 111
    chemical resistant/barrier coatings,
    111-112
    scratch/wear resistant coatings,
    110-111
    in filled polymer composites, 28-32,
    29t
    physical methods, 113-120
    corona discharge, 114, 114f
    flame treatment, 114-115, 115f
    plasma-assisted coating methods,
    115-117
    radiation-induced surface
    modification, 117-119
    self assembled monolayers,
    119-120, 120f
    vapour-based coatings, 117
    recent trends in, 109
    Synthetic polymers, 131
    T
    Talc, properties and applications of, 30, 32
    Template synthesis, 134
    Tetraoctyl cetyltrimethylammonium
    hydroxide (TOA-OH), 138
    Thermal properties of polymer composites
    nanofillers effect on, 73-76, 74f, 76f
    Thermoplastic matrices, 61-63
    carbon nanofibers, 62
    carbon nanotubes, 62
    graphene, 62
    graphene oxide, 62
    isodimensional nanoparticles, 62-63
    nanoclays, 61-62
    nanolignin, 63
    polysaccharide nanocrystals, 63
    Thermoplastic polymers, 23, 24t
    Thermoset matrices, 24t, 63-65
    carbon nanofibers, 64
    carbon nanotubes, 64
    graphene oxide, 64
    graphene, 64
    isodimensional nanoparticles, 64-65
    nanoclays, 63-64
    nanolignin, 65
    polysaccharide nanocrystals, 65
    Thermotropic LC polyesters, blends with,
    172, 172f
    Thiosynergists, 91, 91f
    Titanium dioxide (TiO2), 101-102
    properties of, 36t
    Traditional (conventional) radical
    polymerization (TRP)
    gradient copolymer by, 200-201
    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM),
    67
    U
    Ultrafiltration, 124
    UV absorbers, 91-92, 92f
    UV-curable coatings, 109-110
    UV-irradiation, 118
    V
    Vapour-based coatings, 117
    W
    Water, properties of, 2t
    Weathering, protection against, 88-93
    Wettability, 113
    Wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD),
    66
    Wollastonite, properties and applications
    of, 25f, 30
    Z
    Zirconium carbide (ZrC), 56-57

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