Modern Tribology Handbook

Modern Tribology Handbook
اسم المؤلف
Bharat Bhushan
التاريخ
24 أغسطس 2016
المشاهدات
التقييم
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Modern Tribology Handbook, [Bharat Bhushan]
Volume One
Principles of Tribology
Editor-in-Chief
Bharat Bhushan, Ph D , D Sc (Hon )
Department of Mechanical Engineering
The Ohio State University
Columbus, Ohio
Contents
Volume One
SECTION I Macrotribology
Introduction Bharat Bhushan, Francis E Kennedy, and Andras Z Szeri
1 Surface Physics in Tribology Phillip B Abel and John Ferrante
1 1 Introduction 5
1 2 Geometry of Surfaces 6
1 3 Theoretical Considerations 10
1 4 Experimental Determinations of Surface Structure 19
1 5 Chemical Analysis of Surfaces 23
1 6 Surface Effects in Tribology 32
1 7 Concluding Remarks 40
2 Surface Roughness Analysis and Measurement Techniques
Bharat Bhushan
2 1 The Nature of Surfaces 49
2 2 Analysis of Surface Roughness 50
2 3 Measurement of Surface Roughness 81
2 4 Closure 114
3 Contact Between Solid Surfaces John A Williams and Rob S Dwyer-Joyce
3 1 Introduction 121
3 2 Hertzian Contacts 122
3 3 Non-Hertzian Contacts 137
3 4 Numerical Methods for Contact Mechanics 140
3 5 Experimental Methods for Contact Mechanics 144
3 6 Further Aspects 150
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4 Adhesion of Solids: Mechanical Aspects Daniel Maugis
4 1 Introduction 163
4 2 Adhesion Forces, Energy of Adhesion, Threshold Energy of Rupture 164
4 3 Fracture Mechanics and Adhesion of Solids 167
4 4 Example: Contact and Adherence of Spheres 175
4 5 Liquid Bridges 183
4 6 Adhesion of Rough Elastic Solids — Application to Friction 186
4 7 Kinetics of Crack Propagation 188
4 8 Adhesion of Metals 197
4 9 Conclusion 198
5 Friction Kenneth C Ludema
5 1 Introduction 205
5 2 Qualitative Ranges of Friction 208
5 3 Early Concepts on the Causes of Friction 213
5 4 Adhesion, Welding, and Bonding of the Three Major Classes of Solids 215
5 5 The Formation and Persistence of Friction Controlling Surface Films 216
5 6 Experiments that Demonstrate the Influence of Films on Surfaces 218
5 7 Mechanisms of Friction 219
5 8 Measuring Friction 220
5 9 Test Machine Design and Machine Dynamics 227
5 10 Tapping and Jiggling to Reduce Friction Effects 229
5 11 Equations and Models of Friction 230
6 Frictional Heating and Contact Temperatures Francis E Kennedy
6 1 Surface Temperatures and Their Significance 235
6 2 Surface Temperature Analysis 238
6 3 Surface Temperature Measurement 259
7 Wear Mechanisms Koji Kato and Koshi Adachi
7 1 Introduction 273
7 2 Change of Wear Volume and Wear Surface Roughness with Sliding Distance 274
7 3 Ranges of Wear Rates and Varieties of Wear Surfaces 274
7 4 Descriptive Key Terms 276
7 5 Survey of Wear Mechanisms 278
7 6 Concluding Remarks 299
8 Wear Debris Classification William A Glaeser
8 1 Introduction 301
8 2 How Wear Debris Is Generated 302
8 3 Collection of Wear Debris 306
8 4 Diagnostics with Wear Debris 308
8 5 Conclusions 312
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9 Wear Maps Stephen M Hsu and Ming C Shen
9 1 Introduction 317
9 2 Fundamental Wear Mechanisms of Materials 318
9 3 Wear Prediction 319
9 4 Wear Mapping 320
9 5 Wear Maps as a Classification System 322
9 6 Wear Map Construction for Ceramics 324
9 7 Comparison of Materials 328
9 8 Modeling Wear by Using Wear Maps 341
9 9 Advantages and Limitations of Current Wear Map Approach 354
10 Liquid Lubricants and Lubrication Lois J Gschwender,
David C Kramer, Brent K Lok, Shashi K Sharma,
Carl E Snyder, Jr , and Mark L Sztenderowicz
10 1 Introduction 361
10 2 Lubricant Selection Criteria 361
10 3 Conventional Lubricants — The Evolution of Base Oil Technology 366
10 4 Synthetic Lubricants 373
11 Hydrodynamic and Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication Andras Z Szeri
11 1 Basic Equations 384
11 2 Externally Pressurized Bearings 391
11 3 Hydrodynamic Lubrication 398
11 4 Dynamic Properties of Lubricant Films 422
11 5 Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication 438
12 Boundary Lubrication and Boundary Lubricating Films Stephen M Hsu
and Richard S Gates
12 1 Introduction 455
12 2 The Nature of Surfaces 457
12 3 Lubricants and Their Reactions 459
12 4 Boundary Lubricating Films 468
12 5 Boundary Lubrication Modeling 479
12 6 Concluding Remarks 486
13 Friction and Wear Measurement Techniques Niklas Axén,
Sture Hogmark, and Staffan Jacobson
13 1 The Importance of Testing in Tribology 493
13 2 Wear or Surface Damage 494
13 3 Classification of Tribotests 497
13 4 Tribotest Planning 498
13 5 Evaluation of Wear Processes 500
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13 6 Tribotests — Selected Examples 501
13 7 Abrasive Wear 502
13 8 Erosive Wear 504
13 9 Wear in Sliding and Rolling Contacts 505
13 10 Very Mild Wear 508
14 Simulative Friction and Wear Testing Peter J Blau
14 1 Introduction 511
14 2 Defining the Problem 512
14 3 Selecting a Scale of Simulation 514
14 4 Defining Field-Compatible Metrics 516
14 5 Selecting or Constructing the Test Apparatus 517
14 6 Conducting Baseline Testing Using Established Metrics and Refining Metrics as
Needed 517
14 7 Case Studies 518
14 8 Conclusions 522
15 Friction and Wear Data Bank A William Ruff
15 1 Introduction 523
15 2 Sources of Data 523
15 3 Materials Found in Data Bank 527
15 4 Data Bank Format 529
SECTION II Micro/Nanotribology
Introduction Bharat Bhushan and Othmar Marti
16 Microtribology and Microrheology of Molecularly Thin Liquid Films
Alan D Berman and J N Israelachvili
16 1 Introduction 568
16 2 Solvation and Structural Forces: Forces Due to Liquid and Surface Structure 568
16 3 Adhesion and Capillary Forces 572
16 4 Nonequilibrium Interactions: Adhesion Hysteresis 574
16 5 Rheology of Molecularly Thin Films: Nanorheology 576
16 6 Interfacial and Boundary Friction: Molecular Tribology 582
16 7 Theories of Interfacial Friction 587
16 8 Friction and Lubrication of Thin Liquid Films 594
16 9 Stick-Slip Friction 600
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17 Measurement of Adhesion and Pull-Off Forces with the AFM
Othmar Marti
17 1 Introduction 617
17 2 Experimental Procedures to Measure Adhesion in AFM and Applications 624
17 3 Summary and Outlook 633
18 Atomic-Scale Friction Studies Using Scanning Force Microscopy
Udo D Schwarz and Hendrik Hölscher
18 1 Introduction 641
18 2 The Scanning Force Microscope as a Tool for Nanotribology 642
18 3 The Mechanics of a Nanometer-Sized Contact 644
18 4 Amontons’ Laws at the Nanometer Scale 646
18 5 The Influence of the Surface Structure on Friction 648
18 6 Atomic Mechanism of Friction 652
18 7 The Velocity Dependence of Friction 658
18 8 Summary 660
19 Friction, Scratching/Wear, Indentation, and Lubrication Using
Scanning Probe Microscopy Bharat Bhushan
19 1 Introduction 667
19 2 Description of AFM/FFM and Various Measurement Techniques 669
19 3 Friction and Adhesion 678
19 4 Scratching, Wear, and Fabrication/Machining 694
19 5 Indentation 703
19 6 Boundary Lubrication 708
19 7 Closure 712
20 Computer Simulations of Friction, Lubrication, and Wear
Mark O Robbins and Martin H Müser
20 1 Introduction 717
20 2 Atomistic Computer Simulations 718
20 3 Wearless Friction in Low-Dimensional Systems 722
20 4 Dry Sliding of Crystalline Surfaces 734
20 5 Lubricated Surfaces 740
20 6 Stick-Slip Dynamics 752
20 7 Strongly Irreversible Tribological Processes 755
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Volume Two
SECTION III Solid Tribological Materials and Coatings
Introduction Bharat Bhushan, Ali Erdemir, and Kenneth Holmberg
21 Metals and Ceramics Koji Kato and Koshi Adachi
21 1 Introduction 771
21 2 Pure Metals 771
21 3 Soft Metals and Soft Bearing Alloys 772
21 4 Copper-based Alloys 774
21 5 Cast Irons 774
21 6 Steels 776
21 7 Ceramics 778
21 8 Special Alloys 781
21 9 Comparisons Between Metals and Ceramics 782
21 10 Concluding Remarks 783
22 Solid Lubricants and Self-Lubricating Films Ali Erdemir
22 1 Introduction 787
22 2 Classification of Solid Lubricants 792
22 3 Lubrication Mechanisms of Layered Solids 806
22 4 High-Temperature Solid Lubricants 808
22 5 Self-Lubricating Composites 813
22 6 Soft Metals 815
22 7 Polymers 817
22 8 Summary and Future Directions 818
23 Tribological Properties of Metallic and Ceramic Coatings
Kenneth Holmberg and Allan Matthews
23 1 Introduction 827
23 2 Tribology of Coated Surfaces 828
23 3 Macromechanical Interactions: Hardness and Geometry 835
23 4 Micromechanical Interactions: Material Response 839
23 5 Material Removal and Change Interactions: Debris and Surface Layers 844
23 6 Multicomponent Coatings 852
23 7 Concluding Remarks 858
24 Tribology of Diamond, Diamond-like Carbon and Related Films
Ali Erdemir and Christophe Donnet
24 1 Introduction 871
24 2 Diamond Films 872
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24 3 Diamond-like Carbon (DLC) Films 888
24 4 Other Related Films 897
24 5 Summary and Future Direction 899
25 Self-Assembled Monolayers for Controlling Hydrophobicity and/or
Friction and Wear Bharat Bhushan
25 1 Introduction 909
25 2 A Primer to Organic Chemistry 912
25 3 Self-assembled Monolayers: Substrates, Organic Molecules, and End Groups in
the Organic Chains 917
25 4 Tribological Properties 921
25 5 Conclusions 924
26 Mechanical and Tribological Requirements and Evaluation of
Coating Composites Sture Hogmark, Staffan Jacobson,
Mats Larsson, and Urban Wiklund
26 1 Introduction 931
26 2 Design of Tribological Coatings 938
26 3 Design of Coated Components 945
26 4 Evaluation of Coating Composites 949
26 5 Visions and Conclusions 959
SECTION IV Tribology of Industrial Components and Systems
Introduction Bharat Bhushan and Stephen M Hsu
27 Slider Bearings David E Brewe
27 1 Introduction 969
27 2 Self-acting Finite Bearings 977
27 3 Failure Modes 1019
27 4 Slider Bearing Materials 1027
28 Rolling Element Bearings Xiaolan Ai and Charles A Moyer
28 1 Introduction 1041
28 2 Rolling Element Bearing Types 1042
28 3 Bearing Materials 1046
28 4 Contact Mechanics 1048
28 5 Bearing Internal Load Distribution 1057
28 6 Bearing Lubrication 1063
28 7 Bearing Kinematics 1067
28 8 Bearing Load Ratings and Life Prediction 1071
28 9 Bearing Torque Calculation 1074
28 10 Bearing Temperature Analysis 1079
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28 11 Bearing Endurance Testing 1082
28 12 Bearing Failure Analysis 1083
29 Gears Herbert S Cheng
29 1 Introduction 1095
29 2 Gear Types 1096
29 3 Tribological Failure Modes 1097
29 4 Full-Film Lubrication Performance 1101
29 5 Mixed Lubrication Characteristics 1110
29 6 Modeling of Tribological Failures in Gears 1115
29 7 Failure Tests 1122
29 8 Conclusions 1124
30 Rotary Dynamic Seals Richard F Salant
30 1 Introduction 1131
30 2 Mechanical Seals 1131
30 3 Rotary Lip Seal 1146
30 4 Nomenclature 1154
30 5 Defining Terms 1155
31 Space Tribology William R Jones, Jr and Mark J Jansen
31 1 Introduction 1159
31 2 Lubrication Regimes 1159
31 3 Mechanism Components 1161
31 4 Liquid Lubricants and Solid Lubricants 1162
31 5 Liquid Lubricant Properties 1165
31 6 Accelerated Testing and Life Testing 1175
31 7 Summary 1181
32 Automotive Tribology Ajay Kapoor, Simon C Tung, Shirley E Schwartz,
Martin Priest, and Rob S Dwyer-Joyce
32 1 Introduction 1187
32 2 The Engine 1188
32 3 Transmission and Drive Line 1197
32 4 The Tire 1203
32 5 The Brakes 1209
32 6 Windshield Wipers 1212
32 7 Automotive Lubricants 1213
33 Diesel Engine Tribology Malcolm G Naylor, Padma Kodali, and
Jerry C Wang
33 1 Introduction 1231
33 2 Power Cylinder Components 1233
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33 3 Overhead Components 1246
33 4 Engine Valves 1249
33 5 Bearings and Bushings 1253
33 6 Turbomachinery 1255
33 7 Fuel System 1258
33 8 Fuels, Lubricants, and Filtration 1261
33 9 Future Trends 1267
34 Tribology of Rail Transport Ajay Kapoor, David I Fletcher, F Schmid, K J
Sawley, and M Ishida
34 1 Introduction 1271
34 2 Wheel/Rail Contact 1275
34 3 Diesel Power for Traction Purposes 1308
34 4 Current Collection Interfaces of Trains 1314
34 5 Axle Bearings, Dampers, and Traction Motor Bearings 1321
34 6 New Developments and Recent Advances in the Study of Rolling Contact Fatigue 1324
34 7 Conclusion 1325
35 Tribology of Earthmoving, Mining, and Minerals Processing Jeffrey A Hawk
and R D Wilson
35 1 Introduction 1331
35 2 Wear Processes in Mining and Minerals Processing 1333
35 3 Equipment Used in Earthmoving Operations 1339
35 4 Equipment Used in Mining and Minerals Processing 1344
35 5 General Classification of Abrasive Wear 1347
35 6 Tribological Losses in the Mining of Metallic Ores, Coal, and Non-metallic
Minerals 1359
35 7 Financial Cost of Wear in Earthmoving, Mining, and Minerals Processing 1366
35 8 Concluding Remarks 1368
36 Marine Equipment Tribology Steven R Schmid and Karl J Schmid
36 1 Introduction 1371
36 2 Marine Oil Properties and Chemistry 1371
36 3 Diesel Engine Lubrication 1374
36 4 Steam and Gas Turbines 1380
36 5 Ancillary Equipment 1381
37 Tribology in Manufacturing Steven R Schmid and William R D Wilson
37 1 Introduction 1385
37 2 Unique Aspects of Manufacturing Tribology 1385
37 3 Metal Cutting 1394
37 4 Finishing Operations 1398
37 5 Bulk Forming Operations 1399
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38 Macro- and Microtribology of Magnetic Storage Devices
Bharat Bhushan
38 1 Introduction 1413
38 2 Magnetic Storage Devices and Components 1415
38 3 Friction and Adhesion 1423
38 4 Interface Temperatures 1447
38 5 Wear 1448
38 6 Lubrication 1482
38 7 Micro/Nanotribology and Micro/Nanomechanics 1491
38 8 Closure 1501
39 Macro- and Microtribology of MEMS Materials Bharat Bhushan
39 1 Introduction 1515
39 2 Experimental Techniques 1525
39 3 Results and Discussion 1527
39 4 Closure 1544
40 Mechanics and Tribology of Flexible Media in Information Processing
Systems Richard C Benson and Eric M Mockensturm
40 1 Introduction 1549
40 2 Introduction to Foil Bearings 1550
40 3 A Simple Foil Bearing Model 1553
40 4 Other Foil Bearing Models 1556
40 5 Air Reversers 1558
40 6 Introduction to Wound Rolls 1561
40 7 Air Entrainment in Wound Rolls 1562
40 8 Nip-Induced Tension and J-line Slip in Web Winding 1565
40 9 Web Tenting Caused by High Asperities 1570
40 10 Mechanisms that Cause a Sheet to Jam, Stall, or Roll Over in a Channel 1576
40 11 Micro-slip of Elastic Belts 1579
40 12 Transport of Sheets Through Roller/Roller and Roller/Platen Nips 1582
41 Biomedical Applications John Fisher
41 1 Introduction 1593
41 2 Tribology in the Human Body 1594
41 3 Tribology of Artificial Organs and Medical Devices 1596
41 4 Natural Synovial Joint and Articular Cartilage 1599
41 5 Total Replacement Joints 1603
41 6 Wear and Wear Debris Induced Osteolysis 1605
41 7 Joint Replacement and Repair in the Next Millennium 1607
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42 Technologies for Machinery Diagnosis and Prognosis Richard S Cowan
and Ward O Winer
42 1 Introduction 1611
42 2 Failure Prevention Strategies 1611
42 3 Condition Monitoring Approaches 1616
42 4 Tribo-Element Applications 1634
42 5 Equipment Asset Management 1639
Glossary 1645
Index
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