Modern Methods of Gear Manufacture

Modern Methods of Gear Manufacture
اسم المؤلف
National Broach & Machine Division
1 أبريل 2021
(لا توجد تقييمات)

Modern Methods of Gear Manufacture
Fourth Edition
Published by
Originators of Rotary Gear Shaving, Elliptoid Tooth Form
Full-Form Finish Gear Broaching, Push-Up Pot Broaching,
Vertical Gear Rolling, and Gear Tooth Floning.
Chapter One—Gear Design
Conjugate Tooth Action •Ratio •Velocity •Gear Tooth Elements •Pitch •Pressure Angle •Numbers of
Teeth •Pitch Circles •Tooth Depth •Rack Teeth •Basic Rack •Roots and Fillets •Fillet Generation •
Master Profile Tooth Layout •Hob Tooth Layout •Use of Master Profile •Tooth Form Modifications •Stub
Tooth Gears •Extended Addendum Gears • Long and Short Addendum Gears • Non-Standard Center
Distance Gears •Internal Gear Teeth •Profile and Lead Modifications.
Page 5
Chapter Two—Gear Calculations Page 23
Symbols •Terminology •Section 1, Standard Gear Tooth Elements •Section 2, Fine Pitch Gear Tooth
Elements • Section 3, Standard Stub Tooth Elements • Section 4, Standard Metric Gear Tooth
Elements • Section 5, Spur Gear Equations •Section 6, Helical Gear Equations •Section 7, Miscellaneous Gear Equations •Section 8, Helical Gear Circular Tooth Thickness With Two-Tooth Dimension
Given •Section 9, Helical Gear Tooth Thickness for Over or Under-Size Gears •Section 10, Spur and Helical
Gear Tooth Caliper Corrections •Section 11, Dimension Over Pins for Spur Gears •Section 12, Dimension
Over Balls for Helical Gears •Section 13, Dimension Between Pins for Internal Spur Gears •Section 14,
Dimension Between Balls for Internal Helical Gears •Section 15, Maximum External Gear Outside Diameter •Section 16, Length of Contact and Contact Ratio for External Gears •Section 17, Start of Active
Profile and Contact Diameter for External Gears •Section 18, Minimum Minor Diameter for Internal Spur
and Helical Gears •Section 19, Length of Contact and Contact Ratio for Internal Gears •Section 20, Start
of Active Profile and Contact Diameter for Internal Gears •Section 21, Start of Active Profile and Contact
Diameter for Right-Angle Gears •Section 22, Conversion to Line of Action Dimensions •Section 23, Operating Conditions for Spiral Gears •Section 24, Shaving Cutter Analysis,Computer Solutions •Section 25,
Maximum Crossed Axes for Shoulder Gears.
Chapter Three—Material Selection and Heat Treatment Page 43
Mechanical Properties •Gear Durability •Fatigue •Tooth Strength •Wear •Scoring •Metallurgical Characteristics •Chemical Composition •Heat Treatment •Heat Treating for Machinability •Vacuum-Melted
and Degassed Steels •Annealing •Spheroidizing •Stress Relieving •Normalizing •Final Heat Treatment
•Through-Hardening •Quenching •Martempering •Case Hardening •Carburizing •Gas Carburizing •
Gas Carbonitriding •Liquid Carburizing •Liquid Carbonitriding •Pack Carburizing •Case Depth •Nitriding •Salt Bath Nitriding •Tooth Distortion •Ring Gear Out-of-Roundness •Flame Hardening •InductionHardening • Heat Treating Definitions • Blank-Forming Method • Rolled Bars •Hot Forging •Seamless Tubing •Cold/Warm Forming •Manufacturing Process •Machining of Blank •Machinability •Tooth
Forming •Tooth Finishing.
Chapter Four—Machining the Blank Page 67
Selection of Locating Surfaces •Gear Blank Tolerances •Expanding Arbors •Broaching of Splined Holes
•Concentricity Broaches •Avoiding Nicks and Burrs.
Chapter Five—Forming the Teeth Page 69
Form-Milling •Gear Hobbing •Gear Shaping •Tooth Generation •Hob and Shaper Cutter Tooth Forms
•Hobbing and Shaping Process Considerations •Gear Hob Types •Internal Spur andHelical Gear Broaching •Full-Form Finish Broaches •External Spur and Helical Gear Broaching • Push-Up Pot Broaching •
Ring-Type Pot Broaches •Wafer-Type Pot Broaches •Solid HSS Helical Gear Pot Broaches •Roll Forming •High Energy-Rate Forging.
Chapter Six—Finishing the Teeth Page 75
Tooth Modification •Production Economy •Process Selection •Gear Shaving •Crossed-Axes Principles
•Cutting and Guiding Relationship •Shaving Methods •Conventional Shaving •Diagonal Shaving •90-Deg
Traverse Shaving-Traverse Angle and Cutter Selection•Shaving Cutters •Cutter Selection- Cutter Design
•Handling Shaving Cutters •Sharpening Shaving Cutters •Setting-Up the Machine •Mounting the Work
Gear •Mounting the Cutter •Feeds and Speeds •Coolants •Crowning on Gear Shavers •Shaving Internal
Gears •Loading Methods •Shaving Conical Involute Gears •Gear Roll-Finishing •Rolling Dies •Rolling
Machines •Double-Die Gear Roll-Finishing •Single-Die Gear Rolling •Form Grinding •Typical Applications of Grinding Centers •Long-Shaft Helical Gears •Shoulder Gears •Complex Gear Sections •Gear
Honing •How Honing Works •External Gear Honing •Internal Gear Honing •Honing Tools •Removing
Nicks and Burrs •Correcting Heat-Treat Distortion •Honing Shaved Gears •Honing Ground Gears.
Chapter Seven—Inspecting the Teeth Page 107
Types of Gear Tooth Errors •Typical Gear Tooth Tolerances •The Gear Laboratory •Inspection Equipment
•Production Inspection Methods •High-Production Gaging •Detecting Nicks •Gear Inspection Centers •
Gages That Protect Tools.
Chapter Eight—Modern Gear Designs Page 111
Helicopter Planetary Transmission •Marine Reversing Reduction Gears •Two-Speed Rear Axle Gears *
Passenger Car Automatic Transmission •Heavy-Duty 5-Speed Truck Transmission •Diesel Engine Timing
Gears •Helicopter Turbine Engine Reduction Gearing •Self-Propelled Combine Transmission • Floor
Machine Planetary Reduction Gears •Full-Power-Shift Heavy-Duty Transmission •Precision Boring Machine Spindle Drive •Crawler Tractor Power-Shift Transmission •Gas Turbine Reduction and Accessory
Drive Gears •4-Speed Manual Passenger Car Transmission •Turboprop Engine Power Turbine Gear Train
•Marine Turbine Reduction Gears •Fine-Pitch Instrument Gears •18-Speed Dumper-Mixer Heavy-Duty
Chapter Nine—Special Gear Developments Page 123
Truck Turbine Planetary Reduction Gearing •Double-Helical Truck Turbine Transfer Gears • Wankel
Engine Gearing •Fine-Pitch Passenger Car Transmission Gearing •Automotive Gas Turbine Reduction
Gears •Stationary Gas Turbine Planetary Gear Reduction •Winocircondu (Circular-Arc) Gear Set •DoubleHelical Planetary Gear Set •Cluster Gear for 5-Speed Tractor Transmission.
Chapter Ten—Red Ring Products and Services for Gear Manufacturers Page 127
Rotary Shaving •Machine Types •External Shavers •Shaving Methods •Loading Methods •Internal
Shavers •Large Shavers •Shaving Cutters •Grinding Machines •Rolling Machines •Rolling Dies •Honing
Machines •Honing Tools •Inspection Machines •Rolling Fixtures •Sound Testers •Gaging Centers •
Vertical Broaching Machines •Horizontal Broaching Machines •Pot Broaching Machines •Pot Broaching
Tools •Broaching Tools •Broach Fixtures •Ring Gear Rounders •Index Plates •Lead Bars •Expanding
Arbors •Gear Development •Patents and Trademarks.
Index Page 1574»
Coolants, Rotary Shaving
Corrections, Gear Tooth Caliper
Crossed-Axes Determination for Shaving
Gears With Restrictive Shoulders
Crossed-Axes Principle
Crowning, Tooth Form
Cutters, Gear Form Milling
Cutters, Rotary Shaving
Cutters, Shaper
Cycloidal Gears
A 92
Addendum, Long and Short
Angle, Helix
Angle, Pressure
Arbors, Expanding
Arbors, Rotary Shaving
Axial Pitch
Axial Pressure Angle
B Dedendum
Design, Gear
Diagonal Shaving
Diametral Pitch
Dies, Gear Rolling
Dimension Between Two Balls,
Internal Helical
Dimension Between Two Pins or
Balls, Internal Spur
Dimension Over Two Balls, Helical
Dimension Over Two Pins or Balls, Spur
Distortion, Heat-Treat.
Durability, Gear Tooth
9, 23
11, 23 5, 44
. 6, 23
.8, 23
Base Circle
Base Pitch
Basic Rack Teeth
Blank Forming Method
Blanks, Gear
Broaches, Concentricity. . .
Broaches, Full-Form Finish
Broaching, External Gear..
Broaching, Internal Gear . .
Broaching, Spline
Broaching Tools
Broaching Tools, Pot
Eccentricity Measurement
Elliptoid (Crowned) Tooth Form
End Bearing
Equations, Helical Gear
Equations, Miscellaneous Gear
Equations, Spur Gear
Errors, Typical Gear Tooth
Extended Addendum Gears. . . .
Calculations, Gear (See Section Listings
on Contents Page for Chapter 2)
Case Depth
Case Hardening
Cast Iron, Mechanical Properties
Center Distance
Centers, Gear Grinding. .
Centers, Gear Inspection
Chemical Composition of Gear Steels
Circular-Arc Gears
Circular Pitch
Circular Tooth Thickness at Theoretical
Pitch Diameter of Over- or Undersized
Gear Running With Standard Mate
Circular Tooth Thickness When Dimension
Over Two or More Teeth is Given
Cold Working
Computer Analysis
Conical Involute Gears
Conjugate Tooth Action
Contact Diameter, External Gears
Contact Diameter, Internal Gears
Contact Diameter, Right Angle Gears
Contact Ratio, External Gears
Contact Ratio, Internal Gears
Conventional Shaving
99 Face Width 44
Fatigue, Gear Teeth
Fine-Pitch Gear Teeth
Finishing Process Selection
Finishing the Teeth
Fixtures, Broaching
Fixtures, Gear Rolling
Flame Hardening
Forging, High-Energy-Rate .
Forging, Hot
Forming, Cold/Warm
Gaging, Production Gear 108
Grain Size
Grinding, Gear Tooth
f Hardenability of Gear Steels 50
Heat Treating Definitions . . .
85 61
51 Four-Speed Manual Automobile
Turboprop Turbine Reduction Gears
Marine Steam Turbine Reduction Gears. . . .121
Fine-Pitch Instrument Gears
18-Speed Dumper-Mixer Transmission
Modification, Profile and Lead
Heat Treatment
Helical Gears
Hobbing, Gear 69
Hobs, Gear
Honing, Gear Tooth”
Honing Tools, Gear Tooth
Naloy Surface Treatment 150
Nicks, Detecting
Nicks and Burrs
Nodular Iron, Mechanical Properties.
Non-Standard Center Distance Gears
Normal Base Pitch
Normal Diametral Pitch
Normal Pressure Angle
Numbers of Teeth
Index Plates 154
Induction Hardening..
Inspection, Gear Tooth
Internal Gears
Involute Curve
60 109
107 104, 109, 168
21, 32, 34, 72, 92, 124, 126 57
6, 109 54
L . 8, 24
. 8, 24
Laboratory, Gear 10, 24
Layout, Hob Tooth
Layout, Master Tooth Profile
Lead Bars
Lead Measurement
Letter Symbols for Gear Dimensions
Line of Action, Conversion
of Dimensions Along
Loaders, Shaving Machine
Operating Helix Angles, Normal Diametral
Pitch and Basic Helix Angles, Spiral Gears . .36
Operating Pressure Angle… .
Out-of-Roundness, Ring Gear
Machine Setup, Rotary Shaving
Machines, Broaching
Machines, Gear Inspection
Machines, Gear Rolling
Machines, Gear Tooth Honing
Machines, Pot Broaching
Machines, Rotary Shaving
Machines, Tooth Form Grinding
Machining the Blank
Master Tooth Profile
Material Selection
Maximum Outside Diameter Without
Interference, External Gears
Mechanical Properties of Gear Materials
Metallurgical Characteristics
of Gear Materials
Minimum Minor Diameter Without Interference, Internal Gears
Modern Gear Designs
Helicopter Planetary Gears
Marine Reversing Reduction Gears. . . .
Two-Speed Rear Axle Gears
Automobile Automatic Transmission. .
Five-Speed Truck Transmission
Diesel Engine Timing Gears
Helicopter Turbine Reduction Gears…
Combine Transmission
Floor Machine Planetary Gears
Power-Shift Transmission
Boring-Milling Machine Spindle Drive.
Crawler Tractor Power Shift Transmission. . 118
Truck Turbine Reduction,
Accessory Drive Gears
51, 65
Parallelism Measurement 107, 142
Patents & Trademarks… .
Pitch Circles
Profile Measurements
Protuberance, Preshaving Tool
43, 54 Quenching 52
33 R
43 Rack Form, Basic 13
Rack Teeth
Red Ring Products and Services
for Gear Manufacturers
Right-Angle Drive Gears
Right-Angle Traverse Shaving.. .
Rolled Bars
Roots and Fillets
Rotary Shaving
Seamless Tubing
Shaping, Gear
Shaving Cutter Analysis, to Determine
Compatibility of a Cutter and a Gear
Shoulder Gears
Sound Testers, Gear
• ,4mINDEX
Steels, Tensile Strength vs. Hardness 49
Stock, Shaving. . .
Stub-Tooth Gears
Surface Finish.. .
107, 109, 142
Spacing, Measurement
Special Gear Developments
Truck Turbine Reduction Gearing
Truck Turbine Transfer Gears.. . .
Wankel Engine Gears
Fine-Pitch Automotive Gears
Automotive Turbine Reduction Gears. .
Stationary Turbine Reduction Gears.. .
Winocircondu (Circular-Arc) Gears
Double Helical Planetary Gear Set
Cluster Gear for 5-Speed Transmission
Speed Ratio
Spiral Gears
Splined Holes
Spur Gears
Standard Gear Teeth
Standard Gear Teeth, Metric
Start of Active Profile, External Gears. …
Start of Active Profile, Internal Gears. . . .
Start of Active Profile, Right Angle Gears
Steels, Carburized, Core Mechanical
Steels, Gear, Mechanical Properties
Steels, SAE and AISI Numbering System.
Taper Shaving 79
Terminology, Gear
Tolerances, Gear Blank
Tolerances, Gear Rolling Dies
Tolerances, Gear Tooth Production
Tolerances, Rotary Shaving Cutter.
Tooth Form
Tooth Form Modifications
Tooth Strength
Tooth Thickness Measurement
35 Vacuum-Melted and Degassed Steels 51
35 Velocity, Circumferential 7
55 w
53, 54 Wear 48
49 Whole Depth 12
Standard Gear Tooth Elements (Section 1) 25
Fine-Pitch Gear Tooth Elements (Section 2)
Standard Gear Tooth Elements (Section 3)
Standard Metric Gear Tooth Elements (Section 4)
Tooth Ranges of Shaving Cutters for Jobbing Work (Tables 2-1,6-4)
AGMA Standards for Selecting Gear Materials (Table 3-1)
Gear Rating Factors (Table 3-2)
Allowable Contact Stress-Durability (Table 3-3)
Typical Gear/Pinion Hardness Combinations (Table 3-4)
Recommended Safety Factors in Pitting (Table 3-5)
Allowable Stress-Strength (Table 3-6)
Safety Factors for Fatigue and Yield Strength (Table 3-7)
Tensile Strength for Equivalent Steel Hardness Numbers (Table 3-8)
Basic AISI and SAE Numbering System for Steels (Table 3-9)
Mechanical Properties of Ferrous Gear Materials (Table 3-10)
Core Mechanical Properties of Carburized Steels (Table 3-11)
Materials and Processes for Carburized Gears (Table 3-12)
Case Depths in Inches by Carburizing (Table 3-13)
Composition of Various Nitriding Steels (Table 3-14)
Typical Surface Hardnesses of Nitrided Steels (Table 3-15)
Minimum Hardness Depths for Induction-Hardened Steel (Table 3-16)
Machinability Ratings of Steels (Table 3-17)
Machinability Ratings for Shaving (Table 3-18)
Tolerances for Gear Blanks (Table 4-1)
Shaving Stock and Pre-Shave Undercut (Table 5-1)
Production Times For Gear Finishing Processes (Table 6-1)
Typical Shaving Production Rates (Table 6-2)
Tolerances for Gear Shaving Cutters (Table 6-3)
Shaving Cutter Characteristics (Table 6-5)
Tolerances for Roll-Finishing Dies (Table 6-6)
Data on Roll-Finished Gears (Table 6-7)
Honing Performance Data (Table 6-8)
Gear Tooth Surface Finishes Before and After Honing (Table 6-9)
Tolerances for Gear Tooth Dimensions (Table 7-1)
Machine Tool Specifications
See Index on Page
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