Modern Diesel Technology Preventive Maintenance and Inspection

Modern Diesel Technology Preventive Maintenance and Inspection
اسم المؤلف
John Dixon
التاريخ
12 سبتمبر 2023
المشاهدات
371
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
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Modern Diesel Technology Preventive Maintenance and Inspection
John Dixon
Centennial College, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Contents
Preface . xix
CHAPTER 1 General Shop Safety 1
Introduction 1
System Overview 1
Personal Safety Equipment 2
Eye Protection . 2
Footwear 2
Hand Protection . 3
Hearing Protection . 3
Clothing . 3
Hair and Jewelry . 4
Safe Lifting and Carrying 4
Personal Safety Warnings 4
Shop Tools . 5
Work Area Safety 5
Fire Safety . 6
Class A 7
Class B 7
Class C 7
Class D 7
Hazardous Materials 7
Laws Regulating Hazardous Materials . 7
Employee/Employer Obligations 9
Personal Protection from Hazardous Materials . 9
Hazardous Waste Handling and Disposal . 9
Shop Records 14
Vehicle Identification Number (VIN) 14
Work Orders . 15
Lift and Hoist Safety . 15
Summary . 15
Review Questions . 16
CHAPTER 2 Hand Tools 19
Introduction . 20
System Overview . 20
Screwdrivers . 20
vStandard Screwdrivers 20
Phillips Screwdrivers . 20
Specialty Screwdrivers 20
Screwdriver Safety . 21
Hammers . 21
Hammer Safety . 22
Saws and Knives 23
Saw and Knife Safety . 23
Tube Cutting, Flaring, and Swaging Tools . 24
Chisels and Punches . 24
Chisel and Punch Safety . 24
Wrenches . 25
Open-End Wrenches 25
Box-End Wrenches . 25
Combination Wrench . 25
Adjustable Wrenches . 25
Allen Wrenches . 26
TORX1 . 26
Socket Wrenches 27
Wrench Safety 28
Pliers 28
Adjustable Pliers 28
Needlenose Pliers . 29
Locking Pliers 29
Diagonal Cutting Pliers . 29
Plier and Cutting Safety . 29
Files . 29
Filing Technique 30
File Safety . 30
Specialty Tools . 30
Taps and Dies 30
Hand-Threading Dies . 31
Gear and Bearing Pullers . 31
Power Tools . 31
Maintenance . 32
Power Tool Safety . 33
Impact Wrenches 34
Air Ratchets . 34
Air Drills . 34
Air Chisels and Hammers 34
Blowgun 35
Other Power Tools 36
Bench Grinders . 36
Presses . 36
Measuring Tools 36
Machinist’s Rule 36
Vernier Calipers 36
Dial Calipers . 38
Micrometers . 38
Digital Measuring Tools . 41
Other Measuring Tools . 41
viSummary . 43
Review Questions . 43
CHAPTER 3 Fasteners . 47
Introduction . 47
System Overview . 48
Fasteners . 48
Fastener Grades and Classes . 48
Frame Fasteners 48
Tightening Fasteners . 49
Twist Drills . 52
Starting the Drill Bit . 52
Securing the Work Piece 52
Sharpening Drill Bits . 53
Thread Repair 53
Minor Thread Repairs 53
Major Thread Repair . 53
Screw/Stud Removers and Extractors . 54
Thread Locking Compound Application 54
Riveting 56
Rivet Types 56
Rivet Gun . 56
Bucking Bar . 56
Buck Riveting Procedures 56
Rivet Removal 57
Adhesives and Chemical Sealing Materials . 58
Summary . 58
Review Questions . 59
CHAPTER 4 Preventive Maintenance Inspection . 61
Introduction . 61
System Overview . 61
Implementing a PM Program . 62
Driver’s Inspection 63
Inspection Procedure . 64
Out-of-Service or Deadlining a Vehicle . 68
Vehicle PM Scheduling . 69
Federal Inspection Regulations 75
Record-Keeping Requirements 76
PM Software . 79
Advantages 79
Summary . 83
Review Questions . 84
CHAPTER 5 Cooling System Service and Inspection 87
Introduction . 88
System Overview . 88
Coolant 88
Advantages 88
Glycol-Based Antifreeze . 89
Mixing Heavy-Duty Coolant 89
Extended Life Coolants . 90
viiHigh Silicate Antifreeze . 90
Testing Coolant Strength 91
Refractometer Operation 91
Scaling . 91
Testing Supplemental Coolant Additives . 92
Coolant Recycler 93
Coolant Filters . 93
Coolant Filter Replacement 94
Cooling System Components . 94
Radiators . 94
Radiator Components . 95
Radiator Servicing . 95
Radiator Testing 96
Radiator Cap . 96
Radiator Cap Testing . 98
Water Pump . 98
Water Pump Replacement and Inspection 98
Water Pump Removal 100
Water Pump Installation 100
Thermostats 100
Thermostat Operation . 100
Bypass Circuit . 100
Operating without a Thermostat 101
Thermostat Testing 101
Heater Core 101
Heater Core Maintenance and Inspection . 102
Heater Control Valve 103
Bunk Heater and Air Conditioning 103
Bunk Climate Control Inspection . 103
Shutters . 103
Shutter Inspection 103
Cooling Fans . 104
Cooling Fan Inspection 104
On/Off Fan Hubs . 105
Fan Belts and Pulleys . 105
Fan Operation Inspection . 105
Thermatic Viscous Drive Fan Hubs/Thermo-Modulated Fans . 105
Fan Shrouds 106
Cooling System Leaks . 106
Testing for Leaks . 107
Cooling System Management 107
Summary 107
Review Questions 109
CHAPTER 6 Engine Service 111
Introduction 111
System Overview 112
Engine Lubrication Oil 112
SAE Viscosity Grades 112
Engine Oil Change . 113
Dipsticks . 113
Oil Filters 113
viiiBypass Oil Filters 113
Replacing Oil Filters 113
Fuel Filters . 113
Primary Filters 114
Secondary Filters . 114
Filter Servicing 115
Servicing Spin-On Filter Cartridges . 115
Replacement Procedure 115
Water Separators . 115
Hand Primer Pumps 117
Priming a Fuel System . 117
Priming Procedure . 117
Fuel System Out-of-Service Criteria . 118
Liquid Fuel Systems . 118
Air Filter Service/Replacement . 118
Dry Positive Filters . 118
Servicing Dry Air Filters . 118
Oil Bath Filters 119
Oil Bath Type Filter Service . 119
Harmonic Balancers 119
Inspecting a Viscous-Type Damper 119
Engine Compartment Checks 120
Next Check the Drive Belts 120
Check Engine Mounting 120
Check Radiator Mounting . 120
Check Radiator Fan, Bearing Tolerance, Bolt Unions,
Fan Shroud, and Fan Ring with Rubber Seal 120
Check Intercooler Pipes, Hoses, and Air Flow 121
Check Tightness of Engine and PTO . 121
Check Fuel Lines on Engine . 121
Check for Exhaust Leakage . 121
Exhaust System Out-of-Service Criteria 121
Exhaust System 121
Check Air Pipe between Air Intake and Turbo 121
Check Turbocharger and Regulator . 121
Check Tightness of Power Steering Pump, Oil Lines, and Steering Gear . 121
Summary 122
Review Questions 122
CHAPTER 7 Drive Train Service and Inspection 125
Introduction 125
System Overview 126
Drive Axle Lube Service . 126
Mixing Lubricants 126
Approved Lubricants 126
Lube Change Interval 126
Checking Lube Level 127
Draining Axle Lube . 127
Refill the Rear Axle . 127
Drive Axles with Lube Pump 128
Wheel Bearing Lubrication . 128
Procedure 128
ixDriveshaft Assemblies . 129
Driveshaft Construction 129
Driveshafts . 129
Driveshaft Inspection 132
Lubrication . 133
Standard Transmission Service . 135
Recommended Lubricants . 135
Mineral-Based Lubes 135
Synthetic Lubes 135
Checking Oil Level . 136
Draining Oil 136
Refill . 136
PM Inspections 136
Daily Maintenance 136
‘‘A’’ Inspection 136
‘‘B’’ Inspection 136
‘‘C’’ Inspection 137
Clutch 138
Clutch Adjustment Mechanisms . 139
Release Mechanisms 140
Clutch Linkage 142
Clutch Maintenance . 144
Internal Adjustment: Clutch Brake Clutches 151
Clutch Linkage Inspection 152
Clutch Linkage Adjustment 152
Automatic Transmission Maintenance 154
Inspection and Maintenance . 154
Transmission Oil Checks . 154
Low Oil Level . 154
High Oil Level . 154
Interpreting Oil Level Readings 155
Cold Fluid Level Check 155
Hot Fluid Level Check . 156
Hydraulic Fluid Recommendations 156
Cold Startup 156
Oil and Filter Changes 156
Standard Oil Pan . 157
Heavy-Duty Oil Pan 158
Governor Filter Change 158
Oil Contamination 159
Metal Particles 159
Coolant Leakage . 159
Breathers 160
External Lines and Oil Cooler Inspection . 160
Summary 160
Review Questions 160
CHAPTER 8 Tire Hub Wheel and Rim Inspection 165
Introduction 166
System Overview 166
Wheels and Rims 166
Cast Spoke Wheels/Demountable Rim Systems . 166
xWheel Inspections: Spoke Wheel/Demountable Rim Systems 167
Spoke Wheel/Demountable Rim Installation 168
Spoke Wheel/Demountable Rim Runout . 169
Disc Wheels 170
Stud-Piloted Wheels . 170
Hub-Piloted Wheels . 171
Wide-Base Wheels 172
Disc Wheel Installation 172
Wheel Inspections: Disc Wheels 175
Out-of-Service Criteria for Wheels, Rims, and Hubs . 176
Wheel Bearing Adjustment . 177
TMC Wheel Bearing Adjustment 177
Preset Hub Assemblies . 179
Wheel End Summary 179
Tires . 180
Tire Size . 180
Matching of Dual Wheels . 181
Checking Dual Mating . 182
Straightedge 182
Tape Measure . 182
Tire Maintenance . 182
Inspection Procedures for Tires Suspected of Having Been
Run Underinflated or Overloaded 183
Inspection Procedures for All Tires Returning to Service 183
Tire Wear Conditions and Causes . 184
Tire Out-of-Service Criteria . 185
Summary 186
Review Questions 187
CHAPTER 9 Braking System Inspection 189
Introduction 190
System Overview 190
Hydraulic Brake Systems . 190
Heavy-Duty Brake Fluid 190
Changing Brake Fluid . 190
Bleeding Brakes 191
Master Cylinder Inspection 192
Servicing a Master Cylinder . 193
Servicing Brake Drums 193
Drum Removal and Inspection . 193
Disc Brake Rotor Inspection . 194
Brake Lines and Hoses . 195
Brake Lining/Pad Inspection . 195
Measuring Brake Lining/Pad Thickness . 196
Parking Brake Test . 196
Service Brake Operation . 196
Testing Service Brakes (Vacuum Assist) . 196
Testing Service Brakes (Hydraulic Assist) . 196
Testing Service Brakes (Electro-Hydraulic Assist) . 197
Defective Brakes . 197
Out-of-Service Criteria for Hydraulic Brakes . 197
Out-of-Service Criteria for Vacuum System . 197
xiAir Brake Systems . 198
Air Brake Safety . 198
Air Supply Circuit Service 198
Air Compressor Service 198
Draining Air Tanks . 198
Governor Cutout, Low Pressure Warning, and Pressure Buildup Test . 199
Reservoir Air Supply Leakage Test 200
Air Dryer Service 200
Air Dryer Operation and Leakage Test . 201
Air System Test 202
Manual Parking/Emergency System Test 203
Air Brake Foundation Inspection and Service 204
Adjusting Automatic Slack Adjusters . 205
Checking Free Stroke Travel (Freestroke) . 205
Check Pushrod Travel (Applied Stroke) . 207
Air Brake Chamber Identification . 207
Out-of-Service Criteria 207
Front Steering Axle(s) Brakes 208
Standard Stroke Clamp Type Brake Chambers 209
Long Stroke Clamp Type Brake Chambers . 209
Rotochamber Data 210
DD-3 Brake Chamber Data . 210
Defective Brakes . 210
Defective Brake Chart . 210
Summary 210
Review Questions 211
CHAPTER 10 Chassis/Cab Service and Inspection . 215
Introduction 215
System Overview 215
Instruments and Controls . 216
Onboard Safety Equipment . 216
Cab Hardware Inspection and Maintenance 217
Cab Air Suspensions and Driver Seats . 217
Cab Suspension Maintenance 217
Driver’s Seats . 218
Other Body Maintenance . 219
Rust Inhibitors . 219
Electronic Rust Protection 219
Air Conditioning . 219
Air Conditioning Performance Test 220
Refrigerant Leak Detection . 221
Leak Detection Methods 221
Summary 223
Review Questions 224
CHAPTER 11 Steering and Suspension . 227
Introduction 228
System Overview 228
Steering System Components 228
Steering Wheel 228
xiiSteering Column . 228
Steering Gear . 228
Pitman Arm . 228
Drag Link 229
Steering Control Arm 229
Steering Knuckle . 230
Kingpins . 230
Ball Joints 230
Ackerman Arm . 231
Tie-Rod Assembly 231
Steering Axle Inspection . 232
Inspection Procedure 233
Steering Knuckle Inspection . 234
Steering Knuckle Vertical Play . 234
Kingpin Upper Bushing Freeplay . 234
Kingpin Lower Bushing Freeplay . 236
Kingpin Upper Bushing Torque Deflection 236
Lower Bushing Torque Deflection Test . 236
Tie-Rod Inspection . 236
Wheel Bearing Inspection 237
Steering Geometry 237
Toe . 237
Camber 237
Caster . 238
Pre-alignment . 238
Steering Mechanism Out-of-Service Criteria . 238
Suspensions 239
Servicing Leaf Springs . 240
Leaf Spring Equalizing Beam 242
Solid Rubber Spring Equalizing Beam 243
Servicing the Equalizing Beam . 243
U-bolts 243
U-bolt Identification . 244
Air Spring Suspensions 244
Height Control Valve 245
Pressure Regulator . 246
Air Springs . 246
Air Lines . 246
Shock Absorbers . 247
Servicing Air Suspensions . 248
Air Suspension Inspection . 248
Inspection Procedure for Rolling Lobe . 248
Inspection Procedure for Convoluted Spring . 248
Checking the Air Ride Height Control Valve . 249
Ride Height Adjustment 249
Suspension System Out-of-Service Criteria 250
Summary 251
Review Questions 252
CHAPTER 12 Electrical Systems and Auxiliary Components 255
Introduction 256
System Overview 256
xiiiBattery Safety . 256
Storage Batteries . 256
Cell Voltage 257
Battery Types . 257
Conventional Batteries . 257
Low-Maintenance Batteries . 257
Maintenance-Free Batteries . 258
Battery Ratings 258
Amp-Hour Rating 258
Cold Cranking Amps Rating . 258
Reserve Capacity Rating . 258
BCI (Battery Council International) Dimensional Group Number 258
Battery Maintenance 259
Battery Storage 259
True or False . 259
Battery Testing 260
Hydrometer Testing . 260
Open Circuit Voltage Test 261
Load Test 261
Battery Charging . 263
Slow Charging . 263
Fast Charging . 263
Charging Instructions 264
Battery Preventive Maintenance 265
Jump Starting a Truck . 265
Battery Removal and Installation . 265
Charging Systems 266
Alternator Output Test . 266
Full Field Testing 267
Alternator Removal and Installation . 267
Starters 268
Starter Motor Types . 268
Starter Testing 268
Test Results . 269
Liftgates . 269
General Liftgate Safety Precautions . 269
Operating Safety Precautions 269
Servicing Safety Precautions . 270
General Maintenance 271
Daily Maintenance 271
Monthly Maintenance 271
Yearly Maintenance . 272
Biyearly Maintenance . 272
Liftgate Troubleshooting . 272
Summary 274
Review Questions 275
CHAPTER 13 Coupling Systems 277
Introduction 278
System Overview 278
Fifth Wheels 278
Fifth Wheel Types 278
xivSemi-Oscillating Fifth Wheels 279
Sliding Fifth Wheels . 279
Fully Oscillating and Compensating Fifth Wheels . 279
Specialty Fifth Wheels . 280
Fifth Wheel Capacities, Height, and Location 281
Fifth Wheel Capacity 281
Fifth Wheel Height . 281
Fifth Wheel Location 282
Principles of Fifth Wheel Operation . 282
Holland Hitch A-Type Mechanism 282
Operation 283
Holland Hitch B-Type Mechanism 283
B-Type Coupling . 283
B-Type Release 284
ConMet Fifth Wheels . 284
ConMet Locking . 284
ConMet Release 285
Simplex . 286
Fontain No-Slack1 II Fifth Wheel 286
Operation Locking 287
Operation Release 287
Fifth Wheel Maintenance . 287
Maintenance Interval 288
Maintenance Procedures . 288
Holland Fifth Wheel Locking Adjustment . 290
Type-A Lock Adjustment 290
Type-B Lock Adjustment 291
Routine Service Lubrication . 291
Lubrication after Cleaning 291
Sliding Fifth Wheels . 291
Sliding Procedures 291
Kingpins . 292
Checking Kingpin Dimensions . 293
Inspection of Kingpin Diameter 293
Inspecting Kingpin for Squareness and Height 293
Kingpin Service . 293
Kingpin Maintenance 293
Fifth Wheel Servicing Tools 294
Coupling Procedures 294
Uncoupling Procedures 296
Pintle Hooks, Couplers, and Drawbars . 298
Pintle Hook . 298
Couplers . 298
Drawbars 299
Over the Road Applications . 299
Off-Road Applications . 300
Cushioning . 300
Pintle Hook/Coupler Inspection 301
Pintle Hook/Coupler Maintenance . 301
Weld Repairs 301
Out-of-Service Criteria for Coupling Devices 301
Fifth Wheels 301
xvUpper Coupler Assembly (Including Kingpin) 302
Pintle Hooks 302
Drawbar Eye 303
Drawbar/Tongue . 303
Safety Devices . 303
Summary 303
Review Questions 304
CHAPTER 14 Truck and Trailer Refrigeration Maintenance 307
Introduction 307
System Overview 307
Engine Lubrication System . 308
Engine Oil Change . 308
Oil Filter Replacement . 308
Fuel Filter Replacement 308
Bleeding the Fuel System 309
Bleeding Fuel System with Electric Fuel Pump . 310
Air Filter Service/Replacement . 310
Oil Bath Type . 310
Dry Type Air Cleaner . 311
Drive Belts . 311
Glow Plugs . 312
Glow Plug Test 312
Engine Cooling System 312
Coolant Replacement 312
Flushing the Cooling System 313
Defrost System 313
Refrigeration Unit Pre-Trip . 314
Testing Refrigerant Level 314
Compressor Oil Level Check 314
Structural Maintenance 315
Mounting Bolts 315
Unit Visual Inspection . 315
Condenser 315
Defrost Drain Hoses 315
Evaporator . 315
Defrost Damper Door . 315
Summary 316
Review Questions 316
CHAPTER 15 Trailer Service and Inspection . 319
Introduction 319
System Overview 320
Trailer Preventive Program . 320
Aluminium Sheet and Post Vans . 320
Aluminium Sheet and Post Van Maintenance . 321
Van Trailer Leakage Testing . 322
FRP Plywood Trailers . 322
Bottom Side Rails 322
FRP Periodic Maintenance Schedule . 323
Trailer Brakes . 323
Van Doors . 323
xviRoll-Up Doors . 324
Swing Style Van Door Maintenance . 324
Trailer Floor Care and Maintenance . 324
Wood Floor Repairs . 325
Trailer Certification Plate . 325
Dump Trailers . 326
Dump Trailer Maintenance 326
Trailer Rear Impact Guard 327
Trailer Alignment 328
Misalignment Causes 329
Pre-alignment Checks . 329
Trailer Axle Alignment . 329
Reflective Tape 330
Van Trailer PMI . 330
Section I . 331
Start Inspection at the Front of the Trailer 331
Section II 331
Undercarriage and Suspension . 331
Section III . 332
Brakes 332
Section IV . 332
Hubs, Tires, and Wheels 332
Section V 333
Interior Inspection 333
Section VI . 334
Lubrication . 334
Section VII . 334
Extended Interval . 334
Section I Exterior Visual Inspection . 334
Section II Undercarriage and Suspension . 334
Section III Brakes 335
Section IV Tires, Wheels, and Hubs . 335
Section V Interior Inspection 335
Section VI Lubrication 335
Section VII Extended Interval . 336
Summary 336
Review Questions 336
CHAPTER 16 Tank Trailer Service and Inspection . 339
Introduction 339
System Overview 340
Safety During Maintenance . 340
Sixty-Day C Inspection 340
External Visual Inspection 344
Internal Visual Inspection 346
Leakage Test . 346
Thickness Test 347
Upper Coupler Inspection 347
Pressure Test Inspection . 348
Tank Entry Safety Procedures . 348
Dry Bulk Cargo Tanks 349
General Maintenance for Dry Bulk Cargo Tankers 349
xviiDry Bulk Tank External Visual Inspection and Component Tests . 350
Dry Bulk Tank External Visual Inspection . 350
Internal Visual Inspection and Leakage Test . 351
Summary 352
Review Questions 352
CHAPTER 17 Tractor PMI Class 7 and 8 Diesel Powered with Air Brakes . 355
Section I . 355
Cab Interior Inspection 355
Section II 356
Air Brake Pneumatic System Check 356
Section III . 357
Cab and Body Walk Around Inspection Lights On . 357
Section IV . 358
Tires and Wheels . 358
Section V 359
Engine and Electrical . 359
Section VI . 361
Chassis and Undercarriage . 361
Section VII . 362
Lubrication and Engine Oil Service . 362
Section VIII 363
Road Test 363
Section IX . 363
PMI ‘‘C’’ Supplemental Items 363
Section I . 364
Cab Interior Inspection 364
Section II 364
Air Brake Pneumatic System Check 364
Section III . 364
Cab and Body Walk Around Inspection Lights On . 364
Section IV . 365
Tires and Wheels . 365
Section V 365
Engine and Electrical . 365
Section VI . 366
Chassis and Undercarriage . 366
Section VII . 367
Lubrication and Engine Oil Service . 367
Section VIII 367
Road Test 367
Section IX . 367
PMI ‘‘C’’ Supplemental Items 367
Glossary . 369
Index . 377
Index
Note: Page numbers referencing figures are italicized and followed by an ‘‘f.’’ Page numbers referencing tables are italicized and
followed by a ‘‘t.’’
0W-30 engine oil, 112
2-inch diameter plugs, 291f
5W-30 engine oil, 112
5W-40 engine oil, 112
5W-50 engine oil, 112
10S-30 engine oil, 112
10W engine oil, 112
10W-40 engine oil, 112
15W-40 engine oil, 112
20W-20 engine oil, 112
20W-40 engine oil, 112
20W-50 engine oil, 112
30 engine oil, 112
40 engine oil, 112
50 engine oil, 112
A
ABS (anti-lock braking systems), 193
Ackerman arms, 231
Actuator arms, 139–140, 150
Adhesives, 58
Adjustable pliers, 28–29
Adjustable round dies, 31
Adjustable wrenches, 25–26, 28
Adjusting ring tools, 149f
Adjusting rings, 147, 150
Aeration, 154–155
Aerobic chemical thread retainers, 58
Air bags, 332
Air brake systems
air compressors, 198
air dryers, 200–202
air supply circuits, 198
air system testing, 202–203
automatic slack adjusters, 205
chamber identification, 207
draining air tanks, 198–199
foundation inspection and service,
204–205
free stroke travel, 205–206
governor cutout testing, 199–200
manual parking/emergency system
testing, 203–204
PMI, 356, 364
pushrod travel, 207
reservoir air supply leakage testing, 200
safety, 198
Air chambers, 207–208
Air chisels, 34–35
Air cleaners, 118
Air compressors, 198, 209
Air conditioning, 103, 215, 219–220
Air control system inspection, 136
Air drills, 33f, 34
Air dryers
drain valves, 356
leakage testing, 201–202
operation, 201–202
purge cycle operation, 203
service, 200–201
Air filters
dry positive, 118–119, 311
inspection, 137
oil bath, 118–119, 310–311
Air governor cutout settings, 356
Air hammers, 34–35, 56
Air horns, 216
Air induction systems, 198f
Air lines, 246–247, 331, 357
Air loss rate, 209
Air pipe inspection, 121
Air pressure
brakes, 202
tire, 333, 358–359
Air ratchets, 34, 51
Air reservoirs, 209, 332
Air restriction indicators, 118, 119f
Air spring suspensions
air lines, 246–247
air springs, 246
inspection, 248–249
overview, 244–245
pressure regulators, 246
ride height control valves, 245–246,
249–250
servicing, 248
shock absorbers, 247–248
Air springs, 246, 248–249
Air supply circuits, 198
Air suspension seats, 218, 219f
Air suspension systems, cab, 217–218
Air switches, defrost, 314
Air tanks, 136, 198–199
Air tools, 31–32
Air-actuated fan hubs, 105f
Air-actuated fifth wheels
elevating, 281f
sliding, 292f
Air-over hydraulic brake systems,
bleeding, 192
Alarms, 355
Alignment settings, front-end, 237–238
Allen wrenches, 26
Allison transmissions, 154
Alternator belts, 267–268
Alternators, 266–268, 360
Aluminum disc wheels, 170
Aluminum sheet and post vans, 321–322
American National Standards Institute
(ANSI), 48
American Petroleum Institute (API), 126
Amp clamps, 269
Amp-hour rating, 258
Anaerobic chemical thread retainers, 58
Angled spring clutches, 147
ANSI (American National Standards
Institute), 48
Anti-dispersants, 89
Antifreeze, 88, 90, 156, 312
Antifreeze hydrometers, 91
Anti-lock braking systems (ABS), 193
Antiscaling additives, 88, 92
API (American Petroleum Institute), 126
Applied stroke, 205, 207
Aqueous products, 89
Articulation, 278
ASAs (automatic slack adjusters), 205, 332
Asbestos, 9
As-needed lubrication guide, Holland’s,
288f
Automatic Benchmarking screen, Dossier
program, 83f
Automatic drain valves, 199
Automatic slack adjusters (ASAs), 205, 332
377Automatic transmissions
breathers, 160
cold startup, 156
external line and oil cooler inspection, 160
governor filters, 158–159
hydraulic fluid recommendations, 156
inspection, 154
oil
changing, 156–157
checking, 154–156
contamination of, 159
coolant leakage, 159–160
level readings, 154–155
metal particles, 159
oil filters, 156–157
oil pans, 157–158
Axial wheel runout, 167, 169–170
Axle extenders, 330f
Axle gear lube viscosity, 126t
Axles, 126–128, 362–363
B
B lock mechanisms, 291f
Ball joint separators, 34
Ball joints, 230–231, 239
Banjo housings, 127–128
Barn style doors, 323
Barrels, tank, 341, 342f
Batteries
cell voltage, 257
chargers for, 310f
charging, 263–265
inspection, 360–361
installation, 265–266
jump starting, 265
maintenance of, 259
ratings, 258–259
removal, 265–266
safety, 256
storage, 259
temperature, 263t
testing, 260–263
types of, 257–258
Battery Council International (BCI)
dimensional group number, 258–259
Bearing pullers, 32f
Bearing settings, wheel-end, 180f
Bell cranks, 153f
Bell/clutch housing mounting flange
inspection, 136
Belts
air-conditioning system, 220
alternator, 267–268
cooling fan, 105
drive, 120, 220, 311–312, 360
seat, 216, 357
Bench grinders, 36
Bias ply tires, 180
Bits
drill, 52–53
TORX, 26–27
Blades
cooling fan, 104–105
hacksaw, 23
Bleeder screws, 309f
Blowguns, 35
Body maintenance, 219
Bolster plates, 278
Bolts
classes, 50f
elasticity of, 49–50
grades, 48
mounting, 315
U-bolts, 243–244, 332
upper coupler, 302
Boots, 3
Bore measurements, 41
Bosch charging pumps, 117f
Bottoming taps, 30
Box-end wrenches, 25
Brackets, 332
Brake adjustment limits, 207
Brake drums, 193–194, 209, 332
Brake fade, 193
Brake fluid, 190–191
Brake hoses, 195, 209
Brake lines, 195
Brake linings/pads, 195–197, 204, 207–208
Braking systems. See also air brake
systems; hydraulic brake systems
defective brakes, 210
OOS criteria for, 207–210
overview, 189–190
trailers, 332, 335
vacuum, 197–198
Brazier head rivets, 56
Breathers, 127, 159f, 160
Buck riveting, 56–57
Bucking bars, 56
Buckle-release mechanisms, 65
Buffing wheels, 36
Bump caps, 4
Bunk heater and air conditioning
systems, 103
Bunk restraints, 357
Bushings, 243, 247
Bypass circuits, 100–101
Bypass oil filters, 113
C
C inspection, 340–344
C-4 fluids, 156
Cab over engine (CEO) remote shift
linkage inspection, 136–137
Cabinets, safety, 6
Cabs. See also chassis/cab service and
inspection
air suspension systems, 217–218
interior inspection, 355–356, 364
mounting latches, 217
PMI, 65–67
walk around inspection, 357, 364–365
Calibration, micrometer, 39
Camber, 237–238
Canister type oil filters, 114
Caps, bump, 4
Carbon dioxide extinguishers, 7
Carbon drill bits, 52
Carbon monoxide (CO), 6
Carrier refrigeration units, 310
Carrying, safe, 4
Cartridge type oil filters, 114
Cast spoke wheels, 166–170
Caster, 238
Caterpillar transfer pumps, 117f
CCA (cold cranking amps) rating, 258, 262
C-clamp fixtures, 294
Center punches, 24
Center support bearings, 131–132
Centering pins, height control valve, 249
Centrifuges, water separator, 116
CEO (cab over engine) remote shift
linkage inspection, 136–137
Certification plates, 325–326
Chain hoists, 15
Chalmers solid rubber suspension
system, 243
Channel Locks, 28
Charging pumps, 114, 117f
Charging systems, 266–268
Chassis/cab service and inspection
air conditioning, 219–220
air suspension systems, 217–218
body maintenance, 219
controls, 216
driver seats, 218–219
hardware inspection and
maintenance, 217
instruments, 216
onboard safety equipment, 216
overview, 215–216
PMI, 361–362, 366
refrigerant leak detection, 221–223
Chemical sealing materials, 58
Chisels, 24–25, 34, 55
Clevis adjustment, 153f, 204f
Click torque wrenches, 42
Climate control systems, 101–103, 216,
219–220, 356
Closed thermostats, 102f
Clothing, personal safety, 3
Clutch brake squeeze, 146, 147f, 148
Clutch brakes, 142, 150–152, 154, 356
Clutch control adjustment arms, 143f
Clutch linkages, 142–144, 152–154, 361
Clutch shaft yoke bushing inspection, 136
Clutches
adjustment mechanisms, 139–140
clutch brakes, 142, 150–152, 154, 356
linkages, 142–144, 152–154
maintenance of
adjustment, 145–146
internal adjustment, 147, 150–151
Kwik-adjustment mechanism, 149
378 Indexlockstrap mechanism, 147–149
lubrication, 144–145
wear compensator, 149–150
overview, 138–139
release mechanisms, 140–142
CO (carbon monoxide), 6
Coalesced water, 116
Coats, shop, 3f
Cold cranking amps (CCA) rating, 258, 262
Cold temperatures, 134, 156
Color code, thread locking compound, 55
Combination wrenches, 25
Combustible material fires, 7
Commercial battery load testers, 261–263
Commercial vehicle operator’s registration
(CVOR), 216
Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance
(CVSA), 64, 69, 70f–75f
Communication, driver/technician, 62
Compressed air, 35
Compressor oil level, 314–315
Computerized record keeping, 77–79
Condensers, 315, 359
Cones, stud-piloted mounting system,
170, 172–173
ConMet ASF Simplex fifth wheels, 286
ConMet PreSet hubs, 175, 179
ConMet Simplex 400 fifth wheels, 284–286
Conspicuity tape, 330, 340
Control doors, 101
Conventional batteries, 257
Convoluted air springs, 246, 248–249
Coolant
additive testing, 360
advantages of, 88–89
extended life, 90–91
flushing, 313
glycol-based, 89
high silicate, 90–91
leakage of, 159–160
mixing, 89–90
recyclers, 93
refractometer operation, 91
replacement of, 312–313
scaling, 91–92
testing, 91–93
Coolant filters, 93–94
Coolant hoses, 106, 359
Coolant recovery systems, 359–360
Coolant recyclers, 93, 94f
Coolant valves, 103
Cooling fans, 104–107, 120–121, 359
Cooling systems. See also coolant
components of
bunk heater and air conditioning, 103
cooling fans, 104–107
heater control valves, 103
heater cores, 101–102
radiators, 94–98
shutters, 103–104
thermostats, 100–101
water pumps, 98–100
coolant filters, 93–94
coolant replacement, 312–313
flushing, 313
leaks, 106–107
management of, 107
overview, 87–88
PMI, 359
pressure testing kits, 98–99, 106–108
Cores
heater, 101–102
radiator, 95
Corrosion inhibitors, 88
Corrosive materials, 7
Counterbalancing springs, 324
Coupling systems. See also fifth wheels;
kingpins
couplers, 298–301
drawbars, 299–301
lubrication, 291–292
OOS criteria for, 301–303
overview, 277–278
pintle hooks, 298–301
Coveralls, 3f
Cracked hangers, 242f
Cracked rims, 168
Cranes, 15
Cross-members, floor, 321, 325, 331
Cruise control, 363
Cummins systems, 114–115
Current flow, 263, 266
Current-draw tests, 268f
Cutters, exhaust pipe, 34
CVOR (commercial vehicle operator’s
registration), 216
CVSA (Commercial Vehicle Safety
Alliance), 64, 69, 70f–75f
D
Daily Reminder screen, Dossier
program, 82f
Dampening, 247
Damper doors, 315
Dana Spicer Unitized Hub System
(UHS), 179
DD-3 brake chamber data, 210
Deadlining vehicles, 68–69
Deburring, 24
Decals, inspection, 76
Decimal rulers, 36
Deep cycling, 257
Deep-well sockets, 27, 28f
Defrost systems, 313–314
Demountable rim systems
inspection, 167–168
installation, 168–169
overview, 166–167
runout, 169–170
Department of Transportation (DOT), 62–63
De-scaling agents, 91
Desiccants, 200–201
Diagonal cutting pliers, 29
Dial calipers, 38
Dial indicator torque wrenches, 42
Dial indicators, 235
Die stocks, 31
Dies, 31
Diesel powered tractor PMI
air brake systems, 356, 364
cabs, 355–357, 364–365
chassis, 361–362, 366
electrical systems, 359–361, 365–366
engine oil service, 362–363, 367
engines, 359–361, 365–366
lubrication, 362–363, 367
road testing, 363, 367
tires, 358–359, 365
undercarriages, 361–362, 366
wheels, 358–359, 365
Differential carrier lubricants, 126
Differential carrier pinion angles, 127–128
Digital measuring tools, 41
Digital multimeters (DMMs), 202, 269
Dipsticks, 113, 155f
Disc brakes
lining/pad thickness, 196
rotors, 194–195, 204, 209
Disc wheels
hub-piloted wheels, 171, 173–175
inspection, 175–176
mounting torque for, 176
overview, 166
stud-piloted wheels, 170, 172–173
wide-base wheels, 171–172
Discharge systems, dry bulk tank, 349, 351
Disposal, hazardous material, 9–14
Distilled water, 257
DMMs (digital multimeters), 202, 269
Dog tracking, 328
Door glass, 217
Doors
control, 101
damper, 315
van, 323–324, 331, 334
Dossier program, 79–83
DOT (Department of Transportation),
62–63
Double check valves, 203
Double flare brake lines, 196f
Double shear bottom side rail design,
322, 323f
Drag links, 229, 239
Drain cocks, 199f
Drain hoses, 315
Drain plugs
drive axle, 127
oil, 308f
Drain valves, air tank, 199f
Draining
air tanks, 198–199
lubricant, 113, 127
oil, 136
Drawbars, 299–301, 303
Drill bits, 52–53
Index 379Drills, 33f, 34, 52–53
Drive axles, 126–128, 362–363
Drive belts, 120, 220, 311–312, 360
Drive trains. See also automatic transmissions; clutches; driveshafts
drive axles, 126–128
overview, 125–126
PMI, 136–138
standard transmissions, 135–136
wheel bearing lubrication, 128–129
Driver’s inspection, 62–64
Driver’s seats, 217–219
Driveshafts
bearing assemblies, 131
center support bearings, 131–132
construction of, 129
inspection, 132–133
lubrication, 133–135
mounting hardware, 131
overview, 129–130
universal joints, 130–131
Dropoff rates, 200
Drum brakes, 196, 204
Dry bulk cargo tanks, 349–352
Dry chemical extinguishers, 7
Dry positive air filters, 118–119, 311
Dual mating, 333, 358
Dual wheels, 181–182, 341f
Dump trailers, 326–327
Duplex wheels, 171
Dust caps, 345
E
E-250 lubricant, 135
E-500 lubricant, 135
Ear muffs, 3f
Ear plugs, 3
Earphone-type protectors, 3
EG (ethylene glycol), 88–89
EGR (exhaust-gas-recirculation) engines, 88
Elasticity, bolt, 49–50
ELC (extended life coolants), 90–91
Electric fuel pumps, 310
Electrical drills, 33f
Electrical fires, 7
Electrical systems. See also batteries
charging systems, 266–268
diesel powered tractor PMI, 359–361,
365–366
liftgates
maintenance of, 271–272
safety, 269–271
troubleshooting, 272–274
overview, 255–256
starters, 268–269
Electrodes, zinc oxide, 94
Electro-hydraulic assist service brakes, 197
Electrolytes, 256–257, 264
Electronic leak detectors, 222
Electronic rust protection, 219
Elevating fifth wheels, 280
Emergency brake systems, 203–204
Emergency phone numbers, 6
Emulsified water, 115–116
Endplay, 178
Engine compartments, 64–65, 120–121
Engine flywheels, 138–139
Engine lubrication system, 308–309
Engine mounting, 120, 361
Engines
air filters, 118–119
compartment inspection, 120–121
diesel powered tractor PMI, 359–361,
365–366
fuel filters, 113–115
hand primer pumps, 117–118
harmonic balancers, 119–120
oil, 112–113, 362–363, 367
oil filters, 113
OOS criteria for, 118, 121
overview, 111–112
water separators, 115–117
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
certification, 223
EP (extreme pressure) grease, 133
Ethylene glycol (EG), 88–89
Evaporators, 315
Exhaust leakage, 121
Exhaust pipe cutters, 34
Exhaust stacks, 357
Exhaust systems, 121, 360
Exhaust-gas-recirculation (EGR) engines, 88
Expansion tanks, coolant, 97
Exploring Units screen, Dossier program, 82f
Extended life coolants (ELC), 90–91
External TORX bit sockets, 27
External valves, 342–343
External visual (V) inspection, 344
Extreme pressure (EP) grease, 133
Eye protection, 2, 22–24, 29–30, 33
F
Face shields, 2f
Fan rings, 120–121
Fan shrouds, 95, 106, 120–121
Fans, 104–107, 120–121, 359
Fanstats, 105
Fasteners
adhesives, 58
chemical sealing materials, 58
classes of, 48
frame, 48–49
grades of, 48
inspection, 136
overview, 47–48
rail, 331
replacement of, 51–52
rivets, 56–58
thread repair, 53–56
tightening, 49–52
twist drills, 52–53
wheel, 176
Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations
manual, 63, 69
Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard
(FMVSS) vehicle record requirements, 14–15
Feeler gauges, 42
Fenders, 341f
Fiberglass engine cooling fans, 104
Fibreglass Reinforced Plastics (FRP)
plywood trailers, 322–323
15W-40 engine oil, 112
Fifth wheel plates, 302
Fifth wheels
capacity, 281
ConMet ASF Simplex, 286
ConMet Simplex 400, 284–286
Fontain No-Slack II, 286–287, 288f
fully oscillating and compensating,
279–280
height, 281–282
Holland Hitch A-type mechanism,
282–283, 290–291
Holland Hitch B-type mechanism,
283–284, 291
location, 282
maintenance, 287–290
OOS criteria for, 301–302
operation, 282
overview, 278–279
PMI, 357
semi-oscillating, 279
service tools, 295f
sliding, 279, 290f
specialty, 280–281
50 engine oil, 112
Files, 29–30
Filler necks, radiator, 95, 96f
Filters
air, 118–119, 137, 310–311
fuel, 113–115, 308–309
governor, 158–159
HVAC, 220
oil, 113, 156–157, 308
Final back-off, 177t
Fire extinguishers, 7, 8t
Fire safety, 6–7
Firefighting equipment, 6–7
5W-30 engine oil, 112
5W-40 engine oil, 112
5W-50 engine oil, 112
Flame-type leak detectors, 221
Flammable liquids, 6
Flammable materials, 7
Flanges, 136, 345
Flares, 216
Flaring tools, 24f
FleetMaster locking mechanism, 282
Flex bar torque wrenches, 42
Flexibility, air tool, 32
Floor cross-members, 321
Floors, 321, 324–325, 334
Fluid-type leak detectors, 221
380 IndexFlush head rivets, 56
FMVSS (Federal Motor Vehicle Safety
Standard) vehicle record requirements, 14–15
Foam extinguishers, 7
Foaming suppression, 88–89
Fontain No-Slack II fifth wheels, 286–287,
288f
Footprints, tire, 180
Footwear, 2–3
40 engine oil, 112
Frame fasteners, 48–49
Frame machines, 15
Free pedal, 145–146
Free play, 148
Free state water, 115–116
Free stroke travel (freestroke), 205–206
Freeze points, battery, 261
Friction discs, 138–139
Front axle beams, 239
Front brakes, 208–209, 361
Front suspension inspection, 65–66
Front wheel bearings, 361
FRP (Fibreglass Reinforced Plastics)
plywood trailers, 322–323
Fuel filters, 113–115, 308–309
Fuel lines, 121
Fuel pump governors, 360
Fuel systems, 118, 309–310
Fuel tank area, 66–67, 357
Fuel transfer pumps, 117f
Full-round end yokes, 131
Full-service haulers, 14f
Fully oscillating and compensating fifth
wheels, 279–280
Fusible plugs, 345
G
Gasification, electrolyte, 257–258
Gaskets, 115, 136
Gasket-type sealing compounds, 158
Gassing, electrolyte, 264
Gauges
kingpin, 293–294
screw pitch, 42
temperature, 342f
thickness, 42
threaded pitch, 54f
GAWR (gross axle weight rating), 282
Gear and bearing pullers, 31, 32f
Gearing arrangements, air spring
suspensions, 244f
Gearshift lever inspection, 137
Gladhands, 202, 331–332, 357
Glass, door, 217
Glasses, safety, 2
Glazing, drive belt, 220
Gloves, 3, 33, 36
Glow plugs, 312
Glycol-based antifreeze, 89
Goggles, 2f, 4, 5f
Governor cutout testing, 199–200
Governor filters, 158–159
Grab handles, 357
Grease, transmission, 158
Green triangles, 3
Grinding wheels, 36
Gross axle weight rating (GAWR), 282
Gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR), 325
H
Hacksaws, 23
Hair, safety issues, 4
Half-round end yokes, 131, 134
Hammers, 21–23
Hand primer pumps, 117–118, 309
Hand protection, 3
Hand taps, 30–31
Hand throttles, 356
Handles
fifth wheel operating, 302
grab, 357
hammer, 22
screwdriver, 20f
wrench, 28
Hand-threading dies, 31
Hanger bearings, 131–133, 135
Hangers, 242f, 357
Harmonic balancers, 119–120
Haulers, full-service, 14f
Hazardous materials
disposal of, 9–14
employee/employer obligations, 9
handling of, 9–14
laws regulating, 7–9
personal protection from, 9
Headed wheel studs, 172
Hearing protection, 3, 33
Heat transfer rates, 95
Heater control valves, 103
Heater cores, 101–102
Heater hose lines, 103f
Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning
(HVAC) systems, 103, 215, 219–220
Heat-sensing elements, thermostat, 100
Heavy-duty oil pans, 157
Height control valves, 332
Helical coil inserts, 53
Helmets, welding, 4, 5f
Hex head fasteners, 48
Hex nuts, 48, 49f
Hex points, 25
High flotation wheels, 171
High hitches, 296
High silicate antifreeze, 90–91
High-pressure washers, 95
High-speed drill bits, 52
Hinged doors, 323–324
Hoists, 15
Holders, 357
Holland Hitch Company
adjustment of locking mechanisms, 289f
as-needed lubrication guide, 288f
A-type mechanisms, 282–283, 290–291
B-type mechanisms, 283–284, 285f, 291
fifth wheel inspection, 289f
overview, 278
pintle hook/coupler maintenance, 301
service tools, 295f
Holland Kampensator, 280f
Holland Simplex fifth wheels, 286, 287f
Hood cables, 217
Horns, 216, 356
Horseplay, 4
Hose permeation, 221
Hoses
brake, 195, 209
coolant, 106, 359
radiator, 95
Housing breathers, 127
Hub odometers, 333
Hubcaps, 361
Hub-piloted wheels, 171, 173–175
Hubs, 176–177, 332–333, 335
Huck fasteners, 49
HVAC (heating, ventilating, and air conditioning) systems, 103, 215, 219–220
Hydraulic brake systems
bleeding, 191–192
defective brakes, 197
drums, 193–194
fluid, 190–191
lines and hoses, 195
linings/pads, 195–196
master cylinders, 192–193
OOS criteria for, 197
parking brake testing, 196
rotors, 194–195
service brakes, 196–197
Hydraulic clutch linkages, 143–144
Hydraulic fluid, 156, 270–271
Hydraulic lift cylinders, dump trailer, 327
Hydraulic presses, 5
Hydraulic pumps, 217
Hydraulic tools, 31
Hydraulically actuated elevating fifth
wheels, 281f
Hydrometers, 89, 91, 260–261
Hydrostatic pressure test (P) inspection,
344, 348
Hygroscopic fluids, 190
I
I (internal visual) inspection, 344
Ignition keys, 216, 355
Impact sockets, 27
Impact wrenches, 27, 34, 51
Impellers, 98
Imperial vernier measurements, 37
Inboard brake drums, 193
Inner cap nuts, 170
Inner wheel ends, 332
Inside micrometers, 41
Index 381Inspection records, 14
Inspection stickers, 331
Inspection symbols, 344
Interaxle differential draining, 127
Intercooler pipes/hoses, 121
Interference fits, 31
Interior cubes, 324
Interior lights, 334, 356
Internal clutch adjustment, 147, 150–151
Internal heads, 346f
Internal valves, 342–343, 347f
Internal visual (I) inspection, 344
International Organization for
Standardization, 26
J
Jacks, 15
Jam nut torque, 179t
Jewelry, safety issues, 4
Jounce, 239
Jumbo wheels, 171
Jumper cables, 265
K
K (pneumatic pressure test) inspection,
344
Kingpin gauges, 293–294
Kingpins
coupling procedures, 294–296
diameter, 293
dimensions, 293
inspection, 233, 331, 361
lower bushing, 236
maintenance of, 230, 293–294
OOS criteria for, 302
overview, 278, 292
servicing tools, 294, 295f
settings, 279
squareness and height, 293
testers, 348f
trailer axle alignment, 329
uncoupling procedures, 296–298
upper bushing, 234–236
Knives, 23–24
Knuckle pins, 230
Kwik-adjustment mechanisms, 149
L
Lading seals, 345
Landing gear, 331, 334, 350
Lash, steering gear, 233
Lateral runout, 194, 333
Laws
hazardous materials, 7–9
PMI, 75–76
Lawsuits, 62
Leaf spring suspensions, 240–243
Leak detection, 349
Leakage rates, 200
Leakage testing
dry bulk cargo tanks, 351–352
refrigerant, 221–223
reservoir air supply, 200
tank trailer, 346–347
Leveling valves, 249
License plates, 331
Liftgates
maintenance of, 271–272
safety, 269–271
switches, 270f
troubleshooting, 272–274
Lifting, safe, 4
Lifting points, 15
Lifts, 15
Lights
inspection, 216
interior, 334, 356
panel, 216
trailer, 331
warning, 355
Line flares, 195f–196f
Lipe clutches, 140f, 142f
Liquid fuel systems, 118, 309–310
Liquid-based fires, 7
Litmus tests, 92
Load testing, 261–263, 267f, 269
Lock plates, 139
Lock testers, fifth wheel, 282, 294
Lock washers, 48, 49f, 51
Locking mechanism inspection, 289f,
302, 332
Locking pliers, 29
Lockstraps, 139, 147–149
Logistics tracks, 334
Long stroke chambers, 207, 209–210
Looseness testing, rivet, 321–322
Low pressure warning devices, 203, 209
Low-maintenance batteries, 257–258
Lube pumps, 128
Lubrication
air tool, 32–33
cab hardware, 217
change intervals, 137
clutch, 144–145
coupling system, 291–292
diesel powered tractor PMI, 362–363, 367
drive axle, 126–128
driveshaft, 133–135
fastener, 51–52
Holland’s as-needed lubrication guide, 288f
steering axle component, 233
trailer PMI, 334, 335–336
Lunettes, 299–301, 303
M
Machinist’s rules, 36
Magnetic strainers, 128
Maintenance records, 14
Maintenance software, 77–79
Maintenance-free batteries, 258
Manholes, tank, 340, 346
Manual adjust mechanisms, free travel, 149
Manual drain valves, 199
Manual slack adjusters, 205
Manually adjusted clutches, 139
Master cylinders, 192–193
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS),
9, 10f–13f
Maximum allowable working pressure
(MAWP), 344
Maximum capacity decals, 270f
Measuring tools
dial calipers, 38
digital, 41
machinist’s rules, 36
micrometers, 38–41
screw pitch gauges, 42
thickness gauges, 42
torque wrenches, 42
vernier calipers, 36–38
Mechanical clutch linkages, 143
Mechanically suspended seats, 218
Metric dial calipers, 38
Metric fasteners, 48
Metric rulers, 36
Metric vernier measurements, 37–38
Metric wrenches, 25
Micrometers (mikes), 38–41
Mineral-based lubricants, 126, 135
Mirrors, 217, 357
Mixing heavy-duty coolant, 89–90
Monthly PM schedules, 76f
Mounting bolts, 315
MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheet),
9, 10f–13f
Mud flaps, 332, 341f, 357
Multi-grade engine oils, 112
Multileaf shackle springs, 240f
Mushroomed heads, 24
N
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), 65, 75–76
National Lubricating Grease Institute
(NLGI) classification, 133
Needle bearings, 131
Needlenose pliers, 29
Negative camber, 237
Neutralization, electrolyte, 256
NHTSA (National Highway Traffic Safety
Administration), 65, 75–76
NLGI (National Lubricating Grease
Institute) classification, 133
Nuts
hex, 48, 49f
identification of, 49f–50f
inner cap, 170
jam, 179t
prevailing torque lock, 48, 50f
rim lug, 168, 169f
steering mechanism, 239
382 IndexO
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Right-to-Know Law, 7–8
OEMs(original equipmentmanufacturers), 63
Ohmeters, 312
Oil
air tool, 32–33
automatic transmission
changing, 156–157
checking, 154–156
contamination of, 159
coolant leakage, 159–160
level readings, 154–155
metal particles, 159
engine lubrication, 112–113, 308
samples, 362
seepage, brake area, 208
spills, 5
viscosity ratings, 113, 308f
Oil bath air filters, 118–119, 310–311
Oil coolers, 160
Oil filler tube seal rings, 155
Oil filters, 113–114, 156–157, 308
Oil leaks, 136
Oil lines, 121
Oil pans, 157–158
Oily rags, 6
Onboard safety equipment, 216, 356
One-way check valves, 203
On/off fan hubs, 105
OOS criteria. See out-of-service criteria
Open circuit voltage testing, 261
Open thermostats, 102f
Open-end wrenches, 25
Operating handles, 302
Original equipment manufacturers
(OEMs), 63
Oscillation
fifth wheel, 279–280
suspension, 240
OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health
Administration) Right-to-Know
Law, 7–8
Outboard brake drums, 193
Out-of-service (OOS) criteria
braking system, 197–198, 207–210
coupling system, 301–303
engine, 118, 121
exhaust system, 121
fuel system, 118
overview, 68–69
steering system, 238–239
suspension, 250–251
tires, 185–186
wheel, rim, and hub, 176–177
Output shaft assembly inspection, 137
Output yoke seal inspection, 136
Out-riggers, 341
Outside micrometers, 39–41
Overfill systems, 345
Overfilling, transmission, 136
Overflow tanks, coolant, 96–97
Overheating, electrolyte, 264
Overtensioning, 49
Oxyacetylene goggles, 5f
P
P (hydrostatic pressure test) inspection,
344, 348
Painting, brake drum, 194
Panel lights, 216
Parking brake systems, 196, 203–204,
209, 356
Parts requisitions, 15
Pedals, 217
Pellets, thermostat, 100
Pencil inspection, 62
Penetrating fluid, 55
Permeation, hose, 221
Personal hygiene, 9
Personal safety equipment, 2–4
Petcocks, radiator, 95
PG (propylene glycol), 88–89
Phillips screwdrivers, 20, 21f, 26
Phone numbers, emergency, 6
Pintle hooks, 298–301, 332, 357
Piping inspection, 344
Pitman arms, 228–229, 239
Pivot brackets, 301
Pivot points, liftgate, 271–272
Placard holders, 340f
Placards, 331
Planning, PM program, 62
Pliers, 28–29
Plug taps, 30
Plungers, 292f
PMI (preventive maintenance inspection)
deadlining vehicles, 68–69
diesel powered tractors with air brakes
air brake pneumatic system, 356, 364
cab, 355–357, 364–365
chassis, 361–362, 366
electrical system, 359–361, 365–366
engine, 359–361, 365–366
engine oil service, 362–363, 367
lubrication, 362–363, 367
road testing, 363, 367
tires, 358–359, 365
undercarriage, 361–362, 366
wheels, 358–359, 365
drive train, 136–138
driver’s inspection, 63–64
federal regulations, 75–76
implementing programs, 62–63
OOS criteria, 68–69
overview, 61–62
procedure, 64–68
record-keeping requirements, 76–79
scheduling, 69–75, 138f
software, 79–83
trailer
brakes, 332, 335
extended interval, 334, 336
exterior, 334
front, 331
hubs, 332–333, 335
interior, 333–334, 335
lubrication, 334, 335–336
overview, 330–331
suspension, 331–332, 334–335
tires, 333, 335
undercarriage, 331–332, 334–335
wheels, 333, 335
Pneumatic pressure test (K) inspection, 344
Pneumatic rivet guns, 56
Pneumatic tools, 31–32
Pneumatically fifth wheels
elevating, 281f
sliding, 292f
Pneumatically suspended seats, 218, 219f
Posi-Drive screwdrivers, 21f
Positive camber, 237–238
Positive filtration, 113
Post-trip inspection, 63
Power steering. See steering systems
Power steering fluid, 360
Power steering pumps, 121
Power take off (PTO), 121, 216
Power tools
air chisels, 34–35
air drills, 34
air hammers, 34–35
air ratchets, 34
bench grinders, 36
blowguns, 35
impact wrenches, 34
maintenance of, 32–33
overview, 31–32
presses, 36
safety, 33–34
Preloads, 194
Preset hub assemblies, 179
Presses, 36
Pressure protection valves, 246
Pressure regulators, 246
Pressure relief devices, 342f, 351
Pressure testing
cooling systems, 106–108
radiator caps, 99
tank trailers, 348
Pressurization, fuel tank, 117
Pre-trip inspection, 63–64
Prevailing torque lock nuts, 48, 50f
Preventive maintenance inspection. See PMI
Primary reservoirs, 203
Priming, oil filter, 113, 115
Probes, TDS, 92
Product lines, tank trailer, 342f
Propylene glycol (PG), 88–89
PTO (power take off), 121, 216
Pulleys, cooling fan, 105
Pull-type clutches, 141–142, 146–147
Pump tank extinguishers, 7
Punches, 24–25, 35
Index 383Purge valve housing assemblies, 202
Pusher-type fans, 104
Pushrod travel (applied stroke), 207
Push-type clutches, 140–141, 146
R
Radial play, 132
Radial tires, 180
Radiator caps, 96–98, 360
Radiator fans, 104–107, 120–121, 359
Radiator mountings, 120
Radiators, 94–98, 359
Ram air, 94
Ratchets, 27, 51
RCRA (Resource Conservation and
Recovery Act), 9
Reactive materials, 7
Rear doors, 331
Rear impact guards, 327–328
Rebound, 239
Rebuilding
master cylinders, 193
water pumps, 100
Records
PMI, 76–79
VIN, 14–15
work orders, 15
Recovery, refrigerant, 223
Reflective tape, 330
Reflectors, trailer, 331
Refractometers, 89, 91, 92–93f, 260, 262
Refrigerant
leak detection, 221–223
testing level, 314
Refrigeration maintenance
air filter, 310–311
bleeding fuel system, 309–310
compressor oil level, 314–315
defrost system, 313–314
drive belts, 311–312
engine cooling system, 312–313
engine lubrication system, 308–309
glow plugs, 312
overview, 307–308
pre-trip, 314
structural maintenance, 315
testing refrigerant level, 314
Refueling, tank, 118
Registration holders, 331
Regulators, 121
Release bearings, 140, 144–145, 150–151
Release travel, 147
Remote closure devices, 345
Repair Order screen, Dossier program, 81f
Repair orders, 15, 62
Reserve capacity rating, 258
Reservoir air supply leakage testing, 200
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
(RCRA), 9
Restricted service designation, 69
Retainer springs, rivet gun, 56
Reversible sleeve air springs, 246
Ride height control valves, 245–246, 249–250
Right-to-Know Law, 8–9
Rigid fifth wheels, 281
Rim clamps, 169
Rim cracks, 176
Rim lug nuts, 168, 169f
Rim studs, 168
Rims, 176–177
Rivet guns, 56
Rivet looseness testing, 321–322
Rivet sets, 56
Rivets, 56–58
Road speed governors, 363
Road testing, 67–68, 363, 367
Rolling lobe pistons, 248
Roll-up van doors, 323–324
Roof bows, 334
Rotochamber data, 210
Rubber bushing splitters, 35
Rubber compound hoses, 106
Runout
axial, 167, 169–170
lateral rotor, 194, 333
Rust inhibitors, 219
S
Sacrificial anodes, 219
SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers)
viscosity grades, 112
Safety
air brake systems, 198
air tool, 32
batteries, 256
carrying, 4
chassis/cab, 216
fire safety, 6–7
hazardous materials
employee/employer obligations, 9
handling of, 9–14
laws regulating, 7–9
personal protection from, 9
hoists, 15
liftgates, 269–271
lifting, 4
lifts, 15
overview, 1
personal safety equipment, 2–4
power tools, 33–34
records, 14–15
tank trailer, 340, 348–349
tools, 5, 21–25, 28–30
warnings, 4–5
work area, 5–6
Safety cabinets, 6
Safety chains, 299–300
Safety devices, 303
Safety equipment, onboard, 216, 356
Safety glasses, 2
Safety precaution decals, 270f
Sand shoes, 296
Saws, 23–24
Scaling, 91–92, 313
S-CAMC foundation brakes, 205–206
SCAs (supplemental coolant additives),
88, 92–93
Screw extractors, 55
Screw pitch gauges, 42
Screwdrivers, 20–21
Scrubbing, tire, 184–185
Scuff liners, 321
Scuffing, 182
Seal failure, water pump, 98
Sealants, 58
Sealed release bearings, 144
Sealing, door, 334
Seat belts, 216, 357
Seats, driver’s, 217–219, 357
Secondary reservoirs, 203
Secure TORX bit sockets, 27
Self-adjusting clutches, 139–140, 150
Semi-absorbed water, 115–116
Semi-oscillating fifth wheels, 279
Service brakes, 196–197, 363
Service records, 14
Service tools, fifth wheel, 295f
Servicing water separators, 116–117
Seven-pin connectors, 357
Seven-pin receptacles, 331
SG (specific gravity), 260–261
Shackle springs, multileaf, 240f
Sheeting, 334
Shell reinforcements, 347f
Shields, face, 2f
Shift tower assembly inspection, 137
Shifting performance, 136
Shock absorber bushings, 247
Shock absorber chisels, 34
Shock absorbers, 217–218, 247–248
Shoes, 3
Shop coats, 3f
Shop safety. See safety
Shrink fits, 31
Shutoff valves, coolant filter, 94
Shutters, 103–104
Shutterstats, 103, 104f
Side doors, 331
Sidecutters, 29
Sidewalls, tire, 181f, 358
Sight glasses, oil level, 314, 315f
Silicone hoses, 106
Single shear construction design, 322
Single-reduction carriers, 245f
Skully systems, 345
Slack adjusters, 205, 334
Sleeper climate control systems, 103
Slide release plunger position, 292f
Slide rings, 176
Sliders, 302
Sliding fifth wheels, 279
Slip joints, 129–130
Slip splines, 129–130, 133–134
Slipped wheels, 358–359
384 IndexSlotted screwdrivers, 20–21
Smoke testing, 322
Smoking, 4
Snubbing action, 300–301
Soapsuds solution, 221
Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE)
viscosity grades, 112
Socket joints, 239
Socket wrenches, 27–28
Soda-acid extinguishers, 7
Soft-face hammers, 21–22
Software, PMI, 79–83
Solid rubber spring suspensions, 243
Solid square hex dies, 31
Solid-mounted seats, 218, 219f
Solvents, 6
Sonic testers, 347
Sound-indicating torque wrenches, 42
Space heaters, 6
Spacer bands, 166, 167f, 169
Spare tire carriers, 332
Specialty fifth wheels, 280–281
Specialty screwdrivers, 20–21
Specialty tools, 30–31
Specific gravity (SG), 260–261
Spiders, 130
Spills, hazardous waste, 14
Spin-on fuel filters, 114–115, 309f
Spitter valves, 199
Splash goggles, 2f
Splitters, rubber bushing, 35
Spoke wheels, 166–170, 176
Spontaneous combustion, 6
Spring assembly, 250–251
Spring brake chambers, 208
Spring brake inversion valve, 203
Spring ends, 241f
Spring packs, 240, 241f
Springs. See suspension systems
Squares, tire, 182, 358
SRS (supplemental restraint systems), 216
Stand pipes, 131
Standard brake chambers, 207
Standard Fleet Management Edition,
Dossier, 80
Standard screwdrivers, 20
Standard stroke clamp type brake
chambers, 209
Standard transmissions, 135–136
Standard wrenches, 25
Starter amp draw testing, 268
Starters, 268–269, 355, 361
Steel engine cooling fans, 104
Steel-face hammers, 21, 22f
Steering axles, 231f, 232–234
Steering box mountings, 361
Steering columns, 228, 229f, 239
Steering control arms, 229–230
Steering gears, 121, 228, 229–230f, 239
Steering knuckle thrust bearings, 233
Steering knuckles, 230, 231f, 234–236
Steering shafts, 361
Steering systems
components of, 228–232
geometry, 237–238
OOS criteria for, 238–239
overview, 227–228
steering axle inspection, 232–234
steering knuckle inspection, 234–236
tie-rod inspection, 236–237
wheel bearing inspection, 237
Steering wheels, 228, 238, 356
Steps, 357
Storage
combustible materials, 6
tool, 5
Straight grade engine oils, 112
Straight knuckle pins, 230, 232f
Straightedges, 182
Strainers, magnetic, 128
Stud holes, 176
Stud removers, 55
Stud-piloted wheels, 170, 172–173
Studs, disc wheel, 175
Suction-type fans, 104
Super single wheels, 171
Supplemental coolant additives (SCAs),
88, 92–93
Supplemental restraint systems (SRS), 216
Supply reservoirs, 198
Suspension systems
air spring, 244–250
fittings, 334
inspection, 239–243
leaf spring, 240–243
OOS criteria for, 250–251
solid rubber spring, 243
trailer PMI, 331–332, 334–335
U-bolts, 243–244
Sway bars, 251
Swing style van doors, 323–324
Synthetic lubricants, 126, 135–136
T
T (thickness test) inspection, 344, 347
Tandem slides, 332
Tank barrels, 341, 342f
Tank heads, 347f
Tank trailers
C inspection, 340–344
dry bulk cargo tanks, 349–352
external visual inspection, 344–346
internal visual inspection, 346
leakage testing, 346–347
overview, 339–340
pressure test inspection, 348
safety, 340, 348–349
thickness testing, 347
upper coupler inspection, 347–348
Tape measures, 182
Tapered knuckle pins, 230, 232f
Tapered punches, 24, 35
Tapered taps, 30
Taps, 30–31
TDS (total dissolved solids), 92
Technical and Maintenance Council
(TMC), 69, 177–179
Temperature gauges, 342f
10S-30 engine oil, 112
10W engine oil, 112
10W-40 engine oil, 112
Tension, fan belt, 105
Thermatic viscous drive fan hubs, 105–106
Thermo King refrigeration units, 309f
Thermo-modulated fans, 105–106
Thermostats, 100–101
Thickness gauges, 42
Thickness test (T) inspection, 344, 347
30 engine oil, 112
Thread chasers, 53
Thread locking compound, 55–56
Thread repair, 53–56
Threaded pitch gauges, 54f
Threading tools, 53
Throats, fifth wheel, 278
Throttle linkages, fuel pump, 360
Throwout bearings, 140
Tie downs, 334
Tie-rod assemblies, 231–232
Tie-rod ends, 233
Tie-rods
inspection, 236–237, 239
tools for, 34
Tilting, cab, 4, 5f
TIR (total indicated runout), 194–195
Tire pressure, 182–183
Tire squares, 182
Tire valve caps, 183, 333, 358
Tires
dual mating, 181–182
inspection
for all tires returning to service,
183–184
for suspected underinflated or
overloaded, 183
maintenance of, 182–183
OOS criteria for, 185–186
PMI, 358–359, 365
sizes, 180–181
straightedges, 182
tape measures, 182
trailer PMI, 333, 335
tread depth, 183, 333, 358
wear conditions and causes, 184–185
TMC (Technical and Maintenance
Council), 69, 177–179
Toe, 237
Tongues, 303
Tools
chisels, 24–25
files, 29–30
hammers, 21–23
knives, 23–24
measuring, 36–42
overview, 19–20
Index 385Tools (continued)
pliers, 28–29
power, 31–36
punches, 24–25
safety, 5
saws, 23–24
screwdrivers, 20–21
specialty, 30–31
tubing, 24
wrenches, 25–28
Torque rods, 251
Torque wrenches, 42
Torque-to-yield (TTY) bolts, 51
TORX screwdrivers, 21
TORX wrenches, 26–27
Total dissolved solids (TDS), 92
Total indicated runout (TIR), 194–195
Total pedal travel, 153f
Towed vehicle weight (TVW), 281
Toxic materials, 7
Tracking component assembly, 251
Tractor area inspection, 66–67
Tractor protection systems, 203, 209
Trailer breakaway, 208
Trailer certification plates, 326f
Trailers
alignment, 328–330
aluminum sheet and post vans, 321–322
certification plate, 325–326
dump trailers, 326–327
floors, 324–325
FRP plywood trailers, 322–323
lights, 331
overview, 319–320
PMI
brakes, 323, 332, 335
extended interval, 334, 336
exterior, 67, 334
front, 331
hubs, 332–333, 335
interior, 333–335
lubrication, 334–336
overview, 330–331
program for, 320
suspension, 331–332, 334–335
tires, 333, 335
undercarriage, 331–332, 334–335
wheels, 333, 335
rear impact guards, 327–328
reflective tape, 330
trailer brakes, 323
van doors, 323–324
Transmission output yoke inspection, 137
Transmissions
automatic
breathers, 160
cold startup, 156
external lines, 160
governor filters, 158–159
hydraulic fluid recommendations, 156
inspection, 154
maintenance of, 154
oil, 154–157, 159–160
oil coolers, 160
oil filters, 156–157
oil pans, 157–158
lubricants, 135, 363
PMI, 361–362
standard, 135–136
Trans-Synd synthetic oil, 156
Tread depth, 183, 333, 358
Tread design matching, 333, 358
Trunnions, 130–131
TTY (torque-to-yield) bolts, 51
Tubeless demountable adapter cracks, 176
Tubing tools, 24
Turbochargers, 121, 360
Turntable fifth wheels, 281
TVW (towed vehicle weight), 281
20W-20 engine oil, 112
20W-40 engine oil, 112
20W-50 engine oil, 112
Twist drills, 52–53
2-inch diameter plugs, 291f
Two-plate clutches, 151f
Two-point cab air suspension systems, 218f
Two-stage filtering systems, 114
U
U-bolts, 243–244, 332
UC (upper coupler) inspection, 344
UHS (Unitized Hub System), 179
U-joints (universal joints), 129–131,
133–134, 228, 362
Ultrasonic leak detectors, 222–223, 322
Ultrasonic thickness testers, 347
Ultraviolet (UV) leak detectors, 222
Undercarriage, 331–332, 334–335,
361–362, 366
Underride guards, 327–328
Unibody construction, 321
Unit ammeters, 312
Unitized Hub System (UHS), 179
Universal joint tools, 34
Universal joints (U-joints), 129–131,
133–134, 228, 362
Unsprung weight, 170, 239
Upper coupler plates, 293, 294f, 331
Upper coupler (UC) inspection, 344
Upper couplers, 278, 347–348
UV (ultraviolet) leak detectors, 222
V V
(external visual) inspection, 344
Vacuum system brakes, 196–198
Vacuum testing, 342–343
Vacuum valves, 97, 342f
Valve caps, 183, 333, 358
Valve stems, 183
Van doors, 323–324, 331, 334
Van trailers, 320–321
Vehicle overview inspection, 64
Vent doors, 101
Ventilation, 6
Vernier calipers, 36–38
Vibration dampers, 119, 359
Vice Grips, 29
Viscous-type harmonic balancers, 119–120
W
Warning labels, battery, 256
Warning lights, 355
Washings, radiator, 95
Water pump pliers, 28
Water pumps, 98–100
Water separators, 115–117
Water spills, 5–6
Water valves, 103
Wear compensators, 139–140, 149–150
Wear patterns, tire, 185f, 358
Weight, air tool, 32
Welding helmets, 4, 5f
Welds, damaged, 177
Wet tanks, 198
Wheel alignment, 232–233
Wheel bearings, 128–129, 177–179, 233,
237, 332, 361–362
Wheel lugs, 358–359
Wheel-off incidents, 179
Wheels. See also tires
cast spoke, 167–170
disc wheels, 170–176
OOS criteria for, 176–177
overview, 165–166
PMI, 66, 333, 335, 358–359, 365
WHMIS (Workplace Hazardous Material
Information Systems), 9
Wide-base wheels, 171–172
Wind chill factor, 90–91
Windows, 357
Windshield wipers, 216, 355–357
Windshields, 217
Winter conditions, 90–91
Wire wheels, 36
Wiring harnesses, 331, 360
Work area safety, 5–6
Work gloves, 3
Work in Progress reminder feature screen,
Dossier program, 81f
Workplace Hazardous Material Information Systems (WHMIS), 9
Wrenches, 25–28, 42, 51
Y
Yield points, 50
Yokes, 129, 131–132
Z
Zerk-type grease fittings, 131
0W-30 engine oil, 112
Zinc oxide electrodes, 94
Zipper ruptures, 183

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