Metal Forming Science and Practice

Metal Forming Science and Practice
اسم المؤلف
J.G. Lenard
التاريخ
17 فبراير 2019
المشاهدات
التقييم
Loading...

Metal Forming Science and Practice
J.G. Lenard
Department of MechanicalEngineering,
Universityof Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
A State-of-the-Art Volume in Honour of
Professor J.A. Schey’s 80thBirthday
Table of Contents
Chapter 1
Recollections (graduate students)
Chapter 2
John Schey and Value-Added Manufacturing (Brzustowski)
STRIKING CLARITY
AN ECONOMIC FACT
RICH IN IDEAS
JUST ONE OF MANY CONTRIBUTIONS
REFERENCES
Chapter 3
Introduction – The Scheme of the Book (Lenard)
INTRODUCTION
THE TECHNICAL PRESENTATIONS
REFERENCES
Chapter 4
Surface Finish and Friction in Cold Metal Rolling (Sutcliffe)
INTRODUCTION
UNLUBRICATED ROLLING
4.2.1 Without bulk deformation
4.2.2 With bulk deformation
4.2.3 Random rough surfaces
MIXED LUBRICATION
Modelling
4.3.1.1 Asperity deformation
4.3.1.2 Hydrodynamic equations
4.3.1.3 Method of solution
4.3.1.4 Friction modelling
4.3.1.5 Summary of models
Experimental methods
Theoretical results and comparison with experiments
Other experimental results
viiMETAL FORMING SCIENCE AND PRACTICE
4.3.5 Foil and temper rolling
4.3.6 Thermal effects
MICRO-PLASTO-HYDRODYNAMIC LUBRICATION
(MPHL)
4.4.1 Micro-plasto-hydrodynamic lubrication in the mixed
lubrication regime
4.4.2 Micro-plasto-hydrodynamic lubrication of pits
4.4.2.1 Measurement of pit geometry
4.4.2.2 Modelling and comparison with
experiments
BOUNDARY LUBRICATION
TRANSFER LAYERS
CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES
Chapter 5
Direct Observation of Interface for Tribology in Metal Forming
(Azushima)
DIRECT OBSERVATION OF INTERFACE IN SHEET
DRAWING
5.1.1 Apparatus for direct observation
5.1.2 Direct observation of micro-PHL
5.1.3 Mechanism of micro-PHL
5.1.4 Speed dependence of coefficient of friction under
micro-PHL
DIRECT OBSERVATION OF INTERFACE IN FLAT
TOOL DRAWING
5.2.1 Direct observation of the interface
5.2.2 Pressure dependence of the coefficient of friction
5.2.3 Effect of surface topography of the workpiece
REFERENCES
Chapter 6
An Examination of the Coefficient of Friction (Lenard)
INTRODUCTION
FUNDAMENTAL IDEAS
6.2.1 Mechanisms of friction
6.2.2 The adhesion hypothesis
6.2.3 The parameters affecting surface interactions
6.2.4 Determining the coefficient of friction
6.2.4.1 Experimental approach
6.2.4.2 Semi-empirical formulae – cold rolling
6.2.4.3 Inverse calculations
6.2.5 Application of a lubricant
6.2.5.1 The lubrication regimes
VIIITABLE OF CONTENTS
6.2.5.2 The sensitivity of the lubricant’s viscosity
to the pressure and the temperature
6.2.5.3 Entrainment of the lubricants
EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES
6.3.1 Equipment and procedure
THE COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION IN FLAT ROLLING
6.4.1 Dry rolling of aluminium alloy strips
6.4.2 Cold rolling of an aluminium alloy, using lubricants
with boundary additives
6.4.3 Cold rolling steel strips, using lubricants and emulsions
6.4.3.1 Neat oils
6.4.3.2 Neat oils and emulsions
6.4.4 Hot rolling aluminium alloys using emulsions
6.4.5 Hot rolling steel strips
THE DEPENDENCE OF THE COEFFICIENT OF
FRICTION ON PROCESS AND MATERIAL
PARAMETERS
REFERENCES
Chapter 7
Studies on Micro Plasto Hydrodynamic Lubrication in Metal Forming
(Bay, Bech, Andreasen and Shimizu)
INTRODCUTION
EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION
7.2.1 Equipment and basic procedures
7.2.2 Lubricant imprints on deformed strips
7.2.3 Influence of materials and process parameters on
lubricant escape
7.2.4 Influence of pocket geometry on lubricant escape
7.2.4.1 Hydrostatic pressure increase
7.2.4.2 Influence of pocket volume
7.2.4.3 Influence of angle to the edge
7.2.4.4 Influence of radius of curvature on the
edge
MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF MICRO PLASTO
HYDROSTATIC AND HYDRODYNAMIC
LUBRICATION
CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES
Chapter 8
Numerical Simulation of Sheet Metal Forming (Worswick)
8.1 INTRODUCTION TO STAMPING SIMULATION – A
DEEP DRAWN CUP
8.1.1 Finite element mesh
8.1.2 Boundary conditions and contact treatment
ixMETAL FORMING SCIENCE AND PRACTICE
8.1.3 Forming predictions
EXPLICIT DYNAMIC VERSUS IMPLICIT
FORMULATIONS
8.2.1 Explicit dynamic method
8.2.2 Static implicit method
8.2.3 Choosing between implicit and explicit methods
MODELLING THE CONSTITUTIVE RESPONSE OF
SHEET METALS
8.3.1 Phenomenological yield loci
8.3.2 Formability predictions
8.3.2.1 Forming limit diagram approach
8.3.2.2 Damage-based constitutive models
SIMULATION OF STRETCH FLANGE FORMING
SIMULATION OF ALUMINUM ALLOY TAILOR
WELDED BLANKS
8.5.1 Simulation of small-scale TWBs
8.5.2 Simulation of large-scale TWBs
8.5.3 Damage prediction in the weld region
SIMULATION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FORMING
8.6.1 EMF equations
8.6.2 Electromagnetic forming finite element model
8.6.3 EM field modelling
8.6.4 Structural modelling
MODELLING PRODUCT PERFORMANCE – DENT
RESISTANCE
8.7.1 Numerical simulation of panel forming and denting
8.7.2 Closure sheet-inner panel interactions
SUMMARY AND FUTURE
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
REFERENCES
Chapter 9
Geometric and Mechanics Model of Sheet Forming (Duncan)
INTRODUCTION
PLANE STRESS DEFORMATION
FORCE PER UNIT WIDTH, OR “TENSION”
9.3.1 “Constant tension” assumption
BENDING AND UNBENDING MODELS
SUPPORTING SOFTWARE
CONCLUSIONS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Chapter 10
Modelling and Optimization of Metal Forming Processes (Manninen,
Larkiola, Cser, Revuelta and Korhonen)
10.1 INTRODUCTION
193TABLE OF CONTENTS
ON MODELLING AND OPTIMIZATION
ROLLING OF METALS
10.3.1 Prediction of the rolling force
10.3.2 Analysis of factors influencing the product quality
DEEP DRAWING OF STAINLESS STEEL
CONTINUOUS EXTRUSION
DRY TURNING OF Ca-TREATED STEEL
OPTIMIZING THE TUBE HYDROFORMING PROCESS
10.7.1 Principles of the hydroforming process
10.7.2 Hydroforming process simulation
10.7.3 Optimization of the parameters
10.7.3.1 Qualitative definition
10.7.3.2 Quantitative definition
10.7.3.3 Optimization setup
10.7.3.4 Optimizing and results
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES
Chapter 11
The Mathematical Modelling of Hot Rolling of Steel (Yue)
OVERVIEW
THE C A N M E T – McGILL MATHEMATICAL MODEL
FOR MICROSTRUCTURAL EVOLUTION OF STEELS
DURING HOT ROLLING
11.2.1 Stages of hot rolling
11.2.2 Model inputs
11.2.3 Model outputs
11.2.4 Calculation steps
11.2.5 Transformation during cooling to coiling (on the
runout table)
11.2.6 Effective austenite surface area per unit volume
11.2.7 Ferrite grain size
11.2.8 Austenite transformation to ferrite, pearlite and
bainite
11.2.9 Precipitation in transformed austenite
11.2.10 Mechanical properties
DISCUSSION
REFERENCES
Chapter 12
Identification of Rheological and Tribological Parameters (Szeliga and
Pietrzyk)
12.1 THE INVERSE METHOD
12.1.1 Definition of the inverse problem
12.1.2 Experiment
12.1.3 Direct problem
231METAL FORMING SCIENCE AND PRACTICE
12.1.4 Goal function and optimization procedure
12.1.5 Two-step inverse algorithm
RESULTS
12.2.1 Identification of rheological and friction properties
12.2.2 Identification of internal variable model parameters
and friction properties
12.2.3 Identification of material properties from
axisymmetrical test performed using various
plastometric simulators
12.2.4 Identification of material properties from
axisymmetrical and plane strain compression test
DISCUSSION
CONCLUSIONS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
REFERENCES
Chapter 13
Oxide Behaviour in Hot Rolling (Krzyzanowski and Beynon)
FACTORS INFLUENCING FRICTION, HEAT
TRANSFER AND QUALITY OF THE PRODUCT IN
HOT ROLLING
OXIDE FAILURE DURING HOT TENSILE TESTING
13.2.1 Experimental
13.2.2 Modes of oxide scale failure in tension and
measurement of separation loads
MATHEMATICAL MODEL
13.3.1 Model of oxide scale failure
EFFECT OF CHANGING STEEL COMPOSITION
13.4.1 Comparison of oxide scale growth and morphology
13.4.2 Comparison of failure modes
ANALYSIS OF OXIDE SCALE FAILURE AT ENTRY INTO
THE ROLL GAP
13.5.1 Effectof initialstock temperature
13.5.2 Effect of oxide scale thickness
13.5.3 Verification of the model prediction using stalled hot
rolling tests
OXIDE SCALE FAILURE IN THE ROLL GAP
ANALYSIS OF DESCALING EVENTS
13.7.1 Hydraulic descaling
13.7.2 Mechanical descaling
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
REFERENCES
xiiTABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter 14
Friction, Lubrication and Surface Response in Wire Drawing
(Wright)
BASIC CONCEPTS
14.1.1 Frictional stress characterization
14.1.2 Determining friction mode by wire surface analysis
THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE
VELOCITY- TEMPERATURE INTERACTIONS
PROCESS DESIGN EFFECTS
14.4.1 Lubricant selection
14.4.2 Die material and die angle
14.4.3 Sequential drawing effects
THE DRAWING OF SHAPES
THE GENERATION OF FINES
REFERENCES
Chapter 15
Modelling and Control of Temper Rolling and Skin Pass Rolling
(Wiklund and Sandberg)
INTRODUCTION
15.1.1 What do we mean by temper rolling and skin pass
rolling?
15.1.2 Why
15.1.3 How
MODELLING OF THE ROLL GAP
Failure of conventional cold rolling models
Fleck and Johnson
A hybrid model
15.2.4 FEM
Mechanical properties
Coining and smoothing of the surface
Improving the flatness
The FEM tool
Simulations with a simple constitutive
model
Simulations with an advanced
constitutive model
15.2.5 Making fast predicting models from FEM
simulations
MODELLING OF THE ROLL FORCE
15.3.1 FEM
15.3.2 Hybrid modelling
15.3.2.1 The neural network tool
15.3.2.2 Process data set 1
15.3.2.3 Modelling with process data set 1
xiiiMETAL FORMING SCIENCE AND PRACTICE
15.3.2.4 Process data set 2
15.3.2.5 The old set-up model and a neural
network model
15.3.2.6 A physically based model, a neural
network model and a hybrid model
15.3.2.7 Classic cold rolling theory
15.3.2.8 Detection of fiat zones within the roll
gap
15.3.2.9 Process data set 3 and a neural model
15.3.2.10 Hybrid model combining a classic
model and a neural network model
CONCLUSIONS FROM THE MODELLING EXERCISES
PROCESS CONTROL
15.5.1 Set-up before the rolling pass
15.5.2 Feed-back control during the rolling pass using the
mass flow method
15.5.3 Forward and backward tension
DEVELOPMENT TRENDS
15.6.1 Modelling and control
15.6.2 Temper rolling and tension levelling
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
REFERENCES
A U T H O R INDEX
SUBJECT INDEX
كلمة سر فك الضغط : books-world.net
The Unzip Password : books-world.net

تحميل

يجب عليك التسجيل في الموقع لكي تتمكن من التحميل
تسجيل | تسجيل الدخول

التعليقات

اترك تعليقاً