Mechanisms and Mechanical Devices Sourcebook – Fifth Edition

Mechanisms and Mechanical Devices Sourcebook – Fifth Edition
اسم المؤلف
NEIL SCLATER
التاريخ
24 سبتمبر 2023
المشاهدات
256
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
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Mechanisms and Mechanical Devices Sourcebook
Fifth Edition
NEIL SCLATER
CONTENTS
PREFACE xi
CHAPTER 1 BASICS OF MECHANISMS 1
Introduction 2
Physical Principles 2
Efficiency of Machines 2
Mechanical Advantage 2
Velocity Ratio 3
Inclined Plane 3
Pulley Systems 3
Screw-Type Jack 4
Levers and Mechanisms 4
Levers 4
Winches, Windlasses, and Capstans 5
Linkages 5
Simple Planar Linkages 5
Specialized Linkages 6
Straight-Line Generators 7
Rotary/Linear Linkages 8
Specialized Mechanisms 9
Gears and Gearing 10
Simple Gear Trains 11
Compound Gear Trains 11
Gear Classification 11
Practical Gear Configurations 12
Gear Tooth Geometry 13
Gear Terminology 13
Gear Dynamics Terminology 13
Pulleys and Belts 14
Sprockets and Chains 14
Cam Mechanisms 14
Classification of Cam Mechanisms 15
Cam Terminology 17
Clutch Mechanisms 17
Externally Controlled Friction Clutches 17
Externally Controlled Positive Clutches 17
Internally Controlled Clutches 18
Glossary of Common Mechanical Terms 18
CHAPTER 2 MOTION CONTROL SYSTEMS 21
Motion Control Systems Overview 22
Glossary of Motion Control Terms 28
Mechanical Components Form Specialized Motion-Control Systems 29
Servomotors, Stepper Motors, and Actuators for Motion Control 30
Servosystem Feedback Sensors 38
Solenoids and Their Applications 45CHAPTER 3 STATIONARY AND MOBILE ROBOTS 49
Introduction to Robots 50
The Robot Defined 50
Stationary Autonomous Industrial Robots 50
Some Robot History 51
The Worldwide Robot Market 51
Industrial Robots 51
Industrial Robot Advantages 52
Industrial Robot Characteristics 53
Industrial Robot Geometry 53
Four Different ABB Industrial Robots 56
IRB 2400 57
IRB 6400RF 57
IRB 6640 57
IRB 7600 57
Autonomous and Semiautonomous Mobile Robots 58
Options for Communication and Control 58
Land-based Mobile Robots Can Scout and Retrieve 58
Submersible Mobile Robots Can Search and Explore 58
Robotic Aircraft (Drones) Can Search and Destroy 58
Planetary Exploration Robots Can Examine and Report 59
Laboratory/Scientific Robots Can Mimic Human Behavior 59
Commercial Robots Can Deliver and Retrieve Goods 59
Consumer Robots Clean Floors and Mow Lawns 59
Some Robots Entertain or Educate 59
Seven Mobile Autonomous and Semiautonomous Robots 60
Two Robots Have Explored Mars for Six Years 60
This Robot Will Carry on the Work of Spirit and Opportunity 61
This Robot Responds to Civil Emergencies 62
Robot Delivers Hospital Supplies 62
A Military Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Can Observe and Attack the Enemy 63
Submarine Robot Searches for Underwater Mines and Obstructions 64
This System Offers Less Intrusive Surgery and Faster Recovery 65
Glossary of Robotic Terms 66
Modified Four-Limbed Robot Is a Better Climber 68
Six-Legged Robot Crawls on Mesh in Lunar Gravity 69
Two Robots Anchor Another Traversing Steep Slopes 70
Six-Legged Robot Can Be Steered While Hopping 71
CHAPTER 4 MECHANISMS FOR RENEWABLE POWER
GENERATION 73
Overview of Renewable Energy Sources 74
Nuclear: The Unlikely Prime Renewable 74
Alternative Renewable Energy Sources 75
Baseload and Baseload Demand Power Plants 75
Windmills: Early Renewable Power Sources 75
Wind Turbines: Descendents of Windmills 76
Where Are Wind Turbines Located? 77
Concentrating Solar Thermal (CST) Systems 78
Parabolic Trough Mirror Solar Thermal (CST) Plants 78
Power-Tower Solar Thermal (CST) Plants 79
Linear Fresnel Reflector Thermal (CST) Plants 80
Parabolic Dish Stirling Solar Thermal (CST) Plants 81
How a Stirling Engine Works 82
The Outlook for CST Renewable Energy 83
ivHarnessing Moving-Water Power 84
Tidal Electric Power Generation 84
Ocean-Wave Power Generation 84
Another Possible Mechanical Hydropower Solution 84
The Relative Costs of Renewable Energy 85
Glossary of Wind Turbine Terms 86
Renewable Energy Resources 87
CHAPTER 5 LINKAGES: DRIVES AND MECHANISMS 89
Four-Bar Linkages and Typical Industrial Applications 90
Seven Linkages for Transport Mechanisms 92
Five Linkages for Straight-Line Motion 95
Six Expanding and Contracting Linkages 97
Four Linkages for Different Motions 98
Nine Linkages for Accelerating and Decelerating Linear Motions 99
Twelve Linkages for Multiplying Short Motions 101
Four Parallel-Link Mechanisms 103
Seven Stroke Multiplier Linkages 103
Nine Force and Stroke Multiplier Linkages 105
Eighteen Variations of Differential Linkage 107
Four-Bar Space Mechanisms 109
Seven Three-Dimensional Linkage Drives 111
Thirteen Different Toggle Linkage Applications 116
Hinged Links and Torsion Bushings Soft-Start Drives 118
Eight Linkages for Band Clutches and Brakes 119
Design of Crank-and-Rocker Links for Optimum Force Transmission 121
Design of Four-Bar Linkages for Angular Motion 124
Multibar Linkages for Curvilinear Motions 125
Roberts’ Law Helps to Design Alternate Four-Bar Linkages 128
Design of Slider-Crank Mechanisms 129
CHAPTER 6 GEARS: DEVICES, DRIVES, AND MECHANISMS 131
Gears and Eccentric Disk Provide Quick Indexing 132
Odd-Shaped Planetary Gears Smooth Stop and Go 133
Cycloid Gear Mechanism Controls Pump Stroke 136
Gears Convert Rotary-to-Linear Motion 137
Twin-Motor Planetary Gears Offer Safety and Dual-Speed 137
Eleven Cycloid Gear Mechanisms 138
Five Cardan-Gear Mechanisms 141
Controlled Differential Gear Drives 143
Flexible Face-Gears Are Efficient High-Ratio Speed Reducers 144
Rotary Sequencer Gears Turn Coaxially 145
Planetary Gear Systems 146
Noncircular Gears Are Balanced for Speed 153
Sheet-Metal Gears, Sprockets, Worms, and Ratchets for Light Loads 157
Thirteen Ways Gears and Clutches Can Change Speed Ratios 159
Gear and Clutch Shifting Mechanisms 161
Twinworm Gear Drive Offers Bidirectional Output 163
Bevel and Hypoid Gear Design Prevents Undercutting 164
Machining Method to Improve Worm Gear Meshing 165
Geared Speed Reducers Offer One-Way Output 166
Design of Geared Five-Bar Mechanisms 167
Equations for Designing Geared Cycloid Mechanisms 171
Design Curves and Equations for Gear-Slider Mechanisms 174
vCHAPTER 7 CAM, GENEVA, AND RATCHET DRIVES
AND MECHANISMS 179
Cam-Controlled Planetary Gear System 180
Five Cam-Stroke-Amplifying Mechanisms 181
Cam-Curve-Generating Mechanisms 182
Fifteen Different Cam Mechanisms 188
Ten Special-Function Cams 190
Twenty Geneva Drives 192
Six Modified Geneva Drives 196
Kinematics of External Geneva Wheels 198
Kinematics of Internal Geneva Wheels 201
Star Wheels Challenge Geneva Drives for Indexing 205
Ratchet-Tooth Speed-Change Drive 208
Modified Ratchet Drive 208
Eight Toothless Ratchets 209
Analysis of Ratchet Wheels 210
CHAPTER 8 CLUTCHES AND BRAKES 211
Twelve Clutches with External or Internal Control 212
Spring-Wrapped Clutch Slips at Preset Torque 214
Controlled-Slip Expands Spring Clutch Applications 216
Spring Bands Improve Overrunning Clutch 217
Slip and Bidirectional Clutches Combine to Control Torque 218
Slip Clutches Serve Many Design Functions 219
Walking Pressure Plate Delivers Constant Torque 220
Seven Overrunning Clutches 221
One-Way Clutch Has Spring-Loaded Pins and Sprags 222
Roller Clutch Provides Two Output Speeds 222
Seven Overriding Clutches 223
Ten Applications for Overrunning Clutches 225
Eight Sprag Clutch Applications 227
Six Small Clutches Perform Precise Tasks 229
Twelve Different Station Clutches 231
Twelve Applications for Electromagnetic Clutches and Brakes 234
CHAPTER 9 LATCHING, FASTENING, AND CLAMPING
DEVICES AND MECHANISMS 237
Sixteen Latch, Toggle, and Trigger Devices 238
Fourteen Snap-Action Devices 240
Remote Controlled Latch 244
Toggle Fastener Inserts, Locks, and Releases Easily 245
Grapple Frees Loads Automatically 245
Quick-Release Lock Pin Has a Ball Detent 246
Automatic Brake Locks Hoist When Driving Torque Ceases 246
Lift-Tong Mechanism Firmly Grips Objects 247
Perpendicular-Force Latch 247
Two Quick-Release Mechanisms 248
Shape-Memory Alloy Devices Release Latches 249
Ring Springs Clamp Platform Elevator into Position 250
Cammed Jaws in Hydraulic Cylinder Grip Sheet Metal 250
Quick-Acting Clamps for Machines and Fixtures 251
Nine Friction Clamping Devices 253
Detents for Stopping Mechanical Movements 255
Twelve Clamping Methods for Aligning Adjustable Parts 257
Spring-Loaded Chucks and Holding Fixtures 259
viCHAPTER 10 CHAIN AND BELT DEVICES AND MECHANISMS 261
Twelve Variable-Speed Belt and Chain Drives 262
Belts and Chains Are Available in Many Different Forms 265
Change Center Distance without Altering Speed Ratio 269
Motor Mount Pivots to Control Belt Tension 269
Ten Roller Chains and Their Adaptations 270
Twelve Applications for Roller Chain 272
Six Mechanisms for Reducing Pulsations in Chain Drives 276
CHAPTER 11 SPRING AND SCREW DEVICES AND MECHANISMS 279
Flat Springs in Mechanisms 280
Twelve Ways to Use Metal Springs 282
Seven Overriding Spring Mechanisms for Low-Torque Drives 284
Six Spring Motors and Associated Mechanisms 286
Twelve Air Spring Applications 288
Novel Applications for Different Springs 290
Applications for Belleville Springs 291
Vibration Control with Spring Linkage 292
Twenty Screw Devices 293
Ten Applications for Screw Mechanisms 296
Seven Special Screw Arrangements 297
Fourteen Spring and Screw Adjusting Devices 298
A Long-Stroke, High-Resolution Linear Actuator 299
CHAPTER 12 SHAFT COUPLINGS AND CONNECTIONS 301
Four Couplings for Parallel Shafts 302
Links and Disks Couple Offset Shafts 303
Disk-and-Link Couplings Simplify Torque Transmission 304
Interlocking Space-Frames Flex as They Transmit Shaft Torque 305
Coupling with Off-Center Pins Connects Misaligned Shafts 307
Universal Joint Transmits Torque 45° at Constant Speed 308
Ten Universal Shaft Couplings 309
Nineteen Methods for Coupling Rotating Shafts 311
Five Different Pin-and-Link Couplings 315
Ten Different Splined Connections 316
Fourteen Ways to Fasten Hubs to Shafts 318
Polygon Shapes Provide Superior Connections 320
CHAPTER 13 MOTION-SPECIFIC DEVICES, MECHANISMS,
AND MACHINES 323
Timing Belts, Four-Bar Linkage Team Up for Smooth Indexing 324
Ten Indexing and Intermittent Mechanisms 326
Twenty-Seven Rotary-to-Reciprocating Motion and Dwell Mechanisms 328
Five Friction Mechanisms for Intermittent Rotary Motion 334
Nine Different Ball Slides for Linear Motion 336
Ball-Bearing Screws Convert Rotary to Linear Motion 338
Nineteen Arrangements for Changing Linear Motion 339
Eight Adjustable-Output Mechanisms 343
Four Different Reversing Mechanisms 345
Ten Mechanical Computing Mechanisms 346
Nine Different Mechanical Power Amplifiers 350
Forty-Three Variable-Speed Drives and Transmissions 353
Ten Variable-Speed Friction Drives 365
Four Drives Convert Oscillating Motion to One-Way Rotation 367
Eighteen Different Liquid and Vacuum Pumps 369
viiTen Different Pump Designs Explained 373
Glossary of Pump Terms 376
Bearingless Motor-Generators Have Higher Speed and Longer Life 377
Energy Exchange in Seawater Desalination Boosts Efficiency 378
Two-Cycle Engine Improves Efficiency and Performance 380
CHAPTER 14 PACKAGING, CONVEYING, HANDLING, AND
SAFETY MECHANISMS AND MACHINES 381
Fifteen Devices That Sort, Feed, or Weigh 382
Seven Cutting Mechanisms 386
Two Flipping Mechanisms 388
One Vibrating Mechanism 388
Seven Basic Parts Selectors 389
Eleven Parts-Handling Mechanisms 390
Seven Automatic-Feed Mechanisms 392
Fifteen Conveyor Systems for Production Machines 395
Seven Traversing Mechanisms for Winding Machines 399
Vacuum Pickup for Positioning Pills 401
Machine Applies Labels from Stacks or Rollers 401
Twenty High-Speed Machines for Applying Adhesives 402
Twenty-Four Automatic Mechanisms for Stopping Unsafe Machines 408
Six Automatic Electrical Circuits for Stopping Textile Machines 414
Six Automatic Mechanisms for Assuring Safe Machine Operation 416
CHAPTER 15 TORQUE, SPEED, TENSION, AND LIMIT
CONTROL SYSTEMS 419
Applications of the Differential Winch to Control Systems 420
Six Ways to Prevent Reverse Rotation 422
Caliper Brakes Keep Paper Tension in Web Presses 423
Control System for Paper Cutting 423
Warning System Prevents Overloading of Boom 424
Lever System Monitors Cable Tension 424
Eight Torque-Limiters Protect Light-Duty Drives 425
Thirteen Limiters Prevent Overloading 426
Seven Ways to Limit Shaft Rotation 429
Mechanical Systems for Controlling Tension and Speed 431
Nine Drives for Controlling Tension 435
Limit Switches in Machinery 438
Nine Automatic Speed Governors 442
Eight Speed Control Devices for Mechanisms 444
Cable-Braking System Limits Descent Rate 445
CHAPTER 16 INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS: PNEUMATIC,
HYDRAULIC, ELECTRIC, AND ELECTRONIC 447
Twenty-Four Mechanisms Actuated by Pneumatic or Hydraulic Cylinders 448
Foot-Controlled Braking System 450
Fifteen Tasks for Pneumatic Power 450
Ten Applications for Metal Diaphragms and Capsules 452
Nine Differential Transformer Sensors 454
High-Speed Electronic Counters 456
Applications for Permanent Magnets 457
Nine Electrically Driven Hammers 460
Sixteen Thermostatic Instruments and Controls 462
Eight Temperature-Regulating Controls 466
Seven Photoelectric Controls 468
viiiLiquid Level Indicators and Controllers 470
Applications for Explosive-Cartridge Devices 472
Centrifugal, Pneumatic, Hydraulic, and Electric Governors 474
CHAPTER 17 3D DIGITAL PROTOTYPES AND SIMULATION 477
Introduction to 3D Digital Prototypes and Simulation 478
A Short History of Engineering Drawing 478
Transition from Board to Screen 479
CAD Product Features 480
3D Digital Prototypes vs. Rapid Prototyping 480
The Ongoing Role of 2D Drawings 480
Functions of Tools in 3D Digital Prototype Software 481
File Types for 3D Digital Prototypes 481
Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) 482
Simulation Software 482
Simulated Stress Analysis 483
Glossary of Computer-Aided Design Terms 484
CHAPTER 18 RAPID PROTOTYPING 487
Rapid Prototyping Focuses on Building Functional Parts 488
Rapid Prototyping Steps 489
Commercial Rapid Prototyping Choices 490
Commercial Additive RP Processes 491
Subtractive and R&D Laboratory Processes 498
CHAPTER 19 NEW DIRECTIONS IN MECHANICAL
ENGINEERING 501
The Role of Microtechnology in Mechanical Engineering 502
Micromachines Open a New Frontier for Machine Design 504
Multilevel Fabrication Permits More Complex and Functional MEMS 508
Electron Microscopes: Key Tools in Micro- and Nanotechnology 509
Gallery of MEMS Electron-Microscope Images 512
MEMS Actuators—Thermal and Electrostatic 516
MEMS Chips Become Integrated Microcontrol Systems 517
Alternative Materials for Building MEMS 519
LIGA: An Alternative Method for Making Microminiature Parts 520
The Role of Nanotechnology in Science and Engineering 521
Carbon: An Engineering Material with a Future 523
Nanoactuators Based on Electrostatic Forces on Dielectrics 528
The Lunar Electric Rover: A New Concept for Moon Travel 530
INDEX 533
INDEXThis page intentionally left blank.535
Actuators:
centrifugal force, 263
hydraulic, 431–432
linear, 37
motor-based linear DC and AC, 37
precision direct drive (PLADD), 299
stepper-motor-based, 37
mechanical, 25
micromechanical, 518
nanoactuators, 528–529
piezoelectric, 62
rotary, 47, 288, 338, 431
bidirectional, solenoid type, 47
cartridge-operated, 338
shaft, air-spring, 288
tension and speed control, 433
Adjusters (5), 343–344
cam-motion, 343
double-cam, 343
eccentric pivot point, 344
linkage-motion, 343
piston-stroke, 344
shaft synchronizer, 344
three-dimensional, 343
valve-stroke, 343
Allotropes of carbon, 523
Amplifiers:
impulse, 423
mechanical power (7), 350–352
applications, 350
broaching, nonlinear, 351
capstan-type, 350
linear, 27
load positioning, 351
metering and counting, remote, 352
pulse-width modulated (PWM), 27
routing, irregular, 352
servomotor drivers, 27
tensile testing machine, 351
winch control, hydraulic, 351
windlass, 352
Arrangements:
belt drive, four different, 262
electric-eye and balancer, 385
electrical contact, 440
linear-motion changing (19),
339–342
linkage, 385
screw, special (7), 297
varying vibration amplitude, 385
weight-regulating, 385
Assemblies, cartridge, 472
Ball:
bearing, reciprocating, 337
bearing screws, 338
Ball (Cont.):
bushing, 337
cartridge, 336
curvilinear motion device, 337
reciprocating bearing, 336–337
slides, linear motion (9), 336–337
Bands:
spiral clutch, 217
spring, 217
Baseload, power generation, for, 75
Bearings:
air, 25
ball, 336–337
eccentric, 307
reciprocating, ball, 337
sleeve, 337
spherical, 339
Bellows, 26, 152
pressure sensing, 452, 464–465, 467
temperature sensing, 464–465
Belts, 14, 265–268, 275
bead chain, 256–257
cable-chain hybrid, 258
chains, with, different forms, 265–268
flat, 265
ladder chain, cable and plastic, 268
metal timing, NASA, 265
positive drive, 267
pulleys, with 14
slotted, 275
steel, 266–267
tensioning, 269
timing, 265–268
conventional, 265–268
hi-torque (HTD), 268
V-belt, 263, 265, 268
variable speed with chain (12), 262–264
Bolt, explosive, 472
Brake, braking:
automatic hoist, 246
band, 119–120
cable brakes limit decent, 445
caliper (disk) to keep tension, 423
clutch/combinations, 119–120,
214–216, 234–235, 423
clutch, double-coil duplex, 235
electromagnetic with clutches
reel, permanent magnet, 457
slip-clutch, 214, 235
springs, 216
system, foot-controlled, 450
variable-torque drag, 215–216
Broaching, nonlinear, 351
Bushing, ball, 337
Bushing, split, 319
Bushing, torsion, 118
Cable-braking system, 445
Cable cutter, 472
Cams, 14–17, 180–191
barrel, 183, 188, 190
barrel, increased stroke,
190–191
circular, 182
circular-arc, 185
classification of mechanisms, 15
comparisons with, 180
configurations, 15
conical, 16, 346
constant-diameter, 16
constant-velocity, 182
cut-out, 181
cycloidal curves, 184
cycloidal motion, 183–184
cycloids, generating, 184–185
cycloids, modified, 184
cylindrical, 16, 181
double-faced, 181
double-revolution, 190
dwell:
adjustable, 190–191
compensating for, 185–186
quick-acting, 190
eccentric, 166
electronic, 15
end, 16
floating, quick-acting, 190
followers, 14, 17
generating curves for, 182–184
glossary of terms, 17
groove, grooved, 16, 188
indexing, 190
jaws, in hydraulic cylinder, 251
kinematic equivalent, 14
locking, 193
lug, adjustable, 191
mechanisms, 14–17, 181–189
pivot-point, adjustable, 190
plate, increased-stroke, 198
rack, with, 181
radial open, 15
reciprocal, reciprocating, 188
roll, 400
roller position, adjustable, 191
rotating reciprocator, 194
simple harmonic, 183
sliding, 181,189
slot, 189
special-function (10), 190–191
steel ball, 189
swash-plate, 189
three-dimensional, 346
translating, 16
Editor’s notes:

  1. The number in parentheses in some entries refers to the number of related topics on the listed page(s). For example, an entry Eccentric
    cams (7) indicates seven related captioned figures.
  2. Figures and captions in Chaps. 5 to 16 were obtained from many sources that did not uniformly apply words such as devices, drives,
    mechanisms, and machines. Thus, there may be multiple entries for similar subjects.536
    Capacitor, parallel plate, 528
    Capstan, 5, 350
    Capsules and diaphragms applications
    (10), 452–453
    diaphragms, with, 452–453
    Carbon:
    allotropes, 523
    atom, 523
    buckyball (See also fullerenes),
    523–524
    diamond, 527
    fullerenes, 523–524
    graphite, 523
    graphene, 526
    applications, 526, 527
    production, 526
    engineering material, 523–525
    gasses, 523
    dioxide (CO2), 74, 523
    monoxide (CO), 523
    nanotubes, 522–526
    applications, 524–525
    characteristics, 524
    fabrication, 525
    multiwalled (MWNT), 524
    single-walled (SWNT), 524
    Cartesian coordinate geometry, 54
    Cells:
    load, cantilever, 454
    Peaucellier’s, 91
    photo, 456
    Center, lathe, 259
    Chains:
    bead, 267
    belts with 262–263
    double-roller, 264
    drives (See Drives)
    gears, with, 265–268
    ladder, hybrid, 267–268
    length changes, 269
    parallel, 267
    pinned, 267
    positive, infinitely variable (PIV)
    drive, 264
    roller (10), 264, 270–276
    applications for (12), 272–273
    double, 264
    single, 264
    sprockets, with, 14
    Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP),
    508–517
    Chucks, spring-loaded, 259
    Clamp, clamping:
    air spring, 288
    center-support, 254
    differential, 297
    double, for spindle head, 253
    friction (9), 253–254
    hold-down, 281
    magnetic, permanent, 458
    methods for (12), 257–258
    pedestal, 254
    quick-acting, 251–252
    right-angle, 254
    slide, 253–254
    specimen holder, 254
    spring, 259
    table, 254
    turntable, 253
    Clutches:
    automatic, 220
    backstopping, 227, 228
    bidirectional and slip, 218
    brake combinations, 214
    cam, 222
    cam and roller, 213
    centrifugal, automatic, 220, 474
    cone, 17, 212, 425
    controlled-slip, 216
    detent slip, 218
    dog, one-way, 221
    double-spring, 367, 368
    driving, 228
    dual-spring slip, 214–215
    duplex, single- and double-coil, 235
    eddy current, 234–235
    electrostatic, 235
    expanding-shoe centrifugal, 17–18, 213
    external or internal control, 212–213
    externally controlled positive, 17–18
    fixed-field, 234
    free-wheeling, 235
    friction, 17, 18, 230
    externally controlled, 17
    multiple-disk, 230
    plate, 17, 18, 230
    hysteresis, 234–235
    indexing, 227
    internally controlled, 18
    jaw, 17, 212
    lawnmower, 221
    magnetic, friction, 234–235
    magnetic, particle-and-fluid, 235
    magnetostrictive, 235
    mechanical, basic, 212–213
    mechanisms, 17–18
    mercury-gland, 213
    multidisk, multiple-disk, 224, 230
    multistation, 232–233
    one-way, 222
    overload relief, 230
    overriding, 223–224
    overrunning (7), 18, 217, 221, 223–224
    applications for (10), 225–226
    pawl and ratchet 212, 229
    single-cycle Dennis, 229
    single-cycle, dual-control, 229
    spiral bands improve, 217
    planetary transmission, 212, 230
    plate, 212, 429
    roller, 166, 217, 221–222
    rotating-field, 234
    shifting mechanism for, 161–162
    sliding-key, 212
    slip, 214–216, 218, 235
    small, for precise service, 229–230
    speed ratio change with gears, 159
    sprag applications, 227–228
    sprags, use of, 217, 221–222
    spring, 214–216, 367
    applications, 215–216
    bands, 217
    basic, 367
    brake combinations, 214
    dual, 214–215
    slip, 221
    stepped, 215
    wrapped, 18, 213–216
    Clutches (Cont.):
    spring and ball radial detent,
    18, 213
    station, one or two (12), 231–233
    trip, 227, 228
    wedging ball or roller, 221
    external, 221
    internal, 221
    Compensator, expansion, 453
    Components for electronic systems,
    26
    Computer-aided design (CAD), 478–480
    digital prototype files types, 481–482
    assembly, 481–482
    drawing, 482
    part, 481
    presentation, 482
    software, simulation, 482–483
    digital prototypes, 3D, 478–483
    glossary of terms, 484–485
    parametric modeling, 481
    role of 2D drawing, 481–482
    applications for 481–482
    transition, board to screen, 479
    Computer-aided engineering (CAE), 482
    Computer-aided simulation, 482–483
    digital vs. rapid prototype, 498
    Concentrating Solar Thermal (CST)
    plants, 78–84
    Connections:
    fastening, hubs to shafts (14), 318–319
    polygon shapes, 320–321
    splined (10), 304–306, 316–317,
    318
    Controls (See also Motion control):
    automatic weighing and filling, 468
    bimetallic-actuated, air piloted, 466
    carburetor, 463
    carton sorting, 468
    closed-loop:
    systems, 22–24
    techniques, 24
    hydraulic winch, 351
    inspection, automatic, photoelectric,
    469
    motion, kinds of, 24
    open-loop systems, 24
    paper-cutting, 423
    photoelectric (7), 394, 410, 468–469
    position-loop, 22
    refrigerator, 465
    room-temperature, heavy-duty,
    465
    snap-action, disk-type, enclosed,
    466
    speed for mechanisms (8), 444
    temperature-regulating (8), 466–467
    tension, 433, 435–437, 455
    speed and, 431–434
    thermostat, 468
    thermostatic, 462–465
    instruments, with, 462–465
    relay, time-delay, 463
    torque-loop, 22
    velocity (speed) loop, 22
    Controllers:
    actuators with, 431–434
    differential, 434
    float-switch, 470537
    Controllers (Cont.):
    indicators, with, 470–471
    level, liquid, 470–471
    electrical level, 470
    liquid, 470
    magnetic, 471
    switch-actuated, 471
    motion (See Motion control)
    programmable logic (PLC), 22
    Control systems, mechanical, 431–434
    applications, differential winches,
    420–421
    hydraulic for control, 421
    indicators, pressure and
    temperature, 421
    cable tension monitor, lever system, 424
    paper cutting, 423
    paper tension in web presses, 423
    reverse rotation prevention (6), 422
    tension and speed, 431–434
    controllers and actuators, 431
    differential, 434
    dimension, 433
    indicators, 431
    floating rolls, 433
    primary, 431
    secondary, 431–434
    on-and-off, 431
    proportioning, 431
    proportioning-throttling, 432
    warning, boom overload, 424
    winch, differential, 420
    Conversion (converters):
    Constantino torque, 364
    rotary-to-linear motion, 137, 266–267,
    338
    rotary-to-oscillatory, 266–267
    Conveyors, 227, 275, 395–398, 402, 469
    light-duty trolley, 275
    Coordinate system, six-degree of freedom,
    22
    Counters, 403, 456
    electronic, high-speed, 456
    magazine, 456
    pulse, 456
    Couplings:
    bellows, 26
    Bendix-Weiss, 310
    bent-pin, 110
    Bossler, design of, 305–307
    constant-velocity joint, 309–310
    crossed-axis yoke, 302
    disk-and link, for torque transmission,
    304
    flexible shaft, 310
    four-bar, 187
    geared, 302
    grooved-sphere joint, 309
    Hooke’s joint, 305, 309
    light-duty, 310
    links and disks for offset shafts,
    303–304
    magnetic fluid in, 428
    off-center pins connect shafts, 307
    Oldham, 302
    parallel crank, 315
    parallel link, 104, 218, 303
    parallelgram, 304
    pin and link (5), 315
    Couplings (Cont.):
    pin-and-slot, 315
    pinned-sleeve shaft, 309
    pinned-sphere shaft, 309
    power transmission, 118
    pump-type, 304, 310
    rotating shafts, methods for (19),
    311–314
    Rzeppa, 310
    Schmidt, 303–304
    shafts, for (4), 302
    slip-spring, 221
    space-frames, interlocking, 305–307
    square-plate, 306
    three-plate rectangular, 306
    universal joints, 302, 308
    universal shaft (10), 309
    Cranks:
    double parallel, 167
    fixed, 167
    input, 167–168
    nonparallel, 167
    output, 167–168
    reciprocating-space, 329
    slide, 3D, 113
    space, 114–115
    spherical, 111
    Cutters, 472
    cable, 472
    pipe, 472
    Dashpot, oil, 463
    Desalination of sea water, 378
    energy recovery device, 378–379
    pressure exchange unit (PSU), 378–379
    reverse osmosis (SWRO), 378
    Detector, jam, 469
    Detents, 255–256
    adjustable, 255
    axial positioning, 256
    coil spring loaded, 255–256
    conical/wedge ended, 255
    leaf spring, 255
    magnetic, 256
    notched, 255
    positive, 255–256
    radial arranged, 256
    roller, 256
    stopping movement for, 255–256
    roller, 256
    Devices:
    adjusting, spring and screw (14), 298
    anti-backlash, 226
    arrangements, weight-regulating, 385
    electric-eye and balancer, 385
    linkage, 385
    vibration amplitude variation, 385
    chain, lifting, 273
    clamping, 253, 257–258
    cushioning, 281
    cutoff and transfer, 391
    explosive-cartridge, applications for,
    472
    feeding, simple, 383–384
    mixing, 384
    parts, fixed number, 383
    pausing, 384
    separating, one-by-one, 384
    gauging and callipering, 455
    Devices (Cont.):
    geared cocking, 239
    latch, toggle and trigger (16), 238–239
    orienting, 382–383
    cone-shaped parts, 382
    dish-like parts, 382
    pointed-end parts, 382
    short, tubular parts, 382
    stepped-disk parts, 383
    U-shaped parts, 383
    rack-and-pinion, 272
    rotary-to-reciprocating, 293
    rotation-to-translation, 293
    Scotch-yoke, 183
    screw (20), 293
    snap-action, 242–243
    sort, feed, or weigh (15), 382–384
    sorting, 384–385
    balls by size, 384
    by height, 385
    speed control, for mechanisms (8), 444
    tilting, 189
    time-delay switching, 338
    toggle, 238–239
    translation-to-rotation, 338
    Diaphragms:
    capsules, applications (10), 452–453
    Differentiator, 349
    Differentials, 162, 346
    bevel-gear, 346
    rotating-link, 346
    sliding-link, 346
    spiderless, 162
    Digital prototypes and simulation, 3D,
    478–483
    advantages of 3D solid modeling,
    478, 483
    CAD, 478–480
    CAD/CAE, nine step process, 478, 483
    CAD product features, 480
    computer-aided engineering, (CAE),
    482
    digital vs. rapid prototyping, 498
    file types for, 481–482
    finite element method (FEM), 478,484
    functions of tools in, 481
    glossary of CAD terms, 484–485
    history, engineering drawing, 478–479
    parametric modeling, 481
    role of 2D drawings, 481–482
    simulation software, 482, 483
    transition, board to screen, 479
    Direct Metal Deposition (DMD) (See
    Rapid prototyping)
    Direct Shell Product Casting (DSPC)
    (See Rapid prototyping)
    Directed-Light Fabrication (DLF)
    (See Rapid prototyping)
    Direction changes, straight-line, 339–342
    Disconnector, quick, 473
    Driller, parallel-link, 104
    Drives (drivers):
    adjustable, 355
    cone, 353
    disk, double and single, 355
    harmonic, 140
    angle-doubling, 105
    ball, reciprocating, 368
    ballscrew, 25538
    Drives (drivers) (Cont.):
    bearings and roller, 329
    belt, 262
    belt-and-chain, variable-speed (12),
    262, 264
    bevel gear, 166
    chain, 106, 264, 266–267, 276–277
    double-roller, 264
    ladder, differential, 267
    reducing pulsations, for (6), 276–277
    single-roller, 264
    clutch, 166, 367–368
    basic spring, 367
    double, 368
    double-shift, 159, 367
    double spring, 368
    roller, 166
    combination, coupling, slide gear, 159
    CMOS circuitry, 517
    cone 353–354, 358
    adjustable, 353
    ball and, 358
    belt, 353
    electrically coupled, 353
    Graham, 354
    planetary, 354
    ring and cone, 354
    two-cone, 353
    controlled output escapement, 194
    controlling tension, for (9), 435–437
    conversion, oscillate-to-rotate (4),
    367–368
    basic spring, 367
    double-spring clutch, one-way,
    367–368
    full-wave rectifier, 367–368
    reciprocating-ball,
    shuttle pinion, 367–368
    crank slide, 3D, 113
    curve-slider, 333
    cycloid, (epicycloid):
    equations for, 171–172
    reciprocator, 140
    differential, controlled, 143
    differentials, for controlling tension,
    435
    fixed, 148
    robot, for, 64
    disk, 329, 355, 361–362, 365
    adjustable, 355
    clutch, 159
    cone, spherical, 366
    curved, 361
    drum and roller, 366
    spring-loaded, 355
    planetary, 355
    roller, 329, 365
    split pulleys, 366
    two, 365–366
    double, with six-sided Maltese cross,
    327
    double eccentric, 146, 187
    double-shift, 159
    double-spring clutch, 367–368
    electrical, controlling tension 435–436
    electrostatic charges, 505
    elliptical motion, 140
    epicycloids reciprocator, 140
    flowmeter, drive, 459
    Drives (drivers) (Cont.):
    friction, variable-speed (10), 365–366
    full-wave rectification, 367–368
    gear:
    compound spur-bevel, 151
    coupling and slide, 149
    gear oscillating, 333
    geneva (20), 192–197
    controlled-output escapement, 194
    dual track, 193
    external, 195
    four-bar, 192
    groove-cam, 192
    intermittent counter, 195
    internal, 138, 195
    internal groove, 193
    locking-arm, 192
    locking-slide, 192
    long-dwell, 138, 193
    modified (6), 193, 196–197
    parallel guidance, 194
    planetary gear, 192
    progressive oscillating, 194
    rapid transfer, 193
    rotating-cam, 194
    sinusoidal reciprocator, 194
    spherical, 195
    twin, 192
    Graham, 354
    harmonic, 140
    adjustable, 140
    triple, 333
    Hooke’s joint, skewed, 112
    hydraulic, 436
    impulse, 360
    Morse, 360
    variable-stroke, 360
    zero-max, 360
    leadscrew, 25
    lever and cam, 101
    light-duty, 425–426
    low-torque, 284–295
    lubricator, Torrington, 363
    mechanical, 435
    microchain, 515
    missile silo cover, 146
    multiple disk, 359
    ball-and-disk, 359
    oil-coated, 359
    Sellers’, 361
    multiple ratio, 160
    multiplier, 103–104
    multiplier, force and stroke, 105, 106
    offset, 342
    one-way rotation, 367–368
    oscillating (oscillator):
    chain, 330
    crank and planetary, 330
    gear crank, 333
    motion to one-way rotation (4),
    367–368
    progressive, 194
    spherical-slide oscillator, 112
    parallel-cable, 267–288
    planet, planetary:
    coupled, 147
    simple with inversions, 149
    triple, 150
    two-gear, 152
    Drives (drivers) (Cont.):
    planocentric, 152
    rack, 106
    sector, 105
    shuttle, 368
    slider crank, 333
    ratchet, modified, 208
    ratios, four, six, and eight, 160
    tooth, speed change, 208
    reciprocating-ball, 368
    reciprocating-table, 103
    rectifier/rectification, full wave,
    367–368
    ring, 356
    ring, double 356
    ring with pulley, with, 356
    rod, 99
    sheave, 263
    ball-controlled, 263
    cam-controlled, 263
    spring-loaded, 263
    shift, double, 159
    shuttle pinion, 367–368
    six-bar dwell, 331
    slide-elliptical, 115
    slide-key, 159
    slide oscillator, 112
    sliding-change, 159
    soft-start, hinged and torsion
    bushings, 118
    space crank, 114
    speed-change, ratchet-tooth, 208
    sphere, spherical, 357–358
    ball and cone, 358
    crank, 111
    disk with, 357
    double- 357
    roller with. 357
    slide oscillator, 112
    tilting-ball, 358
    spring clutch, 367–368
    swivel gear, 159
    tape, 215
    tension-controlling (9), 435–437
    electrical, 435–436
    hydraulic, 436–437
    mechanical, 435
    three-dimensional linkage (7), 111–115
    crank-slide, 3D, 113
    elliptical slide, 115
    Hooke’s joint, 112, 309
    space crank, 114
    spherical crank, 111
    spherical-slide oscillator, 112
    variations, 115
    universal joint, 113
    three-gear, 331
    toggle and cord, 102
    toggle puncher, double, 106
    torque, low (7), 284–285
    Torrington lubricator, 349
    tractor, Ford, 151
    transmissions, 362–364
    triple, shaft, 160
    triple harmonic, 333
    turbine, Lycoming, 151
    twinworm gear, 163
    typewriter, 106
    unidirectional, 13539
    Drives (drivers) (Cont.):
    universal, joint, 113
    valve, 142
    variable-speed, and transmissions (43),
    353–364
    cone, 353–354
    disk, 355
    impulse, 360
    multiple disk, 359
    ring, 356
    spherical, 357–358
    variations, 361
    variable-stroke, 360
    wheel and slider, 333
    Whitworth quick-return, 9, 333
    wobble-gear, 152
    worm, 25, 327
    zero-max, 360
    Electric power generation:
    hydro, 74
    nuclear, 74–75
    ocean wave, 84
    photovoltaic (PV), 5
    tidal, 84
    solar thermal (CST), 78
    wind turbine, 76
    (See Renewable energy power
    generation)
    Electrical circuits, stopping textile
    machines (6), 414–415
    Electromagnetic force, 506
    Electromagnets, 32, 45–47, 461
    Electron microscopes (See Microscopes,
    electron)
    Electrostatic, 528
    Encoders (See Sensors)
    End-effector (See Robots, stationary and
    mobile)
    Energy exchange in seawater
    desalination, 378–379
    Engine, internal combustion, 2
    Engine, two-cycle, 380
    Engine Stirling solar generator, 81–83
    how it works, 82–83
    Epicycloid, cycloid, 138–140
    Epitaxy, 506
    Escapement, 194, 327
    cam-operated, 327
    controlled output, 194
    electric meter, 327
    ratchet-gear, 327
    solenoid-operated, ratchet, 327
    Fastener, toggle, 245
    Fastening hubs to shafts (14), 318–319
    Feeders (feeds):
    automatic feed mechanisms (7),
    392–394
    barrel hopper, 389
    electronic components, 390
    gravity for rods, 390
    headed rivets, 390
    label, 390
    long cylinder, 389
    paddle wheel, 389
    parallel-link, 104
    rapid and slow, screw, 297
    reciprocating, 389
    Feeders (feeds) (Cont.):
    rods, 390
    rotary center blade, 389
    rotary screw, 389
    Filter, permanent magnet, 458
    Fingers, holding, 430
    Fingers, pinned limiting, 430
    Fingers, shaft stopping, 430
    Fingers two, rotation prevention, 430
    Finite element analysis (FEA), 478, 484
    Finite element method (FEM), 478, 484
    Fixtures, holding, 259
    cupped, 259
    nest, spring-loaded, 259
    Flat mirror tower solar thermal plants
    (See Concentrating solar thermal
    (CST) systems)
    Flowmeter, 455
    Fuel mix, U.S. electric generation, 74
    Functional generators, 346–347
    Fused deposition modeling (FDM)
    (See Rapid prototyping)
    Gages, 101–102, 424, 453–454
    float, direct-reading, 471
    moving wire thickness, 455
    pressure, 101–102, 453–454
    absolute, 453
    Bourdon, 453
    differential, 453
    strain, 424
    Gears (gearing):
    bevel, 11–12, 157, 163, 166, 399
    design, of with hypoid, 164
    Humpage’s, 149
    spiral, 12, 164
    spur, 151
    straddle-design of, 164
    Cardan, 141–142
    mechanisms (5), 141–142
    circular, 133
    classification, 11–12
    compound trains, 11
    computer-aided emulation of, 24
    configurations 12–13
    cycloid mechanisms (11), 136,
    138–140, 171–172
    designing, 171–172
    definition, 10
    differential, drives, 134, 143
    eccentric, 152, 156
    elliptical, 153–156
    external, 11
    face, 12,
    five bar mechanisms, 167–170
    flexible, face, 144
    gears and gearing, 10–13
    geometry, tooth, 13
    glossary of terms, 13
    helical, 12, 163, 331, 367
    herringbone, 12
    hypocycloid curves, 138
    hypoid, 12, 164
    design of, with bevel, 164
    idler, rolling, 166, 221
    index, 132
    indexing with eccentric disk, 132–133
    internal/annual, 11, 12
    logarithmic spiral, 153
    Gears (gearing) (Cont.):
    noncircular, 133–135, 153–156
    characteristics of systems, 156
    nonflexing, 144
    pinions, 11–12, 157, 162
    rack-and-pinion, 11, 12, 340
    sheet-metal, 157–158
    planet (planetary), 12, 132–139, 142,
    145, 147, 150, 152, 167–168,
    171–174, 176, 180, 435,
    odd-shaped, 133
    twin-motor, safety and dual-speed,
    137
    practical configurations, 12–13
    quick indexing, with eccentric disk,
    132
    rack, 11–12, 161–163
    rack-and-pinion, 12, 272, 340
    ratio, 10, 13, 430
    ring, 132, 136–137, 145, 147–148, 152,
    162, 172, 176–177, 435
    rolling, 172–173
    rotary sequencer, 145
    rotary-to-linear, conversion by,
    137
    sheet-metal, 157–158
    simple trains, 11
    sine function, 156
    speed ratios, change (13), 159–160
    speed reducers, 166
    spiral, logarithmic, 156
    spur, 11, 12, 121, 151, 228
    spur, eccentric, 154
    square, 154
    sun, 132, 134, 137, 140, 152, 167–169,
    171–173, 180
    tooth geometry, 11
    trains, 11
    traveling, 166
    twinworm, 163
    types, eight common, 12
    unidirectional drive, 13
    velocity ratio, 10–11
    wobble drive, 152
    worm, 12, 136, 143, 157–158,
    163, 165
    Generators:
    DC, 435
    function, 108, 346–347
    Geneva:
    coupler-driven, 187
    double with differentials, 186
    drives (26), 138, 192–197
    dual-track drive, 193
    eight slot, 199
    eight-station, 186
    external wheel, 198
    basic outline drawing, 198
    charts for angular:
    acceleration, 199
    position, 199
    velocity, 199
    five-slot, 192
    formulas for, 192
    four-bar drive, 184
    four-slot, 192–194 196–197, 199, 201
    groove-cam drive, 192
    intermittent counter drive, 195
    internal drive, 195540
    Geneva (Cont.):
    internal-groove drive, 193
    internal wheel, 201–204
    kinematics for, external 190–200
    kinematics of internal wheels, 201–204
    basic outline, 201
    charts for angular:
    acceleration, 203,
    displacement, 202
    formulas for, 203
    velocity, 203
    locking arm drive, 192
    locking slide drive, 192
    long-dwell drive, 193
    modified drives (7), 193, 196–197
    planetary-gear drive, 192
    rapid-transfer drive, 193
    six-slot internal, 198, 202
    slot-crank internal motion, 200
    spherical, 195
    twin drive, 192
    wheel(s) (9), 198–204
    Governors, 442–443, 474–475
    acceleration, 474
    automatic speed (9), 442–443
    auxiliary piston, 442
    centrifugal, 474
    clutch, 474
    constant-volume, 443
    contacts, 474
    differential, 474
    electric, 475
    pulse counter, 475
    tachometers, AC and DC, 475
    force-compensated, 442
    hit-and-miss, 442
    hydraulic, 475
    pneumatic, 474–475
    pressure-actuated, 443
    typical, 444
    valve, 474
    varying differential, 443
    velocity-type, 443, 475
    cantilever, 443
    coil spring, 443
    Grapple, automatic, 245
    Greenhouse gas, 74
    carbon dioxide (CO2), 74
    methane (CH4), 74
    nitrous oxide (N2O), 74
    sulfur dioxide (SO2), 74
    Gripper, leaf-spring, 259
    Guides, 25, 340
    air-bearing, 25
    ballscrew-driven, single-axis, 25
    hydrostatic, 25
    inclined bearing, 340
    Hammers, electrically driven (9),
    460–461
    Hammers, spring-operated, 460, 461
    Holding fixtures, 259
    Hook release, emergency, 473
    Hydraulics:
    control system, 421, 436
    controller, 432
    cylinders, 109, 250
    drives, 436–437
    fluid, 421
    Hydraulics (Cont.):
    governor(s), 475
    motors, 436–437
    pumps, feed, 408
    receiver, 421
    sender, 421
    sensors, 475
    switch, pressure, 450
    transducer, pressure, 424
    valves, 408
    winch control, 351
    Hypocycloid, gear curves, 138
    Idler, rolling, 166
    Inclined plane, 3
    Indexing (indexers):
    flat-spring, 281
    intermittent, 326
    quick, gears and eccentric disk, 132
    smooth, timing belt and linkage,
    324–325
    star wheel, 205–207
    Indicators:
    automotive, liquid level, 470
    bellows-actuated, 470
    bimetallic, 471
    diaphragm-actuated, 470
    liquid-level, automotive, 470
    motion, 431
    power, 431
    pressure gage, 432, 471
    primary, 431–432
    secondary, 431–432
    temperature, 421, 431–432, 462
    Inductosyns (See Sensors)
    Instruments and controls:
    recording and controlling, 467
    thermostatic (16), 462–465
    Integrated circuits, CMOS, 518–519
    Integrators, mechanical, 349
    Jack, screw-type, 4
    Jaws, cam-locked, 250
    Joints:
    ball, 218
    ball-and-socket, 308
    Bendix-Weiss, 310
    cam, 107–108
    constant-velocity, 309–310
    cylinder, 110
    cylinder-plane, 110
    grooved-sphere, 309
    helix, 110
    Hooke’s, skewed, 112, 309–310
    plane, 110
    prism, 110
    revolute, 110
    robots, industrial, 52–54
    rotary, 107–108
    Rzeppa, 308, 310
    sliding, 107–108
    sphere, 110
    groove, 110
    plane, 110
    slotted, 110
    torus, 110
    torus-helix, 110
    universal, 113, 302, 308
    constant-speed, 308
    Key, feather, 318
    Key, mechanical, 427
    Key, retracting, 427
    Kinematics:
    external geneva wheel, 198–200
    internal geneva wheel, 201–204
    joint pairs, 110
    Knee-joint tester, 121
    Laminated-Object Manufacturing (LOM)
    (See Rapid prototyping)
    Lasers, 26, 43–44, 490–492, 494–496
    carbon dioxide infrared (IR), 491–492,
    496
    interferometer, for closed-loop
    feedback, 26, 43–44
    neodymium YAG, 495
    ultraviolet (UV), 489, 491
    Latches, 490–491, 492
    cam-guided, 238
    cocking with lever for, 239–240
    door, 457
    eccentric, 422
    geared cocking, 239
    locking, 116
    operating sequence, 242
    overcenter lock, 239
    perpendicular-force, 247–248
    remotely controlled, 244–245
    rim, on the, 422
    SMA actuated, release, 249
    spring-loaded, cocking, 239
    sleeve, 239
    Levers:
    action, 4
    classes, 4
    mechanisms, 4
    slotted, 339
    spherical, 339
    spring-loaded, 339
    LIGA process (techniques), 519–520
    Limiters, prevent overloading (13),
    426–428
    cammed sleeve connects, 427
    cylinder, cut, 427
    disengaging gears, 427
    friction-clutch torque, 426
    fluid coupling, 428
    magnetic fluid coupler, 428
    mechanical keys, 427
    piezoelectric crystal, 428
    retracting key, 427
    shearing, 428
    shear pin, 426,
    spring plunger, 428
    steel shot, 428
    Limiters, shaft rotation (7), 429–430
    clutch plates, 429
    gear ratio, large, 430
    pin-finger engagement, 429
    pinned fingers, 430
    shaft finger, 430
    traveling nut, 429
    two fingers, 430
    Limiters, torque, protect drives (8), 425–426
    cone clutch, 425
    flexible belt, 425
    friction disks, 426
    permanent magnets, 425541
    Limiters, torque, protect drives (Cont.):
    ring, 426
    rollers hold arms, 425
    sliding wedges, 426
    springs, 425
    Linear Fresnel reflector solar thermal plants
    (See Renewable power plants)
    Linear guides (See Guides)
    Linear motion, arrangements for
    changing (19), 339–341
    Linear resonator, 505
    Linear variable differential transformers
    (LVDTs) (See Sensors)
    Linkage, links:
    accelerating/decelerating linear motions,
    for (9), 99–100
    articulating, 118
    band clutches and brakes, for (8),
    119–120
    basic, 6
    bell-crank, 6
    closed-loop, 60
    crank and rocker, design of, 6, 7, 90,
    121–123
    D-curve, 98
    D-drive, 96
    defined, 5, 6
    different motions (4), 98
    differential, variations of (18), 107–108
    door-check, 117
    double parallel crank, 90
    double-rocker, 6, 7
    drag-link, 6, 91
    eight-bar, 103
    synthesis of, 127
    elliptical gear, 91
    expanding and contracting (6), 97
    force and stroke multiplier (9), 105
    four-bar, 6, 90–91, 96, 107, 111,
    117, 121
    design for angular motion, 124–125
    fundamentals of, 5–8
    multibar for curvilinear 125–127
    Robert’s law design of, 128
    screw device, 293
    sliding member with, 90
    typical applications, 89–91
    high mechanical advantage, 116
    high velocity ratio, 117
    hinged, 118
    isosceles, drag, 90
    linear force airspring, 288
    linear motions, accelerating
    decelerating (9), 99–100
    linkages, fundamental, 5–8
    multibar for curvilinear motions,
    125–127
    multiplier, stroke (7), 103
    multiplying short motions, for (12),
    101–102
    nonparallel equal crank, 90
    offset shaft coupling, 303
    pantograph, 91
    parallel (4), 103
    parallel coupling, 104
    parallel driller, 104
    parallel feeder, 104
    parallel-motion, 6,
    parallel plate driver, 104
    Linkage, links (Cont.):
    parallelogram, 104
    planar, simple, 5, 6
    push-pull, 6
    reciprocating linear force, air spring,
    288
    reverse-motion, 6
    rotary force, air spring, 288
    rotary-to-linear, 8
    rotating crank, 91
    sacrificing, 243
    specialized, 6
    spring-type, 292
    straight-line for motion generation (5),
    7–8, 95–96
    Evans, 95
    Peaucellier’s cell, 7, 91, 96
    Robert’s, 91
    Scott-Russell, 7
    Tchebicheff’s, 91
    Watt’s, 6, 90–95
    straight sliding, 91
    three-dimensional (7), 111
    toggle, different applications (13),
    116–117
    transport mechanisms for (7), 92–94
    trapezoidal, 90
    treadle drive, 91
    variable mechanical advantage, 117
    Load cell, cantilever, 454
    Lock pin, quick-release, 246
    Lunar Electric Rover (LER), 530–531
    leading specifications, 531
    Machines:
    adhesive applications (20), 402–407
    automatic shear, 415
    coil-winding, 434
    cutoff, 447
    efficiency of, 2, 19
    folder or yarder, 415
    label application, 401
    loom, 415
    production, 395
    riveting, 116–117
    routing, irregular, 353
    stone-crushing, 116
    tensile testing, 351
    vacuum pickup, pill position, 401
    velocity ratio, 3
    winding, 399–400
    Magnets, magnetic:
    alnico, 30
    ceramic, 30
    clutches, 235
    detent, 257
    devices, 457–459
    neodymium, rare earth, 30, 34, 68
    permanent (PM), 26, 457–459
    permanent (PM), applications for,
    457–459
    Mechanical:
    advantage, 2, 19
    engineering, new directions in,
    502–532
    glossary of common terms, 18–20
    Mechanisms:
    actuated by pneumatic or hydraulic
    cylinders (24), 448–449
    Mechanisms (Cont.):
    adjustable output (adjuster) (5),
    343–344
    cam-motion, 343
    double cam, 343
    eccentric pivot point, 344
    linkage-motion, 343
    piston stroke, 344
    shaft synchronizer, 344
    three-dimensional, 343
    valve stroke, 343
    agitator, 113
    automatic (operation):
    assuring safe machine operation (6),
    416–417
    feed (7), 392–394
    stopping by electrical circuits
    textile machines (6), 414–415
    stopping by unsafe machines (24),
    408–413
    ballscrew slide, 23
    belt on pulley, 14
    basics of, 2–20
    cam mechanisms, 14–17, 181–189
    automatic feed, 188
    barrel, 188
    circular grove, 162
    constant-speed, 188
    constant velocity, 182
    continuous rotary motion, 189
    cut-out, 181, 189
    cycloidal motion, 183–184
    different, 15, 188–189
    double eccentric, 188
    double-faced, 181
    firing-pin, 239
    function generator, 108
    follower motion, fast cam, 332
    glossary of terms, 17
    groove and oval, 189
    indexing, 188
    mixing roller, 188
    motion adjusters, 343–344
    planetary, 180
    simple-harmonic, 183
    sliding, 181, 189
    slot, 189
    steel-ball, 189
    stroke, amplifying (5), 181
    stroke, multiplying, 181
    swash-plate, 189
    rack with cam, 180
    tilting device, 189
    Cardan-gear (5), 141–142
    Scotch yoke, with, 141
    valve drive, 142
    chain:
    oscillating, 316
    slider and, 316
    clutch, 17–18
    computing, mechanical, 10,
    346–349
    differentiators, 349
    integrators, 349
    resolvers, 347
    counting (counter), 423
    coupler (coupling):
    four-bar, 187
    geneva-driven, 187542
    Mechanisms (Cont.):
    crank:
    double-parallel, 90
    gear, oscillating, 333
    gear slider, 333
    nonparallel equal, 90–91
    reciprocating space, 315
    rocker, 6
    rotating, 91
    crank-rocker, 121–123
    four-bar, design of, 121–123
    curve-generating, 182–187
    curve-scribing, 104
    cutting (cutter) (7), 386–387
    clamping and, 386
    curved-motion, 387
    four-bar, 386
    parallel cutter, 386
    slicing, 387
    vertical motion, 387
    web, 386–387
    cycloid, (cycloidal) (11), 126, 138–140,
    171–173
    curves, family of, 138
    epicycloid, 138–140
    equations, design of geared, 171–173
    gear, 126, 136–140
    generating, curves for, 182–187
    hypocycloid, 138–140
    parallelogram, 139
    rocker, 139
    reciprocator, 140
    short-dwell rotary, 139
    differential:
    bevel-gear, 346
    planetary-gear, 107
    rotating-link, 346
    sliding-link, 346
    spiderless, 162
    differentiator, 349
    double:
    drag-link, 6
    lever, 91
    parallel crank, 90
    rocker, 6
    dough-kneading, 112
    drag-link, 6
    drive:
    bearing-and-roller, 329
    chain-oscillating, 330
    chain-slider, 330
    curve-slider, 333
    disk-and-roller, 329
    elliptical-motion drive, 140
    oscillating crank and planetary, 330
    three-gear, 331
    triple harmonic, 333
    wheel-and-slider, 333
    Whitworth quick-return, 333
    worm, 327
    dwell:
    cam-helical, 331
    cam-roller, 331
    cam-worm, 330
    double, 138
    double-crank, 331
    epicyclic, 330
    intermittent, 332
    long, 330–332
    Mechanisms, dwell (Cont.):
    short, 333
    rotary, short, 139
    six-bar, 331
    efficiency of, 2
    epicycloid reciprocator, 140
    escapement, electric meter, 327
    fast-cam follower motion, 332
    feeder, 125
    firing-pin, 239
    five-bar, design of, 167–170
    four-bar space, 109
    flipping (2), 388
    turnover, 388
    upside-down flipper, 388
    friction for intermittent rotary motion (5),
    334–335
    gear, geared:
    bevel, 399
    Cardan, 141–142
    five-bar, design of, 167–170
    Jensen’s ring and slider, 176
    ring and slider, 176
    slider, 174–177
    gear-slider:
    design curves and equations, 174–177
    modified, 176
    generator, function, 108, 346–347
    geneva:
    internal-drive, 138
    long-dwell, 138
    wheel escapement, 9
    glossary of common terms, 8–10
    guidance, parallel drive, 194
    hammer, electrically driven (9),
    460–461
    harmonic drive, adjustable, 140
    hydraulic cylinder actuated, 448–449
    indexing, 324–325
    indexing and intermittent (10),
    326–327
    intermittent-motion, 133
    intermittent, “mutilated tooth,” 340
    lever, 4
    levers, double, 91
    lift-tong, 367
    linkage, 2
    four-bar, 90, 91
    transport mechanisms (7), 92–94
    long-dwell, 330–331
    mechanical computing, 346–347
    motors, spring, 286–287
    oscillating:
    chain, 328, 330
    crank and planetary drive, 330
    over-centering, 241
    override, 284–285
    parallel guidance, 19
    parallel-link (4), 103
    parallelogram, cycloidal, 139
    parts-handling (11), 390–391
    pericycloid, 38
    pin-and-disk, 334
    pin-and-disk, sliding, 336
    pivot, 289
    planetary gear, special, 12
    pneumatic-cylinder actuated, 448–449
    press, toggle, 117
    pressure release, 458
    Mechanisms (Cont.):
    pulsation reducing in chain drives, for,
    276–277
    quick-release, 248
    positive locking, 248
    quick-return, 9
    swing-arm, 9
    Whitworth’s, 9
    rack-and-gear sector, 328
    rack-and-pinion, robot gripper, 55
    ratchet wheel, 10, 327
    cam-driven, 327
    solenoid operated, 327
    reciprocator, 140, 194
    cycloidal, 140
    epicycloidal, 140
    linear, 329
    rotating-cam, 194
    sinusoidal, 194
    renewable power generation, 74–85
    reversing, different (4), 345
    automatic switching, 345
    double-link, 345
    modified Watt’s, 345
    pivot switching, 345
    toggle-link, 345
    ring-gear and slider, Jenson’s, 176
    rocker arm and disk, 335
    rotary, cycloidal short-dwell, 139
    rotary-to-linear, 8
    rotary-to-linear, gears, 137
    rotary-to-reciprocating motion and
    dwell (27), 328–333
    bearing and roller drive, 329
    cam-helical dwell, 331
    cam-roller dwell, 331
    cam-worm dwell, 330
    chain and slider drive, 330
    chain-slider drive, 330
    curve-slider drive, 333,
    disk and roller drive, 329
    double-crank dwell, 331
    double-dwell, 138
    epicyclic dwell, 330
    fast cam follower motion, 332
    four-bar slider, 328
    gear oscillating crank, 333
    gear-slider crank, 333
    intermittent motion, 332
    linear reciprocator, 329
    long dwell, 330–332
    drive, 138
    oscillating crank and planetary drive,
    330
    oscillator-chain, 328
    six-bar dwell, 331
    rack and gear sector, 328
    reciprocating space crank, 329
    short-dwell, 333
    three-gear drive, 331
    three-gear stroke multiplier, 328
    triple-harmonic drive, 333
    wheel and slider drive, 333
    Whitworth quick-return drive, 333
    rotating crank, 81
    Scotch-yoke, 8, 347
    screw, applications (10), 296–297
    double-handed, 93
    jack, 4543
    Mechanisms (Cont.):
    sector, rack and gear, 328
    Sellers’ disks, 361
    shifting, gear and clutch, 161–162
    short-dwell, 333
    slicing, 387
    slide (slider):
    ballscrew-driven, 23, 26
    four-bar, 328
    slider crank, design of, 8, 139
    sliding pin and disk, 335
    space, four bar, 109–110
    specialized, 9–10
    spring (7), 284–285
    overriding, for low-torque drives,
    284–285
    two-directional, limited travel
    override, 284
    two-directional override, 284
    two-directional 90° override, 285
    unidirectional override, 284, 285
    unidirectional 90° override, 285
    unidirectional override, 284
    stopping unsafe machines, automatic,
    240
    straight-line generators:
    Peaucellier’s, 7, 91
    Roberts’, 91
    Scott-Russell, 7
    Tchebicheff’s, 8, 91
    Watt’s, 7, 90
    stroke-amplifying, 181
    stroke-multiplying, 181
    swing-arm quick-return, 9
    three-dimensional, (3D) adjuster, 343
    three-gear drive, 331
    three-gear stroke multiplier, 328
    toggle, link and disk, 335
    toggle, press, 117
    toggle, quick-release, 240
    transport mechanisms, 92–94
    traversing, for winding machines (7),
    399–400
    triple pivot, 103
    turnover, 388
    upside-down flipper, 388
    vibrating (1), 388
    web cutting, 367
    wedge and disk, 334
    Whitworth’s quick-return, 9, 333
    MEMS (microelectromechanical systems),
    502–503
    acceleration sensors, 505
    CMOS integration, 517
    comb-drive actuator, 514
    digital light processing chip (DLP),
    503
    digital micromirror device (DMD),
    502–503
    electrostatic forces in, 506
    electron microscope images gallery,
    512–515, 518
    gear-reduction unit (drive), 515
    gyroscope, 75, 502
    images, gallery of, 512–515
    inertial measurement systems,
    three-axis, 518
    linear resonator, 505
    machine design in, 502–503
    MEMS (microelectromechanical systems)
    (Cont.):
    materials for, 505–506
    alternate for, 519
    piezoelectric films, 506–507
    polysilicon, 512
    tungsten interconnects, 518
    microaccelerometers, 502, 504–505, 518
    microactuators, 504–505, 515–516, 518
    comb drives, 513–514, 518
    electrostatic, 516
    parallel plate, 516
    thermal, V-shaped, 516
    thermal ratcheting, 516
    torsional ratcheting (TRA), 516
    microcontrol systems, 517
    microconverters, torque, 513
    microchain, drive, 515
    microchain link and sprocket, 515
    microengine, steam, 515
    microfluidics, 519, 522
    micrographs, 512–516, 518
    micromechanical actuators, 504, 518
    micromirror device, digital, 503–503, 517
    micromotors, 502–507, 512,
    514–515, 529
    rotary, 514
    stepping, wedge, 512
    microoscillator, dual mass, 513
    micropumps, 504
    microresonator, linear, 505
    microstereolithography, 519
    microtransducer, piezoelectric, 506–507
    microtransmissions, 502–503, 514
    gear reduction units, 514
    microvalves, 504
    multilevel fabrication of, 512
    oscillator, dual-mass, 513
    piezoelectric film, 506–507
    processes (See Micromachining of
    MEMS)
    research and development, 517
    resonators, 502
    three-axis inertial system, 518
    torque converter, 513
    Microaccelerometers (See MEMS)
    Microactuators (See MEMS)
    Microcontrol systems (See MEMS)
    Microelectromechanical systems
    (See MEMS)
    Micrographs (SEM), (See MEMS)
    Micromachine power, 506
    Micromachining (fabrication) of MEMS,
    479–480
    bulk, micromachining, 507
    chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP),
    508, 517
    IMEMS technology, 517
    iMEMS technology, 502
    LIGA, 519–520
    SUMMiT/SUMMiT V technology, 512
    surface micromachining, 507
    Microminiature systems (See MEMS)
    Microscopes, electron, 509–511
    atomic force (AFM), 510–511
    charge-coupled device (CCD) camera,
    509
    piezoelectric (PZT) scanner, 511
    raster scanning, 509
    Microscopes, electron (Cont.):
    scanning electron (SEM), 509, 510
    scanning images (SEM), 480–483, 485
    scanning tunneling (STM), 510
    transmission electron (TEM), 509
    Microtechnology in mechanical
    engineering, role, 502–503
    Mold Shape Deposition Manufacturing
    (MSDM) (See Rapid prototyping)
    Motion control:
    classification, 22–24
    closed-loop control, 22–24, 28
    open-loop control, 24
    position control, 23–24
    torque-control, 23
    velocity-control, 23
    closed-loop control techniques, 24, 28
    derivative control, 24
    integral control, 24
    PID control, 24
    proportional control, 24
    computer-aided emulation, in, 24
    electric power advantage, 22
    electronic components for, 26
    feedback sensors for, 27, 28 (See also
    Sensors)
    glossary of terms for, 28
    inspection, X-Y, 29
    installation and operation, 28
    interpolation, 24, 27
    circular, 24
    contouring, 24
    linear, 24, 27
    kinds of controlled motion, 24
    incremental, 24
    point-to-point, 24
    sequencing, 24
    speed (velocity), 24
    torque, 24
    mechanical components for, 24–26,
    29, 33
    microcomputer-controlled, X-Y table, 29
    motor drivers (amplifiers) for, 27
    motor selection for, 26
    open-loop systems, 24
    pick and place, X-Y, 29
    punch press, 29
    profile, trapezoidal velocity control,
    23, 24
    servomotors, stepper motors, and
    actuators for, 26, 27, 30–37
    systems, 22–29 (See also Controls)
    table, X-Y microcomputer-controlled,
    29
    X-Y inspection in, 24, 29
    Motor generators, 377
    conical bearingless, 377
    Motors:
    commutation, 34–35
    brush type, 30–31
    brushless, 32
    Hall-effect (HED), 26–27, 32, 34
    comparison of stepping and servo
    motors for motion control, 27
    hydraulic,436–437
    linear actuators, motorized, DC and AC,
    37
    microminiature (See MEMS)
    motion control, for 26–27, 30–38544
    Motors (Cont.):
    piezoelectric, 62
    selection of, 26
    selsyn, 436
    servomotors, linear, 27, 33, 34
    advantages of linear vs. rotary, 35
    coil assembly heat dissipation, 35
    commutation, 34
    heat control, 35
    installation of, 35
    iron-core, 34
    ironless, 34
    servomotors, rotary, PM DC, 26–27,
    30–33
    brushless, 26–27, 30, 32
    characteristics of, 33
    disadvantage, 33
    position sensing, 33
    brush-type PM DC, 26–27, 30, 31
    cup/shell, 31
    disk-type, 31
    speed-torque curves, 30
    spring-powered, 286–287
    stepper (stepping), 26–27, 35–38
    actuators, linear based on, 37
    applications for, 36
    hybrid, 36
    permanent-magnet (PM), 36
    variable reluctance (VR), 36
    wedge, MEMS, 512–513
    Multiplication of functions, 348
    Multipliers:
    force and stroke, 105–106
    stroke, linkages, 103
    three-gear stroke, 328
    Nanoactuators, 528–529
    Nanometers, 521
    measurement in, 521
    Nanomotor, 529
    Nanoparticles, 521
    Nanotechnology, science, engineering, 521
    Nanotubes, carbon, 523–525
    National fuel mix, electric generation, 74
    Nonrenewable energy power plants
    coal-fired, 74
    natural gas, 74
    nuclear, 74–75
    petroleum, 74
    Oscillators
    dual-mass, MEMS, 513
    wide-angle, 105
    Pantograph, 6, 91
    Parabolic dish Stirling Solar Thermal
    plants (See Concentrating solar
    thermal (CST) systems)
    Parabolic trough mirror solar thermal
    plants (See concentrating solar
    thermal (CST) systems)
    Pericycloid, 128
    Photoelectric cell, 409
    Photoelectric controls (7), 468–469
    photovoltaic (PV) solar panels, 75
    Piezoelectric:
    actuator, 62
    crystal, 428
    films, 506–507
    transducer, microminiature, 506–507, 518
    Pinions (See Gears)
    Plane, inclined, 3
    Plants, power:
    baseload and baseload demand, 75
    linear Fresnel reflector solar thermal
    (CST), 79–80
    nuclear, 74
    parabolic dish Sterling solar thermal
    (CST) 81–82
    parabolic trough mirror solar thermal
    (CST), 78
    power-tower solar thermal (CST), 79
    Platform, multi-axis, X-Y-Z, 22
    Pneumatic:
    cylinders, 342, 448–449
    power, tasks for (15), 450–452
    valve, dump, 241
    valve, two-way, 342
    Poly-Jet Matrix 3D Printing (See Rapid
    prototyping)
    Polygon connections, 320–321
    advantages of, 321
    shaft hub, straight, 320
    shaft hub, taper, 321
    Potentiometer (See Sensors)
    Power:
    conversion unit (PCU)
    generation, nonrenewable (See
    Mechanisms for renewable power )
    generation, renewable (See Mechanisms
    for renewable power generation)
    Preprocessing in simulation (See 3D
    digital prototypes and simulation)
    Press:
    direct-acting, air spring, 288
    punch, 116
    safeguards for, 468
    toggle, 117
    Pressure exchange unit (PEU), 378–379
    Pressure plate, walking, 220
    Profile, trapezoidal velocity, 23–24
    Prototyping, digital, (See 3D digital
    prototypes and simulation)
    Prototyping, rapid, (See Rapid
    prototyping)
    Pulley, pulleys, 3, 262–263, 324
    ball-controlled, 263
    cam-controlled, 263
    linkage-controlled, 262
    spring-loaded variable pitch, 263
    systems, 3
    Pump(s), 369–375
    articulated piston/compressor, 374
    bent axis, 374
    centrifugal /impeller, 370, 375
    designs explained (18), 373–375
    diaphragm pump/compressor, 374
    external rotor (gear), 370
    glossary of terms, 376
    helical rotor, 371
    high-vacuum, 371
    hydraulic gear 370
    hydraulic twin piston 370
    linear, 374
    micropump, 504
    nanopump, 522
    peristaltic, 371
    operating principles of, 369
    Ramelli, 372
    Roots compressor, 372
    Pump(s) (Cont.):
    rotary (rotating):
    compressor, 372
    cylinder block, 371
    flexible-vane, 373
    idler-tooth, 369
    reversible, 369
    sliding-piston, 373
    sliding-vane, 373
    swinging-vane, 369
    swashplate, 369
    three-screw, 372
    two-screw, 372
    wobble-plate, 375
    Puncher, double-toggle, 106
    Rapid prototyping (RP), 488–500
    build envelope, 489
    building functional parts, 488
    choices, commercial RP, 489–490
    computer controlled (CNC) milling,
    498
    commercial additive RP processes,
    491–497
    Direct Metal Deposition (DMD),
    495–496
    Direct-Shell Production Casting
    (DSPC), 496–497
    Directed-Light Fabrication (DLF),
    495
    Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM),
    493
    Laminated Object Manufacturing
    (LOM), 496
    Poly-Jet Matrix 3D Printing, 494–495
    Selective Laser Sintering (SLS),
    491–493
    Solid-Ground Curing (SGC), 497
    Stereolithography (SLA), 491
    Three-Dimensional Printing (3DP),
    493–494
    commercial subtractive RP, 498
    desktop prototyping, 498
    processes in RP, 488–489
    research and development in, 498–500
    Mold Shape Deposition
    Manufacturing (MSDM), 499
    Shape Deposition Manufacturing
    (SDM), 498–499
    Robocasting ceramic parts, 499–500
    Ratchet wheels:
    analysis of, 210
    cam-driven, 327, 341
    drive, modified, 208
    drive, speed-change, 208
    friction, 10
    internal, 221
    pawl, with, 210, 229
    sheet-metal, 158
    solenoid-operated, 327
    toothless, 209
    Reciprocators:
    cycloidal, 140
    epicycloid, 140
    linear, 329
    rotating-cam, 194
    sinusoidal, 194
    Recorders, 470–471
    bubbler-type, 470
    float, 471545
    Regulator:
    nonindicating, remote bulb, 467
    self-contained, 466
    Renewable energy, power generation:
    concentrating solar thermal (CST),
    78–84
    linear Fresnel reflector, 80–81
    locations for, 83–84
    mechanical, 74–87
    moving-water power generation, 84–85
    ocean-wave power, 84–85
    outlook for, 83–84
    overview of sources, 74
    parabolic dish Stirling, 81–83
    parabolic trough mirror, 96–97
    photovoltaic (PV) solar panels, 75
    power tower, 79–80
    tidal power, 84
    water turbines/pumps, 84–85
    wave-energy buoys, 85
    wind turbines, 76–78
    G E, specifications, 77
    glossary of terms, 86
    relative costs of, 85
    Vestas, specifications for, 77
    windmill, Dutch origins for, 74
    Resources, renewable energy, 87
    Reverse osmosis, sea water, 378–379
    Reverse rotation prevention ways (6), 422
    Robocasting, ceramic parts (See Rapid
    prototyping)
    Robots, general:
    autonomous industrial, 50–51
    characteristics, 51
    definition, 50
    glossary of terms, 66–67
    history, 51
    introduction to, 50
    worldwide market, 51
    Robots, industrial, stationary, 51
    advantages of, 52–53
    axes, number of, 51–53, 56
    Cartesian coordinates, 54
    characteristics of, 53
    classification of, 51
    closed-loop control, 51
    components of, 52
    continuous-path, 51
    cylindrical coordinate, 54
    degrees-of-freedom defined, 51–54
    electric-drive, 51
    end effectors, 54, 55
    floor-standing, 52–54
    geometry, 53–57
    articulated, revolute (jointed), 53
    Cartesian, 53–54
    cylindrical coordinate, 53–54
    polar coordinate, (gun-turret), 53–54
    vertically jointed, 54
    gripper operators, 55
    piston, hydraulic/pneumatic, 55
    rack and pinion mechanism, 55
    reciprocating mechanism, 55
    grippers, 51, 55–56
    high shoulder, 53
    hydraulic-drive, 51
    limited sequence control, 51
    low shoulder, 53
    nonservoed control, 51
    open-loop control, 51
    Robots, industrial, stationary (Cont.):
    optimum locations, 53
    pendants, training, 52
    pneumatic-drive, 51
    point-to-point, 51
    polar coordinate, 54
    servoed control, 51
    specifications for ABB robots, 56–57
    unlimited sequence control, 51
    vertically jointed, 54
    wrists, 51, 54–55
    three-degrees-of-freedom, 55
    two-degrees-of-freedom, 55
    Robots, mobile, 58–72
    aircraft, 58–59, 63–64
    autonomous, semiautonomous, 58–59
    commercial/consumer, 59
    communications/control, 58
    entertaining/education, 59
    laboratory/scientific/surgical, 59, 65
    land-based, 58, 62–63
    planetary exploration, 59–62, 68–72
    semiautonomous, block diagram, 60
    submersible, 58–59, 64
    Robots, mobile, examples 60–65
    aircraft (drone): Predator MQ-1, 63–64
    hospital supply: Aethon TUG, 62–63
    Mars Rovers, Spirit, Opportunity, 60–61
    Mars Science Lab (MSL), 65
    public service: TALON Responder, 62
    submersible: Remus 600, 64
    Robots, NASA planetary, science:
    four-limbed, to favor climbing, 68
    mesh-crawling, six-legged, 69
    steerable, hopping, six-legged, 71–72
    three system for, steep slope traverse,
    70
    Rollers, 425–426
    Roller, ring-latch, 145
    Teleoperators, 50, 65
    medical:
    da Vinci System, 65
    Screws:
    adjusting devices (14), 298
    arrangements, special (7), 297
    ball bearing, convert motion, 338
    devices (20), 293–295
    differential, 295, 298
    double-threading/threaded, 295
    mechanisms, applications, 296
    motion translation/transformation,
    293–294
    rotation translation, 293
    shock absorbent, 297
    opposite-hand threads, 295
    self-locking, 294
    Seals, 453
    capsule pressure, 453
    force-balanced, 453
    Selective laser sintering (SLS) (See Rapid
    prototyping)
    Selectors, parts (7), 389
    Sensors:
    acceleration, capacitive, 477
    bimetallic, 466
    differential transformers (9), 454–455
    encoders:
    absolute shaft-angle optical, 27–28, 39
    brush type, 38
    Sensors, encoders (Cont.):
    incremental shaft angle optical,
    27–28, 38, 39
    linear optical, 28, 38, 39
    magnetic, 40
    rotary, 27, 38–40
    feedback, general, 27–28
    hydraulic-pressure, 475
    inductosyns, 28, 43
    laser interferometers, 28, 43–44
    pneumatic, 474
    potentiometers, precision multiturn,
    28, 44
    resolvers, 28, 33, 38, 40, 41
    servosystems, for, 28, 38–44
    tachometers, 28, 38, 41
    tension control, 455
    transducers, angular displacement
    (ADTs), 28, 38, 43
    transducers, linear velocity (LVTs),
    28, 42, 46
    transformers, linear variable
    displacement (LVDTs), 28, 42
    Sequencer, rotary, 145
    Servomotors (See Motors)
    Servosystems, feedback sensors for,
    28, 38–44
    Shafts, tapered, 318
    Shape Deposition Manufacturing (SDM)
    (See Rapid prototyping)
    Sheaves, 263
    cam-controlled, 263
    centrifugal-force actuator, 263
    control, 363
    drives, 263
    linkage actuation, 263
    spring pressure, 363
    Simulation for 3D digital prototyping (See
    3D digital prototypes and simulation)
    Sleeve, cammed, 427
    Slides, ball for linear motion (9), 336–337
    Skeleton outline, 2
    Slideblocks, 99–100
    Solar Energy Generating System (SEGS),
    78
    Solar power generation (See also
    Concentrating Solar thermal, CST)
    photovoltaic (PV) solar panels, 75
    Solar Stirling engine (See Stirling engine
    solar thermal)
    Solenoids, 45–48
    applications for, 45–48, 342
    box-frame, 46
    C-frame, 46
    economical choice of, 45
    linear pull-type, 45
    open-frame, 46
    push-pull functions, 45
    rotary, 46–47
    technical considerations for, 45–46
    tubular, 46
    Solid-Ground Curing (SGC) (See Rapid
    prototyping)
    Space frames, 305–307
    Speed reducer, with flexible-face gears,
    144
    Splined Connections (10), 316–317
    cylindrical, 316
    face, 317
    involute-form, 316–317546
    Splined Connections (Cont.):
    machine-tool, 316
    square, 316
    straight-sided, 316
    taper-root, 317
    Sprags, 18, 217, 221–223, 225, 227, 280
    Springs:
    air-filled:
    applications (12), 288–289
    bellows-type, 288–289
    convolution, one and two, 289
    rolling-diaphragm type, 289
    rolling-sleeve, 289
    vehicle-suspension type, 289
    axial compression, 292
    Belleville, applications for, 291
    bowed, 242, 243
    cam, with, 290
    cantilever, 292
    cocking, 238, 239
    coil, 290, 292, 425, 443
    compression, 259, 292
    dual, 290
    flat, in mechanisms, 280–281
    latch, 238, 239
    leaf, 243,259
    loading, 245
    metal, ways to use (12), 282–283
    motors, driven by, 286–287
    overcentring:
    leaf, 243, 290
    tension, 243
    overriding mechanisms (7), 284, 285
    return, 281
    rubber, molded, 290
    setting, 443
    slotted, 291
    tapered-pitch, 290
    outside diameter, 290
    tension, 239, 280, 283, 292
    torque, 292
    torsion, 238–239, 243, 290
    torsion ribbon, 242
    vibration control, linkage, 292
    volute, in mechanisms, 280
    Sprockets, 14, 255–257, 266–267
    chains, with, 14
    driving and driven, 265
    sheet-metal, 158
    Stages, linear (See Guides)
    Stereolithography (SL) (See Rapid
    prototyping)
    Sterling engine, solar thermal, 81–83
    principles of operation, 82–83
    SUMMiT process, 512, 518
    Switches:
    limit, in machinery, 438–442
    mercury, 410, 415
    microswitch, 417
    reed, 424
    toaster, 117
    two-way, 342
    Systems:
    belt-driven, 262
    coaxial-shaft, 262
    double-reduction, 262
    fixed-distance, 262
    variable-distance, 262
    Systems (Cont.):
    braking, foot-controlled, 450
    cable braking, limits decent rate, 445
    clutch/brake, cutting control for, 423
    concentrating solar thermal (CST), 78
    conveyor, for production (15),
    395–398
    closed-loop (See Motion control
    systems)
    crank-rocker, 170
    differential pressure, 471
    winch, applications to control, 420
    double-crank, 170
    electric, for motion control, 22
    external planetary gear, 167
    electromechanical systems, (See MEMS)
    fixed-crank, external gear, 167
    hydraulic control, 421
    internal planetary gear, 167
    lever, cable tension monitor, 424
    mechanical, for tension and speed
    control, 431–434
    microcontrol systems, three-axis inertial
    measurement, 518
    motion control (See Motion control
    systems)
    open-loop (See Motion control)
    paper cutting control, 423
    planetary gear, 146–152, 277
    cam-controlled, 180
    pneumatic, 342
    servo (See Motion control)
    specialized, 29
    pick-and-place X-Y, 29
    punch press, 29
    X-Y table inspection, 29
    X-Y table, microcomputer-controlled,
    29
    Sterling engine, 82–83, 167
    warning, boom overload, 424
    Tables, indexing, 225
    table X-Y, 29
    Tachometers (See Sensors)
    Teleoperators, 50, 65
    medical:
    da Vinci System, 65
    Temperature-regulating controls (8), 466
    Thermometer, recordings, 462
    Thermometer, room temperature, 462
    Thermostatic instruments and controls (16),
    462–465
    automatic gas range control, 464
    automobile dashboard, 463
    control, carburetor, 463
    electric range thermostat, 464
    refrigerator controls, 465
    relay, bimetal, 463
    room temperature control, 465
    scale thermostatic control, 463
    throttling water control valve, 464
    Three-Dimensional Printing (3DP)
    (See Rapid prototyping)
    Thruster, explosive cartridge, 472
    Tidal electric power generation, 84
    Toggles, linkage, 238, 241
    Torque control (See Controls)
    Torque converter, Constantino, 364
    Torque limiters, 425–426
    Transducers (See also Sensors, feedback)
    piezoelectric, 507–508
    tension-to-pressure, hydraulic, 424
    Transformer sensors (9), 454–455
    Transmissions:
    cam and cord, 101
    cam drive, 101
    chain, 102
    Constantino torque converter, 364
    Cruise-O-Matic, 3-speed, 150
    Fordomatic, 2-speed, 150
    Graham, 362
    Hydramatic, 3-speed, 150
    lever-type, 101–102
    link and chain, 102
    Morse, 364
    sector gear, 101
    spiral-feed, 102
    Thomas, 364
    toggle and cord, 102
    variable-speed, 363, 436
    Transmitters, pressure, 454
    absolute bellows, 454
    Bourdon-tube, 454
    differential diaphragm, 454
    gage bellows, 454
    Transmitting transformer, proving ring,
    454
    Trigonomic function computing, 347
    Unit, bimetallic, 466
    Unit, pressure exchange (PSU), 378–379
    Vacuum pickup for positioning pills, 381
    Valves:
    centrifugal, 474
    dual flow, 473
    fluid flow, 338
    microvalves, 504
    pilot, lever-type, 467
    stem, 293
    thermostatic expansion, 465
    throttling circulating, water control, 464
    Wedges, fixed, 422
    Wedges, sliding, 342, 406
    Wheels:
    paddle, 389
    star for indexing, 205–207
    geneva external, kinematics of,
    198–199
    internal, kinematics of, 201
    Winches:
    differential, standard, 421
    Hulse, 420
    hydraulic, 351
    sender, 421
    standard, 5
    Wind turbines, 76
    glossary of terms, 86
    location of, 77
    specifications for, 77
    Windlasses, 5, 352
    Windmills, 75
    Dutch traditional 75
    Worm drive, 327
    Worms, sheet-metal, 15

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