Mechanical Engineers’ Handbook Volume 1

Mechanical Engineers’ Handbook Volume 1
اسم المؤلف
Myer Kutz
التاريخ
2 مايو 2021
المشاهدات
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
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Mechanical Engineers’ Handbook Volume 1
Fourth Edition
Materials and Engineering Mechanics
Edited by
Myer Kutz
Contents
Preface ix
Vision for the Fourth Edition xi
Contributors xiii
PART 1 MATERIALS 1
1. Carbon and Alloy Steels 3
Bruce L. Bramfitt
2. Stainless Steels 39
James Kelly
3. Aluminum Alloys 61
J. G. Kaufman
4. Copper and Copper Alloys 117
Konrad J. A. Kundig and Robert D. Weed
5. A Guide to Engineering Selection of Titanium Alloys for Design 229
Matthew J. Donachie
6. Nickel and Its Alloys 267
Gaylord D. Smith and Brian A. Baker
7. Magnesium and Its Alloys 289
Robert E. Brown
8. A Guide to Engineering Selection of Superalloys for Design 299
Matthew J. Donachie, John Marcin, and Stephen J. Donachie (deceased)
9. Thermoplastics, Thermosets, and Elastomers—Descriptions and Properties 353
Edward N. Peters
10. Composite Materials 401
Carl Zweben
11. Smart Materials 439
James A. Harvey
12. Overview of Ceramic Materials, Design, and Application 453
R. Nathan Katz
13. Electronic Materials and Packaging 475
Warren C. Fackler
14. Sources of Material Data 515
J. G. Kaufman
15. Quantitative Methods of Materials Selection 531
Mahmoud M. Farag
viiviii Contents
PART 2 ENGINEERING MECHANICS 553
16. Stress Analysis 555
Franklin E. Fisher
17. Force Measurement 623
Patrick Collins
18. Resistive Strain Measurement Devices 659
Mark Tuttle
19. An Introduction to the Finite-Element Method 681
Tarek I. Zohdi
20. Failure Models: Performance and Service Requirements for Metals 703
J. A. Collins, G.P. Potirniche, and S. R. Daniewicz
21. Failure Analysis of Plastics 771
Vishu Shah
22. Failure Modes: Performance and Service Requirements for Ceramics 789
Dietrich Munz
23. Viscosity Measurement 809
Ann M. Anderson, Bradford A. Bruno, and Lilla Safford Smith
24. Tribology Measurements 837
Prasanta Sahoo
25. Vibration and Shock 861
Singiresu S. Rao
26. Acoustics 885
Jonathan D. Blotter, Scott D. Sommerfeldt, and Kent L. Gee
27. Acoustical Measurements 953
Brian E. Anderson, Jonathan D. Blotter, Kent L. Gee, and Scott D. Sommerfeldt
Index 997
Index
A
About.com, 527, 528
ABS (American Bureau of Ships), 26
Absolute viscosity, 810, 811
Absorption:
of moisture, 483–484
of sound, 898–900
Absorption coefficients, 898–900, 909,
976–977
ABS polymers (acrylonitrile/butadiene/
styrene) polymers, 363–365
Accuracy, 648
of force transducers, 641
of microphones, 967
of viscometers, 835
Acetals, 378–379
Acoustics, 885–949
active noise control, 916–922
architectural, 922, 923
community noise in, 922–931
decibel scale, 889–890
defined, 886
equal loudness curves, 890–891
and hearing loss, 905–908
human auditory system, 942–946
impedance in, 893, 894
of loudspeakers, 948–949
of microphones, 946–949
nonlinear, 937–942
passive noise control in, 906–915
reflection and transmission of sound,
900–904
sound intensity, 887–888
sound power, 886–887
sound pressure, 888–889
sound quality analysis, 930,
932–937
and theory of sound, 894–900
weighting filters in, 891–893
Acoustical measurements, 953–995
of community and environmental noise,
980–982
decibel scale for, 958–959
frequency weightings, 959–962
fundamental, 954–962
with microphones, 962–969
of octave frequency bands, 962, 963
for rooms, 975–979
sound exposure, 992–995
sound intensity, 958, 982–988
sound isolation, 971–974
sound power, 957–958, 988–992
sound pressure, 955–957
sound pressure level, 969–971
standards for, 954, 955
Acoustic filters, 910–913
bandstop filters, 910–912
high-pass filters, 913
low-pass filters, 911, 912
Acoustic path, 907–908
Acoustic radiation pressure, 940
Acoustic source, 907–908
Acoustic streaming, 940
Acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene (ABS)
polymers, 363–365
Acrylonitrile/styrene/acrylate (ASA) polymers,
365
Active noise control, 916–922
applications of, 921–922
architectures for, 917–919
attenuation limits for, 919
filtered-x algorithm in, 919–920
identifying system for, 920
Adhesives:
for electronic packaging, 498–499, 502
smart, 451
Advanced thermal management materials,
430–432
AED (auger electron spectroscopy), 855
Aerospace applications, aluminum alloys for,
113
Aerospace Materials Specifications
(AMS), 26
AFM (atomic force microscopy), 842–843
Aircraft, aluminum alloys for, 113
Alkyd resins, 395–396
Allowable unit stress, 562
997998 Index
Alloys:
aluminum, see Aluminum alloys
copper, see Copper alloys
magnesium, see Magnesium alloys
nickel, see Nickel alloys
shape memory, 448–449
super-, see Superalloys
titanium, see Titanium alloys
Alloy Center, 524–526
Alloy elements, microstructure/properties of,
241
Alloy steel(s), 28–36
aluminum in, 23
boron in, 23
calcium in, 23–24
carbon in, 19–21
chromium in, 22
copper in, 22
dual-phase steels, 30
elements used in, 18–24
heat-resistant steels, 34–35
higher alloy steels, 31–36
high-performance steels, 30–31
hydrogen in, 24
lead in, 24
low-alloy steels, 29–31
manganese in, 20, 21
microalloyed steels, 30
molybdenum in, 22
nickel in, 22
niobium in, 23
nitrogen in, 24
phosphorus in, 21–22
rare earth elements in, 24
residual elements in, 24
selenium in, 24
silicon in, 21
stainless steels, 31–34
sulfur in, 22
tantalum in, 23
titanium in, 23
tool steels, 34
trip steels, 30
tungsten in, 23
ultrahigh-strength steels, 35–36
vanadium in, 22–23
wear-resistant steels, 35
zirconium in, 24
Alpha alloys (titanium), 245
Alpha-beta alloys (titanium), 245–247
Alpha iron, 6
Alternating stress amplitude, fatigue with, 572
Alumina-based fibers (as composite
reinforcement), 411
Aluminum:
in electronic packaging materials, 492–493
in steel, 23
surface finishes of, 487–488
Aluminum alloys, 61–115
advantages of, 62–65
by alloy class, 93–112
applications of, 93–114
cast alloys, 64–65, 80–87, 107–112
corrosion behavior of, 87–89
designation systems for, 65–73
in electronic packaging materials, 492–493
finishing of, 91–93
limitations of wrought/cast, 65
machining of, 89–91
market-area applications, 112–114
mechanical properties of, 73–87
nature of, 61–62
wrought alloys, 62–64, 73–79, 93–108
Aluminum bronzes, 133, 147, 226
American Bureau of Ships (ABS), 26
American National Standards Institute (ANSI),
954, 955
American Railway Engineering and
Maintenance of Way Association
(AREMA), 26
American Society for Testing and Materials
(ASTM) standards, 470, 832–833
Amino resins, 396
AMS (Aerospace Materials Specifications), 26
Analogue outputs, 648
Angle of twist, 598
Annealing, 25, 26
Anode, 46–47
Anodic coatings, 296
Anodized aluminum and aluminum alloys, 92,
487
ANSI (American National Standards Institute),
954, 955
Antimicrobial copper, 203
Antimony, 24
AOD, see Argon-oxygen decarburization
aPP (atactic polypropylene), 359
Apparent viscosity, 813
Applied coatings, for aluminum alloys, 93
Aramid fibers (as composite reinforcement),
411
Architectural acoustics, 922, 923Index 999
AREMA (American Railway Engineering and
Maintenance of Way Association), 26
Argon-oxygen decarburization (AOD), 4,
47–48, 332–334
Armor, ceramic wear components, 462
Aromatic polyamides, 377–378
Aromatic polyketones, 389–391
Arsenic, 24
ASA (acrylonitrile/styrene/acrylate) polymers,
365
Ashby’s method (materials selection), 536, 537
ASM International, 524–526
ASTM E140, 16–17
ASTM (American Society for Testing and
Materials) standards, 470, 832–833
Atactic polypropylene (aPP), 359
Atmospheric absorption, 898–900
Atomic force microscopy (AFM), 842–843
Attenuation limits, 919
Auditory system, 942–946
nervous system response to sound, 944
psychoacoustic effects of sound, 944–946
structure of ear, 942–944
Auger electron spectroscopy (AED), 855
Austenite, 18–19
Austenitic alloys:
nickel, 40
stainless steels, 18–19, 31–32
welding of, 55–56
Automotive engines, ceramic wear components,
461–462
Automotive industry, aluminum alloys in,
112–113
Average sound pressure level, 989
A-weighted filters, 891, 960–961
Axial strain, 648
Axial stress, 557
B
Bainite, 14, 15, 25
Band pass filter, 648
Bandstop filters, 910–912
Bars, steel, 5
Barks (unit), 933
Basalt fibers (as composite reinforcement), 411
Basic oxygen furnace (BOF), 4
Beams of uniform strength, 586
Beams, stresses on, 574–595
continuous beams, 586–588
curved beams, 588–591
and design, 584–586
flexure, 574–583
impact stresses, 591–595
vibratory stresses, steady/impulsive, 595
Bearings, in ceramic wear applications, 460
Bending, 601, 619
Bending moment, 576, 579
Bending springs, 619
Beta alloys (titanium), 247
Binary phase diagrams, 6
Binaural quality index (BQI), 922
Bioceramics, 463, 471
Biological corrosion, 764–765
Biomimetric structures, 440
Biostatic properties of copper, 202
Bisphenol A-based high-temperature sulfone
(BisA-HTS) polymer, 385, 386
Blades, stresses on rotating, 618
Board-level interconnection, 503
BOF (basic oxygen furnace), 4
Boring (copper alloys), 207
Boron, 23
Boron fibers (as composite reinforcement), 410
Boundary layer absorption, 899, 900
BQI (binaural quality index), 922
Bragg condition for interference, 638
Brass(es), 43, 119, 128–130
envirobrasses, 144
free-cutting, 208
high-strength, 226
high strength yellow, 143
leaded, 128–129
leaded red, 141
leaded semired, 141
red, 141
semired, 141
silicon, 134, 143, 226
tin, 129–130
yellow, 128, 142–143
Brazing, 211
Brazing alloys, 132
Breaking strength, 559
Bridge resistance (load cell), 648
Brinnelling failure, 706
Brittle-coating method, 781
Brittle fracture, 706
Brittle materials, 458, 570
Brittleness, 560
Bronzes, 119
aluminum, 133, 147, 226
high-leaded tin, 1461000 Index
Bronzes (continued)
leaded phosphor, 132
leaded tin, 145–146
lead-free bearing, 226
nickel-tin, 147
phosphor, 131
silicon, 134, 143
tin, 145
Bubble (tube) viscometers, 823–824, 834
Buckling, 709
Buckyballs, 450–451
Building industry, aluminum alloys in, 112
Bulk modulus, 562
Bulk viscosity, 810
B-weighted filters, 891–892, 961
C
CA (cellulose acetate), 370
CAB (cellulose acetate butyrate), 370
Cadmium, 493
Calibration:
defined, 648
of force transducers, 644–647
of microphones, 967–969
pistonphone, 967–968
reciprocity, 968
relative, 968
of resistance metal strain gauges,
665–666
switching, 968–969
Calibration fluids, viscosity, 832
Calibration transfer function, 969
Cantilever beams, 574
Capacity:
of force transducers, 641
of load cell, 648
Capillary viscometers, 827–829, 834, 856
Carbon fibers (as composite reinforcement),
409–410
Carbon matrix composites:
applications of, 432–435
properties of, 429–432
Carbon matrix materials, 414
Carbon steels, 27–28, 53–55
Cast alloys. See also Cast superalloys
aluminum, 64–65, 67, 69–72, 80–87,
107–112
copper, 140–149, 156–158
magnesium, 292, 293
manganese bronze, 143
special, 149
titanium, 252–254
Casting(s):
AOD, 332–334
component production, 337–339
considerations, 336–337
continuous, 4–5
copper alloys, 209–210
ESR, 332–335
mechanical properties of, 292, 293
remelted ingot processing, 335–336
with superalloys, 332–337
titanium alloys, 258–259
VAR, 332, 333, 335
VIM, 332–334
Cast leaded manganese bronze alloys, 143
Cast superalloys:
applications of, 349–350
compositions of, 308
dynamic moduli of elasticity for, 324
effect of temperature on, 313–314, 317
physical properties of, 321–322
Catalysts, smart, 448
Cathode, 46–47
Cauchy–Green strain, 683
Cauchy stress tensor, 685
Cavitation, 764
CCCT (critical crevice corrosion temperature),
45
Cellulose acetate (CA), 370
Cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB), 370
Cellulose proprionate (CP), 370
Cellulosic polymers, 370
Cementite, 9, 14, 20, 25
Ceramics:
in electronic packaging, 497
piezoelectric, 441, 443
Ceramic failure, 789–807
delayed, 794–795
and design applying multiaxial Weibull
statistics, 799–803
flaws, 791
fracture mechanics, 791–793
at high temperatures, 804–807
scatter, 795–799
strength, 791–793
thermal shock, 803–804
Ceramic materials, 453–472
brittleness of, 455–458
for corrosion resistance, 465–466
future trends in, 471–472Index 1001
information sources about, 469–471
in passive electronics, 466–467
piezoceramics, 467–468
processing of advanced, 454–455
standards and test methods, 469–471
thermostructural applications, 464–465
transparent, 468
in wear applications, 459–463
Ceramic matrix composites (CMCs):
applications of, 435
properties of, 427–429
Ceramic matrix materials, 414
Cerium, 24
Chemical changes, analysis of, 856
Chemical composition of surface, 855
Chemical conversion coatings, 296
Chemical failure, 777
Chemical finishes (aluminum alloys), 92
Chemical industry, aluminum alloys in, 114
Chemical inertness, 478–479
Chemical method, 782, 783
Chemical resistance, 355
Chromium, 22, 40, 278–279, 493
Circuit board design tools, 511–512
Clear anodized aluminum alloys, 92
CMCs, see Ceramic matrix composites
CNEL (community noise equivalent level),
928, 981
Cobble creep, 738
Coffin-Manson equation, 730
Coke, 4
Cold cracking, 54
Color anodized aluminum alloys, 92
Columns:
defined, 601–602
eccentric loads on, 604
steel, 605, 607–608
stresses on, 601–608
with transverse/cross-bending loads, 604
wooden, 604–607
Combined stresses, 566–570
Combustibility, 482–483
Community noise, 922–931, 980–982
criteria for, 929–931
and outdoor sound propagation,
923–926
representations of, 926–929, 980–981
response to, 930, 931
surveys of, 982
Community noise equivalent level (CNEL),
928, 981
Comparing/ranking (as method of materials
selection), 517, 538–540
case study, 542–544
digital logic, 539
performance index, 539–540
weighted-properties, 538–540
Comparison method for sound power
measurement, 992
Compensated temperature range, 654
Compensation, strain gauge circuit, 630–631
Component mounting (electronic), 499–500
of discrete components, 499
of printed circuit board components,
499–500
surface-mount technology, 500
Composite materials (composites), 401–435
classes/characteristics of, 402–403
comparative properties of, 403–407
manufacturing considerations for, 407
matrix, 407–408, 411–414
properties of, 414–417, 427–429
reinforcement, 407–411
Compression, 556, 557, 648
Compressive strain, 558, 661
Compressive stress, 556, 557
Computerized materials databases, 549–550
Computer modeling, of stresses, 620
Concentric cylinder viscometers, 826
Concert halls, listening quality in, 922, 923
Condensation polymers, see Engineering
thermoplastics
Condenser microphones, 947, 948, 964–965
Conduction, 508
Cone and plate viscometers, 826
Conformal geometry rigs, 846
Connections, electronic equipment, 502–503
Constant life diagrams (master diagrams),
728, 729
Constitutive equations for sound, 895–896
Constrained beam, 574
Construction industry, aluminum alloys in,
112
Contact stress(es), 616, 617
Contact stress theory, 616
Continuous beams, 574, 586–589
Continuous casting, 4–5
Continuous-cooling transformation (CT)
diagram, 14, 16
Continuous fiber-reinforced MMCs,
423–424
Continuous sound level, 970–9711002 Index
Continuous vibratory systems:
of a bar, 874
of a beam, 875
free-vibration solution for, 875–877
of a shaft, 874–875
of a string, 873–874
Control architectures, noise control, 917–919
Convection, 508–509
Conversion, principle of, 758
Copper, 117–118
biostatic/antimicrobial properties of,
202–203
in electronic packaging materials, 493
physical properties of, 118, 119, 150–152
pure, 150–152, 159
safety and health issues with, 202, 214–215
in stainless steel, 41
in steel, 22, 24
Copper alloys, 117–227
biostatic/antimicrobial properties of,
202–203
C10100-C19200, 163–167
C23000-C28000, 168–170
C36000-C52700, 171–173
C61300-C69400, 173–175
C70600-C77000, 175–179
C81100-C89550, 180–186
C90300-C93800, 187–192
C95200-C96400, 193–197
casting, 209–210
compositions of, 119–145
copper–beryllium, 226
copper–phosphorus, 132
copper–silicon, 134
copper–silver–phosphorus, 132
copper–silver–zinc, 132
copper–zinc, 135–136
corrosion behavior of, 199–202
designations of, 119
early history, 117–118
in electronic packaging materials, 493
fabrication of, 204–209
families of, 118–119
forging, 211
impact loading of, 198–199
machining, 204–209
mechanical properties of, 162–199
physical properties of, 150, 153–158
safety and health issues with, 214–215
sleeve bearings, 224–226
standards and specifications, 226–227
strengthening mechanisms for, 150, 152, 159
temperature of, 198
temper designations of, 159–162
temper of, 159–162
tube/pipe products, 215–224
welding of, 211–213
Copper nickels, 119, 137–139, 148
Corrosion:
of aluminum alloys, 87–89
biological, 764–765
ceramic materials, 465–466
of copper and copper alloys, 199–202
dry, 279
of electronic materials, 479–480
erosion, 201, 763–764
as failure, 706–707, 759–765
galvanic, 46–47, 89, 201, 761–762
hot-corrosion resistance, 346
intergranular, 46, 763
and magnesium and magnesium alloys, 296
of nickel and nickel alloys, 278–283
pitting, 40, 41, 44–45, 88–89, 281–282,
762–763
of stainless steels, 40, 43–47
stress, 43–44, 201, 709
of superalloys, 346–347
of titanium alloys, 231–232, 260–261
wet, 279
Corrosion fatigue, 709
Corrosion wear, 709
Cost-benefit analysis (materials selection),
547–548
Cost-per-unit-property method (materials
selection), 535–536
Cost requirements (materials selection), 534
Courette flow model, 824
CP (cellulose proprionate), 370
Cracking, in copper alloys, 214
Creep, 35, 48, 708, 736–744
defined, 561, 648
deformation mechanism, 737–739
and electronic materials, 483
equations for calculating, 571, 572
for force transducers, 642
mechanism of, 571
mechanisms of creep-fatigue failure,
743–744
under multiaxial state of stress, 742–743
of polymer matrix composites, 423
prediction of long-term, 739–740
and stress analysis, 570–572Index 1003
stress relaxation with, 571
under uniaxial state of stress, 740–742
Creep buckling, 709
Creep limit, 561
Creep rupture:
in ceramics, 806–807
failure due to, 736–744
of polymer matrix composites, 423
Creep strain, 805–806
Creep stress, 563, 570–571
Crevice corrosion, 45, 762
Critical angle, 902
Critical band rate, 933–934
Critical crevice corrosion temperature (CCCT),
45
Critical damping, 910
Critical distance, 979
Critical stress intensity, 716
Crystal lattice, 7
CT (continuous-cooling transformation)
diagram, 14, 16
Cup viscometers, 829–831, 834
Curved beams, 588–591
Cutting tool inserts, ceramic wear components,
461
C-weighted filters, 891–892, 961
C-weighted sound pressure level (LC), 928
Cylinders, stresses on, 608–610
D
Damping capacity (hysteresis), 564–565
Dargies’s method (materials selection),
536–538
Data, 515–528
for analytical comparisons, 517
for failure analysis, 520
for final design, 518
for maintenance, 519–520
for manufacturing, 519
for material specification, 518–519
for materials selection, 516–517
metadata, 521
for modeling material/product performance,
516
numeric databases as type of, 521
for preliminary design, 517–518
for quality assurance, 519
sources of, see Data sources
textual, 520–521
Databases, computerized materials, 549–550
Data sources, 522–528
Alloy Center, 524–526
ASM International, 524–526
categories of, 522, 523
Internet, 525, 527–528
knovel.com, 525, 527
platforms for, 524
quality/reliability of, 522–524
STN International, 524–526
Day–night level (DNL), 928, 981
Dealloying (“parting”), 201
Decibel scale, 889–890, 958–959
Deflection:
of curved beams, 589–581
defined, 649
elastic, 583
Deformation:
defined, 649
elastic, 706, 710–712
nickel alloys, 283
of a solid, 682–684
Degassing, 4, 24
Degree of enclosure, 506–507
Delta iron, 6
Dental restorations, 463
Design:
deterministic, 456
electronic packaging, 476–477, 506–509
final, 518
preliminary, 517–518
probabilistic, 456–458
stages of materials selection and, 533
Deterministic design, 456
Dezincification, 763
Diallyl phthalate, 396
DIC (digital image correlation), 659
Die castings, mechanical properties of, 292,
293
Diffuse fields, microphone selection for,
966–967
Diffuse reflection method, 840
Diffusion, 7
Diffusion creep, 738
Diffusive transport, 816
Digital image correlation (DIC), 659
Digital logic method (materials selection), 539
Dilatometer, 14, 16
Direct chemical attack, 706, 759–761
Discontinuities:
in reflection/transmission of sound, 904
and stress, 565–5661004 Index
Discontinuous fiber-reinforced MMCs,
424–425
Discrete wiring, 502
Disks, stresses on rotating, 616
Dislocation creep, 739
Displacement, 649
Dissimilar-metal combinations, 212
Distortion control, welding, 213–214
Distortion-Energy Theory (Hencky–Von Mises
Theory), 569, 570
Diversion, principle of, 758
DNL (day–night level), 928, 981
Double-leaf partitions, 914, 915, 974
Drag-type viscometers, 820–823
Drift, 649
Drilling (copper alloys), 206–207
Dry corrosion, 279
Dual-phase steels, 30
Ductile materials, static working stresses for,
569
Ductile rupture, 706
Ductility, 482, 560, 649
Ducts, HVAC, 913–914, 921
Duplex stainless steels, 33, 50–51, 56, 57
D-weighted filters, 891, 892, 961
D-weighted sound pressure level (LD), 929
Dynamic microphones, 948, 949, 965, 966
Dynamic stress, 563
Dynamic viscosity, 834
Dynamometers, 636–637
E
Ear, structure of, 942–944
Early decay time (EDT), 922
Eccentricity, 649
Eccentric loads, 604
Echoes, 979
ECTFE (poly[ethylene
chlorotrifluoroethylene]), 392, 393
EDT (early decay time), 922
EDX (energy dispersive x-ray analysis), 855
Effective perceived noise level (EPNL), 981,
982
Efflux viscometers, 857–858
EIC (environmentally assisted cracking), 201
Elastic deflection, 583
Elastic deformation, 706, 710–712
Elasticity, 558, 649
Elasticity limit, 854
Elastic limit, 558, 649
Elastomers, 396–398, 497
Elastorestrictive materials, 444
Electret condenser microphones, 947, 948,
965
Electrical conductivity, 477
Electrical contacts, 489
Electrical industry, aluminum alloys in, 112
Electrical steels, 28
Electrochemical finishes, for aluminum alloys,
92
Electrochromic smart windows, 447
Electrolytically deposited coloring, for
aluminum alloys, 92
Electromagnetic shielding, 480–481
Electronic equipment:
attachment of, 484–485
interconnections of, 502–503
racks, frames, and mounting structures for,
485
Electronic materials:
chemical inertness of, 478–479
combustibility of, 482–483
corrosion of, 479–480
creep and, 483
density of, 480
ductility of, 482
electrical conductivity of, 477
electromagnetic shielding of, 480–481
electrostatic shielding of, 480–481
fatigue resistance of, 481
hardness of, 481
magnetic shielding of, 481
moisture absorption by, 483–484
properties of, 477–484
strength of, 480
sublimation by, 482
temperature range for, 480
thermal conductivity of, 477
thermal emissivity of, 478
thermal expansion of, 478
wear resistance of, 482
Electronic packaging, 475–512
applications of, 484–490
availability of information on, 477
component mounting in, 499–500
concerns in, 475–476
design techniques in, 476–477
fastening and joining in, 500–502
interconnections in, 502–503
materials selection process for, 476
physical design process for, 476Index 1005
prevention of shock/vibration failure,
503–506
properties of electronic materials, 477–484
protective, 509–510
scope of process, 475
software design aids for, 510–512
structural design in, 506–507
thermal design in, 507–509
types of candidate materials, 490–499
Electronic packaging applications, 484–490
electrical contacts, 489
encapsulation, 489–490
environmental endurance, 490
equipment and module enclosures, 485
equipment attachment, 484–485
equipment racks, frames, and mounting
structures, 485
mechanical joints, 486–487
position-sensitive assemblies, 488
surface finishes, 487–488
temperature control, 485–486
Electronic packaging candidate materials,
490–499
adhesives, 498–499
ceramics and glasses, 497–498
metals, 491–494
plastics and elastomers, 494–497
Electron microscopes, 840–842
Electroplating, 93, 296, 488
Electrorheological materials, 445
Electroslag remelting (ESR), 332–335
Electrostatic shielding, 480–481
Electrostrictive materials, 443
Embrittlement, 22
Enameling steel, 28
Encapsulation, 489–490
Enclosure(s):
active noise control in, 921
degree of, 506–507
equipment and module, 485
for passive noise control, 915
Ends, of columns, 602
Endurance limit, 723, 724
Energy, 649
Energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX),
855
Engineering shear strains, 660
Engineering thermoplastics, 370–383
polyamides, 374–378
polyarylates, 381, 382
polycarbonate/ABS alloys, 379, 380
polycarbonates, 379, 380
polyester–carbonates, 380–381
polyphenylene ether, 381–383
thermoplastic polyesters, 371–374
Envirobrasses, 144
Environmental controls, for friction
measurements, 846
Environmental endurance, 490
Environmental failure, 777, 778
Environmentally assisted cracking (EIC), 201
Environmental noise, 980, 982. See also
Community noise
EPNL (effective perceived noise level), 981,
982
Epoxy resins, 394
Epoxy-resin-based encapsulation materials,
490
Equal loudness curves, 890–891, 959–960
Equilibrium:
defined, 649
and finite-element method, 684–686
Equipment racks, 485
Equivalent continuous sound level, 927–928,
980
Erosion corrosion, 201, 763–764
Erosive wear, 847–849
Esawi’s and Ashby’s method (materials
selection), 538
ESR (electroslag remelting), 332–335
Euler’s formula, 602–603
Evaporation, 509
Expert systems, 550–551
Exponential-time-weighted sound pressure
levels, 971
Extension, 649
Extensometer, 649
External work, 563–564
Extrinsic (term), 649
F
Fabrication, see Manufacturing
Factor of safety, 562–563
Failure, 703–766. See also Ceramic failure;
Plastic failure
analysis/restrospective design, 765–766
brinnelling, 706
brittle fracture, 706
chemical, 777
corrosion, 706–707, 759–765
creep/stress rupture, 736–7441006 Index
Failure (continued)
criteria of, 703–704
direct chemical attack, 706
ductile rupture, 706
elastic deformation, 706, 710–712
environmental, 777, 778
fatigue, 718–736
fracture mechanics/unstable crack growth,
711–717
fretting, 744–753
galling, 708–709, 754
impact, 707–708
mechanical, 776, 777
modes of, 573–574
spalling, 709
thermal, 777
types of, 704–709
wear, 744–745, 753–759
yielding, 706, 710–712
Failure analysis, 777–786
brittle-coating method, 781
chemical method, 782, 783
fractography, 785, 786
heat reversion, 782, 783
identification analysis, 779–780
materials data for, 520
mechanical testing, 784–785
microtoming, 783–784
nondestructive testing techniques, 785
photoelastic method, 780–781
simulation testing, 785
strain gauge method, 781–782
stress analysis, 780–782
thermal analysis, 785
visual examination, 779
Falling-needle viscometers, 822
Falling-object viscometers, 820–823, 834
Falling-sphere viscometers, 856, 857
Faraday’s law of induction, 965
Fastening, of electronics, 500–501
Fatigue, 706, 709, 718–736
fatigue crack propagation, 732–736
loading/laboratory testing of, 719–723
nonzero mean stress, 728–730
S–N–P curves, 723–728
strain–life approach, 730–732
and stress analysis, 572–574
stress–life approach, 723–730
Fatigue crack propagation, 732–736
Fatigue limit (endurance limit), 723, 724
Fatigue resistance, 481
Fatigue stress, 563
Feedback noise control systems, 918–919
Feedforward noise control systems, 917,
918
FEM, see Finite-element method
FEP (fluorinated ethylene–propylene), 392,
393
Ferrite, 9, 26
Ferritic stainless steels, 3, 32–33, 49
Ferrography, 859
FFM (friction force microscopy), 843
Fibers, as composite reinforcement, 408
Fiber-optic connections (in electronic systems),
503
Fiber-reinforced MMCs, 423–425
Figure of merit, for materials, 540
Filler metals, welding, 213
Filters:
acoustic, 910–913
band pass, 648
weighting, 891–893, 960–961
Filtered-x algorithm, 919–920
Final design, materials data for, 518
Finishing:
aluminum alloys, 91–93
magnesium alloys, 296
Finite-element method (FEM), 681–702
and deformation of solid, 682–684
differential properties of shape functions,
693–695
differentiation in referential coordinates,
695–698
and equilibrium, 684–686
FEM approximation, 690–692
foundations of, 689–690
global/local transformations, 692–693
Hilbertian Sobolev spaces in, 690
and infinitesimal linearly elastic constitutive
laws, 686–689
one-dimensional example of, 699–702
postprocessing, 698
in three dimensions, 690–692
Finite strain theory, 660
Fixed beam, 574
Flexural vibration, 875
Flexure, 574–583
bending moment, 576, 579
deflection due to shear, 583
elastic deflection of beams, 583
equilibrium conditions, 575–580
formula for, 580Index 1007
phenomenon, 575
reactions at supports, 575
Flow-type viscometers, 827–829
Fluctuation strength, of sound, 935, 936
Fluids:
behavior of solids vs., 809–810
calibration, 832
Newtonian, 812
pseudoplastic, 813
Fluid layers, reflection/transmission of sound
through, 902–904
Fluorinated ethylene–propylene (FEP), 392,
393
Fluorinated thermoplastics, 392–393
fluorinated ethylene–propylene, 392, 393
poly(chlorotrifluoroethylene), 392, 393
poly(ethylene chlorotrifluoroethylene), 392,
393
poly(tetrafluoroethylene), 392–393
poly(vinyl fluoride), 392, 393
polyvinylidene fluoride, 392, 393
Foot-pound (lbf), 651
Force, 624, 649. See also Force measurement
Force balance transducers, 640, 641
Forced convection, 509
Forced-harmonic vibration, 867
Forced-nonharmonic vibration, 868
Forced vibration, 867, 868, 872–873
Force-induced elastic deformation, 706
Force measurement, 623–656
calibration of devices for, 642–648
with dynamometers, 636–637
with force balance transducers, 640, 641
with force transducers, 624–626
history of, 623–624
with magnetoelastic transducers, 640
with optical force transducers, 637–639
with resonant element transducers,
631–634
with surface acoustic wave transducers,
634–636
terms in, 648–656
uncertainty in, 644–645
universal testing machines for, 627–631
Force transducers, 624–626
accuracy of, 642
calibration of, 642–648
capacity of, 641
creep for, 642
optical, 637–639
output of, 641
repeatability for, 642
temperature coefficient of, 642
uncertainty and temperature characteristics
of, 625
Forging:
of copper alloys, 211
of steel, 5
of superalloys, 340–341
of titanium alloys, 256–258
Forming (magnesium alloys), 295
Fractography, 785, 786
Fracture, types of, 561, 562
Fracture mechanics, 711–717, 791–793
Fracture toughness, 714, 854
Fragility, of electronic equipment, 503
Free convection, 508
Free-cutting brass, 208
Free fields:
microphone selection for, 966
sound power measurements in, 989–991
Free-field radiation, active noise control in,
921
Free-machining steels, 22
Free vibration, 866–867
in multi-degree-of-freedom systems,
872
normal-mode solution, 876–877
in single-degree-of-freedom systems,
866–867
wave solution, 875, 876
Frequency, 649
Frequency response, 649
Frequency weightings, 959–962
Fretting, 708, 744–753
Friction, 650
Friction force microscopy (FFM), 843
Friction measurements, 844–847
with conformal vs. nonconformal geometry
rigs, 846
environmental control for, 846
with inclined-plane rigs, 845
with pin-on-disc rigs, 845, 846
techniques for making, 846–847
Frit, 28
FSD (full scale), 650
Fuel gas distribution systems, 217, 224
Full annealing, steel, 25
Fullerenes, 450–451
Full scale (FSD), 650
Functional requirements (materials selection),
5321008 Index
G
Galling failure, 708–709, 754
Galvanic corrosion, 761–762
of aluminum alloys, 89
of copper alloys, 201
of stainless steels, 46–47
Gamma iron, 6
Gamma loop, 33
Gases:
low-density, 816–817, 819
pressure and viscosity of, 819
shielding, 212
temperature and viscosity of, 816–818
Gas–metal arc welding (GMAW), 213
Gas–tungsten arc welding (GTAW), 212, 213
Gauge factor, 650, 665–668
Gauge length, 650
Gauge resistance (strain gauge), 666, 667
Gels, smart, 447–448
Gerber’s Law, 573
Gilmont-type falling-ball viscometers, 822, 823
Glass, in electronic packaging, 497–498
Glass fibers (as composite reinforcement), 408,
409
Global multiaxial fracture criterion (ceramics),
799–800
Glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy
(GDOS), 855
GMAW (gas–metal arc welding), 213
Gold, 493
Goodman’s Law, 573, 730
Grain boundary sliding, 739
Graphite fibers (as composite reinforcement),
409–410
Graphitization, 763
Grating, 650
Gravity, 645, 650
Grazing incidence, 902
Grips/fixtures, 650
GTAW (gas–tungsten arc welding), 212, 213
Guest Theory (Maximum-Shear Theory),
568–570
Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in
Measurement, 650
H
Haake-type falling-ball viscometers, 822, 823
Hadfield manganese steels, 21
Hard anodized aluminum alloys, 92
Hardenability (of steel), 16–18
Hardness, 481, 561, 852–854
Harper–Dorn creep, 738
HDPE (high-density polyethylene), 357, 358
Head hardening, 14
Health issues, see Safety and health issues
Hearing loss, 905–908
Hearing protection, 905–908
Heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning
(HVAC) ducts, 913–914, 921
Heat-resistant steels, 34–35
Heat reversion, 782, 783
Heat transfer, 508–509
Heat treatment:
of nickel and nickel alloys, 285–286
of steel, 24–26
Helical compression springs, 619
Helmholtz resonator, 911, 912
Hencky–Von Mises Theory (Distortion-Energy
Theory), 569, 570
High-copper alloys, 119
cast, 140
welding, 211
wrought, 124–127
High-cycle fatigue, 718
High-density polyethylene (HDPE), 357, 358
High-density polyethylene fibers (as composite
reinforcement), 411
Higher alloy steels, 31–36
heat-resistant steels, 34–35
stainless steels, 31–34
tool steels, 34
ultrahigh-strength steel, 35–36
wear-resistant steels, 35
High-impact polystyrene (HIPS), 361, 362
High-leaded tin bronzes, 146
High-molybdenum alloys, 56–58
High-pass filters, 913
High-performance materials, 383–392
aromatic polyketones, 389–391
liquid crystalline polyesters, 386–387
poly(amide imides), 389, 390
poly(p-pheylene), 391–392
polyarylsulfones, 384–385
polybiphenyldisufones, 385–386
polyetherimides, 387–389
polyimides, 387, 388
polyphenylene sulfide, 383–384
High-performance steels, 30–31
High-strength brasses, 226
High strength yellow brasses, 142Index 1009
Hilbertian Sobolev spaces, 690
HIPS (high-impact polystyrene), 361, 362
Hooke’s law, 558, 567, 650
Horizontal shear, 576, 585
Hot-corrosion resistance, 346
Hot cracking, 54, 55
Hot shortness, 20, 22
HQ-HTS (hydroquinone-based hightemperature sulfone) polymer, 385,
386
Humidity:
and calibration of force measurement
devices, 644
measurement of, 851
HVAC (heating, ventilation, and airconditioning) ducts, 913–914, 921
Hydrodynamic theory of lubrication, 838
Hydrogels, 447–448
Hydrogen:
in steel, 24
in titanium alloys, 243–244
Hydrogen damage, 764
Hydrogen flakes, 24
Hydroquinone-based high-temperature
sulfone (HQ-HTS) polymer, 385,
386
Hypereutectoid steels, 9, 13
Hypoeutectoid steels, 9
Hysteresis, 564–565, 650
I
Identification analysis, 779–780
IEC (International Electrotechnical
Commission), 954, 955
IF (interstitial-free) steels, 3
IL, see Insertion loss
Impact failure, 707–708
Impact loading, 198–199
Impact polystyrene (IPS), 361, 362
Impact stresses, 563, 591–595
axial impacts, 592
for impacts on beams, 593
for impacts on structures, 593–595
live loads, 591–592
rupture from impact, 595
sudden loads, 591
Impedance:
in acoustics, 893, 894
mechanical, 506
and passive noise control, 909
Impulsive vibratory stress, 595
Inclined-plane rigs, 845
Induction, Faraday’s law of, 965
Industrial tribology measurements, 859
Inertness, chemical, 478–479
Infinitesimal linearly elastic constitutive laws,
686–689
Infinitesimal strain theory, 660
Ingots:
melting/casting, 335–336
steel, 5
Initial screening (materials selection),
534–538
Ashby’s method, 536, 537
case study, 541–542
cost-per-unit-property, 535–536
Dargies’s method, 536–538
Esawi’s and Ashby’s method, 538
limits on material properties, 535
Initial time delay gap (ITDG), 922
Ink-on demand printing, 442
Insertion loss (IL), 908, 915, 973
Integral color anodized aluminum alloys, 92
Intensity, sound, 887–888, 958
Intensity probes, 984–985
Intensity reflection coefficient, 900
Intensity transmission coefficient, 900
Interequipment connections (electronics), 503
Interface, reflection/transmission of sound
from a, 900–902
Interferometers, 638
Intergranular corrosion, 46, 763
Intermodule connections (electronics), 503
International Electrotechnical Commission
(IEC), 954, 955
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO), 954, 955
International prototype kilogram (IPK),
642–643
Internet, as data source, 525, 527–528
Interstitial-free (IF) steels, 3
Intramodule connections (electronics), 503
Intrinsic (term), 650
Intromission, angle of, 902
IPK (international prototype kilogram),
642–643
iPP (isotactic polypropylene), 359, 360
IPS (impact polystyrene), 361, 362
Iron, 6, 491
Iron alloys, 491
Iron–carbon equilibrium diagram (steel), 6–131010 Index
Ironmaking, 4
Iron sulfide, 20
IR spectroscopy, 855
ISO (International Organization for
Standardization), 954, 955
Isotactic polypropylene (iPP), 359, 360
Isothermal transformation diagram (steel),
13–15
Isotropic bodies, 688
ITDG (initial time delay gap), 922
J
Johnson’s apparent elastic limit, 559
Joining:
magnesium and magnesium alloys, 293,
294
superalloys, 341–342
titanium alloys, 259–260
Joint preparation (welding), 213
Jominy test, 16
Joule, 650
K
Kilogram force (kgf), 650–651
Kilopascal (kPa), 651
Kinematic viscosity, 810–812, 834
Knovel.com, 525, 527
Knowledge-based systems, 550–551
L
Ladle, 4
Lagrangian strain tensor, 683
Lamellar, 9
Lamé relations, 688
Lanthanum, 24
Lateral force microscopy (LFM), 843
lbf (foot-pound), 651
LC (C-weighted sound pressure level), 928
LCPs (liquid crystalline polyesters),
386–387
LD (D-weighted sound pressure level), 929
LDPE (low-density polyethylene), 357, 358
Lead, 24, 493, 494
Leaded brasses, 128–129
Leaded coppers, 119, 148
Leaded phosphor bronzes, 132
Leaded red brasses, 141
Leaded semired brasses, 141
Leaded steels, 29
Leaded tin bronzes, 145–146
Lead-free bearing bronzes, 226
Lead-wire resistance, 676
LEDs (light-emitting diodes), 471
Length of a column, 602
LFM (lateral force microscopy), 843
Life-cycle assessment, of magnesium alloys,
297
Light-emitting diodes (LEDs), 471
Light-sectioning method, 840
Light-sensitive materials, 446–447
Limestone, 4
Limit of proportionality (LOP), 651
Linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE), 357,
358
Linear variable differential transformer (LVDT),
651
Lined ducts, 913–914
Liquids:
pressure and viscosity of, 819
temperature and viscosity of, 818–819
Liquid crystals, temperature measurements
with, 851
Liquid crystalline polyesters (LCPs), 386–387
Liquid metal strain gauges, 678
LLDPE (linear low-density polyethylene), 357,
358
Load, 651
Load at yield, 651
Load cell, 651
Local multiaxial fracture criterion (ceramics),
800–803
Longitudinal vibration, 874
LOP (limit of proportionality), 651
Loudness:
equal loudness curves, 890–891, 959–960
in sound quality analysis, 934–935
Loudspeakers, 948–949
Low-alloy steels, 29–31
Low-cycle fatigue, 718
Low-density gases, 816–817, 819
Low-density polyethylene (LDPE), 357, 358
Low-pass filters, 911, 912
Lubricants:
chemical analysis of particles in, 858
tribology measurements for, 855–858
Lubricant oxidation tests, 858
LVDT (linear variable differential transformer),
651
LX (X-percentile-exceeded sound level), 928Index 1011
M
Machining:
of aluminum alloys, 90–91
of copper alloys, 204–209
of magnesium and magnesium alloys, 293
of nickel and nickel alloys, 287
Magnesium, 289–291
in electronic packaging materials, 493
nonstructural applications of, 290
structural applications of, 290–291
Magnesium alloys, 289–297
corrosion/finishing of, 296
fabrication of, 293–295
life-cycle assessment of, 297
properties of, 291–293
recycling of, 296
Magnets, organic-based, 444, 450
Magnetic shielding, 481
Magnetoelastic transducers, 640
Magnetorestriction, 651
Magnetorheological materials, 445–446
Magnetostrictive materials, 443–444
Maintenance, materials data for, 519–520
Malleability, 560
Manganese, 20, 21
Manganese bronze, 143, 226
Manufacturers, ceramic, 469
Manufacturing:
of composites, 407
of copper alloys, 204–209
of magnesium alloys, 293–295
materials data for, 519
of nickel alloys, 282–285
Maraging steel, 35–36
Marine transportation, aluminum alloys in, 113
Martensite, 14, 15, 24
Martensitic stainless steels, 33–34, 50
Mass, 651
Master diagrams, 728, 729
Material characteristics, measurement of,
852–855
Materials data, see Data
Materials databases, 549–550
Material performance requirements, 532–534
in case study, 541
cost, 534
functional, 532
processability, 532, 533
reliability, 534
resistance to service conditions, 534
Materials selection, see Selection of materials
Matrix materials, 407–408, 411–414
carbon, 414
ceramic, 414
metal, 413–414
polymer, 412–413
properties of, 411
Maximum-Shear Theory (Guest), 568–570
Maximum-Strain Theory (Saint Venant),
568–570
Maximum stress, 572
Maximum-Stress Theory (Rankine’s Theory),
568–570
MDPE (medium-density polyethylene), 357
Mean stress, 572
Measuring Range, 651
Mechanical design tools, 511
Mechanical failure, 776, 777
Mechanical fastening, of electronics,
500–501
Mechanical finishes, for aluminum alloys, 91
Mechanical impedance, 506
Mechanical joints (in electronics), 486–487
Mechanical testing, 784–785
Median force, 651
Medical gas piping systems, nonflammable,
217
Medium-density polyethylene (MDPE), 357
Megapascal (MPa), 651
Melting:
of superalloys, 332–337
of titanium alloys, 255–256
Merit, figure of, 540
Metadata, 521
Metals, in electronic packaging, 491–494
Metallographic observation, 850
Metal matrix, 413–414
Metal matrix composites (MMCs):
applications of, 433–434
continuous fiber-reinforced, 423–424
discontinuous fiber-reinforced, 424–425
particle-reinforced, 425–427
properties of, 423–427
unidirectional, 424
Microalloyed steels, 30
Microcomputer-based design tools, 510–511
Microphones, 946–949, 962–969
accuracy of, 967
calibration of, 967–969
condenser, 947, 948, 964–965
dynamic, 948, 949, 965, 9661012 Index
Microphones (continued)
electret condenser, 947, 948, 965
ribbon, 948
selection of, 965–967
Microscopy, 840–844
atomic force, 842–843
friction force, 843
lateral force, 843
optical, 840
scanning electron, 840, 841
scanning tunneling electron, 841–842
transmission electron, 841
Microstructure of titanium alloys, 236–254
alloy composition/general behavior,
237–240
alpha alloys, 245
alpha-beta alloys, 245–247
beta alloys, 247
cast alloys, 252–254
effects of alloy elements, 241
elastic constants/physical properties,
242–243
hydrogen in, 243–244
intermetallic compounds/transient secondary
phases, 241–242
mechanical properties, 244–254
oxygen/nitrogen in, 244
powder-formed alloys, 252, 254
processing effects, 243
strengthening, 238, 241
wrought/cast/powder metallurgy products,
254
Microtoming, 783–784
MIL Handbook 17, Vol 5, 471
Milling (copper alloys), 205, 206
Minimills, 4
Minimum load, 651
Minimum stress, 572
Mish metal, 24
Mixed-mode fatigue crack growth, 736
MMCs, see Metal matrix composites
Modulus, section, 580
Modulus of elasticity:
defined, 559, 561, 562, 651
of superalloys, 323–324
Modulus of rigidity, 559, 562
Modulus of rupture, 580
Mohr’s Circle, 567, 568
Mohr’s hypothesis, 799, 800
Moisture absorption, 483–484
Molecular theory, 815–816
Molybdenum, 40–41, 44
in stainless steel, 40–41
in steel, 22
Moment of inertia, 580, 596–597
Momentum diffusivity, 810
Motion, equations of, 865, 871
Mounting structures (for electronics), 485
MPa (megapascal), 651
Multiaxial Weibull statistics, 799–803
global multiaxial fracture criterion, 799–800
local multiaxial criterion, 800–803
strength under compression loading, 799
Multi-degree-of-freedom systems, 862, 863,
870–873
equations of motion, 871
forced-vibration response, 872–873
free-vibration response, 872
Multipoint tool machining, 90–91
Music wire, 36
N
Nabarro–Herring creep, 738
Nanomagnets, 445–446
National Institute of Standards and Technology
(NIST) database site, 527, 528
NC (noise criteria) ratings, 979
NDT (nondestructive testing techniques), 785
Nervous system response to auditory input, 944
Newton (unit), 651
Newtonian fluids, 812
Nickel, 267–268
in electronic packaging materials, 493
pure, 268
in stainless steel, 41
in steel, 22
Nickel alloys, 267–287
and austenitic stainless steels, 51–52
classification of, 268–271
corrosion of, 278–283
fabrication of, 282–285
heat treatment of, 285–286
machining of, 287
mechanical properties of, 272
nickel alloys, 269, 270, 272
nickel–chromium–iron alloys, 270, 272–276
nickel–chromium–molybdenum alloys,
271–273, 277–278
nickel–copper alloys, 269, 270, 272–274,
279
nickel–iron alloys, 271, 272, 277Index 1013
nickel–iron–chromium alloys, 270, 272, 273,
276–277
nominal chemical composition, 270–271
rupture stress, 273
trademarks of, 287
welding of, 287
Nickel–chromium–iron alloys, 270, 272–276
Nickel–chromium–molybdenum alloys,
271–273, 277–278
Nickel–copper alloys, 269, 270, 272–274, 279
Nickel–iron alloys, 271, 272, 277
Nickel–iron–chromium alloys, 270, 272, 273,
276–277
Nickel silvers, 119, 139–140, 148
Nickel-tin bronzes, 147
NIST (National Institute of Standards and
Technology) database site, 527, 528
Nitinol, 449
Nitrogen:
in steel, 24
in titanium alloys, 244
Noise:
community, 922–931, 980–982
environmental, 980, 982. See also
Community noise
Noise control:
active, 916–922
passive, 906–915
Noise criteria (NC) ratings, 979
Noise dosage, 993
Noise dosimeters, 993–995
Noise reduction (NR), 973
Noise reduction coefficient, 909
Noise surveys, 982
Nonconformal geometry rigs, 846
Nondestructive testing techniques (NDT), 785
Nonflammable medical gas piping systems, 217
Nonlinear acoustics, 937–942
applications of ultrasound, 941–942
radiation pressure and streaming in, 940
sonic booms, 940
theory of, 938–940
Nonlinearity (term), 651–652
Nonrepeatability, 652
Nonzero mean stress, 728–730
Normalizing, of steel, 25
Normal stress, 557
Norris–Eyring reverberation time, 976
NR (noise reduction), 973
Numeric databases, 520
Nylons, see Polyamides
O
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
(OSHA), 905
Octave frequency bands, 892–894, 962, 963
Oil and gas industry, ceramics in, 471–472
One-third octave bands, 892, 893, 962, 963
Operating temperature range, 654
Operator inconsistency, in force measurement,
646–647
Optical force transducers, 637–639
Optical interference technique, 840
Optical microscopes, 840
Optimum solution (materials selection),
540–541, 543–545
Organic-based magnets, 444, 450
Orifice-type (cup) viscometers, 829–831, 834
Oscillating sphere viscometers, 832
OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health
Administration), 905
Ostwald viscometer, 828
Outdoor sound propagation, 923–926
Overload, 652
Oxidation, of nickel alloys, 282, 283
Oxygen, 4, 244, 851
P
PAs, see Polyamides
Packaging, aluminum alloys in, 114
Painted finishes, for magnesium alloys, 296
PAIs (poly[amide imides]), 389, 390
PARs (polyarylates), 381, 382
Parallel-plate viscometers, 826
Particle-reinforced MMCs, 425–427
“Parting” (dealloying), 201
Partitions:
passive noise control with, 914, 915
single- vs. double-leaf, 914, 915
sound isolation with, 973–974
PASCC (polythionic acid stress–corrosion
cracking), 44
Passivation, 43
Passive electronics, 466–467
Passive noise control, 906–915
acoustic filters for, 910–913
enclosures for, 915
and impedance, 909
lined ducts for, 913–914
single- vs. double-leaf partitions for,
914–9151014 Index
Passive noise control (continued)
source, path, and receiver components of,
907–908
terminology used in, 908–909
vibration isolation mounts for, 909–910
Patenting, 36
PBT (poly[bytylene terephthalate]), 371, 372
PBT/PC alloy, 371–373
PCs (polycarbonates), 379, 380
PC/ABS (polycarbonate/ABS) alloys, 379,
380
PCTFE (poly[chlorotrifluoroethylene]), 392,
393
PE (polyethylene), 357–358
Pearlite, 9, 14, 20, 24, 25
PECs (polyestercarbonates), 380–381
PEEK (polyetheretherketone), 389–391
PEIs (polyetherimides), 387–389
PEK (polyetherketone), 389–391
Performance, modeling material/product, 516
Performance index (materials selection),
539–540
PES (polyethersulfone), 384–385
PET (poly[ethylene terephthalate]), 372–374
Petroleum industry, aluminum alloys in, 114
Phenolic resins, 394
Phon (unit), 890
Phosphor bronzes, 131
Photoelastic method, 780–781
Photo etching, 652
pH-sensitive materials, 446
Piezoceramics, 467–468
Piezoelectric effect, 652
Piezoelectric force gauges, 846–847
Piezoelectric materials, 440–443, 450
Pin-on-disc rigs, 845, 846
Pipes, reflection/transmission of sound in, 904
Pistonphone calibration, 967–968
Pitting corrosion:
aluminum alloys, 88–89
failure due to, 762–763
nickel alloys, 281–282
stainless steel, 40, 41, 44–45
Plane waves, 897
Plastics, 353–398
additives in, 355
chemical/solvent resistance of, 355
classification of, 354–355
elastomers, 396–398
in electronic packaging, 494–497
engineering thermoplastics, 370–383
fluorinated thermoplastics, 392–393
high-performance materials, 383–392
polyolefinic thermoplastics, 357–361
polyurethane/cellulosic resins, 369–370
properties of, 355–357
side-chain-substituted vinyl thermoplastics,
361–369
thermosets, 394–396
Plastic failure, 771–785
chemical, 777
and design, 773–775
environmental, 777, 778
and material selection, 772–773
mechanical, 776, 777
and process, 775, 776
and service conditions, 775, 776
thermal, 777
Plasticity, 558
Plates, stresses on, 610–614
Plate steels, 5
Platforms, database, 524
Pleasantness, of sound, 937
Plumbing tube, copper-alloy, 215–225
type ACR, 216, 223–224
type DWV, 216, 222
type K, 216, 218–219
type L, 216, 219–220
type M, 216, 220–221
PMCs, see Polymer matrix composites
PMDA-ODA, 387, 388
PMMA (poly[methyl methacrylate]), 366
PMP (polymethylpentane), 361
Poisson ratio, 558, 628
Polar moment of inertia, 596–597
Polar radius of gyration, 597
Polumeric materials, see Plastics
Poly(amide imides) (PAIs), 389, 390
Poly(bytylene terephthalate) (PBT), 371, 372
Poly(ethylene chlorotrifluoroethylene)
(ECTFE), 392, 393
Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), 372–374
Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), 366
Poly(p-pheylene), 391–392
Poly(tetrafluorethylene) (PTFE), 392–393
Poly(trimethylene terephthalate) (PTT), 374
Poly(vinyl fluoride) (PVF), 392, 393
Poly(vinylidene chloride) (PVDC), 368–369
Polyacetals, 378–379
Polyamides (PAs, nylons), 374–378
acetals, 378–379
aromatic, 377–378Index 1015
PA 4/6, 376, 377
PA 6 and PA 6/6, 374–376
PA/PPE alloys, 375–376
semiaromatic polyamides, 376, 377
Polyarylates (PARs), 381, 382
Polyarylsulfones, 384–385
Polybiphenyldisufones, 385–386
Polycarbonates (PCs), 379, 380
Polycarbonate/ABS alloys (PC/ABS), 379,
380
Polyesters:
liquid crystalline, 386–387
thermoplastic, 371–374
unsaturated, 395
Polyestercarbonates (PECs), 380–381
Polyetheretherketone (PEEK), 389–391
Polyetherimides (PEIs), 387–389
Polyetherketone (PEK), 389–391
Polyethersulfone (PES), 384–385
Polyethylene (PE), 357–358
Polyethylene/poly(ethylene glycol) copolymers,
446
Polyimides, 387, 388
Polyketones, aromatic, 389–391
Polymers, 447. See also Plastics
Polymer matrix, 412–413
Polymer matrix composites (PMCs):
applications of, 432–433
properties of, 417–423
Polymethylpentane (PMP), 361
Polyolefinic thermoplastics, 357–361
polyethylenes, 357–358
polymethylpentane, 361
polypropylene, 358–360
Polyphenylene ether (PPE), 381–383
Polyphenylene sulfide (PPS), 383–384
Polyphenylsulfone (PPSU), 384, 385
Polypropylene (PP), 358–360
Polystyrene (PS), 361–362
Polysulfone (PSU), 384, 385
Polythionic acid stress–corrosion cracking
(PASCC), 44
Polyurethanes (PUs), 369, 370, 449
Polyurethane-based encapsulation materials,
490
Polyurethane resins (PURs), 369
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), 367–368
Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), 392, 393,
441–443
Position-sensitive assemblies, 488
Postprocessing (finite-element method), 698
Postservice refurbishment, superalloy,
346–347
Powder metallurgy:
superalloys, 340–341
titanium alloys, 252, 254
Power reflection coefficient, 900
Power transmission coefficient, 900, 911–913
PP (polypropylene), 358–360
PPE (polyphenylene ether), 381–383
“p–p” principle, 982–984
PPS (polyphenylene sulfide), 383–384
PPSU (polyphenylsulfone), 384, 385
Precipitation hardening stainless steels, 34
Precision, 642, 652
Preliminary design, materials data for,
517–518
Prepared atmosphere, heat treatment in,
285–286
Pressure:
radiation, 940
sound, 888–889, 955–957
and viscosity, 816–817, 819
Pressure fields, microphone selection for, 967
Pressure reflection coefficient, 900
Pressure-residual intensity index, 987
Pressure transmission coefficient, 900
Principal strains, 663
Principal strain coordinate system, 663
Printed circuit board components, 499–500
Probabilistic design, 456–458
Processability requirements (materials
selection), 532, 533
Process annealing, 26
Proeutectoid phase, 9
Proportional limit, 558
Protective electronic packaging, 509–510
Proving ring, 636–637
PS (polystyrene), 361–362
Pseudoplastic fluids, 813
psi (unit), 653
PSU (polysulfone), 384, 385
Psychoacoustic effects of sound, 944–946
PTFE (poly[tetrafluorethylene]), 392–393
PTT (Poly[trimethylene terephthalate]), 374
PUs, see Polyurethanes
Pugh method, 546–547
PURs (polyurethane resins), 369
PVC (polyvinyl chloride), 367–368
PVDC (poly[vinylidene chloride]), 368–369
PVDF, see Polyvinylidene fluoride
PVF (poly[vinyl fluoride]), 392, 3931016 Index
Q
Quality assurance, 519
Quantitative methods of materials selection,
531–551
case study, 541–545
comparing/ranking, 538–540, 542–544
computerization of, 549–551
initial screening, 534–538, 541–542
optimum solution in, 540–541, 543–545
requirements for, 532–534, 541
stages of design and materials selection,
533
substitution, 545–548
and types of material information, 549
Quasi-digital signals, 653
Quenching, 24–26
R
Radiation (heat transfer), 509
Radiation, free-field, 921
Radiation damage, 709
Radiation detectors, 850
Radiation impedance, 893, 894
Radiation pressure, 940
Radius of gyration, 597, 602
Rail transportation, aluminum alloys for,
113–114
Random fields, microphone selection for,
966–967
Range of stress, 572
Rankine’s Theory (Maximum-Stress Theory),
568–570
Ranking, see Comparing/ranking
RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy),
855
Reaction injection molding (RIM), 369
Reaming (copper alloys), 207, 208
Receivers, passive noise control, 907–908
Reciprocity calibration, 968
Recrystallization annealing, 26
Red brasses, 141
Reducing atmosphere, heat treatment in,
285–286
Referential coordinates, differentiation in,
695–698
Reflection of sound, 900–904
at discontinuities in pipes, 904
at side branches of pipes, 904
from a single interface, 900–902
from a solid surface, 902–904
through fluid layers, 902–904
Refractive index, 653
Relative calibration, 968
Reliability, of materials data, 522–524
Reliability requirements (materials selection),
534
Remelted ingot processing, superalloy, 335–336
Repeatability, 642, 653
Rephosphorized steels, 22
Reproducibility, 642, 653
Residual stresses, 259, 854
Resilience, 564, 565
Resistance metal strain gauges, 664–676
alloys used in, 666–670
calibration parameters for, 666–670
description of, 664–665
sensitivity of, 665–666
strain gauge rosettes in, 670–673
Resistance to service conditions, 534
Resisting moment, 596
Resisting shear, 576
Resolution, 642
Resonance, 653, 977–978
Resonant element transducers, 631–634
Resonant (vibrational) viscometers, 831–832,
834
Restrained beams, 574, 585
Reverberation, in rooms, 975–977
Reverberation method, 991–992
Reverberation time (RT), 975–976
Reverse-flow viscometers, 828
Rheology, 812–813
Rhodium, 494
Ribbon microphones, 948
RIM (reaction injection molding), 369
Ring dynamometer (proving ring), 636–637
Rockwell hardness test, 853–854
Rolling (steel), 5
Room acoustical measurements, 975–979
critical distance, 979
and echoes, 979
noise criteria ratings, 979
resonance, 977–978
reverberation, 975–977
Rosette equations (for strain gauges), 671–672
Rotational viscometers, 824–826, 834, 856
Roughness:
sound, 936
surface, see Surface roughness measurements
Round shafts, torsional stresses in, 597Index 1017
RT (reverberation time), 975–976
Rupture:
creep, 423, 736–744, 806–807
ductile, 706
modulus of, 580
stress, 708, 736–744
work required for, 564
Rupture strength, 559
Rusting, 47
Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS),
855
S
Safety, factor of, 562–563
Safety and health issues:
with copper, 202, 214–215
with copper alloys, 214–215
Saint Venant Theory (Maximum-Strain
Theory), 568–570
SAN (styrene/acrylonitrile) copolymer, 363,
364
Sawing (copper alloys), 208, 210
SAW (surface acoustic wave) transducers,
634–636
Saybolt measurement system, 811, 812
Scanning electron microscopes (SEM), 840, 841
Scanning tunneling electron microscopy (STM),
841–842
Scatter (ceramic failure), 795–798
of lifetime, 798–799
of strength, 795–798
SCC (stress corrosion cracking), 43–44, 765
Scoring, 755
Sea Water Reverse Osmosis (SWRO) process,
463
Secant formula, 603
Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), 855
Section modulus, 580
Seizure (adhesive wear), 754
SEL (sound exposure level), 992
Selection of materials. See also Quantitative
methods of materials selection
for electronic packaging, 476
materials data for, 516–517
stages of design and, 533
for thermal shock conditions, 803–804
Selective leaching, 763
Selenium, 24
Self-temperature compensation number (strain
gauge), 668–670
SEM (scanning electron microscopes), 840, 841
Semiaromatic polyamides, 376, 377
Semiconductor strain gauges, 676–678
Semired brasses, 141
Sensitivity, 653
microphone, 968
strain, 665–666
transverse, 672–673
Sensitization, 32
Sensory pleasantness, of sound, 937
Service conditions, resistance to, 534
Shafts:
stresses on rotating, 616
torsional stresses in, 597–600
Shape functions, differential properties of,
693–695
Shape memory alloys, 448–449
Sharpness, sound, 935
Shear:
deflection due to, 583
horizontal, 576, 585
resisting, 576
vertical, 576
web, 584
Shear center, 584
Shear diagrams, 576
Shear strain, 558, 660, 662
Shear strain rate, 813
Shear stress, 557, 597
Shielding gases, 212
Shipping, protective packaging for, 510
Shock:
electronic equipment failure due to, 503–504
isolation of, 880–881
sources of, 861–862
spectrum of, 868–870
thermal, 464–465, 708, 803–804
Shock testing, 505
Shore hardness test, 854
Side branches, pipe, 904
Side-chain-substituted vinyl thermoplastics,
361–369
acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene polymers,
363–365
acrylonitrile/styrene/acrylate polymers, 365
poly(methyl methacrylate), 366
poly(vinylidene chloride), 368–369
polystyrenes (PS, IPS, HIPS), 361–362
polyvinyl chloride, 367–368
styrene/acrylonitrile copolymer, 363, 364
styrene/maleic anhydride copolymer, 3661018 Index
Side-chain-substituted vinyl thermoplastics
(continued)
styrene/methyl methacrylate copolymer, 366,
367
syndiotactic polystyrene, 362–363
Signa, 653
Silicon-based encapsulation materials, 490
Silicon brasses, 134, 143, 226
Silicon bronzes, 134, 143
Silicon-carbide based fibers (as composite
reinforcement), 410–411
Silver, 493
Simple beams, 574, 585
Simple stress, 557
SIMS (secondary ion mass spectroscopy), 855
Simulation testing, 785
Single-degree-of-freedom systems, 862, 863,
865–868
equation of motion, 865
forced-harmonic vibration, 867
forced nonharmonic vibration, 868
free vibration, 866–867
Single-leaf partitions, 914, 915, 973–974
Single-point tool machining, 90, 204, 205
SI units, 653
Slenderness ratio, 602
Sliding wear, 847, 848
SLMs (sound level meters), 969–970
SMA (styrene/maleic anhydride) copolymer,
366
Small-scale yielding, 714
Smart adhesives, 451
Smart catalysts, 448
Smart materials, 439–451
catalysts, 448
elastorestrictive materials, 444
electrorheological materials, 445
electrostrictive materials, 443
future considerations for, 450–451
hydrogels, 447–448
light-sensitive materials, 446–447
magnetorheological materials, 445–446
magnetostrictive materials, 443–444
pH-sensitive materials, 446
piezoelectric materials, 440–443, 450
polymers, 447, 450
shape memory alloys, 448–449
thermoresponsive materials, 446
unusual behaviors of, 449–450
versatility of, 450
Smart polymers, 447, 450
SMMA (styrene/methyl methacrylate)
copolymer, 366, 367
SMT (surface-mount technology), 500
S–N–P curves, 723–728
SOAP (Spectroscopic Oil Analysis Program),
858
Socket action, 615
Soderberg’s Law, 573
Software, electronic packaging design, 510–512
Soldering, 211, 502
Solids:
behavior of fluids vs., 809–810
deformation of, 682–684
Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), 471
Solid surfaces, reflection/transmission of sound
from, 902–904
Solubility, 7
Solvent resistance (of plastics), 355
Sone, 892, 961
Sonic booms, 940
Sound(s). See also Noise control
and absorptive processes, 898–900
constitutive equations for, 895–896
fluctuation strength of, 935, 936
loudness of, 934–935
nervous system response to, 944
outdoor propagation of, 923–926
psychoacoustic effects of, 944–946
reflection and transmission of, 900–904
roughness of, 936
sensory pleasantness of, 937
sharpness of, 935
speed of, 896
theory of, 894–900
tonality of, 936–937
wave equation for, 896–898
Sound exposure level (SEL), 992
Sound exposure measurements, 992–995
equipment for making, 993–995
noise dosage, 993
sound exposure level, 992
Sound intensity, 887–888, 958
Sound intensity measurements, 982–988
applications of, 987–988
“p–p” principle for, 982–984
probes for, 984–985
systematic errors with, 985, 986
and transducer mismatch, 985–987
Sound isolation measurements, 971–974
effect of partitions on, 973–974
insertion loss, 973Index 1019
noise reduction, 973
and sound transmission class, 974
transmission loss, 972
Sound level meters (SLMs), 969–970
Sound power, 886–887, 957–958
Sound power level, 887, 957, 989–991
Sound power measurements, 988–992
comparison method for making, 992
in free fields, 989–991
reverberation method for making, 991–992
Sound pressure, 888–889, 955–957
Sound pressure level (SPL), 955–957, 969–971
average, 989
meters for, 969–970
metrics for, 970–971
Sound quality analysis, 930, 932–937
critical band rate in, 933–934
fluctuation strength in, 935, 936
limitations of, 937
loudness in, 934–935
procedures for, 932–933
roughness in, 936
sensory pleasantness in, 937
sharpness in, 935
tonality in, 936–937
Sound transmission class (STC), 974
Spalling failure, 709
Special copper alloys, 119
Specific acoustic impedance, 893
Speckle pattern method, 840, 841
Spectroscopic Oil Analysis Program (SOAP),
858
Specular reflection method, 840
Speed of sound, 896
Spheres, stresses on, 608, 610
Spherical waves, 898
Spheroidizing, of steel, 25
SPL, see Sound pressure level
sPP (syndiotactic polypropylene), 359
Springs:
bending, 619
helical compression, 619
stresses on, 618–619
tension, 619
torsional, under bending, 619
SPS (syndiotactic polystyrene), 362–363
Stainless steel(s), 31–35, 39–59
and AOD/dual certification/chemistry
control, 47–48
austenitic, 18–19, 31–32
availability of, 49
chromium in, 40
copper in, 41
and corrosion, 40, 43–47
duplex, 33, 50–51, 56, 57
effect of alloying elements on, 40–42
ferritic, 3, 32–33, 49
martensitic, 33–34, 50
molybdenum in, 40–41
nickel alloy, 51–52
nickel in, 41
precipitation hardening, 34
Web sites related to, 58
welding of, 53–58
Standard deviation, 653
Standard uncertainty, 653
State of strain, 660
Static force, 653
Static stress, 556–563, 569, 570
STC (sound transmission class), 974
Steady-stress component, fatigue with, 572
Steady vibratory stress, 595
Steel(s), 3–36
alloy, see Alloy steel[s]
carbon, 27–28
classification/specifications, 26
development of properties of, 5–18
electrical, 28
enameling, 28
free-machining, 22
heat treatment of, 24–26
hypereutectoid, 9
hypoeutectoid, 9, 12
leaded, 29
manufacture of, 4–5
maraging, 35–36
plate, 5
rephosphorized, 22
weathering, 22
Steel columns, stresses on, 605, 607–608
Steelmaking, 4
Stiffness, 561
STM (Scanning tunneling electron microscopy),
841–842
STN International, 524–526
Stokes law, 821
Storage, protective packaging for, 510
Strain, 654. See also Strain measurement
axial, 648
Cauchy–Green, 683
compressive, 558, 661
creep, 805–8061020 Index
Strain (continued)
definition of, 659–664
principal, 663
shear, 558, 660, 662
state of, 660
tensile, 558, 661
total, 558
true, 560, 655
unit, 558
Strain-Energy Theory, 569, 570
Strain gauges:
defined, 654
liquid metal, 678
measuring force with, 627–629
measuring friction force with, 846–847
resistance metal, 664–676
semiconductor, 676–678
Strain gauge method of failure analysis,
781–782
Strain gauge rosettes, 670–673
Strain hardening (nickel alloys), 283–285
Strain–life approach to fatigue, 730–732
Strain measurement, 659–670
with liquid metal strain gauges, 678
practical challenges with, 664
with resistance metal strain gauges, 664–676
rosette equations for, 670–673
with semiconductor strain gauges, 676–678
and strain sensitivity, 665–666
Wheatstone bridge circuits in, 673–676
Strain sensitivity, 665–666
Strain theory, 660
Strain transformation equations, 663
Strand casting, 4–5
Streaming, acoustic, 940
Strength:
in architectural acoustics, 922
beams of uniform, 586
breaking, 559
and ceramic failure, 791–793
of electronic materials, 480
fluctuation, 935, 936
rupture, 559
tensile, 654
of titanium alloys, 231–232
ultimate, 559, 655
yield, 559, 655
Stress(es), 555–621, 780–782
allowable unit, 562
axial, 557
on beams, 574–595
on columns, 601–608
combined, 566–570
compressive, 556, 557
computer modeling of, 620
concentration factors, 566
contact, 616, 617
creep, 563, 570–571
on cylinders/spheres, 608–610
defined, 556–563, 654
determination of principal, 566–567
discontinuities, 565–566
dynamic, 563
fatigue, 563, 572–574
impact, 563, 591–595
information sources about, 619–621
maximum, 572
mean, 572
minimum, 572
nonzero mean, 728–730
normal, 557
on plates, 610–614
range of, 572
relieving, in steel, 26
residual, 259, 854
on rotating elements, 616, 618
shafts/bending/torsion, 596–601
shear, 557, 597
simple, 557
socket action, 615
on springs, 618–619
static, 556–563, 569, 570
tensile, 556, 557
testing of, 621
thermal, 507
torsional, 596–601
total, 556
true, 559
on trunnions, 610, 614
unit, 556
and work/resilience, 563–565
Stress corrosion, 709
of copper and copper alloys, 201
of stainless steels, 43–44
Stress corrosion cracking (SCC), 43–44, 765
Stress cycle, 572
Stress–life approach to fatigue, 723–730
displaying data with S–N–P curves, 723–724
factors affecting S–N–P curves, 724–728
systems with nonzero mean stress, 728–730
Stress ratio, 572
Stress rupture, 708, 736–744Index 1021
Stress–strain curves, 625–626
Stress–strain relationship, 558–560, 567–568
Structural design of electronic packaging,
506–507
complexity and mechanical impedance in,
506
degree of enclosure in, 506–507
thermal expansion and stresses in, 507
Stylus profilometers, 839
Styrene/acrylonitrile (SAN) copolymer, 363,
364
Styrene/maleic anhydride (SMA) copolymer,
366
Styrene/methyl methacrylate (SMMA)
copolymer, 366, 367
Sublimation, 482
Substitution (as method of materials selection):
case study, 548
cost-benefit analysis, 547–548
Pugh method, 546–547
Superalloys, 299–351
component production, 337–344
compositions of, 305–308
corrosion of and coatings for, 345–347
effect of temperature on, 310–317
evolution of, 330–333
for high-temperature applications, 349–350
improvements of, 331–333
for intermediate-temperature applications,
348–349
manufacture of articles using, 302, 303
melting/casting of, 332–337
modification of, 331
modulus of elasticity of, 323–324
obtaining information on, 303–304
properties of, 325–329
strengthening of, 300–302
trace-element concentrations for, 309
Suppliers, ceramics, 469
Surfaces, reflection/transmission of sound from,
902–904
Surface acoustic wave (SAW) transducers,
634–636
Surface finishes, for electronics, 487–488
Surface-mount technology (SMT), 500
Surface profilometers, 839
Surface roughness measurements, 839–844
with electron microscopes and AFM,
840–844
with optical microscopes, 840
with surface profilometers, 839
Surveys, noise, 982
Suspended-level viscometers, 828
Switching calibration technique, 968–969
SWRO (Sea Water Reverse Osmosis) process,
463
Syndiotactic polypropylene (sPP), 359
Syndiotactic polystyrene (SPS), 362–363
Systems, active noise control in, 920
Systematic errors, with sound intensity
measurement, 985, 986
T
Tandem mill, 5
Taper-sectioning method, 840
Tapping (copper alloys), 208, 209
Tare (term), 654
TBCs (thermal barrier coatings), 346
TEM (transmission electron microscopy), 841
Temperature(s):
and calibration of force measurement
devices, 644
ceramic failure at high, 804–807
and copper, 198
effect of, on superalloys, 310–317
measurement of, 849–851
and viscometer selection, 835
and viscosity, 816–819
Temperature capability, titanium alloy,
230–232
Temperature coefficient, 642
Temperature control, for electronics,
485–486
Temperature-induced elastic deformation,
706
Temperature ranges:
compensated, 654
for electronic materials, 480
operating, 654
Tempered aluminum alloys, 70, 72–73
Tempering, 24–25
copper alloys, 159–162
steel, 26
Tensile strain, 558, 661
Tensile strength, 654
Tensile stress, 556, 557
Tensile test, 654
Tension, 556, 557, 654
Tension springs, 619
Tensoral shear strain, 662
Tertiary phase diagrams, 61022 Index
Test environments, tribology, 849–852
Textual data, 520–521
Thermal analysis, 785
Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), 346
Thermal conductivity, 477
Thermal design in electronic packaging,
507–509
and modes of heat transfer, 508–509
objectives of, 507–508
Thermal emissivity, 478
Thermal expansion:
of electronic materials, 478
in structural design, 507
Thermal failure, 777
Thermal relaxation, 708
Thermal shock, 464–465, 708, 803–804
Thermal stress, 507
Thermocouples, 849–851
Thermoplastics:
electronic packaging with, 494–496
engineering, 370–383
fluorinated, 392–393
polyolefinic, 357–361
side-chain-substituted vinyl, 361–369
Thermoplastic polyesters, 371–374
PBT/PC alloy, 371–373
poly(bytylene terephthalate), 371, 372
poly(ethylene terephthalate), 372–374
poly(trimethylene terephthalate), 374
Thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPUs), 369
Thermoresponsive materials, 446
Thermosets, 394–396
alkyd resins, 395–396
amino resins, 396
diallyl phthalate, 396
in electronic packaging materials,
496–497
epoxy resins, 394
phenolic resins, 394
unsaturated polyesters, 395
vinyl esters, 395
Thin-film sensors, 850
Threading (copper alloys), 208, 209
Three-body wear, 755
Three-lead-wire systems, 675–676
Time–temperature transformation (TTT)
diagrams, 12
Tin, 24, 494
Tin brasses, 129–130
Tin bronzes, 145
Titanium, 494
Titanium alloys, 229–264
applications of, 261–263
biomedical applications of, 261
corrosion, 260–261
cryogenic applications of, 261
crystal structure behavior in, 234
high temperatures of, 234–236
information resources for, 264
manufacture of articles using, 232–233
manufacturing processes for, 254–260
mechanical behavior of, 235–236
melting, 255–256
metallurgy of, 233–236
microstructure/properties of, 236–254
new titanium products, 263
selection of, 263–264
strengthening mechanisms for, 232
temperature capability of, 230–232
wrought, 247–252
TL, see Transmission loss
Tonality, 936–937
Tool steels, 34
Torque, 654
Torsional modulus, 655
Torsional springs, 619
Torsional stresses, 596–601
bending, 601
defined, 596
in shafts, 597–600
Torsional vibration, 874–875
Torsion test, 654
Total strain, 558
Total stress, 556
Toughness, 560, 561, 714, 854
TPUs (thermoplastic polyurethanes), 369
Traceability, 655
Traction, on a surface, 685
Tramp elements, 24
Transducers:
defined, 655
force, see Force transducers
magnetoelastic, 640
resonant element, 631–634
surface acoustic wave, 634–636
Transducer mismatch, 985–987
Transmission coefficient, 908
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), 841
Transmission loss (TL):
active control of, 921
defined, 908
measuring, 972Index 1023
passive control of, 915
for vibration isolation mounts, 909–910
Transmission of sound, 900–904
at discontinuities in pipes, 904
at side branches of pipes, 904
from a single interface, 900–902
from a solid surface, 902–904
through fluid layers, 902–904
Transparent ceramics, 468
Transverse sensitivity, 672–673
Transverse sensitivity coefficient (strain gauge),
667–668
Transverse vibration, 873–874
Tribology measurements, 837–860
friction, 844–847
for fundamental vs. applied research, 838
industrial context for, 859
of lubricant characteristics, 855–858
of material characteristics, 852–855
surface roughness, 839–844
test environments for, 849–852
wear, 847–849
and wear particle analysis, 858–859
Trip steels, 30
True strain, 560, 655
True stress, 559, 655
True stress–strain relationship, 560
Trunnions, stresses on, 610, 614
TTT (time–temperature transformation)
diagrams, 12
Tube/pipe products (copper and copper alloys),
215–224
fuel gas distribution systems, 217, 224
nonflammable medical gas piping systems,
217
plumbing tube, 215–225
Tube (bubble) viscometers, 823–824, 834
Tungsten, 23, 41
Tuning forks, 888, 889
Tuning fork sensors, 631–634
Tuning fork viscometers, 831, 832
Tuyeres, 4
Twist, angle of, 598
Twisting moment, 596
Two-body wear, 755
U
Ultimate strength, 559, 655
Ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene
(UHMWPE), 357, 358
Ultrahigh-strength steels, 35–36
Ultrasound, 941–942
Uncertainty:
in force measurement, 644–647
with force transducers, 625
in measurement, 650
standard, 653
Unidirectional MMCs, 424
Unified Numbering System (UNS), 26
Uniform strength, beams of, 586
Unit strain, 558
Unit stress, 556, 562
Universal force testing machines, 627–631
UNS (Unified Numbering System), 26
Unsaturated polyesters, 395
V
Vacuum arc melting, 255
Vacuum arc remelting (VAR), 332, 333, 335
Vacuum induction melding (VIM), 332–334
Variable stress component, fatigue with, 572
Vertical deflection, 584
Vertical shear, 576
Very low-density polyethylene (VLDPE), 357
Vibration(s), 861–868, 870–883. See also
Shock
of beams, 595
of continuous vibratory systems, 873–877
and dynamics study, 861
electronic equipment failure due to,
504–505
flexural, 875
isolation of, 878–880
longitudinal, 874
modeling of, 862–864
in multi-degree-of-freedom systems,
870–873
nomenclature for, 882–883
in single-degree-of-freedom systems,
865–868
sources of, 861–862
standards for, 881–882
study of, 862
torsional, 874–875
transverse, 873–874
Vibrational viscometers, 831–832, 834
Vibration isolation mounts, 909–910
active noise control in, 921
and impedance, 909
transmission loss for, 909–9101024 Index
Vibration testing, 505–506
Vibratory stresses, 595
Vickers hardness test, 853
VIM (vacuum induction melding), 332–334
Vinyl esters, 395
Vinyl thermoplastics, side-chain substituted,
see Side-chain-substituted vinyl
thermoplastics
Viscometers, 819–832, 856–858
bubble (tube), 823–824, 834
capillary, 827–829, 834, 856
drag-type, 820–823
falling-object, 820–823, 834
flow-type, 827–829
orifice-type (cup), 829–831, 834
rotational, 824–826, 834, 856
selecting, 833–835
vibrational (resonant), 831–832, 834
Viscometry, see Viscosity measurement
Viscosity, 809–819
absolute, 810, 811
apparent, 813
and behavior of fluids vs. solids, 809–810
bulk, 810
defined, 810
dynamic, 834
of gases, 818
kinematic, 810–812, 834
of liquids, 818–819
mathematical formalism governing, 813–815
and molecular theory, 815–816
and pressure, 816–817, 819
and temperature, 816–819
units of, 811–812
Viscosity measurement (viscometry):
ASTM standards for, 832–833
calibration fluids for, 832
methods of, 819–832
rheology vs., 812–813
selecting a technique of, 833–835
in tribology experiments, 856–858
Visual examination, 779
VLDPE (very low-density polyethylene), 357
W
Water purification, 463
Waves:
defined, 655
plane, 897
spherical, 898
Wave equations:
for plane waves, 897
for sound, 896–898
for spherical waves, 897
Wear:
defined, 707
failure due to, 744–745, 753–759
and fretting, 744–745
measurement of, 847–849
Wear particle analysis, 858–859
Wear resistance, electronic materials, 482
Wear-resistant steels, 35
Weathering steels, 22
Web shear, 584
Weibull distribution plots, 457–458
Weibull statistics, 799–803
compression loading, 799
global multiaxial fracture criterion,
799–800
local multiaxial fracture criterion,
800–803
Weighted-properties method (materials
selection), 538–540
Weighting filters, 891–893
acoustic measurements for, 960–961
and octave bands in audio range, 892–894
types of, 891–892
Welds, properties of, 214
Welding:
carbon vs. stainless steel, 53–55
of copper and copper alloys, 211–213
in electronics, 502
gas–metal arc, 213
gas–tungsten arc, 212, 213
nickel and nickel alloys, 287
processes, 212, 213
of stainless steels, 53–58
Wet corrosion, 279
Wheatstone bridges, 629–630, 673–676
Windows, smart, 447
Wire, music, 36
Wooden columns, stresses on, 604–607
Work, 563–565
Wrought alloys:
aluminum, 93–108
copper, 120–132, 135–140, 153–155
magnesium, 292, 294
titanium, 247–252
Wrought superalloys:
applications of, 348–349
compositions of, 305–307Index 1025
dynamic moduli of elasticity for,
323–324
effect of temperature on, 310–312,
315–316
physical properties of, 318–320
processing of, 340–341
X X
-percentile-exceeded sound level (LX),
928
Y
Yellow brasses, 128, 142–143
Yielding failure, 706, 710–712
Yield point, 559, 655
Yield strength, 559, 655
Young’s modulus, 625, 655–656, 687, 854
Z
Zinc, 493
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