Mechanical Behavior of Materials – Fundamentals, Analysis, and Calculations

Mechanical Behavior of Materials – Fundamentals, Analysis, and Calculations
اسم المؤلف
Zainul Huda
التاريخ
16 فبراير 2022
المشاهدات
56
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(لا توجد تقييمات)
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Mechanical Behavior of Materials – Fundamentals, Analysis, and Calculations
Zainul Huda
Contents
Part I Materials: Deformation, Testing, and Strengthening
1 Introduction . 3
1.1 What Is Mechanical Behavior of Materials? And Why Study It? 3
1.2 Deformation Behaviors 4
1.2.1 Deformation and Its Classification 4
1.2.2 Time-Independent Deformation – Elastic/Plastic
Deformation . 4
1.2.3 Time Dependent Deformation – Creep 6
1.3 Materials’ Failure − Classification and Disasters 7
1.3.1 Fracture and Failure . 7
1.3.2 Classification of Material Failures 7
1.3.3 Ductile and Brittle Failures . 7
1.3.4 Ductile-Brittle Transition (DBT) Failure . 10
1.3.5 Fatigue Failure . 11
1.4 Materials Selection in Design . 11
1.5 The Factor of Safety in Design 12
Questions and Problems 13
References . 14
2 Physics of Deformation 15
2.1 Significance of Crystallography in Deformation Behavior . 15
2.2 Crystallography 15
2.2.1 Crystalline Solids and Crystal Systems 15
2.2.2 Crystal-Structure Properties . 17
2.2.3 Crystal Structures of Metals . 17
2.2.4 Miller Indices 20
2.2.5 Crystallographic Directions . 20
2.2.6 Crystallographic Planes 21x
2.3 Crystal Imperctions – Dislocations . 22
2.3.1 Cystal Defects . 22
2.3.2 Dislocations . 23
2.4 Deformation Mechanisms – Dislocation Movement 24
2.4.1 Deformation by Slip . 24
2.4.2 Deformation by Twinning 26
2.5 Plastic Deformation – Cold Working/Rolling . 27
2.6 Deformation in Single Crystals – Schmid’s Law . 28
2.7 Calculations – Worked Examples . 30
Questions and Problems 36
References . 36
3 Mechanical Testing and Properties of Materials . 39
3.1 Material Processing and Mechanical Properties . 39
3.1.1 Relationship Between Processing and Properties 39
3.1.2 Mechanical Properties/Behaviors 39
3.2 Shear Stress and Shear Modulus . 40
3.3 Tensile Testing and Tensile Properties . 42
3.3.1 Tensile Testing . 42
3.3.2 Tensile Mechanical Properties . 43
3.4 Elastic Mechanical Properties . 46
3.5 Hardness Testing and Hardness of Materials 47
3.5.1 Hardness and its Testing . 47
3.5.2 Brinell Hardness Test 47
3.5.3 Rockwell Hardness Test 48
3.5.4 Vickers Hardness Test . 50
3.5.5 Knoop Hardness Test 51
3.5.6 Microhardness Test . 51
3.5.7 Hardness Conversion 52
3.6 Impact Toughness – Impact Energy . 52
3.6.1 Impact Testing . 52
3.6.2 The Analysis of Impact Testing 53
3.7 Fatigue and Creep Behaviors 53
3.8 Calculations – Worked Examples . 54
Questions and Problems 59
References . 61
4 Strengthening Mechanisms in Metals/Alloys 63
4.1 Strengthening Mechanisms − Importance and Basis . 63
4.2 Grain-Boundary Strengthening 64
4.2.1 The Evolution of Grained Microstructure 64
4.2.2 Grain-Boundary Strengthening – Hall-Petch
Relationship . 65
4.3 Strain Hardening . 67
4.4 Solid-Solution Strengthening 69
4.5 Precipitation Strengthening . 70
Contentsxi
4.6 Dispersion Strengthening – Mechanical Alloying 72
4.7 Calculations – Worked Examples (Solved Problems) . 72
Questions and Problems 77
References . 79
5 Materials in Engineering 81
5.1 Materials and Engineers 81
5.2 Classification of Materials in Engineering 81
5.3 Metals and Alloys 82
5.4 Cast Irons . 83
5.4.1 Characteristics and Applications of Cast Irons 83
5.4.2 Types of Cast Irons . 83
5.4.3 Mechanical Properties of Cast Irons 85
5.5 Steels 86
5.5.1 Steels’ Definition, Classification, and Designation
Systems 86
5.5.2 Carbon Steels 87
5.5.3 Alloy Steels . 88
5.6 Non-Ferrous Metals and Alloys 91
5.6.1 Aluminum and its Alloys . 91
5.6.2 Copper and its Alloys 94
5.6.3 Nickel and its Alloys 95
5.6.4 Titanium and its Alloys 95
5.7 Ceramics and Glasses . 96
5.7.1 Introduction to Ceramics . 96
5.7.2 Traditional Ceramics 96
5.7.3 Advanced Ceramics . 97
5.8 Polymers and Plastics . 97
5.8.1 Introduction to Polymers and Plastics . 97
5.8.2 Plastics – Mechanical Behaviors and Applications . 98
5.9 Composite Materials 100
5.10 Semiconductors and Advanced Materials 101
5.11 Calculations – Worked Examples/Solved Problems . 101
Questions and Problems 104
References . 106
Part II Stresses, Strains, and Deformation Behaviors
6 Stress-Strain Relations and Deformation Models 109
6.1 True Stress and True Strain . 109
6.2 Stress-Strain Relationships – Young’s–, Tangent–, and Plastic
Moduli . 111
6.3 Stress-Strain Relationship in Strain Hardening 112
6.4 Elastic and Plastic Deformation Modles – Yield Criteria 113
6.5 Calcualtions – Worked Examples . 114
Questions and Problems 118
References . 118
Contentsxii
7 Elasticity and Viscoelasticity . 119
7.1 Elastic Behavior of Materials 119
7.1.1 Elasticity and Elastic Constants 119
7.1.2 Anisotropic and Isotropic Materials . 119
7.2 Poisson’s Ratio . 120
7.3 Resilience . 121
7.4 Generalized Hook’s Law – Hook’s Law for Three Dimensions 122
7.5 Bulk Modulus – Relationship Between the Elastic Constants . 124
7.5.1 Elastic Constants – E, G, and B 124
7.5.2 Derivation of Expression for the Bulk Modulus . 125
7.5.3 Relationships Between the Elastic Constants
and the Poisson’s Ratio 128
7.6 Thermal Effects on Elastic Strains 128
7.7 Viscoelasticity . 129
7.8 Calculations – Worked Examples . 130
Questions and Problems 140
References . 142
8 Complex/Principal Stresses and Strains 143
8.1 Complex Stresses . 143
8.1.1 Technological Importance of Complex and Multiple
Stresses . 143
8.1.2 What Is a Complex Stresses Situation? 143
8.2 The State of Plane Stress – Axes Transformation 144
8.2.1 Analyses for Direct and Shear Stresses 145
8.3 Principal Stresses . 147
8.4 Mohr’s Circle – Graphical Representation of Stresses 149
8.5 Generalized Plane Stress – The Presence of σz in the
Plane Stress . 149
8.6 Principal Stresses and the Maximum Shear Stress – 3D
Consideration 150
8.7 Complex Strains – Principal Strains in 3 Directions 152
8.8 Calaculations – Worked Examples 153
Questions and Problems 162
References . 163
9 Plasticity and Superplasticity – Theory and Applications 165
9.1 Plasticity – Design and Manufacturing Approaches 165
9.2 The Stress-Strain Curve and Plasticity 165
9.3 Plastic Instability in Uniaxial Loading 166
9.4 Bauschinger Effect 168
9.5 Bending of Beams – Plastic Deformation 169
9.5.1 Deriving Expressions for the Curvature and the Radius
of Curvature . 169
9.5.2 Symmetrical Bending and the Longitudinal Strain
in Simply Supported Beams 170
Contentsxiii
9.6 Application of Plasticity to Sheet Metal Forming 172
9.6.1 Principal Strain Increments in Uniaxial Loading . 172
9.6.2 Plane Stress Deformation in Sheet Metal Forming . 173
9.7 Hydrostatic Stress and the Deviatoric Stresses 174
9.8 Levy-Mises Flow Rule and Relation Bewteen α and β 175
9.9 Effective Stress and Effective Strain 177
9.10 Superplasticity . 177
9.11 Calculations – Worked Examples . 178
Questions and Problems 186
References . 188
10 Torsion in Shafts . 189
10.1 Torsion/Stresses in Shafts . 189
10.1.1 Torsional Shear Stress in a Shaft . 189
10.1.2 Twist and Shear Strain . 190
10.1.3 Power and Torque Relationship and Shaft Design 191
10.1.4 Torsional Flexibility and Stiffness 191
10.2 Calcualtions – Worked Examples 192
Questions and Problems 198
References . 198
Part III Failure, Design, and Composites Behavior
11 Failures Theories and Design . 201
11.1 Failures and Theories of Failure 201
11.2 Maximum Principal Normal Stress Theory or Rankine Theory 202
11.3 Maximum Shear Stress Theory of Failure or Tresca Theory . 202
11.3.1 Theoretical Aspect of Tresca Theory 202
11.3.2 Design Application of Tresca Theory 204
11.4 Von Mises Theory of Failure . 206
11.4.1 Theoretical Aspect of von-Mises Theory . 206
11.4.2 Design Aspect of von-Mises Theory of Failure 206
11.5 Calcualtions – Worked Examples 208
Questions and Problems 212
References . 213
12 Fracture Mechanics and Design 215
12.1 Engineering Failures and Evolution of Fracture Mechanics . 215
12.2 Griffith’s Crack Theory . 216
12.3 Stress Concentration Factor 218
12.4 Loading Modes in Fracture Mechanics . 220
12.5 Stress Intensity Factor (K), Kc, and KIC . 221
12.6 Design Philosophy . 223
12.6.1 What Is the Design Philosophy of Fracture
Mechanics? 223
Contentsxiv
12.6.2 Application of Design Philosophy to Decide
whether or Not a Design Is Safe 223
12.6.3 Application of Design Philosophy to Material
Selection 224
12.6.4 Application of Design Philosophy to Design
of a Testing/NDT Method . 224
12.6.5 Application of Design Philosophy to the Determination
of Design Stress 224
12.7 Calculations – Worked Examples 224
Questions and Problems 229
References . 231
13 Fatigue Behavior of Materials 233
13.1 Fatigue Failure – Fundamentals 233
13.2 Stress Cycles . 233
13.2.1 Types of Stresses and Stress Cycles . 233
13.2.2 Stress Cycle Parameters 235
13.3 Fatigue Testing – Determination of Fatigue Strength
and Fatigue Life . 236
13.4 Goodman’s Law . 238
13.5 Techniques in Designing against Fatigue Failure . 238
13.6 Miner’s Law of Cumulative Damage . 239
13.7 Fatigue Crack Growth Rate and Computation of Fatigue Life . 240
13.8 Calculations – Worked Examples 242
Questions and Problems 249
References . 251
14 Creep Behavior of Materials . 253
14.1 Creep Deformation and Failure . 253
14.2 Creep Testing and Creep Curve . 253
14.3 Factors Controlling Creep Rate . 256
14.4 Larson-Miller Parameter (LMP) 257
14.5 Creep-Limited Alloy Design . 258
14.6 Calculations – Worked Examples 258
Questions and Problems 264
References . 265
15 Mechanical Behavior of Composite Materials . 267
15.1 Composite Materials, Classification, and Applications . 267
15.2 Mechanical Behavior of Fibrous Composites 269
15.2.1 General Mechanical Behavior of Fibrous Composites . 269
15.2.2 Behavior of Unidirectional Continuous Fiber
Composite under Longitudinal Loading 270
15.2.3 Stiffness of Unidirectional Continuous Fiber
Composite under Transverse Loading . 272
Contentsxv
15.2.4 Poisson’s Ratio of Composite Material 273
15.2.5 Shear Modulus of Fibrous Composite Materials . 273
15.3 Mechanical Behavior of Particulate Composites 273
15.4 Calculations – Worked Examples . 274
Questions and Problems 280
References . 281
Answers to Problems . 283
Index .
A
Accidental loads, 8
Activation energies of creep
defined, 257
determination, 257, 261
Aging, see Precipitation hardening
Aircraft structural materials, 89–93, 95, 239
Air hardening steels, 89
AISI-1020, 46, 56, 57
AISI 304N, 76
Allowable stress (working stress) in design, 12
Alloyed cast iron, 83, 85
Alloying, see Solid-solution strengthening
Alloys, 48–51, 54, 63–78, 81–83, 86–95, 102,
103, 112, 117, 121, 187, 223, 228,
237, 243, 258, 263, 264
Alloy steels
Hadfield manganese steel, 89, 90
maraging steels, 70, 89, 90
stainless steels, 89, 90, 112
4140 steel, 89
4340 steel, 89, 112, 119
Alpha brass, 94
Alpha-iron, 17
Alternating stress cycle, 233–236, 242, 243,
249, 250
Alumina (Al2O3), 46, 96–98, 208, 273
Aluminum and alloys, 50–51, 67, 69, 82, 83,
91–93, 102, 103, 127, 223, 228,
236, 243
American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI), 46,
56, 57, 68, 69, 86, 87
American Society for Testing and Materials
(ASTM), 42
Amorphous solid, 15
Amplitude, of stress, 235–238, 242, 243
Amplitude ratio, 235, 236, 243
Angle of rotation, 145, 148,
152–154, 161–163
Angle of twist, 41, 54, 190, 192, 193, 195–198
Anisotropic materials, 46, 119, 140
Annealing of steel, 73
Austempered ductile iron (ADI), 83, 85, 104
Austenite (γ-iron), 87, 90, 91
Austenitic stainless steels (ASS), 68, 69, 90
Axial strain, 60, 120, 122, 130
Axial stress, 233, 234
B
Barium titanate, 97, 106
Bauschinger effect, 166, 168, 186, 188,
201, 213
Beach marks in fatigue failure, 233
Beams, 6, 91, 144, 170–171, 180–182, 186,
235, 250, 253
Bending of beams
analysis, 169–171
curvature, 169–170
radius of curvature, 169–170
symmetrical bending, 170–171
Bending stress, 234, 242
Biaxial stresses, 201
Biomaterial, 81, 95
Body-centered cubic (BCC) structure, 17–20,
26, 30, 69, 78, 90
Bonding in solids, 15–16
Bones, 11
Boron carbide (B4C), 96
Boron nitride (BN), 96
Brale indenter, 48
Branching in polymers, 97
Brass, 8, 34, 49, 51, 83, 94, 127
Bridges
failure of, 6, 215
fatigue life of, 7, 239, 248, 250
Brinell hardness test, 47, 48, 58
Brittle behavior, 7–10
effects of cracks on, 215, 216, 221
multiaxial criteria for, 8, 12
in notch fatigue, 238, 239
Brittle fracture, 7–10, 201, 215, 217
techniques against, 238–239
Bronze, 83, 94, 104, 127, 264
Bulk modulus, 40, 46, 118, 119, 124–128,
138, 144
Burger’s vector, 23, 24, 36
C
Cabin window corner radii, 220, 230
Carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP)
composite, 99, 100, 267, 281
Carbon steels, 49, 83, 86–88, 100, 102, 104,
112, 127, 210, 213, 223, 236
AISI-SAE designations for, 89
mechanical properties of, 88
microstructures of, 87, 88
Cartridge brass, 94
Casting, 12, 39, 64, 85, 92, 258
Cast irons
characteristics and applications of, 83
mechanical properties of, 85, 86
types of, 83–85
Cemented carbides, 50, 100
Cementite, 84, 85, 87
Ceramic matrix composites (CMC), 100, 267
Ceramics, 16, 81, 96–98, 100, 104, 227, 228,
230, 258, 267
clay products, 96
concrete, 267
engineering (advanced), 97
Chain of molecules, 97
Challenger, STS-51L space shuttle, 215
Charpy V-notch test, 52, 59, 61
Chromium in steel, 83, 88
Circular (embedded) cracks, 222, 229, 230
Circular shafts, torsion of, 189, 195, 197
Clay, 96
Cleavage, 7, 10
Climb (dislocation), 253, 254, 264
Coefficient of thermal expansion (α), 95, 128,
139, 144, 269
Cold work (CW), 27–28, 34, 54, 67–69, 75,
76, 90, 92, 94, 114, 116, 117
Compacted graphite (CG) cast iron, 83, 85
Complex strain, 152–153, 162
Complex stress, 3, 145–148, 152, 155, 162
Composite materials, 99, 100, 267–281
applications, 267, 269
classification, 267, 268
definition, 267
fibrous composites, 100, 267–273
mechanical behavior of, 100, 267–281
particulate composites, 100, 267,
270, 273–274
Crack initiation, 8, 11, 85, 233
Crack propagation, 11, 222, 230, 233
Crack termination, 11, 233
Creep, 3, 6, 7, 40, 53, 54, 95, 96, 103, 201,
215, 253–264
curve (creep curve), 253–256
deformation, 3, 6, 7, 13, 253, 254
failure, 253–255
primary creep, 253–255
rate of creep, 256–257, 260–264
secondary (steady-state) creep, 253, 256
tertiary creep, 253, 255
testing (creep testing), 253–255
Creep-limited alloy design, 258
Critical crack size (ac), 223, 229, 238,
249, 250
Critical fiber length (lc), 267, 270, 274
Critical resolved shear stress τ
crss, 29, 34–36
Critical stress intensity factor Kc, 221,
222, 230
Crystal imperfections (defects), 22–24
Crystallographic directions, 20, 21, 32, 36
Crystallographic planes, 7, 15, 20–22, 24, 25,
32, 33, 36
Crystallography, 15–21
Crystal structure, 3, 15–20, 23–25, 30, 32, 72
BCC, 17–19, 26, 30
FCC, 18–20, 25, 30
HCP, 19, 20, 26, 27, 30, 32
Crystal structure properties, 17, 19
Crystal systems, 15–17, 21
Cumulative damage, 239–240, 246, 250
Curvature, 169–171, 180, 181, 186, 188,
218–219, 226, 227, 230
Cyclic stress-strain behavior, 233–235
D
Deflection in beam, 169, 180, 187
Deformation
characteristics of the various types
of, 23–24
creep, 3, 6–7, 14, 253, 254
elastic type, 4–6, 14, 113–114, 125
Index289
plastic type, 3, 4, 6, 8–11, 13, 22–29, 36,
45, 47, 63, 78, 111, 113–114, 167,
169–171, 179, 190, 201, 213
by slip, 3, 15, 22, 24–26, 28, 34, 36
by twin, 25–27
Deformation behavior models, 113–114
Degree of crystallinity, 98
Degree of polymerization (DP), 98, 103
Design
creep, 260
defined, 12
fatigue, 238–239
material selection, 11–12, 224
safety factors, 12–13, 204, 205, 210,
212, 228
Design philosophy of fracture mechanics,
224, 228
Deviatoric stress, 174–175, 184, 186–188
Diamond crystal structure, 16
Die swell, 129, 130, 140
Dislocation climb (in creep), 253, 254, 264
Dislocation density (ρD), 23, 25, 27, 35, 36,
67, 68, 74–76, 78
Dislocation motion, plastic deformation
by, 15, 28
Dislocation piling, 65, 66
Dislocations, 3, 15, 22–25, 28, 29, 35, 36,
63–70, 72, 74–78, 168, 253, 254,
258, 264
Dispersion strengthening, 64, 71, 72, 77, 78
Draft, 27, 34, 36
Ductile behavior in a tension test, 42–43
Ductile fracture, 7–10, 13, 201
Ductile iron, 83, 85
Ductility
engineering measures of, 46, 52, 53
and necking, 45, 166–168
percent elongation, 45, 57
percent reduction in area, 45
Duplex stainless steel (DSS), 90, 91
E
Edge dislocation, 23–25, 63, 64, 253
Effective strain, 177, 184, 187
Effective stress, 177, 185, 187
Elastic constants, 46, 119, 121, 124–128,
138, 140
Elastic deformation
bulk modulus, 46, 119, 124–128, 138
hydrostatic stress, 124, 125
thermal strains, 128, 129
volume change in elastic deformation, 125,
126, 138, 140
volumetric strain, 124–126, 138
Elastic limit, 4, 45, 113, 119
Elastic, linear-hardening stress-strain
relationship, 111–113
Elastic modulus (Young’s modulus)
under longitudinal loading, 271, 275,
278, 279
under transverse loading, 274, 277, 280
Elastic, perfectly plastic stress-strain
relationship, 112, 118
Elastic strain, 4, 44, 45, 57, 111–113, 118,
121, 128–129, 165, 254
Elastic strains, Hooke’s law for, 6, 124
Elastic, work-hardening stress-strain
relationship, 112, 201, 213
Elastomers, 129
Electronic materials, 81, 101
Elliptical cracks, 217
Elongation, percent, 45, 57, 60
Embrittlement, 7, 201
Endurance limit, 236, 237
Energy, impact, 9, 10, 13, 52–54, 59, 61
Engineering ceramics, 97
Engineering components
materials selection for, 11, 224
Engineering design, 186
Engineering materials
classes and examples of, 81, 82
general characteristics of, 40, 46
Engineering stress and strain, 42, 43, 55, 56,
109, 110, 115, 165, 167
Engineering stress-strain properties
breaking strength, 45, 166
ductility, 45
elastic limit, 4, 45, 119
elastic (Young’s) modulus, 4, 45, 56,
111–112, 115
elongation, 43, 45, 46, 57, 58, 166
lower yield point, 165
necking behavior and ductility, 45, 166
proportional limit, 44, 45, 56, 57
reduction in area, 45, 46, 168
strain hardening, 64, 67, 68, 112, 116,
166, 168
tangent modulus, 111–112, 115
from tension, 45, 46, 144, 165
ultimate tensile strength, 44, 45, 48, 166,
170, 238
upper yield point, 165–166
yielding, 45, 121, 166, 168
yield strength, 45, 46, 57, 166, 168
Environmental assisted cracking (EAC), 7, 8
Epoxy, 99, 104, 267, 274, 280
Etched sample, 67, 74, 78
Extensometer, 42
Extrinsic semiconductors, 101
Index290
F
Face-centered cubic (FCC) structure, 18, 19
Factor of safety (FoS), 12–13,
204–207, 210–213
Failure criteria
brittle fracture criteria, 7–10, 201, 215, 217
yield criteria, 113–114
Failure envelope, for Mohr’s circle, 149–150
Failure surface, 208–210
Fatigue
crack initiations in, 11, 85, 233
cyclic loading, 235, 236, 241
definitions for, 11
design against, 10, 216
fatigue damage, 239
fatigue limit behavior, 236, 238, 243, 244
fatigue testing, 236–237
fracture mechanics approach, 3, 215–229
HCF and LCF, 237
life estimates with, 236–237,
239–243, 245–250
mean stresses, 235, 236, 238, 242, 244
Miner’s rule, 239–240
notch effects, 244, 250
residual stress effects, 238
S-N curves, 236, 243, 245
Fatigue crack growth
fatigue crack-growth rate, 240–242, 247,
249, 250
Paris equation, 249–250
Fatigue failure
designing to avoid, 201, 238, 239
stages in, 11, 12, 234
surface residual stresses, 238
Fatigue failure prevention/avoidance, 201
Fatigue limits, 236, 238, 244, 245
Fatigue strength, 39, 85, 86, 91, 105, 236–239,
243, 249
Fatigue stress concentration factor, 239, 244
Fatigue testing, 236–237
Ferrite (α-iron), 91
Ferritic stainless steel (FSS), 90
Ferro-electric material, 97, 106
Ferrous alloys, 83, 86
Fiberglass, 100, 267, 276, 280
Fibrous composites
E calculation under longitudinal loading,
271, 275, 278, 279
E calculation under transverse loading,
272, 277
random discontinuous fibers, 267, 268
unidirectional continuous fibers, 267,
270–273, 278, 280
unidirectional discontinuous fibers,
267, 268
Flaw shape factor (geometric factor), 216, 224,
228, 229, 239
Fluctuating stress cycle, 233, 235
Fracture
brittle, 7–10, 201, 215, 217
cleavage, 7, 10
of cracked members, 221, 224, 225, 240
intergranular, 9
modes, 10, 220–221
for static and impact loading, 8, 10
transgranular, 7, 9
types of, 8, 9, 201
Fracture mechanics
application to design a test method, 224
application to design stress, 224
application to predict design safety, 224
critical stress intensity factor (Kc), 221, 222
for fatigue crack growth, 240–242, 247
plane strain fracture toughness (KIC), 221,
222, 228, 231
stress concentration factor, 218–220, 226,
230, 239, 244, 250
stress intensity factor K, 241
Fracture strength, 57
Fracture surface, 8–10
Fracture toughness, 85, 105, 221, 223, 224,
228–231, 273
Fully plastic yielding, 165
G
Gage length, 42, 43, 109, 169, 258
Gamma iron, 18
Gas-turbine (GT) engines, 95, 253, 258
Generalized Hooke’s law, 124
Generalized plane stress, 150–151, 158, 163
Geometric factor in fracture mechanics, 221
GFRP composite, 267, 275–277, 280
GLARE composite, 267, 269
Glass, 9, 53, 81, 96–98, 100, 127, 223, 224,
226, 230, 267, 269, 273, 274,
279, 280
Goodman diagram, 238, 250
Goodman equation, 238
Grain boundaries, 7, 64–67, 77, 78
Grain-boundary strengthening, 64–67, 77, 78
Grained microstructure, 64–65
Grain oriented electrical steel (GOES),
21, 91, 104
Graphite, 16, 83–85, 101, 102, 267
Gray cast iron, 84
Index291
Griffith, A.A., 216–218, 226, 230, 250
Griffith’s crack theory, 216–218, 230
H
Hall-Petch relationship, 65–67, 72, 73, 78
Hardening, 47, 64, 66–68, 77, 78, 89,
112–113, 116, 118, 166, 168,
201, 213
Hardness, 39, 40, 47–53, 58–60, 67, 68, 83,
85–90, 102, 105
Hardness correlations and conversions, 52
Hardness tests
Brinell hardness test, 47–49, 58, 60, 90
Rockwell hardness test, 47–50, 59
Vickers hardness test, 47, 50–51, 58–60
Havilland Comet aircraft crash, 218
Heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning
(HVAC) system, 94
Heat treatment, 47, 70, 85–90, 92–93, 102,
104, 258
Hexagonal close-packed (HCP) crystal
structure, 17, 19–20
High-carbon steels, 87, 88
High cycle fatigue (HCF), 237, 249
High density polyethylene (HDPE), 46,
98, 99, 106
High-temperature creep, 6, 54, 93, 95, 253
Hooke’s law, 6, 124
Hot working (HW), 114, 118
Hybrid composites, 267, 269
Hydrogen embrittlement (HE), 7, 201
Hydrostatic stress, 124–127, 138,
174–175, 184–188
I
Impact energy tests, 52–53, 59, 61
Impact loading, fracture under, 8
Impurity (interstitial, substitutional),
69, 70, 78
Indentation hardness, 47
Inter-granular (IG) fracture, 7, 14
Intermetallic compounds, 70
Internal combustion (IC) engine, 84
Interstitial solid solution, 69, 70, 78
Intrinsic semiconductors, 101
Irons, cast, see Cast irons
Iso-strain condition, 270, 271, 275, 280
Iso-stress condition, 272, 280
Isotropic materials, 47, 113, 119, 121, 129,
141, 152, 160, 163
Izod impact test, 52
Izod tests, 52
K
Kevlar, 100
Knoop hardness number (KHN), 51, 52, 59
Knoop hardness testing, 47, 51, 59
L
Laminated composites, 100, 267, 269, 281
Larson–Miller parameter (LMP), 257–258,
263, 264
Lateral strain, 60, 120, 122, 123, 130, 131, 144
Lattice plane and site, 21
Levy-Mises flow rule, 175–176
Liberty Ships failures, 215
Lignin, 267
Linear hardening, 113, 118
Line defects (dislocations), 15, 23
Liquid metal embrittlement, 7
Loading modes: I, II, & III, 221, 229, 230
Low-alloy high-strength (LAHS) steels,
86, 89, 105
Low-carbon steel, 87–90, 102
Low-density polyethylene (LDPE),
98, 99, 106
Lower yield point (LYP), 165, 166
Low-temperature creep, 6
M
Malleable iron, 50, 83, 85
Manganese in steel, 86, 88–90, 92
Maraging steels, 70, 89, 90
Martensite, 90, 91, 105
Martensitic stainless steel (MSS), 90, 105
Materials selection, 11–13, 224
Maximum normal stress fracture criterion, 202
Maximum principal normal stress theory/
Rankine theory, 201, 202
Maximum shear stress, 150–152, 162, 192,
193, 197, 198, 201–206, 213
Maximum shear stress (MSS) theory (Tresca
theory), 201–205, 213
Mean stress, 235, 236, 238, 242, 244, 249, 250
Mechanical behavior of materials, 3, 13, 15,
21, 22, 40, 47
Mechanical testing
creep testing, 253–255, 259, 260, 264
fatigue tests, 236–237
hardness tests, 47–52, 58–60
notch-impact tests, 52
tension/tensile tests, 42–47, 57–60, 110,
111, 114, 115, 118, 130, 131,
166–167, 172, 178
Medium-carbon steels, 87, 102
Index292
Metal matrix composites (MMCs), 100, 267
Metals
ferrous metals, 83
nonferrous metals, 83, 91–95
strengthening methods for, 63
Microstructures, 3, 39, 64–65, 70, 72, 76–78,
84, 85, 87–88, 90–92, 95, 105, 106,
177, 178, 258
Micro-void coalescence, see Dimpled rupture
Mild steel, 8, 26, 42, 46, 50, 53, 87, 105, 114,
118, 119, 121, 132, 135, 139, 141,
165, 166, 177, 186, 208–210
Miller indices, 20–22, 32, 33, 36
Miner’s law diagram, 240
Miner’s law of cumulative damage, 239–240
Mixed dislocation, 23–24
Models, see Deformation models
Modulus of elasticity, see Young’s modulus
Modulus of rigidity, see Shear modulus
Mohr’s circle, 143, 149–150, 156–158, 162
Molybdenum in steel, 88, 90
Multiaxial stress effects, 10, 201
See also Three-dimensional stress-strain
Muntz metal, 94
N
Naval brass, 112
Necking, 166
Nickel-base superalloys, 70, 95, 258
Nitrided steels hardness, 50
Nitrides, 51, 96
Nodular cast iron, 84
Nominal stresses, 218
Nonferrous metals
aluminum alloys, 91–93
copper alloys, 93–94
superalloys, 95
titanium alloys, 95
Non-grain oriented electrical steels
(NGOES), 91
Normal stress, 29, 122–124, 126, 133, 136,
138, 140–141, 145, 148–152, 154,
155, 157–160, 162, 163, 174, 177,
183, 187, 188, 201–203, 208, 209,
212, 229
Notched specimens, 52, 239, 244
Notch effects in fatigue, 244, 250
Notch-free specimen, 239
Notch-impact tests, 52
Notch sensitivity factor, 239, 244, 250
Numerical integration (for crack growth), 3,
216, 240–242, 247, 250, 255
Nylons, 281
O
Opening loading mode (Mode I), 220–221,
227, 229–231
Orthotropic materials, 46
Oxide-dispersion-strengthened (ODS)
alloys, 72
Oxides, 96, 223, 228, 257, 258, 261
P
Paris equation, 247, 249
Particulate composites, 100, 267, 268,
273–274, 279
Pearlite, 85, 87, 88
Percent elongation, 45, 57, 60
Percent reduction in area (%RA), 45, 46
Perfect crystals, 22, 36
Perfectly plastic stress-strain curve,
111, 165–166
relationship, 68, 112
See also Elastic-perfectly plastic
stress-strain
Plain-carbon steels, 86
Plain strain, 222, 228, 231, 247
Plane strain fracture toughness, 221, 222,
228, 231
Plane stress, 144–147, 149–151, 158, 162,
163, 172–175, 183, 186, 203, 204,
206–208, 210, 212
Plastic deformation, 3–10, 13, 15, 24, 25,
27–29, 45, 47, 63, 78, 111,
113–114, 118, 165, 168–171, 177,
201, 213
Plasticity, see Plastic deformation
Plastic modulus, 111, 115, 116, 118
Plastics, see Polymers
Plastic strain, 111, 112, 165, 166, 169
See also Plastic deformation
Point defects, 23
Poisson’s ratio, 46, 47, 60, 119–121, 128, 131,
138, 141, 270, 273, 277, 278, 280
Polar moment of inertia (J), 189
Polyethylene (PE), 42, 46, 97–99, 104, 121
Polyethylene terephthalate (PET), 98, 99
Polymerization, 97, 98, 103
Polymer matrix composites (PMC), 100, 267,
274, 279, 281
Polymers
thermoplastics, 98, 100, 104
thermosetting plastics, 99, 104
Polypropylene (PP), 98, 99, 103, 106, 223
Polystyrene (PS), 223
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), 54, 98, 99, 106, 223
Potential energy of plate, 217, 225, 231
Index293
Power (motor power/shaft power), 191
Power-hardening stress–strain
relationship, 112
Precipitate, coherent & non-coherent,
70–72, 77, 78
Precipitation hardening, 258
Pressure vessels, 134–136, 143, 144
Primary stage of creep, 253–256, 264
Principal axes, 145, 150, 158, 159, 163
Principal normal stresses, 145, 148–152, 154,
155, 157–159, 162, 163, 174, 177,
183, 187, 188, 201–203, 208, 212
Principal shear stresses, 149, 150, 152, 156,
157, 160, 162
Principal strains, 152–153, 172–173, 177, 182,
183, 187
Principal stresses
maximum shear stress, 151, 152, 159, 201
Proportional limit, 42, 44, 45, 56, 57, 60
Q
Quartz crystal structure, 15, 16
Quartz fiber reinforced plastic (QFRP)
composite, 269
Quenching and tempering, 90, 93
R
Radius of curvature, 169–170, 180, 181, 187,
188, 218, 219, 226, 227, 230
Range of stress, 239
Real crystal, 22
Reduction in area, 8, 45, 46, 88, 102, 166
Refractories, 96
Remaining fatigue lifetime of bridge
(calculation), 246, 250
Repeating stress cycle, 11, 233, 235
Repeating unit in polymers, 97, 98
Residual stresses and strains, 238
Resilience, 46, 59, 119, 121, 131, 132,
141, 142
Rigid/linear strain hardening deformation
model, 113
Rigid/perfectly plastic deformation model, 113
Rockwell hardness test, 47–50, 59
Rolling, 6, 21, 27–28, 34, 67, 68, 85, 89, 91,
120, 165
Rotating-bending fatigue testing, 237
Rubbers, 127, 129, 138
Rupture in creep, 253, 263, 264
S
SAE steel nomenclature, 86
Safety, 3, 12–13, 91, 205–207, 210, 212, 213,
224, 228
Safety factor in design, 12–13, 205, 206,
210, 212
Screw dislocation, 23–25, 36
Secondary stage of creep, 253, 255, 264
Semiconductor fabrication, 22
Semiconductors, 22, 81, 101
Shearing loading mode (Mode II), 220,
229, 230
Shear modulus, 40–42, 46, 55, 119, 121,
124, 137, 139, 269, 270, 273,
278, 280
Sheet metal forming, application of plasticity,
3, 6, 165, 172–174
Ship structures, cracks in, 215
Silica (SiO2), 15, 16, 96–98, 223, 226, 273,
279, 281
Silica glasses, see Glass
Silicon (polycrystalline silicon), 21, 22, 83,
88, 90, 92, 94, 101
Silicon carbide (SiC), 96
Single crystals, 15, 28–29, 34, 36, 66,
78, 95, 258
Sintered alumina powder (SAP), 72
Slip (in crystals), 15, 24–26, 29, 63
S-N (stress vs. fatigue life) curves, 236,
243, 245
Solidification, 23, 39, 64, 65, 258
Solid-solution strengthening, 64,
69–70, 77
Solution heat treatment, see Precipitation
hardening
Space shuttles, 97, 215
Specific modulus, 267, 281
Specific strength, 93, 95, 100, 102, 103,
105, 286
Specific surface energy, 217, 218, 224,
226, 230
Specimens, test
for fatigue, 236–237, 239, 244
for notch-impact, 52, 239, 244
for tension, 42, 165
Spheroidal graphitic (SG) iron, 83–85,
101, 105
Stainless steels, 54, 68, 69, 76, 89, 90, 112,
116, 127, 259, 264
Static loading, 218, 226, 227, 230
Steady-state creep, 256, 259, 260, 264
Index294
Steels
as-quenched, 90
carbon, 49, 83, 86–88, 100, 102, 104, 105,
112, 127, 210, 213, 223, 236, 284
LAHS, 86, 89, 105
mild, 8, 26, 42, 46, 50, 53, 87, 105, 114,
118, 121, 132, 135, 139, 141, 165,
166, 177, 186, 208–210
numbering system, 86
plain-carbon, 86
quenching and tempering, 90
stainless, 54, 68, 69, 76, 89, 90, 112, 116,
127, 259, 264
tool, 90
Stiffness, 4, 39, 45, 46, 95, 119, 191, 192, 196,
198, 270–273
Strain
complex states of, 3, 143–163
engineering strain, 42, 43, 55, 58, 60, 115,
118, 165
principal strains, 143–163, 172–173, 177,
182, 183, 187
strain gage, 43, 169
transformation of axes, 145
true strain, 27, 34, 36, 60, 109–112,
114–118, 167, 169, 179
Strain hardening, 64, 67–69, 77, 78, 112, 116,
166, 168
Strain hardening exponent, 68
Strain rate sensitivity index, 177, 178,
186, 187
Strain ratio, 60, 173, 176, 183, 184, 186, 187
Strength coefficient, 40, 68, 112, 177
Strengthening mechanisms for metals, 63–78
Strength, theoretical, 22, 36
Stress
basic formulas, 13
components of, 122, 145, 149
direct stress, 137, 138, 145–148, 153, 155,
158, 162
engineering stress, 42, 43, 55, 60, 109,
115, 118, 165, 166
generalized plane stress, 150, 151,
157, 163
Mohr’s circle for, 143, 149, 150, 157
nominal type, 218
plane stress, 144–147, 150, 151, 158, 162,
163, 172–175, 183, 187, 203, 204,
206–208, 210, 212
in pressure vessels, 134, 135, 143, 144
principal stresses, 143–163
residual stress, 238
three-dimensional states of, 145
transformation of axes, 145
true stress, 109–111, 113, 115–119, 168,
177, 178, 186–188
von Mises stress, 206
Stress amplitude, 235–238, 242, 243, 249
Stress concentration factor–fatigue loading
(Kf), 244
Stress concentration factor–static loading (Ks),
218, 226, 230
Stress corrosion cracking (SCC), 7, 8, 90, 201
Stress intensity factor, 221–223, 227, 230, 241
Stress–life curves, 263
Stress range, 235, 236, 241–243, 249
Stress ratio, 173, 175, 176, 183, 184, 235, 236,
242, 243, 249
Stress–strain curves
for AISI-1020 steel, 46, 56, 57
elastic, linear-hardening relationship,
113, 118
elastic, perfectly plastic relationship,
113, 118
elastic, power-hardening relationship, 112
Stress–strain relationships, 3, 45,
109, 111–112
Substitutional solid-solution alloys, 69, 70, 78
Superalloys, 70, 72, 76, 83, 95, 103, 105, 106,
258, 264
Surface crack/flaw, 218, 222, 228, 230
Surface defects, 23, 238, 239
Surface residual stresses, 238
Swell ratio (die swell ratio), 130, 140
T
Tangent modulus, 111, 112, 115, 118
Tanker failure, 99, 215
TD-nickel, 72
Tearing mode crack (Mode III), 220
TEM micrograph, 23
Temperature effects in creep, 253, 256–263
Tempering, 85
Tensile strength (ultimate tensile strength), 40,
44–46, 48, 57, 60, 69, 76, 84, 85,
88, 90, 92–96, 102, 166, 168, 188,
202, 208, 212, 236, 238, 243, 244,
249, 269–271, 274, 277, 279, 280
Tension test
ductile vs. brittle behavior in, 53
engineering properties from, 42
stress-strain curves, 43–46, 56, 57, 60, 110,
111, 165–166
test methodology, 47–49
true stress-strain interpretation of, 109–111
Index295
Tertiary stage of creep, 253, 255, 264
Theoretical strength, 22, 36
Theories of failure
Rankine theory, 201, 202, 208, 213
Tresca theory, 201–205, 210, 211, 213
Von-Mises theory, 206–207, 211–213
Theory of linear elasticity, 44, 113
Thermal activation, 253
Thermal strains, 128, 129
Thermal stresses, 23
Thermoplastics, 8, 98–100, 104, 106
Thermosets, 98–100
Three-dimensional states of stress, 153
Three-dimensional stress-strain
relationships, 153
Time-based growth rate, of cracks, 216
Time-dependent behaviour, see Creep
Time-temperature parameters, in creep
Larson-Miller (L-M) parameter,
257–258, 263
Time to rupture in creep, 263, 264
Titanic ship failure, 10, 212, 215
Titanium and alloys, 95, 223, 258
Tool steel, 90
Torque, 189–198, 204, 205, 210, 213
Torsional flexibility, 191–192, 196, 198
Torsional stiffness, 192, 196, 198
Torsion of circular shafts, 189, 195, 197
Toughness, from tension tests, 40, 52
Transformation of axes, 145
Transgranular fracture, 7, 9
Tresca criterion, see Maximum shear stress
yield criterion
TRIP steels, 91, 104, 105, 889
True stress and strain, 109
True stress-strain curves, 110
True stress-strain interpretation of tension
test, 109–111
Tungsten carbide (WC), 48
Tungsten in steel, 48, 89
Twinning, 15, 24, 26–27, 36
U
Ultimate tensile strength, 40, 44, 45, 48, 93,
166, 168, 188, 202, 208, 238
Uniaxial loading, 166–168, 172–173, 187
Unit cell, 16–22, 30–31, 35, 36
Universal testing machines, 42
Unloading, stress-strain curves for, 121,
166, 168
Upper yield point (UYP), 165, 166
V
Vacancy, 23, 253
Vanadium in steel, 17, 83, 89
Vickers hardness test, 50, 51, 58, 60
Viscoelasticity, 3, 119–144
Volume fractions, in composites, 271, 274,
279, 281
Volumetric strain, 124–126, 138, 140,
141, 144
von Mises stress, 201–207, 211–213
W
Weight percent element, 273
Welding, 39, 64, 215
Welding cracks, 215
White cast iron, 8, 83, 101
Wood, 267
Work hardening, 67, 112, 166, 201, 213
Work hardening exponent (n), 112
Working load, 12, 229
Working stress, 12, 13, 229, 231
Wrought aluminum alloys, 92
Y
Yield criteria, 113–114
Yielding, 29, 45, 113, 121, 165, 166, 168,
201–203, 205, 206, 210, 213
Yield strength, 4, 8, 22, 29, 34–36, 45, 46, 57,
59, 66, 68, 72–74, 76, 78, 93, 102,
105, 121, 131, 141, 166, 168, 194,
198, 203, 208–210, 212, 213, 253
Young’s modulus, 42, 45, 46, 56, 60, 86, 95,
111, 115, 118, 119, 121, 124, 128,
142, 217, 218, 224, 226, 230, 231,
267, 269, 271–275, 277–281
Z
Zinc, 16, 19, 25, 36, 82, 83, 92–94, 105
Zirconia, 96

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