Mechanical and Metal Trades Handbook

Mechanical and Metal Trades Handbook
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Ulrich Fischer, Roland Gomeringer, Max Heinzler, Roland Kilgus, Friedrich Naher, Stefan Oesterle, Heinz Paetzold, Andreas Stephan
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27 فبراير 2021
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Mechanical and Metal Trades Handbook
3rd English Edition
Europa-technical Book Series for the Metalworking Trades
Ulrich Fischer
Roland Gomeringer
Max Heinzler
Roland Kilgus
Friedrich Naher
Stefan Oesterle
Heinz Paetzold
Andreas Stephan
Table of Contents
1 Mathematics (M) 9
1.1 Units of measurement
SI base quantities and base units .10
Derived quantities and their u nits . 11
Non-SI units 12
1.2 Formulas
Formula symbols, mathematical symbols 13
Formulas, equations, g ra p h s . 14
Transformation of fo rm u la s . 15
Quantities and u n its . 16
Calculation w ith quantities . 17
Percentage and interest c a lc u la tio n 17
1.3 Angels and triangels
Types of angels, sum of angels in
a triangle 18
Theorem of intersecting lines,
Pythagorean th e o re m . 18
Functions of right triangles . 19
Functions of oblique tria n g le s . 19
1.4 Lengths
Division of le n g th s . 20
Spring w ire le n g th s . 21
Rough len g th s 21
1.5 Areas
Angular a re a s 22
Triangle, polygon, c ir c le . 23
Circular sector, circular se gm e n t . 24
E llip se 24
1.6 Volume and surface area
Cube, cylinder, pyramid . 25
Truncated pyramid, cone,
Truncated cone, sp he re . 26
Volumes of composite s o lid s . 27
1.7 Mass
General calculations . 27
Linear mass d e n s ity . 27
Area mass density . 27
1.8 Centroids
Centroids of lines . 28
Centroids of plane a re a s . 28
2 Physics (P) 29
2.1 Motion
Uniform and accelerated motion . 30
Speeds on m achines . 31
2.2 Forces
Representation, addition and resolution of
fo r c e s 32
Types of fo r c e s 33
Torque and levers, torque in gear d riv e s . 34
2.3 Work, power, efficiency
M echanical w o r k . 34
Simple machines and energy . 35
Potential and kinetic energy . 35
Power and efficiency . 36
2.4 Friction
Friction fo rc e 37
Coefficients of fric tio n . 37
Coefficients of rolling frictio n . 37
2.5 Pressure in liquids and gases
Pressure, definition and ty p e s . 38
B uoyancy 38
Hydraulic power transm ission . 38
Pressure intensification,
flo w velocity 39
Changes of state in gases . 39
2.6 Strength of materials
Load cases, types of lo a d in g . 40
M aterial properties, stress lim its . 40
Strength calculation, safety fa c to rs 41
Allowable stresses, modulus of
e lasticity 41
Tensile and compressive stress,
surface p re s s u re . 42
Shear, bending and torsional stress 43
Mom ents of area, section m o d u li . 44
2.7 Thermodynamics
Temperature, linear expansion,
sh rin ka ge 45
Quantity of heat 45
Heat flux, heat of co m b u s tio n . 46
Net calorific v a lu e s . 46
2.8 Electricity
Quantities and u n its . 47
Ohm’s law, electrical re sistan ce . 47
Current density, resistor c irc u it . 48
Types of c u rre n t 49
Electrical w ork and p o w e r . 503 Technical Drawing (TD) 51
3.1 Graphs
Cartesian coordinate system . 52
Graph ty p e s . 53
3.2 Basic geometric constructions
Lines and angles . 54
Tangents, circular arcs . 55
Inscribed circles, ellipses . 56
Cycloids, involute curves, p ara b o la s 57
3.3 Elements of drawing
F o n ts 58
Preferred numbers, radii, scales . 59
Drawing layout, bills of m a te ria ls 60
Line ty p e s 62
3.4 Representation
Projection m e th o d s . 64
Views 66
Sectional views . 68
H atching 70
3.5 Dimensioning drawings
Dimensioning lines, dimension v a lu e s . . 71
Dimensioning r u le s . 72
Elements of d ra w in g . 73
Tolerance s p e c ific a tio n s . 75
Types of dimensioning . 76
Simplified presentation in draw ings 78
3.6 Machine elements, representation
Gear ty p e s 79
Roller b e a rin g s . 80
S e a ls 81
Retaining rings, springs . 82
3.7 Object elements
Bosses, object e d g e s . 83
Thread runouts, thread u n d e rc u ts 84
Threads, screw jo in ts . 85
Center holes, knurls, undercuts 86
3.8 Welding and soldering
Graphical sy m b o ls . 88
Dimensioning e x a m p le s . 91
3.9 Surfaces
Hardness specifications in drawings 92
Form deviations, roughness . 93
Surface testing, surface in d ic a tio n s 94
3.10 ISO tolerances and fits
Fundam entals . 98
Basic hole system, basic shaft system . . . 102
General tolerances . 106
Roller bearing f its . 106
Fit recom m endations . 107
Geometric tolerancing . 108
4 Materials Science (MS) 111
4.1 Materials
Material characteristics of so lids 112
Material characteristics of liquids
and gases 113
Periodic table of the elem ents . 114
4.2 Steels, designation system
Definition and classification of s te e l 116
Standardization of steel products 117
Designation system for s te e ls . 118
4.3 Steels, steel types
O ve rw ie w of steel prod u cts . 123
Unalloyed ste e ls . 126
Case hardened steels, quenched &
tempered s te e ls . 129
Nitriding steels, free cutting steels 131
Tool steels, stainless s te e ls . 132
Steels for bright steel products . 137
4.4 Steels, finished products
Sheet and strip metal, tubes . 138
P ro file s 142
Linear mass density and area mass
d e n s ity 151
4.5 Heat treatment
Iron-carbon phase d ia g ram . 152
H ea t treatem ent of s te e ls . 153
Hardening of aluminium a llo y s 156
4.6 Cast iron materials
Designation and material c o d e s 157
Classification . 158
Cast iro n 159
Malleable cast iron, cast s te e l . 160
4.7 Foundry technology 161
4.8 Light alloys
Overview of aluminum alloys . 163
W rought aluminum alloys . 165
Aluminum profiles . 168
M agnesium and titanium a llo y s . 171
4.9 Heavy non-ferrous metals
Overview and designation s y s te m 172
Copper and refined zinc a llo y s . 174
4.10 Other metallic materials 176
4.11 Plastics
Overview and d e sig n atio n . 178
Thermoset plastics . 181
Thermoplastics, elastom ers . 182
Plastics processing, testing of p la stics. . . 1864.12 Material testing
Overview, tensile t e s t . 189
Rotary bending t e s t . 192
Hardness t e s t . 193
4.13 Corrosion, hazardous materials
C orro sion 196
Hazardous m a te ria ls . 197
5 Machine Elements (ME) 201
5.1 Threads
Types of threads, o v e rv ie w . 202
M etric ISO threads . 202
Other types of threads . 205
Thread to le ra n c e s . 207
5.2 Bolts and screws
Overview, designations, property classes 208
Hexagon head bolts & s c r e w s . 211
Other bolts & screws . 214
Screw joint ca lculations . 220
Locking fasteners, bolt and screw drive
system s 221
5.3 Countersinks
Countersinks for countersunk head
s c r e w s 223
Counterbores for cap s c r e w s . 224
5.4 Nuts
O v e rv ie w 225
Designations, property classes . 226
Hexagon n u t s . 228
Other nuts 230
5.5 Washers
Overview, flat w a s h e rs . 232
Washers for HV b o lts . 234
5.6 Pins and clevis pins
O v e rv ie w 235
Grooved pins, grooved drive studs,
clevis p in s 237
5.7 Shaft-hub connections
Keys, gib-head keys . 238
Feather keys, splined shaft jo in ts 239
M etric tapers, morse tapers, steep tapers 240
Tool holding fixtures . 241
5.8 Other machine elements
Tension, com pression and disc springs . 242
Grub screws, thrust pads, knobs 245
T-slots and a c c e s s o rie s . 247
Quick-release drilling fix tu re . 248
5.9 Drive elements
B e lts 250
Gears 253
Transmission ra tio s . 256
5.10 Bearings
Plain bearings, o v e rv ie w . 257
Plain bearing b u s h in g s . 258
Antifriction bearings, o ve rv ie w . 259
Ball bea ring s 261
Roller b e a rin g s 262
Sealing e le m e n ts . 266
Lubricating o ils 267
Lubricating greases . 268
6 Production Engineering (PE) 269
6.1 Quality management
Standards, term inology . 270
Quality planning, quality testing 272
Statistical analysis . 273
Statistical process c o n tro l . 275
Quality management of processes 276
6.2 EC Machinery Directive
EC M achinery D ire c tiv e . 278
CE marking 279
6.3 Production organization
Overview; product breakdown
structure 280
W ork planning 282
Cost a c c o u n tin g . 286
6.4 Maintenance, repair & overhaul (MRO)
Maintenance, inspection, repair,
im provem ent 289
MRO c o n c e p ts 290
Documentation s y s te m . 292
6.5 Machining processes
Overview; forces and p o w e r . 293
Drilling 298
T u rn in g 301
M illin g 305
Indexable in s e rts . 308
Cooling lub ricatio n . 311
Cuttin tool m aterials . 315
Grinding, h o n in g . 317
6.6 Removal operations
Electric discharge m a c h in in g . 323
Process parameters in EDM erosion 3246.7 Separation by cutting
Cutting f o r c e . 325
Cutting to o l 326
6.8 Forming
B e n d in g 330
Deep d ra w in g . 334
6.9 Injection molding
Injection molding t o o ls . 338
Shrinkage, cooling, b atch in g . 341
6.10 Joining
Welding p ro c e s s e s . 343
Weld p rep a ra tion . 345
Gas-shielded w e ld in g . 346
Arc w e ld in g 348
Beam cu ttin g . 350
Gas cylinders, identification . 352
Brazing, bonded join ts . 354
6.11 Workplace and environmental protection
Safety c o lo rs 359
W arning signs, safety s ig n s . 360
Sound and n oise . 366
7 Automation and Information Technology (A) 367
7.1 Control engineering, basic terminology
Basic terminology, code letters, symbols 368
Analog c o n tro lle rs . 370
Discontinuous and digital c o n tro lle rs 371
Binary lo g ic . 372
Numbering system s . 373
Information processing . 374
7.2 Electrical circuits
Circuit sym b ols . 375
Designations in circuit p la n s . 377
Circuit d ia g ram s . 378
Sensors 379
Safety precautions . 380
7.3 GRAFCET
Important basic te rm s . 382
Steps, tra n s itio n s . 383
A c tio n s 384
Branchings 386
7.4 Programmable logical controllers PLC
PLC programming languages, overview 388
Ladder diagram (LD) . 389
Instruction list (IL) . 390
PLC programming languages,
c o m pa rison . 391
Programming e x a m p le . 392
7.5 Hydraulics, pneumatics
Circuit sym b ols . 393
Proportional v a lv e s . 395
Circuit d ia g ram s . 396
Pneumatic c o n tro l . 397
Electro-pneumatic c o n tro l . 398
Electro-hydraulic c o n tro l . 399
Hydraulic flu id s . 400
Pneumatic c y lin d e rs . 401
Hydraulic pum ps . 402
Tubes 403
7.6 Handling and robot systems
Coordinate systems and a x e s . 404
Robot d e sig n s . 405
Grippers, job s a fe ty . 406
7.7 CNC technology
Coordinate a x e s . 407
Program s tru c tu re . 408
Tool offset and cutter com pensation 409
Program structure according to D IN 410
Program structure according to PAL 412
PAL functions for la th e s . 413
PAL cycles for lathes . 414
PAL functions for milling m a c h in e s 417
PAL cycles for milling m achin es 418
8 Material Chart, Standards (S) 425– 434
8.1 International material comparison
c h a rt 425
8.2 Index of cited standards and other
regulations . 430
Subject Index 435– 444
Subject index
A
Abrasives 318
ABS (acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene
copolym ers) . 179, 180, 182, 183, 186, 187
Absolute pressure 38, 39
Acceleration 30
AcceIeration fo rce . 33
Acceptable quality le v e l 276
Acceptance sa m p lin g 276
Acceptance sam pling, attribute s a m p lin g 276
Accident prevention regulations on no ise 366
Acetylene cylinders, color c o d in g 353
Acm e screw th re a d 203
Acrylonitrile butadien rubber (NBR) . 185
A dditional sym bols 361
Adhesive joints, re p re se n ta tio n 91
A d h e s iv e s 357
A ir consum ption o f pneum atic cylinders 401
A ir pressure 38
A llow able s tre s s . 41
A lternating c u rre n t 49
A lum inum alloys, heat tre a tm e n t 156
A lum inum casting a llo y s . 164
A lum inum , d e s ig n a tio n 164
A lum inum p ro file s . 168 – 170
A lum inum tu b e s . 170
A lum inum , alum inum alloys, o ve rvie w 163
Am erican Standard taper pipe screw threads,
fine (NTPF) 203
Am erican Standard taper pipe threads (N PT) . 203
Analog c o n tro lle rs 370
AND o p e ra tio n 372, 391
AND-NOT o p e ra tio n 372
Angles, typ e s 18
A ngular contact ball be a rin g s 261
A ngular d im e n sio n s 72
A ngular v e lo c ity . 30
A nti-rotation lo c k . 221
A n tifriction bearing, d e s ig n a tio n 260
A n tifriction bearing, overvie w 259
A n tifriction bearings . 259 – 264
A n tifriction bearings, dim ension se rie s 260
A ram ide fibers . 187
Arc le n g th 20
Arc w e ld in g 348
Arc w e lding, w eld d e s ig n . 349
Area com pression . 42
Area gra p h s 53
Area, u n its 10
Areas, c a lcu la tio n 2 2 – 24
Argon cylinders, color c o d in g 353
A rithm etic m e a n . 274
A rrow projection m e th o d . 65
A u s te n ite 152
Austenitic s te e ls . 133
Autom ation te ch n o lo g y 3 6 7 -4 2 4
A u xiliary d im e n s io n in g 76
Average s p e e d . 31
Average speed of crank m echanism s . 31
A xonom etric representations 64
B
B a ll b e a rin g s . 261, 262
Ball k n o b s 245
Bar steel, b rig h t . 144
Bar steel, h o t-ro lle d 143
Base q u a n titie s . 10
Base u n its 10
Basic geom etric c o n s tru c tio n s . 5 4 –57
Basic hole 99
Basic p o ly m e rs . 179
Basic polym ers, letter s y m b o ls 179
Basic s h a ft 99
Beam c u ttin g 350
Beam cutting, a p p lic a tio n s . 351
Beam cutting, dim ensional tolerances . 351
Beam-cutting, standard v a lu e s 350
Belt drive tra n s m is s io n 256
Bend fo r m in g 330 – 333
Bend form in g, bending r a d iu s 332
Bend form in g, calculation of blanks 332, 333
Bend form in g, spring back . 333
Bending lo a d 43
Bending stress . 43
Bending t o o l 330
Bent parts . 332, 333
Bevel g e a rs 256
Bevel gears, ca lcu la tio n 255
Bills of m a te ria ls 61,281
Binary lo g ic 372
Binary s y s te m . 373
Blank diam eters fo r de e p -d ra w in g . 336
Blank holding force 337
Boiling te m p e ra tu re . 11 2 , 113
Bolts and screw s 208 – 222
Bolts and screws, designation 209
Bolts and screws, o ve rvie w 20 8 , 209
Bolts and screws, property classes . 210
Bolts and screws, screw drive s y s te m s 222
Bolts fo r T -slots . 247
Bonded joints, p re p a ra tio n . 357
Bonded joints, te s tin g 358
Bonded joints, typ e s 358
Boron n itrid e . 3 1 4 , 315
Boyle’s l a w 39
BR (butadiene ru b b e r) 185
B razing . 354
Breakeven p o in t . 288
Brinell hardness te s t 193
Buoyant f o rc e . 38
B u s h in g s 327
C
Cabinet projection . 64
Calculation of blanks fo r b e n d -fo rm in g . 332, 333
Calculation of costs and m achine hour r a te s 286
Calorific v a lu e . 46
Cap screws and hexagon head bolts, counterbores. 224
Cap screws, slo tted 215
Cap screws, socket h e a d . 214
Captive fa s te n e rs . 221
Carbon dioxide cylinders, color c o d in g . 353
Cartesian coordinate system . 52Case h a rdening . 153
Case hardened ste e ls 129
Case hardened steels, b rig h t . 137
Case hardened steels, heat tre a tm e n t . 154
Cast copper a llo y s . 175
Cast iron, b a in itic . 158
Cast iron, dim ensional tolerances 162
Cast iron, flake g ra p h ite . 158, 159
Cast iron, identification codes 157
Cast iron m a te ria ls . 156
Cast iron, spheroidal g ra p h ite . 158, 159
Cast s te e l . 1 5 8 , 160
Casting allow ances 162
Castle n u ts 231
Cavalier p ro je c tio n 64
CE m a rk . 279
Cellulose acetate ( C A ) . 182, 183
Cellulose acetobutyrate plastics (CAB) . 180
C e m e n tite 152
Center holes, d im e n s io n s . 86
Center holes, representation . 86
Centrifugal fo rc e . 33
Centroids, geom etrical surfa ces 28
Centroids, lin e s . 28
Ceramic m aterials . 176
Chamfers, d im e n s io n in g . 73
Change in re sista n ce 47
Change in vo lu m e . 45
Change o f state in g a s e s . 39
Cheese head screws, s lo tte d . 215
Chemicals used in metal te c h n o lo g y . 115
Chip rem oval ra te . 293
Circle, area 23
Circle, center p o in t . 56
Circle, c irc u m s c rib e d 23
C irclip s . 265
Circuit d ia g ra m s 377, 378
Circuit s y m b o ls 375, 376
Circular m ovem ents of CNC m a c h in e s . 41 0 , 411
Circular sector, a re a 24
Circular segm ent, a re a 24
Circum ferential velocities, ca lc u la tio n 30, 31
Clearance fits 98
Clearance holes fo r b o lts . 210
Clevis p in s 237
Closed loop control, basic te rm in o lo g y . 368
Closed Substance Cycle and Waste
M anagem ent A c t . 197
CNC te c h n o lo g y 407 – 424
CNC technology, coordinate s y s te m . 407
Coefficient o f therm al co n d u tivity 113
Cold-work s te e ls . 132
Com posite m a te ria ls 176
Compressed-gas c y lin d e rs . 345
Compressed-gas cylinders, color c o d in g 353
Com pression s p rin g s 243
Compressive s tre s s 42
C onductance 47
C o n d u c tiv ity 12
Conductors, electrotechnical . 377
Cone truncated, surface area and v o lu m e 26
Cone, surface area and volum e 26
Conical se a ts 247
Conical spring w a s h e rs 234
Continuous controllers 370
Contribution m a rg in 288
Controlled system s . 371
C ontrollers 3 7 0 , 371
Cooling lubricants 3 11, 312
Coordinate d im e n s io n in g . 77
C opper-alum inum a llo y s . 175
Copper-nickel-zinc a llo y s . 175
Copper-tin alloys . 174
Copper-zinc alloys . 174
C o rrosio n . 196
Corrosion p re ve n tio n 196
Corrosion p ro te c tio n 196
C o s in e . 19
Cost a c c o u n tin g . 286
Cost com parison m e th o d . 288
Cotter p in s 231
Counterbore depth, calculation 224
Counterboring, productive t im e 300
Countersunk head s c re w s . 223
CR (chloroprene ru b b e r) . 185
Crank p re sse s 325
CSM (chlorosulfonated polyethylene ela sto m e rs). . 185
Cube, surface a r e a . 25
Cube, v o lu m e 25
Current d e n s ity . 48
Cutter co m p e n s a tio n 409
Cutting ceram ics . 315
Cutting data fo r tu rn in g 301
Cutting die d im e n s io n s 328
Cutting d ie s 326
Cutting fo rc e 325
Cutting force in d r illin g 294
C utting force in face m illin g . 296
C utting force in tu r n in g 294
C utting force, specific 295
C utting fo rc e s 294 – 296
C utting p o w e r 294 – 296
C utting pow er in d r illin g 294
C utting pow er in face m illin g . 296
C utting pow er in tu rn in g 294
C utting speed, c a lcu la tio n . 31
C utting tool m aterials . 315, 316
Cutting w o r k 325
Cycloids, c o n s tru c tio n 57
Cylinder, pow er 402
Cylinder, surface area 25
Cylinder, vo lu m e . 25
Cylindrical roller b e a rin g s . 262
D
Damages to health, n o is e . 366
Danger criteria 363
Danger s y m b o ls . 363
Dangerous gases and m a te ria ls 198
Deceleration fo rce . 33
Decimal system . 373
Deep groove ball bearings 261, 262
Deep d r a w in g 3 3 4 -3 3 7
Deep draw ing, blank d ia m e te rs 336
Deep draw ing, blank-holding f o r c e . 337
Deep draw ing, deep draw ing f o r c e . 337
Deep draw ing, draw ing g a p . 336
Deep draw ing, draw ing ra tio . 337
Deep draw ing, d ra w s 337
Deep draw ing, tool radii 336
Defect c h a rt 277
Density, m aterial characteristics . 112, 113
Derivative co n tro lle r . 370
Description of hazards 363
Designation fo r alum inum c a s tin g s . 167
D e via tio n s 98
Devices, d e s ig n a tio n 377
Diagram o f forces, calculation 32
Diam eter, d im e n s io n in g 73D ia m o n d 315
Die b e n d in g 331
Die clearance 328
Die set sh a n ks . 327
Die sets . 327
Die sh a n k 336
Digital co n tro lle rs . 371
Dim ension lin e s . 71
Dim ension num bers 71
Dim ensioning r u le s 72
Dim ensioning system s 70
Dim etric representation 64
Direct c o s tin g . 288
Direct c o s ts 286
Direct current (D C ) 49, 351
Direct in d e x in g . 306
Direct-current voltage 49
Disc sp rin g s 244
Discontinuous c o n tro lle rs . 371
Disposal of substances 197
D ividing head spindle 306
Division of le n g th s 20
Docum entation s y s te m 292
Dodecagon, construction . 55
Dowel p ins 236
Drain p lu g s 218
Draw ing elem ents . 60
Draw ing ratio in deep d ra w in g 337
Draws in deep d r a w in g 337
Drill b u s h in g s . 249
Drilling c y c le s . 414
Drilling, cutting force and p o w e r 294
Drilling, p ro b le m s . 300
Drilling, productive t im e . 300
Drilling, standard v a lu e s . 298
Drive e le m e n ts 253-256
Dry m achin ing . 314
E
EC Directive on Hazardous Substances . 198, 199
EC M achinery D ire c tiv e . 278, 279
Eccentric p re s s e s 325
Edge w id th . 328
E fficie ncy 36
Elastom ers . 185
Electric c u r re n t . 47, 48
Electric current, base q u a n tity 12
Electric discharge m achining E D M 323, 324
Electrical circuit s y m b o ls 375, 376
Electrical circ u its 375 – 381
Electrical devices, protection . 381
Electrical pow er . 50
Electrical pow er o u tp u t 50
Electrical resistance (of conductors) . 47
E lectricity 4 7 – 50
Electricity, quantities and u n its 47
Electrochemical se rie s . 196
Electro-hydraulic c o n tro l . 399
Electro-pneum atic c o n tro l . 398
Ellipse, a re a 24
Ellipse, co n stru ctio n 56
Energy, kinetic . 35
Energy, potential . 35
EPDM (ethylene propylene ru b b e r) . 185
Epichlorhydrin rubber (C O ) . 185
Equal-leg steel a n g le 147
E quations 14
Escape and rescue s ig n s . 361
European W aste C atalogue . 312
Eutectic . 152
E u te c to id 152
Expansion co e fficie n t . 112, 113
E x tru s io n 186
Eye b o lts 218
Eye n u ts . 230
F
Face m illing, cutting force and cutting p o w e r . 296
F a tig u e te s t 190
Feather k e y s 239
Feed rate, ca lcu la tio n 31
Feet fo r jigs and fix tu re s . 249
Felt r in g s 266
F errite . 152
Ferritic steels 134
Fillers and reinforcing m aterials fo r p la stics . 179
Fine thread (N TP F) 203
Fine threads 204
Fire protection s y m b o ls 361
Fire-extinguishing lin e 365
Fit recom m en dations 107
Fits, ISO s y s te m . 98
Fixed costs 288
Flat head screws, cross-recessed 216
Flip-flop elem e nts 372, 376
Flow v e lo c ity 39
Fluoro rubber (FKM ) 185
Flux fo r brazin g . 355
Flux fo r s o ld e rin g . 355
Foam m a te ria ls . 185
F o ld in g . 331
Font s ty le s 58
Fonts . 58
Forces 32
Forces, addition and resolution . 32
Forces, representation . 32
Form d e v ia tio n s 93
F o rm u la 1 4 , 15
Foundry te ch n o lo g y . 1 6 1 , 162
Free b e n d in g . 331
Free-cutting steels 131
Free-cutting steels, b r ig h t . 136
Freezing te m p erature 113
Frequency, re la tiv e . 273
F rictio n 37
Friction coefficients . 37
Friction m o m e n t 37
Frictional w o rk 34
Function block language F B L . 389
Fundamental d e v ia tio n s . 98
Fundamental deviations fo r h o le s . 101
Fundamental deviations fo r s h a fts . 100
Fundamental d im e n s io n s . 76
Fundamental tolerance g ra d e s 98, 99
Fundamental to le ra n c e s 99
F u s e s . 380
Fusion w elding, m e th o d s . 343G
Gage pressure 38
Gas cylinders, color c o d in g . 352
Gas cylinders, id e n tific a tio n 352, 353
Gas law, id e a l . 39
Gas w e ld in g 343
Gas-shielded w e ld in g . 34 3 , 346
Gaseous m a te ria ls . 113
Gaseous substances, physical p ro p e rtie s 113
Gaussian d is trib u tio n 274
Gear drives, to rq u e s 34
Gear drives, tra n s m is s io n . 256
Gear types, re p re s e n ta tio n . 79
G e a rin g . 97
Gears, representation 79
General to le ra n ce s 106
General tolerances, w eldm ents 344
G eom etric to le ra n c in g 108
Gib-head k e y s 238
G lobally Harm onised System (G H S ) . 364
GRAFCET, graphical program m ing language
fo r sequential c o n tro ls 382 – 387
G ra p h s 14, 52, 53
Greek a lp h a b e t . 58
G rin d in g 3 1 7 -3 2 1
G rinding w h e e ls . 319
G rinding, m axim um allow able peripheral speed . . . 317
G rinding, productive t im e . 321
G rinding, standard v a lu e s 317, 320
G rippers . 406
G rooved drive stu d s . 237
G rooved pins 237
G rub screws w ith thru st p o in t . 245
Guide p o s ts 327
H
Handling systems, jo b s a fe ty 406
Hard m e ta ls 315
Hard m illin g 314
Hard tu r n in g 314
Hardening, quenching and te m p e rin g . 153
Hardness specifications 92
Hardness tests 193 – 195
Hardness test by V ic k e rs . 194
Hardness values, conversion ta b le . 195
Hatching o f sections 68
H atchings 70
Hazardous m aterials . 1 9 8 -2 0 0
Hazardous w aste . 197
Heat flu x . 46
Heat o f c o m b u s tio n 46
H e a t o f fu s io n 46
Heat o f v a p o riza tio n 46
Heat tran sm ission . 46
Heat transm ission c o e ffic ie n t 46
Heat tre a tm e n t 152 – 156
Heat treatm ent o f steels 153 – 156
Heat treatm ent sp e cifica tio n s 92
Heat treatm ent specifications in draw ings 92
Heat, sp e cific . 11 2 , 113
Heavy m etals . 172 -175
Heliocoidal line, c o n s tru c tio n 57
Helium cylinders, color c o d in g 353
Hexadecimal s y s te m 373
Hexagon acorn n u ts 230
Hexagon head bolt w ith reduced shank . 212
Hexagon head b o lts . 211 – 213
Hexagon head bolts w ith large w idths across
fla ts . 213
Hexagon n u t s 227 – 230
Hexagon, co n stru ctio n 55
Hexagonal acorn n u t s 230
Hexagonal fit bolts w ith large w idths across flats 213
Hexagonal fit bolts w ith long th re a d . 213
High-grade a lu m in u m . 163, 165
High-perform ance g rin d in g . 320
High-speed c u ttin g . 314
High-speed s te e ls . 132
High-speed steels, heat tre a tm e n t 154
H is to g ra m 273
H ollow cylinder, surface area and v o lu m e 25
H ollow taper shanks 241
Hom ogenizing a n n e a l 152
Honing, cutting v a lu e s 322
Honing, selection o f honing s to n e s . 322
Hooke’s la w 33
Hot-work ste e ls . 132
Hot-work steels, heat tre a tm e n t 154
HSC (High speed cutting) 314
Hydraulic circuit diagram s . 396
Hydraulic circuit sym bols 3 9 3 -3 9 5
Hydraulic flu id s . 400
Hydraulic oils 400
Hydraulic pow er tra n s m is s io n 38
H y d ra u lics . 393 – 403
Hydrogen cylinders, color co d in g 353
Hydrostatic p re s s u re 38
Hyperbola, construction 57
I, J
I-beam I P E 148
I-beams, m e d iu m . 148
I-beams, w id e . 1 4 8 , 149
Identification o f pipelines . 365
Ignition tem perature 113
IIR Isobutene isoprene ru b b e r 185
Incline . 73
Inclined p la n e 35
Indexable insert holders 313
Indexable inserts 3 0 8 -3 1 0
In d e xin g . 306
Indirect in d e x in g . 306
Inform ation processing, representation 374
Inform ation s ig n s . 362
Injection m o ld in g . 186, 3 3 8 – 342
Injection pressure 186, 342
In s p e c tio n 289
Instruction list (IL) . 390
Integral c o n tro lle r . 370
Interest ca lcu la tio n . 17
Interference fits 98
Interm ediate tim e . 283
In v o lu te . 57
IR (isoprene ru b b e r) 185
Iron-carbon phase d ia g ra m . 152
ISO f it s 100 – 105ISO system of lim its and f it s . 99
Isom etric p ro je c tio n 64
Item n u m b e rs . 61
Jig p la te s 249
Job tim e 284
K
Kinetic e n e rg y . 35
K n obs . 246
Knurled n u ts 231
K n urls . 86
Krypton cylinders, color c o d in g 353
L
Labels fo r hazardous g o o d s . 352
Ladder diagram (LD) 389
Lam inated m aterials 187
Laser cutting, standard v a lu e s 350
Latent heat of fu sio n . 1 1 2 , 113
Law of cosines . 19
Law of sines 19
Leader lin e s 72
Le d e b u rite 152
Lefthand thre ads . 202
Lengths, ca lc u la tio n 20, 21
Lengths, e ffe c tiv e . 21
Lengths, u n its . 10
Lettering 58
Lever . 34
Lever principle . 34
Lifting w o r k 34
Light a llo y s . 1 63-171
L im its . 98
Lim its fo r th re a d s . 207
Linear e x p a n s io n . 45
Linear expansion co e ffic ie n t 1 1 2 , 113
Linear fu n c tio n . 14
Linear mass d e n s ity 27, 151
Linear m ovem ents o f CNC m achines . 410, 411
Lines in technical d ra w in g s 62, 63
Lines, centroid . 28
Liquid m a te ria ls . 113
Liquid materials, characteristics 113
Load cases 40
Location of punch holder s h a n k 329
Location p in s 246
Lock nuts fo r antifriction b e a rin g s . 264
Lock w ashers . 230, 264
Locking fa s te n e rs . 221
L u b ric a n ts 268
Lubricating g re a s e s 268
Lubricating o ils . 267
M
M achine c a p a b ility . 277
M achine e le m e n ts . 201 -2 6 8
M achine hourly ra te s . 287
M achining processes . 293 – 322
M agnesium , casting a llo y s 171
M agnesium , w ro u g h t a llo y s 171
M agnetism . 12
M aintenan ce 289
Maintenance, repair and o v e rh a u l 289, 292
M alleable cast ir o n 158, 160
M andatory sig n s 361
Manual arc w e ld in g . 343
Martens hardness . 195
M artensitic s te e ls . 134
Mass, base q u a n tity . 10
Mass, c a lc u la tio n 27
Material ch a ra cte ristics . 1 12, 113
Material codes fo r s te e ls 119
Material c o s ts 286
Material p roperties 40
Material te s tin g 189 – 195
Material testing, o v e rv ie w 189, 190
M aterials s c ie n c e 111 – 200
M athem atical sym bols . 13
M a th e m a tics .9 -2 8
M axim um clearance . 98
M axim um d im e n sio n . 98
M ean standard deviation c h a rt . 275
Mechanics, quantities and u n its 1 0 , 11
Median value range c h a r t 275
M elting tem perature . 1 1 2 , 113
M em ory (flip flo p ) 372, 376
M etal active gas w elding M A G 343
M etal inert gas w elding M IG . 343
M eter, base u n it . 10
M etric ISO th re a d s 204
M etric ta p e rs . 240, 241
MF (m elam ine form aldehyde) re s in . 181
M icroencapsulated adhesives 221
M illing machines, PAL c y c le s . 417 – 424
M illing, cutting force and cutting p o w e r 296
M illing, p ro b le m s . 306
M illing, productive tim e 307
M illing, standard values 305
M inim al quantity lu b rica tio n . 314
M inim um cle a ra n ce 98
M inim um d im e n s io n 98
M inim um engagem ent d e p th 210
Miscellaneous functions of CNC m achin es 408
M odule series fo r spur gears . 254
M odulus o f e la s tic ity 41
M olecular g ro u p s . 115
M om ent o f area . 44
M orse ta p e r . 240, 241
M otion, accelerated 30
M otion, circular . 30
M otion, u n ifo rm . 30
M R O 2 8 9 – 292
M ultiple start th re a d s 202N
NAND o p e ra tio n . 372
N arrow V – b e lt 251
Nassi-Shneiderman d ia g r a m 374
NC technology 407 – 424
Needle b e a rin g s . 264
N itrid in g . 153
N itriding s te e ls . 131
N itriding steels, heat trea tm ent 156
Nitrogen gas cylinders, color c o d in g . 353
N o is e . 366
Noise Protection R e g u la tio n s 366
Noise, harm ful to h e a lth . 366
Nom inal d im e n s io n s 98
Non-ferrous m etals . 172 – 175
N on-ferrous metals, m aterial co d e s 164, 173
Non-ferrous metals, system atic designation 173
NOR o p e ra tio n . 372
Norm al d is trib u tio n 274
N o rm alizing 153
NOT o peration 372
Notched-bar im pact bending te s t 192
NPSM th re a d s 203
NR (natural rubber) . 185
N um bering system s 373
Num erical c o n tro l 407 – 424
Num erical value e q u a tio n s . 14
N u ts . 2 2 5 -2 3 1
Nuts fo r T -s lo ts . 247
Nuts, d e s ig n a tio n . 226
Nuts, o v e rv ie w 225, 226
Nuts, property cla sse s 227
o
O -rin g s . 266
O hm ‘s la w 47
Open loop control, basic te rm in o lo g y 368, 369
OR o p e ra tio n 372
O rientation to le ra n c e s 109
O verhead . 286
Oxygen cylinders, color coding 353
P
PA (polyam ide) p la stics 180
PAL c y c le s 414
PAL cycles fo r la th e s . 4 1 4 -4 1 6
Pan head tapping screw s . 217
Parabola, co n stru ctio n 57
Parallel dim en sioning 77
Parallel resistor c ir c u it 48
Parallelogram, a r e a 22
Pareto d ia g ra m . 277
Partial view s in d ra w in g s . 66
P a tte rn s . 74
Patterns, color c o d e s 161
PC (polycarbonate) plastics 179, 180
PC & ABS plastics . 187
PC & PET p la s tic s . 187
PE (polyethylene) p la s tic s 179, 180
P earlite . 152
Percentage c a lcu la tio n 17
Periodic table o f the elem ents 114
PF (phenol form aldehyde) r e s in 180
pH va lu e . 115
Physics 2 9 –50
Pins 2 3 5 – 237
Pins, o ve rvie w . 235
Pipe threads 206
Pipelines, id e n tific a tio n 365
Piston s p e e d s . 402
Plain bearing bushings 258
Plain bearing m a te ria ls 257
Plain b e a rin g s . 257, 258
Plane areas, c e n tro id 28
Plasma arc w elding (P A W ) . 343
Plasma cutting, standard values 350
Plastic processing . 186
Plastic processing, tolerances . 186
Plastics 178 – 188
Plastics, basic po lym e rs 179
Plastics, distinguishing characteristics . 180
Plastics, fillers and reinforcing m ate rials 179
Plastics, hardness testing . 188
Plastics, identification 180
Plastics, tem perature b e h a v io r 178
Plateau h o n in g . 322
PLC . 3 8 8 -3 9 2
PLC, program m ing la n g u a g e s . 3 8 8 -3 9 1
PM M A (polym ethylm ethacrylate) p la s tic s 179, 180, 182
Pneumatic circuit d iagram s . 396
Pneumatic circuit sym bols 393, 394
Pneumatic cylinders, air co n su m p tio n . 401
Pneumatic cylinders, d im e n sio n s 401
Pneumatic cylinders, piston force s 401
P n e u m a tics 403
Polar coordinate s y s te m 53
Polar coordinates in draw ings . 77
Polyblends 187
Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) 176, 179
Polygon, c o n s tru c tio n 55
Polygon, re g u la r . 23
Polyim ide (PI) resin . 187
Polyoxidem ethylene (POM, polyacetal) resin 179, 180
Polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) p la s tic s . 187
P o lystyre n e 182
Polysulfone (PSU) . 182
Positional d im e n s io n in g . 76
Positional d im e n s io n s 76
Positive drive belt, re p re se n ta tio n 79
Positive drive b e lts . 252
Possible f it s 107
Potential e n e rg y . 35
Pour p o in t 400
Power fa c to r 50
Power o f t e n 16
Power, e le c tric a l . 50
Power, m echanical . 36
PP (polypropylene) plastics . 180
PPE & PS p la s tic s . 187
Precision steel tubes . 403
Precision steel tubes, seam less . 141, 403
Preferred n u m b e rs . 59
Preparatory functions of CNC m a c h in e s 408
Pressed joints, representation . 91
Pressure . 38
Pressure in te n s ific a tio n 39
Pressure typ e s 38
Prim ary p r o f ile 93
Prime c o s t 286P ro b a b ility 272
Probability s y s te m 273
Process ca p a b ility . 277
Process control c h a rts 275
Process tren ds . 276
Processing c o n tr o l 282
Product b re a k d o w n 281
Product life cycle . 280
Production co s ts . 286
Production e n g in e e rin g 269 – 366
Production organization 280 – 288
Productive tim e in co u n te rb o rin g 300
Productive tim e in d r illin g . 300
Productive tim e in E D M 323
Productive tim e in g rin d in g . 321
Productive tim e in m illin g . 307
Productive tim e in re a m in g . 300
Productive tim e in screw thread c u t tin g 303
Productive tim e in tu rn in g . 303
Program flo w chart 374
Program structure of CNC m a ch in e s . 408
Program m able logical controllers (P L C ) . 388 – 392
Prohibitive s ig n s . 359
Projection m e th o d s 64, 65
Property classes of bolts and s cre w s . 210
Proportional co n tro lle rs 370
Proportional integral c o n tro lle r 370
Proportional integral derivative c o n tro lle r 370
Proportional valves 395
P roxim ity sensors . 379
PTFE (polytetrafluorethylene) p la s tic s 179, 182
Pumps, p o w e r . 402
P u nch . 328
Punch and cutting die d im e n sio n s . 328
Punch d im e n s io n s 328
Punch holder shanks, lo c a tio n 329
PUR (p o lyu re th a n e ) 180
PVC . 1 7 9 , 180
PVC-P . 180
PVC-U . 180
Pyram id, vo lu m e . 25
Pythagorean theorem 18
Q
Q uality c o n tro l . 272
Q uality control charts . 275, 277
Q uality control circle 272
Q uality m a n a g e m e n t . 270 – 277
Q uality m anagem ent, d e fin itio n s 271
Q uality m anagem ent, standards 270
Q uality p la n n in g . 272
Q uality te s tin g . 272
Quantities, p h y s ic a l 1 6 , 17
Q uantity o f h e a t . 45
Quenched and tem pered s te e ls . 130, 155
Quenched and tem pered steels, b r ig h t 137
Quenched and tem pered steels, heat tre a tm e n t . . 155
Quick-release drillin g fix tu re 248
R
R-phrases 199
Radial se a ls 266
R a d ii . 59, 73
Radius, dim ension lines 73
Raised head countersunk s c re w s 216
Raised head countersunk tapping s cre w s 216
Raw d a ta 273
Reaming, productive t im e . 300
Reaming, standard va lu e s . 299
Recomm ended safety m easures 200
Recrystallization a n n e a l 152
Rectangle, a re a . 22
Reference lin e s . 72
Reference points of CNC m a c h in e s . 407
Refined zinc a llo y s 175
Regulations of the German Em ployers’
Liability A sso cia tio n . 359 – 362
Reinforcing fib e rs . 187
Removal operations, productive t im e . 323
Removal ra te 323
Resistance, c o n d u c to r 47
Resistivity, electrical 47
Retaining r in g s . 265
Retaining rings, representation 82
Rhom boid, a r e a . 22
Rhombus, a re a . 22
Robot axes 404
Robot system s 404, 405
Robots, coordinate s y s te m . 404
Robots, d e s ig n . 405
Rockwell h a rd n e ss 194
Rod e le c tro d e . 348
Roll b e n d in g 331
Roller bearing f it s . 106
Roller bearings, p ro p e rtie s . 259
Roller bearings, representation 80
Rolling b e a rin g s 262, 263
Rolling fric tio n . 37
Roman n u m e ra ls . 58
Rotary bending t e s t 192
Rough d im e n sio n s 76
Roughness depth in turn ing operations 301
Roughness p a ra m e te rs 93
Round bars, b r ig h t 144
Round bars, h o t-ro lle d 143
R S -flip flo p . 372, 376
R u b b e rs . 185
Rule-of-ten (for costs) 272
Runout tolerances . 110
s
S-phrases 200
Safety c o lo rs 359
Safety fa c to r s . 41
Safety precautions against electrical shock 380
Safety sig n s . 3 6 1 , 362
Sales p ric e 286
Sam ples . 274
SAN (styrene-acrylonitrile) copolym ers . 179, 180
SB (styrene-butadiene) co p o lym e rs 179, 180
SBR (styrene-butadiene) ru b b e r 185
Scale fa c to rs 59
SCARA ro b o ts . 405Screw drive s y s te m s 222
Screw joints, c a lc u la tio n . 220
Screw joints, re p resentation . 85
Seals, re p resentation 81
Seamless tu b e s 141, 403
Seating pins 246
Section line, representation . 68
Section m odulus, axial 44
Section m odulus, p o la r 44
Section typ e s 68
Sectional re p re se n ta tio n s . 68, 69
S e n s o rs . 379
Separation by c u ttin g . 326 – 329
Series resistor c ir c u it 48
Serrations, representation . 82
Service life 290
Set screws w ith hexagon socket 219
Set screws, s lo tte d . 219
Set screws, w ith hexagon s o c k e t 219
Shape d im e n s io n in g 76
S h e a r . 43
Shear strength 40
Shear stress 43
Sheet m e ta l . 138 – 140
Sheet metal b e n d in g 331
Sheet metal types, o v e rv ie w . 138
Sheet m etal, cold-rolled 139
Sheet metal, hot-rolled 140
Sheet metals, hot-dip ga lva n ize d 140
Shewhart control c a r d 275
Shielding gases . 347
Shore hardness t e s t 188
Shrinkage 45
Shrinkage a llo w a n c e s 162
S im plified representation in d ra w in g s . 78
S in e . 19
Sintered m eta ls . 177
Sliding fric tio n 37
Slot te n o n s 247
Slots, d im e n s io n in g 74
Softw are co n tro lle rs 371
Solder jo in t s 356
S olders . 355
Solid lu b rica n ts . 268
Solid m a te ria ls 112, 113
Solids, characteristics . 1 1 2 , 113
Sonic te rm s 366
Sound le v e l 366
Specific cutting force, standard v a lu e s 295
Specific electrical resistivity 1 1 2 , 113
Speed g r a p h 297
Speeds o f m achin es 31
Sphere, d im e n s io n in g 73
Sphere, surface area and v o lu m e 26
Spherical segm ent, surface area and v o lu m e . 26
Spherical w a s h e rs . 247
S p h e ro id iz in g 153
Spiral, construction . 56
Splined s h a fts 239
Splines, re p re s e n ta tio n 82
Spring fo rce 33
Spring lock w a sh e rs 221
Spring p in s 236
Spring p lu n g e rs 249
Spring steel w ire 135
Spring w a shers . 221
Springback 333
Springs, re p resentation 82
Springs, tension springs, com pression springs,
disc s p rin g s 242 – 244
Spur g ears 2 5 3 , 254
Square bars, h o t-ro lle d 143
Square prism , s u rfa c e 25
Square prism , v o lu m e 25
Square, a r e a 22
Square, d im e n s io n in g 72
Stainless s te e ls . 133, 134
Standard d e v ia tio n 274
Standard values fo r d rillin g 298
Standard values fo r grin d in g 317, 320
Standard values fo r h o n in g . 322
Standard values fo r m illin g . 305
Standard values fo r ream ing . 299
Standard values fo r screw thread c u ttin g 299
Standardization, publication o f ru le s . 8
Star k n o b s 246
Static fric tio n 37
Statistical a n a ly s is 273
Statistical analysis fo r process co n tro l 275
Statistical process c o n tro l 275
Steel chann el . 145
Steel products, standardization 117
Steel profiles, hot-rolled . 142
Steel tubes 141, 403
Steel tubes, welded, s q u a r e 150
Steel w ire fo r s p rin g s 135
Steel, p ro d u c ts . 123
Steels fo r bright steel products . 1 3 6 , 137
Steels fo r flam e and induction h a rd e n in g 131
Steels, alloying elem ents . 126
Steels, cla ssification 116
Steels, designation s y s te m 119 – 122
Steels, o v e rv ie w 124, 125
Steep taper shanks 240, 241
Strength calculation o f m a te ria ls 41
Strength o f m a te ria ls . 4 0 –44
Stress lim its 4 0 , 41
Stress relief a nne al 153
Strip steel, c o ld -ro lle d 139
Strip stock utilization in shear c u ttin g . 329
Structural steels, quenched and te m p e re d 128
Structural steels, selection . 126
Structural steels, u nalloye d . 127
Structured text ST . 389
Stub-Acm e threads 203
S tu d s . 218
Styrene isoprene rubber (SIR) 185
Sum o f angles in a tria n g le . 18
Supporting fo rce . 33
Surface a r e a . 25, 26
Surface te s tin g 94
Surface texture p ro file s 93
Surfaces 9 3 , 94
Sw itching co n tro lle rs . 371
Sym bols, m ath em atica l 13
Systems of fits 99
T
T-slots . 247
Tackle . 35
Tally s h e e t 273
T a n g e n t . 19
Tap hole diam eters fo r tapping s c re w s . 217
Tap hole d r ill 204
Taper p in 236
Taper tu rn in g 302
Tapered keys 238
Tapered roller b e a rin g s 263
Tapered th re a d s . 205
Tapers, dim en sioning 73
Tapping screw threads 202
Tapping screw s 21 6 , 217Tapping, standard v a lu e s . 299
Technical d r a w in g 5 1 – 110
Tee, equal le g . 145
T e m p e ra tu re 45
Tem perature in K e lv in 45
T e n sile fo r c e 42
Tensile stress 42
Tensile test 191
Tensile test specim ens 191
Tension springs . 242
Theorem of intersecting lin e s 18
Therm al c o n d u c tiv ity . 1 1 2 , 113
Therm al conductivity, v a lu e s . 11 2 , 113
Therm odynam ic te m p e ra tu re 12
T h e rm o d yn a m ics 45, 46
The rm oplastics 182 – 184
Therm oplastics, a m o rp h o u s . 178
Therm oplastics, s e m i-crysta llin e 178
Therm oset plastics 181
Thread cutting, productive t im e 303
Thread form ing, standard v a lu e s 299
Thread ru n o u ts . 84
Thread tolerance . 207
Thread types, o v e rv ie w . 202, 203
Thread u n d e rcu ts . 84
Threadlockin g . 221
T h re a d s . 202 – 207
Threads, acc. to foreign sta n d a rd s . 203
Threads, d im e n s io n in g . 74
Threads, m ulti pi e-start 202
Threads, representation 85
Three-phase c u rre n t 49
Three-point c o n tro lle r 371
Thrust p a d s 245
T IG -w elding 343
T im e . 11
Tim ing belt p u lle ys 252
Tim ing belts 252
Title block in d ra w in g s 60
Toggle lo ca to rs . 249
Tolerance c la s s . 98
Tolerance g r a d e . 98
Tolerance specifications 75
Tolerances and f it s . 108 – 110
Tolerances of lo c a tio n 110
Tool and m achining data selection . 293
Tool holding fix tu re s 241
Tool offset in CNC m a c h in in g 409
Tool s te e ls 132
Tool steels, heat tre a tm e n t . 154
T ool-holding fix tu re s 241
Tooth lock w ashers . 221
T o rq u e . 34
Torsional stress . 43
Transform ers 50
Transition f i t s . 98
Transm ission r a tio s 256
Trapezoid, a re a . 22
Trapezoidal th re a d s 205
Triangle, a r e a . 22
Triangle, construction of the circum scribed circle 56
Triangle, construction of the inscribed circle . 56
Triangle, e q u ila te ra l 23
Trigonom etric functions 19
Trim stop w a s te . 328
Troubleshooting fo r tu r n in g . 302
Truncated pyram id, v o lu m e . 26
T u b e s . 150
Tubes, hot-rolled, square . 150
T urning . 304
Turning, forces and pow ers . 294
Turning, productive tim e 303, 304
Turning, roughness d e p th . 301
Turning, standard values . 301
Tw o-point co ntroller 371
Types of lo a d in g . 40
U
UF (urea form aldehyde) . 1 7 9 , 180
Unalloyed steels, b rig h t 136
UNC th re a d 203
U n d e rc u ts 87
UNEF th re a d 203
Unequal-leg steel a n g le . 146
UNF th re a d 203
Unit p re fix e s 16
Units of m easurem ent . 10 – 12
Units, c o n v e rs io n . 16
UNS th re a d 203
UP (unsaturated p o lye ste r) 179, 180
Utilization of strip s to c k . 329
Utilization tim e acc. to R EFA 285
V
V – b e lt 250, 251
V-belts, n a rro w . 251
Variable c o s ts . 288
V e lo c ity 30
Vibration te s t 221
Views in d ra w in g s 66, 67
Viscosity g ra d e s . 267
Viscosity, k in e m a tic . 400
V o ltage 4 7 , 48
Voltage d r o p . 48
Volum e o f com posite s o lid s 27
Volum e, c a lc u la tio n . 25
Volum e, u n its . 10
w, x
W arning sig n s . 360
W ashers . 232 – 234
W ashers fo r channels and I-b e a m s . 234
W ashers fo r clevis p in s . 234
W ashers fo r steel s tru c tu re s 233
Washers, f la t . 232, 233
Washers, norm al se rie s 233
W aste m anagem ent la w s . 197
W aviness profile (W -p ro file ) . 93
W ear l i m i t 289
W eb w id th 328
W e d g e . 35
W e ig h t . 33
W eld design 349W eld nuts, hexagonal 231
W eld p re p a ra tio n . 345
W eldable fine-grain structural s te e ls . 128
W e ld in g . 3 4 3 -3 5 8
W elding and soldering, s y m b o ls . 8 8 -9 1
W elding positions . 344
W elding processes . 344
W elding, general to le ra n c e s . 344
W elds, re p re se n ta tio n 91
W hitw o rth th re a d s 206
W ide I-beams, (IP B ) 149
W ide I-beams, reinforced (IP B v) 149
W idths across flats, d im e n s io n in g 72
W ire EDM . 323
W ire electrodes 346, 347
W ork piece cornes and e d g e s . 83
W ork safety fo r robot s y s te m s 406
W ork-processing sheet 282
Work, e le ctrica l . 50
Work, m echanical . 34
W orm d r iv e 255
W rought alum inum alloys, heat tre a ta b le 166
W rought alum inum alloys, non-heat tre a ta b le . 165
W ro ught m agnesium a llo y s . 171
Xenon cylinders, color coding . 353
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