Materials Selection In Mechanical Design

Materials Selection In Mechanical Design
اسم المؤلف
Michael F. Ashby
التاريخ
1 سبتمبر 2022
المشاهدات
470
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Materials Selection In Mechanical Design
Second Edition
Michael F. Ashby
Department of Engineering, Cambridge University, England
Contents
PREFACE
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
1 Introduction
1.1 Introduction and synopsis
1.2 Materials in design
1.3
1.4
1.5 Summary and conclusions
1.6 Further reading
The evolution of engineering materials
The evolution of materials in vacuum cleaners
2 The design process
2.1 Introduction and synopsis
2.2 The design process
2.3 Types of design
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7 Summary and conclusions
2.8 Further reading
Design tools and materials data
Function, material, shape and process
Devices to open corked bottles
3 Engineering materials and their properties 20
3.I Introduction and synopsis 20
3.2 20
3.3 22
3.4 Summary and conclusions 31
3.5 Further reading 31
32
4.1 Introduction and synopsis 32
4.2 Displaying material properties 32
4.3 The material property charts 36
4.4 Summary and conclusions 63
4.5 Further reading 64
The classes of engineering material
The definitions of material properties
4 Materials selection chartsvi Contents
5 Materials selection-the basics
5.1 Introduction and synopsis
5.2 The selection strategy
5.3
5.4 The selection procedure
5.5 The structural index
5.6 Summary and conclusions
5.7 Further reading
Deriving property limits and material indices
6 Materials selection-case studies
Introduction and synopsis
Materials for oars
Mirrors for large telescopes
Materials for table legs
Cost- structural materials for buildings
Materials for flywheels
Materials for high-flow fans
Golf-ball print heads
Materials for springs
Elastic hinges
Materials for seals
Diaphragms for pressure actuators
Knife edges and pivots
Deflection-limited design with brittle polymers
Safe pressure vessels
Stiff, high damping materials for shaker tables
Insulation for short-term isothermal containers
Energy-efficient kiln walls
Materials for passive solar heating
Materials to minimize thermal distortion in precision devices
Ceramic valves for taps
Nylon bearings for ships’ rudders
Summary and conclusions
Further reading
7 Selection of material and shape
7.1 Introduction and synopsis
7.2 Shape factors
7.7 Co-selecting material and shape
7.8 Summary and conclusions
7.9 Further reading
The efficiency of standard sections
Material limits for shape factors
Material indices which include shape
The microscopic or micro-structural shape factor
Appendix: geometric constraints and associated shape factors
190Contentsvii
8 Shape-case studies
8.1 Introduction and synopsis
8.2 Spars for man-powered planes
8.3 Forks for a racing bicycle
8.4 Floor joists: wood or steel?
8.5 Increasing the stiffness of steel sheet
8.6 Ultra-efficient springs
8.7 Summary and conclusions
9 Multiple constraints and compound objectives
9.1 Introduction and synopsis
9.2
9.3 The method of weight-factors
9.4 Methods employing fuzzy logic
9.5
9.6
9.7 Summary and conclusions
9.8 Further reading
Selection by successive application of property limits and indices
Systematic methods for multiple constraints
Compound objectives, exchange constants and value-functions
10 Case studies: multiple constraints and compound objectives
10.1 Introduction and synopsis
10.6 Summary and conclusions
Multiple constraints -con-rods for high-performance engines
Multiple constraints – windings for high field magnets
Compound objectives -materials for insulation
Compound objectives – disposable coffee cups
11 Materials processing and design
1 1.1 Introduction and synopsis
11.2
1 1.3 Process attributes
11.4 Systematic process selection
1 1.5
11.6 Ranking: process cost
11.7 Supporting information
11.8 Summary and conclusions
11.9 Further reading
Processes and their influence on design
Screening: process selection diagrams
12 Case studies: process selection
12.1 Introduction and synopsis
12.2 Forming a fan
12.3 Fabricating a pressure vessel
12.4
12.5 Forming ceramic tap valves
12.6 Economical casting
12.7
Forming a silicon nitride micro-beam
Computer-based selection- a manifold jacket
293viii Contents
12.8
12.9 Summary and conclusions
12.10 Further reading
Computer-based selection – a spark plug insulator
13 Data sources
13.1 Introduction and synopsis
13.2 Data needs for design
13.3
13.4
13.5
13.6 Summary and conclusions
13.7 Further reading
Screening: data structure and sources
Further information: data structure and sources
Ways of checking and estimating data
Appendix: data sources for material and process attributes
14 Case studies: use of data sources
14.1 Introduction and synopsis
14.2 Data for a ferrous alloy -type 302 stainless steel
14.3 Data for a non-ferrous alloy -A1-Si die-casting alloys
14.4 Data for a polymer -polyethylene
14.5 Data for a ceramic -zirconia
14.6 Data for a glass-filled polymer -nylon 30% glass
14.7 Data for a metal-matrix composite (MMC)-Ai/SiC,
14.8 Data for a polymer-matrix composite -CFRP
14.9 Data for a natural material -balsa wood
14.10 Summary and conclusions
14.11 Further reading
15 Materials, aesthetics and industrial design
15.1 Introduction and synopsis
15.2 Aesthetics and industrial design
15.3 Why tolerate ugliness? The bar code
15.4 The evolution of the telephone
15.5 The design of hair dryers
15.6 The design of forks
15.7 Summary and conclusions
15.8 Further reading
16 Forces for change
16.1 Introduction and synopsis
16.2
16.3 The science-push: curiosity-driven research
16.4
16.5
16.6 Summary and conclusions
16.7 Further reading
The market pull: economy versus performance
Materials and the environment: green design
The pressure to recycle and reuse
374Contents ix
APPENDIXA: Useful solutions to standard problems
A. 1
A.2 Moments of sections
A.3 Elastic bending of beams
A.4
A.5
A.6 Torsion of shafts
A.7 Static and spinning discs
A.8 Contact stresses
A.9 Estimates for stress concentrations
A. 10 Sharp cracks
A. 1 I Pressure vessels
A.12 Vibrating beams, tubes and discs
A.13 Creep and creep fracture
A. 14 Flow of heat and matter
A.15 Solutions for diffusion equations
A .16 Further reading
Constitutive equations for mechanical response
Failure of beams and panels
Buckling of columns and plates
APPENDIX B: Material indices
APPENDIXC: Material and process selection charts
C. 1 Introduction
C.2 The materials selection charts
Young’s modulus, E against density, p
Strength, of,against density, p
Fracture toughness, KI,, against density, p
Young’s modulus, E , against strength, of
Specific modulus, E / p , against specific strength, of / p
Fracture toughness, K I , , against Young’s modulus, E
Fracture toughness, KI~., against strength, o,f
Loss coefficient, q, against Young’s modulus, E
Thermal conductivity, h, against thermal diffusivity, a
T-Expansion coefficient, a, against T-conductivity, h
Linear thermal expansion, a, against Young’s modulus, E
Normalized strength, or/E,against linear expansion coeff., a
Strength-at-temperature, a(T),against temperature, T
Young’s modulus, E , against relative cost, CRP
Strength, of,against relative cost, C R ~
Dry wear rate against maximum bearing pressure, P,,,
Young’s modulus, E , against energy content, qp
Strength, o f , against energy content, qp
C.3 The process-selection charts
Chart PI :
Chart P2:
Chart P3:
Chart P4:
The material-process matrix
Hardness, H , against melting temperature, T ,
Volume, V , against slenderness, S
The shape classification scheme
460x Contents
Chart €3: The shape-process matrix
Chart P6:
Chart P7:
Complexity against volume, V
Tolerance range, T , against RMS surface roughness, R
APPENDIXD: Problems
D1 Introduction to the problems
D2
D3
D4 Selection with multiple constraints
D5 Selecting material and shape
D6 Selecting processes
D7 Use of data sources
D8 Material optimization and scale
Use of materials selection charts
Deriving and using material indices
INDEX 49
Index
Adaptive design 11
Aesthetics 2, 351 et seq.
Alloys, see Metals
Approximate solutions for standard problems
et seq.
Atomic bonding 43, 46
Attributes:
375
materials 66, 67
processes 26 I
Bar codes 354
Batch rate 276
size 275
Beams 73, 75
static solutions 73, 75, 167 et seq., 380, 382
vibrating 398
Bearings for ships rudders 157
Bells 46
Bending of beams
Bicycle forks 198
Buckling:
167 et seq., 380, 382
local 176
of columns 384
shape factor for 171
Case studies, see particularly Chapters 6, 8, 10
and 12
bar codes 354
bearings for ships rudders 157
bicycle forks 198
ceramic valves for taps
connecting rods 228, 278
cork screws 14
data for a ceramic 340
data for a ferrous alloy
data for a glass-filled polymer
data for a metal-matrix composite
data for a natural material
data for a non-ferrous alloy 335
data for a polymer 338
data for a polymer-matrix composite
deflection-limited design with brittle polymers
diaphragms for pressure actuators 122
154, 290
334
342
344
347
345
192
disposable coffee cups 241
economical casting 292
elastic hinges 116
energy-efficient kilns 143
fabricating a pressure vessel 284
fans 105, 281
floor joists 200
flywheels 100, 388
forks 359
forming a fan 281
forming a silicon nitride micro-beam
forming ceramic tap valves 290
golf-ball print heads 108
hairdryers 357
heat-storing walls 147
knife-edges and pivots 125
magnet windings 232
man-powered planes 194
manifold jacket 293
micro-beams 289
oars 85
precision devices 151
pressure vessels 133, 284, 396
seals 119
shaker tables 137
short-term isothermal containers 140
spark plug insulator 298
springs 111, 206, 219, 334
stiffened steel sheet 204
structural materials for buildings 97, 200
table legs 93
taps 290
telephones 355
telescope reflectors 89, 344
vacuum cleaners 4
wing spars 194
Catalogue of data sources
Centrefugal forces and stresses
Ceramic valves for taps
Ceramics, see also Charts, and Material properties
289
313 et seq.
100, 388
154, 290
20, 35, 88, 96, 104, 114, 125, 323
alumina 35. 127. 156, 160
brick 100, 149
cement 149, 324
common rocks 149, 325496 Index
Ceramics (continued)
concrete 92, 100, 140, 149, 324
diamond 35, 127, 154
ice 53, 149
magnesia 160
mullite 156
porous ceramics 147
sapphire 127
selection of 32 et seq.
sialons 35, 156
silicon 127, 154
silicon carbide
silicon nitride 35, 127, 156
stone 100, 325
tungsten carbide 127
zirconia 35, 142, 340 et seq.
Selection Charts
materials 20, 21, 35, 414
processes 246, 248, 416
35, 127, 154, 156
Charts, see Material Selection Charts and Process
Classes:
Cold working 250
Columns 76, 384
Complexity 266 et seq.
Composites, see also Charts, and Material properties
21, 35, 324
carbon fibre reinforced polymer, CFRP
ceramic matrix 367
glass fibre reinforced polymer, GFRP 88, 92, 96,
glass filled nylon 342
intermetallic matrix 367
Kevlar fibre reinforced polymer, KFRP
metal matrix composites, MMC 230, 236-7,
88, 92,
96, 104, 108, 114, 135, 196, 199, 345
104, 108, 114, 135, 140, 147
140
344, 367
Compound objectives
Conceptual stage of design
Connecting rods 228, 278
Constitutive equations 376
Constraints 66, 69 et seq.
Contact stresses 391
Cork 36, 122, 147
Cork screws 14
Correlations between material properties see also
Charts 310
Corrosion 59, 60
Co-selection of material and shape
Cost 276 et seq.
capital 277
case studies 278, 292
dependence on finish 271
estimation 276
modelling 276
of casting 278, 292
of labour 277
211 et seq., 228 et seq.
8, 9, 15
multiple 210 et seq., 215, 228 et seq.
186
of material 22, 56, 276-7
of process 274
of product 241-2
technical modelling of 278
Coupling lines and equations 218
Cracks 133 et seq., 394
Creep solutions 398
Damage-tolerant design 44, 133
Damping, see Loss coefficient
Data:
indices 411
catalog of sources
checking methods 309
correlations 310
estimation 309, 313
examples 334 et seq.
for a ceramic 340
for a ferrous alloy 334
for a glass-filled polymer 342
for a metal-matrix composite 344
for a natural material 347
for a non-ferrous alloy 335
for a polymer 338
for a polymer-matrix composite 345
for further information 307
for material properties, see Material properties
for screening 305
handbooks 313 et seq., 334 et seq.
information services 330 et seq.
Internet access 308
levels, of breadth and precision
needs 303
sheets 334 et seq.
sources and their use
structure 305
types 305
world-side web sources
Data sources 334 et seq.
for cement and concrete 324
for ceramic-matrix composites 324
for ceramics and glasses 323
for foams 324
for manufacturing processes 327
for metal-matrix composites 324
for metals 314 et seq.
for natural fibres 326
for polymer-matrix composites 324
for polymers and elastomers 322
for stone, rocks and minerals 325
for woods and wood-based composites
world-wide web sites 327 et seq.
313 et seq.
303
303 et seq., 334 et seq.
330 et seq.
326
Decoration 353
Density:
charts 37, 39, 41
data 37Index497
definition 22
origins 36
Deflection-limited design 73, 167, 192, 380, 389
Deflection-limited design with brittle polymers
Design:
192
adaptive 11
conceptual 8
detailed 8
embodiment 8
How chart 9
industrial 351 et seq.
mechanical 1
museums 353
original 10
process 8 et seq.
tools 11
types 10
variant 11
Design-led selection 8, 17
Detailed stage of design 8
Diaphragms for pressure actuators 122
Diffusion 404
Disks:
elastic deflection 388
spinning 388
Disposable coffee cups 241
Economics of casting 292
Economic criteria for selection 275
Elastic bending 73, 167 et seq., 380
buckling 171, 176, 384
contacts 390
energy 111, 206, 219, 330
hinges 116
stress concentrations 392
twisting 386
21, 36, 114, 119, 125, 147
butyl rubber, BR 36, 143
chlorosulphinated polyethylene, CSM 143
natural rubber 36
polychloroprene, CR 143
polyurethanes 36
silicones 36
Elastomers, see also Charts, and Material properties
Electro-mechanical design 232, 412
Embodiment stage of design 8
Energy content of materials
Energy-efficient kilns 143
Energy storing devices:
368 et seq.
flywheels 100 et seq., 388
pressure vessels
springs 111, 206, 219, 334
Engineering alloys, see Metals
Engineering ceramics, see Ceramics
Engineering polymers, see Polymers
Environmental attack 59, 60
133 et seq., 284, 396
Environmental impact of materials
Estimation methods for material data
Evolution:
367, 373
309
indices 368
of engineering materials 3
of hairdryers 357
of telephones 355
of vacuum cleaners 4
Exchange constants 218, 220
Expert systems 308
Fabricating a pressure vessel 284
Failure diagrams 178
Failure in bending 75, 170, 382
Failure in torsion 170, 386
Fans 105, 281
Finite element analysis 8
Floor joists 200
Flywheels 100, 388
Foams, see also Charts, and Material properties 36,
122, 143, 324
cork 36, 122, 147
phenolic foam 239, 241
polycarbonate foam 243
polyester foam 36
polyethersulphone foam 239
polyethylene foam 243, 245
polymethacrylimide foam 239
polypropylene foam 241, 245
polystyrene foam
polyurethane foam 241
36, 92, 239, 241, 243, 245
Forces for change
Forks 359
Forming a fan 281
Forming a silicon nitride micro-beam 289
Forming ceramic tap valves 290
Forming, see Processes
Fracture toughness:
363 et seq.
case studies 133, 192
charts 43 et seq.
data 43 et seq.
definition 26
lower limiting value 45
origins 43 et seq.
Function 8, 13, 69
Function structure 8, 17
Functional requirements 17
Functionally graded materials 367
Fuzzy logic 214
Glasses, see also Charts, and Material properties
20, 35. 92. 125
borosilicate glass 35
quartz 127498 Index
Glasses (continued)
silica glass 35, 160
soda glass 35
Glass temperature:
definition 28
influence on damping 46
Golf-ball print heads 108
Green engineering 367
Guide lines for materials selection
Hairdryers 357
Handbooks
Heat capacity, see Specific heat
Heat flow 402
Heat-storing walls 147
History of material usage 3
Hot working 250
Hysteresis, see Loss coefficient
80 et seq.
313 et seq., 334 et seq.
1-Beams
Indices, see Material indices
Industrial design 2, 334 et seq.
Information content 266 et seq.
Insulation:
163 et seq., 172 et seq.
for kiln walls 143
for thermal storage 147
latent heat ‘sinks’ 142
short term 140
Intelligent materials 367
Introduction 1
Internet data sources 308
J-integral 40
Joists 200
Kilns 143
Knife-edges and pivots 125
Lattice resistance 39
Leak-before-break criterion 133
Lightweight design
Local buckling 176
Local issues in selection 68
Log decrement, definition 27
Loss coefficient:
71 et seq., 408-9
chart 48
data 48
definition 27
origins 46
Magnet windings 232
Man-powered planes 194
Manifold jacket 293
Market need 8-9, 12
Market pull 363
Material classes 21, 35
Material indices
catalog 407 et seq.
damage-tolerant design 411
definition 70
derivation of 7 1, 78
efficient thermal design 411
elastic design 408
electro-mechanical design 232, 412
examples of derivations 71 et seq.,
minimum cost design 76
minimum energy-content design 368 et seq.,
minimum weight design 71, 73, 75
stiffness-limited design 408
strength-limited design 409
tables of
thermo-mechanical design 41 1
vibration-limited design 410
with shape included
Material properties
coefficient of friction 59-60
corrosion 62
cost 22, 56, 58, 364
creep constants 28
definitions of 22
density 22, 37, 39, 41
eco-indicators 369
endurance limit 22
energy content 369
environmental 367
failure strain 40
fatigue ratio 27
fracture toughness
glass temperature 28
hardness 25, 266
high temperature strength 55
J-integral, critical 40
log decrement 27
loss coefficient 26
maximum service temperature 28
melting point 28
moduli 22, 37, 42, 45, 48, 52, 57, 266, 309
modulus of rupture 24
parabolic rate constant 30
process zone size 46-7
Q-factor 27
relative cost 57-8
resilience 25
softening temperature 28
specific damping capacity 27
specific heat 28, 48
strength
surface energy 43
tensile strength 38
thermal conductivity 27, 31, 49
69 et seq., 78, 408 et seq.
408, 409
78, 408 et seq.
180 et seq.
20 et seq., 32 et seq.
26, 41, 45, 47
23, 39, 42, 47, 58Index 499
thermal diffusivity 28, 49
thermal expansion coefficient
thermal shock resistance 28
toughness 26, 45
ultimate strength 25
wave velocity 37-8
wear constant 29, 60
Material Selection Charts
moduhddensity 37, 418
strengtWdensity 39, 420
fracture toughness/density 41, 422
modulusktrength 42, 424
specific modulus/specific strength 44, 426
fracture toughness/modulus 45, 428
fracture toughnesdstrength 47, 430
loss coefficient/modulus 48, 432
thermal conductivity/thermal diffusivity 49, 434
thermal expansiodthermal conductivity 5 I, 436
thermal expansiodmodulus 52, 438
strengthhhermal expansion 54, 440
strengthltemperature 56, 442
moduludrelative cost 57, 444
strengthhelative cost 58, 446
coefficient of friction 59
wear rate/hardness 60, 448
resistance to environmental attack 62
modulus/energy content 370, 450
strengtwenergy content 37 1, 452
use of 77 et seq.
Materials, see Metals, Ceramics, Polymers, Glasses,
Elastomers, Composites, Wood, Foams , Porous
ceramics or individual material names
28, 52, 3 12
32 et seq., 413 et seq.
Materials in design 1
Materials selection, 65 et seq.
case studies, see Case studies
software 375 et seq.
Mechanical design 1
Merit indices, see Material indices
Metals, see also Charts, and Material properties
20, 35, 314 et seq.
aluminium alloys 92, 104, 1 1 1 , 135, 154, 196,
199, 230, 337
beryllium alloys
cast irons
copper alloys 135, 154, 236
gold 154
invar 43, 122, 154
lead alloys 104
magnesium alloys
manganese-copper alloys 140
molybdenum alloys 154
nickel alloys 293
silver 154, 237
speculum metal 89, 92
steels, carbon
135, 196, 199, 201, 204, 230, 236
steels, stainless 334 et seq.
92, 104, 119, 213, 231
100, 104, 108, 140, 230
92, 104, 111, 140, 199, 231
92, 100, 114, 119, 125, 127,
tin alloys
titanium alloys
tungsten alloys 154
type metal 111
Micro-beams 289
Microscopic (‘microstructural’) shape factors 182
Minimum cost design
Minimum energy-content design
Minimum weight design
Modelling:
111, 135, 199
104, 125, 213, 230
76 et seq., 408-9
368 et seq.,
408-9
71 et seq., 408-9
69 et seq., 86 et seq.
aids 376 et seq.
examples 86 et seq.
Moduli:
charts
data 37
definitions 23
origins 36
37, 42, 44-5, 48, 52, 57, 370
Moments of sections 164, 378
Multiple constraints
Multiple design objectives
Museums 253
210 et seq., 228 et seq.
210 et seq., 228 et seq.
Normalized strength:
charts 44
data 44
definition 43
Oars 85
Objectives
Optimization 67 et seq.
Optimum design 65 et seq.
Original design 10
66, 69, 218 et seq.
Peierls stress, see Lattice resistance
Performance 65 et seq., 79
Performance-maximising criteria, see Material
indices
Pivots 125
Poisson’s ratio, see Moduli
Polymer forming 180, 183
Polymers, see also Charts, Foams and Material
properties 21, 35, 129, 143, 147, 332
epoxies, EP 111
nylons, glass-filled 342
nylons. PA
125, 129
polycarbonates, PC 129
polyethylene, high density, HDPE
122, 143, 149, 160
polyethylene, low density, LDPE
polypropylene, PP
polystyrene, PS 129
polytetrafluorethylene, PTFE
polyurethanes, PU 122
108, 111, 114, 119. 122,
108, 119,
119, 122, 338
119, 122, 125, 143
119, 122, 125, 160500 index
Polymers (continued)
polyvinylchloride, PVC 108
silicones 122
Properties 147
brick 100, 149
cement 149, 324
common rocks 149, 325
concrete 92, 100, 140, 149, 324
ice 53, 149
Porous ceramics, see also Charts and Material
Precision
Precision devices 151
Pressure vessels 133, 284, 396
Primary forming methods 246
Problems Appendix C
Process:
270 et seq., 282, 286, 290-1, 295
attributes 261
catalog of methods 246
classes 246, 248
costs 274 et seq., 292
Process selection 246 et seq., 281 et seq.
case studies 281 et seq.
ranking 274
screening 264
strategy 273
supporting information 279
complexity /size 270, 284, 464
hardnesdmelting temperature 266, 285, 456
materiaVprocess matrix 454
shape classification 268, 460
shape/procegs matrix 462
surface area/section/slendemess/volume 269,
283, 458
tolerance/surface roughness 265, 270, 286, 466
Process zone:
chart 47
definition 46
adhesive bonding 256, 258
ballistic -parti cle manufacture
blow moulding 249, 251
casting 247-8, 288, 292
cold working 250
composite forming 254
CVD 248, 291
deformation 248, 250
die casting 282, 287, 292
die pressing 253
drawing 253
electroforming 287, 291, 297
electron-beam casting 291
extrusion 252
fabrication 256, 288
fastening 256-7
filament winding 254
finishing 248, 257
Process selection charts 264 et seq., 454 et seq.
Processes 246 et seq., 327
25 9
forging 252
friction welding 258
grinding 256
heat treatment 248, 256
HIPing 253
hot working 250, 288
injection moulding 250, 282
investment casting 247, 282, 297
joining 248, 256
laminated object manufacture 260
machining 48, 255, 288
micro-fabrication 289
moulding 249
polymer forming 248-9
powder methods 248, 252, 291
primary forming 246
rapid prototyping 258
resin-transfer moulding 250, 287
rolling 251
sand casting 247-8, 292
secondary forming 247
sheet forming 253
sintering 248, 252, 291, 299
solid-ground curing 259
special forming methods 248, 254
spray forming 255
squeeze casting 287
stereo-lithography 260
tertiary forming 247
transfer moulding 250
turning 255
warm working 250
welding 256-7
Processing 246 et seq.
Production rate 276
Properties, see Material properties
Property limits 68, 70
Property profiles 20, 66
Ranking of materials 65, 67
Ranking of processes 274
Recycling of materials 373
Reuse of materials 373
Roughness 265, 270- 1
Rubber, see Elastomers
Science push 366
Screening of materials 65, 67
Screening of processes 264
Seals 119
Secondary forming processes 247
Section shape, see Shape
Shaker tables 137Index501
Shape, see also Shape factors
et seq.
case studies 194 et seq.
classification 268
efficiency of 172
macroscopic 162
microscopic 13, 182 et seq.
moments of area 164
selection of 186
co-selection with material 186
definition of 162
examples of use
for elastic bending 167, 180
for elastic buckling 171
for elastic twisting 170, 180
for failure in bending
for failure in twisting
geometric constrains for
in material indices 180, 195
limits imposed by material
microscopic or “microstructural”
values for 165, 166
Shear modulus, see Moduli
Short-term isothermal containers 140
Software for materials selection
Spark plug insulator 298
Specific heat:
chart 49
data 49
definition 28
origins 49
Specific stiffness:
chart 44
data 44
definition 43
Specific strength:
chart 44
data 44
definition 43
13, 162 et seq., 194
Shape factors 162 et seq., 190
186, 194 et seq.
170, 181
170, 182
190 et seq.
175 et seq.
182 et seq.
375 et seq.
Springs
Standard solutions of mechanics and heat flow
Stiffened steel sheet 204
Stiffness-limited design 408
Strength-limited design 409
Strength:
11I , 206, 219, 334
375
et seq.
charts 39, 42, 44, 54
data 39
definition 23, 38
origins 38
chart 56
data 56
definition 55
Strength at elevated temperature:
Stress concentrations 392
Stress intensity factors 394
Structural index
Structural load coefficient, see Structural index
Structural materials for buildings 97, 200
Structure-sensitive properties 34
Supporting information for materials
Supporting information for processes 279
Surface finish 271
71, 82 et seq.
67-8
Table legs 93
Taps 290
Technical systems 8-9
Telephones 355
Telescope reflectors 89, 344
Tertiary forming processes 247
Texture 253
Thermal conductivity :
charts 33, 49, 51
data 49
definition 27
origins 47 et seq.
Thermal diffusivity:
chart 33
data 49
definition 27
origins 47 et seq.
Thermal distortion:
case study 151
chart 54
definition 28
origins 54
charts 5 1-2, 54
data 51
definition 28
origins 50
chart 52
data 52
definition 28
origins 53
Thermal stress:
chart 52
data 52
definition 53
origins 53
Thermal expansion coefficient:
Thermal shock resistance:
Tolerance 265, 270- 1
Torsion of shafts 386
shape-factors for 170- 1
Toughness:
chart 43
data 43
definition 26
origins 43502 Index
Tubes 175 et seq.
Types of design I O
failure mechanisms 177
Useful solutions to standard problems 375
Vacuum cleaners 4
Value functions 218, 220
Van der Waals bonding 40
Variant design 11
Vibration 398
natural 151
damping of 137, 151
supressing 151 , 204
Warm worlung 250
Wave velocity:
chart 37
data 37
definition 38
Wear constant:
chart 60
data 60
definition 61
Weight factors 212
Wing spars 194
Woods, see also Charts, and Material properties
84, 92, 96, 100, 115, 147, 182, 200, 326
ash 347
balsa 196, 347
bamboo 199-200
hickory 347
pine 201
spruce 196, 199, 347
wood products (ply, etc.)
yew 347
World-wide web 308, 330 et seq., 340
Yield-before-break criterion 250
Youngs modulus, see Moduli

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