Materials Science and Engineering – An Introduction

Materials Science and Engineering – An Introduction
اسم المؤلف
William D. Callister, David G. Rethwisch
التاريخ
1 يوليو 2021
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Materials Science and Engineering – An Introduction
Eighth Edition
William D. Callister, Jr.
Department of Metallurgical Engineering
The University of Utah
David G. Rethwisch
Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering
The University of Iowa
LIST OF SYMBOLS xxi
1. Introduction
Learning Objectives 2
1.1 Historical Perspective 2
1.2 Materials Science and Engineering 3
1.3 Why Study Materials Science and Engineering? 5
1.4 Classification of Materials 5
Materials of Importance—Carbonated Beverage
Containers 10
1.5 Advanced Materials 11
1.6 Modern Materials’ Needs 13
1.7 Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance
Correlations 14
Summary 16
References 17
Question 17
2. Atomic Structure and Interatomic Bonding 18
Learning Objectives 19
2.1 Introduction 19
ATOMIC STRUCTURE 19
2.2 Fundamental Concepts 19
2.3 Electrons in Atoms 20
2.4 The Periodic Table 26
ATOMIC BONDING IN SOLIDS 28
2.5 Bonding Forces and Energies 28
2.6 Primary Interatomic Bonds 30
2.7 Secondary Bonding or van der Waals Bonding 34
Materials of Importance—Water (Its Volume Expansion Upon
Freezing) 37
2.8 Molecules 38
Summary 38
Equation Summary 39
Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance Summary 40
Important Terms and Concepts 40
References 40
Questions and Problems 41
Contents
• xiii3. The Structure of Crystalline Solids 44
Learning Objectives 45
3.1 Introduction 45
CRYSTAL STRUCTURES 46
3.2 Fundamental Concepts 46
3.3 Unit Cells 47
3.4 Metallic Crystal Structures 47
3.5 Density Computations 51
3.6 Polymorphism and Allotropy 52
3.7 Crystal Systems 52
Materials of Importance—Tin
(Its Allotropic Transformation) 53
CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC POINTS, DIRECTIONS,
AND PLANES 55
3.8 Point Coordinates 55
3.9 Crystallographic Directions 57
3.10 Crystallographic Planes 64
3.11 Linear and Planar Densities 68
3.12 Close-Packed Crystal
Structures 70
CRYSTALLINE AND NONCRYSTALLINE
MATERIALS 72
3.13 Single Crystals 72
3.14 Polycrystalline Materials 72
3.15 Anisotropy 73
3.16 X-Ray Diffraction: Determination of
Crystal Structures 74
3.17 Noncrystalline Solids 79
Summary 80
Equation Summary 82
Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance
Summary 83
Important Terms and Concepts 83
References 83
Questions and Problems 84
4. Imperfections in Solids 90
Learning Objectives 91
4.1 Introduction 91
POINT DEFECTS 92
4.2 Vacancies and Self-Interstitials 92
4.3 Impurities in Solids 93
4.4 Specification of Composition 95
MISCELLANEOUS IMPERFECTIONS 99
4.5 Dislocations–Linear Defects 99
4.6 Interfacial Defects 102
Materials of Importance—Catalysts (and
Surface Defects) 105
xiv • Contents
4.7 Bulk or Volume Defects 106
4.8 Atomic Vibrations 106
MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION 107
4.9 Basic Concepts of Microscopy 107
4.10 Microscopic Techniques 108
4.11 Grain Size Determination 113
Summary 114
Equation Summary 116
Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance
Summary 117
Important Terms and Concepts 118
References 118
Questions and Problems 118
Design Problems 121
5. Diffusion 122
Learning Objectives 123
5.1 Introduction 123
5.2 Diffusion Mechanisms 125
5.3 Steady-State Diffusion 126
5.4 Nonsteady-State Diffusion 128
5.5 Factors That Influence
Diffusion 132
5.6 Diffusion in Semiconducting
Materials 137
Materials of Importance—Aluminum for
Integrated Circuit Interconnects 140
5.7 Other Diffusion Paths 142
Summary 142
Equation Summary 143
Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance
Summary 144
Important Terms and Concepts 144
References 144
Questions and Problems 145
Design Problems 148
6. Mechanical Properties of Metals 150
Learning Objectives 151
6.1 Introduction 151
6.2 Concepts of Stress and
Strain 152
ELASTIC DEFORMATION 156
6.3 Stress–Strain Behavior 156
6.4 Anelasticity 159
6.5 Elastic Properties of Materials 160
PLASTIC DEFORMATION 162
6.6 Tensile Properties 162
6.7 True Stress and Strain 1706.8 Elastic Recovery After Plastic
Deformation 173
6.9 Compressive, Shear, and Torsional
Deformations 173
6.10 Hardness 174
PROPERTY VARIABILITY AND DESIGN/SAFETY
FACTORS 180
6.11 Variability of Material Properties 180
6.12 Design/Safety Factors 182
Summary 184
Equation Summary 186
Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance
Summary 187
Important Terms and Concepts 188
References 188
Questions and Problems 188
Design Problems 195
7. Dislocations and Strengthening
Mechanisms 197
Learning Objectives 198
7.1 Introduction 198
DISLOCATIONS AND PLASTIC
DEFORMATION 199
7.2 Basic Concepts 199
7.3 Characteristics of Dislocations 201
7.4 Slip Systems 202
7.5 Slip in Single Crystals 204
7.6 Plastic Deformation of Polycrystalline
Materials 208
7.7 Deformation by Twinning 210
MECHANISMS OF STRENGTHENING IN
METALS 211
7.8 Strengthening by Grain Size
Reduction 212
7.9 Solid-Solution Strengthening 213
7.10 Strain Hardening 215
RECOVERY, RECRYSTALLIZATION, AND GRAIN
GROWTH 218
7.11 Recovery 219
7.12 Recrystallization 219
7.13 Grain Growth 224
Summary 225
Equation Summary 228
Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance
Summary 228
Important Terms and Concepts 229
References 229
Questions and Problems 229
Design Problems 233
Contents • xv
8. Failure 234
Learning Objectives 235
8.1 Introduction 235
FRACTURE 236
8.2 Fundamentals of Fracture 236
8.3 Ductile Fracture 236
8.4 Brittle Fracture 239
8.5 Principles of Fracture Mechanics 242
8.6 Fracture Toughness Testing 250
FATIGUE 255
8.7 Cyclic Stresses 255
8.8 The S–N Curve 257
8.9 Crack Initiation and Propagation 259
8.10 Factors That Affect Fatigue Life 262
8.11 Environmental Effects 264
CREEP 265
8.12 Generalized Creep Behavior 265
8.13 Stress and Temperature Effects 266
8.14 Data Extrapolation Methods 268
8.15 Alloys for High-Temperature Use 269
Summary 270
Equation Summary 273
Important Terms and Concepts 274
References 275
Questions and Problems 275
Design Problems 279
9. Phase Diagrams 281
Learning Objectives 282
9.1 Introduction 282
DEFINITIONS AND BASIC CONCEPTS 283
9.2 Solubility Limit 283
9.3 Phases 284
9.4 Microstructure 284
9.5 Phase Equilibria 285
9.6 One-Component (or Unary) Phase
Diagrams 286
BINARY PHASE DIAGRAMS 287
9.7 Binary Isomorphous Systems 287
9.8 Interpretation of Phase
Diagrams 289
9.9 Development of Microstructure in
Isomorphous Alloys 294
9.10 Mechanical Properties of Isomorphous
Alloys 297
9.11 Binary Eutectic Systems 298
Materials of Importance—Lead-Free
Solders 3049.12 Development of Microstructure in
Eutectic Alloys 305
9.13 Equilibrium Diagrams Having
Intermediate Phases or
Compounds 311
9.14 Eutectoid and Peritectic
Reactions 313
9.15 Congruent Phase Transformations 315
9.16 Ceramic and Ternary Phase
Diagrams 316
9.17 The Gibbs Phase Rule 316
THE IRON–CARBON SYSTEM 319
9.18 The Iron–Iron Carbide (Fe–Fe3C) Phase
Diagram 319
9.19 Development of Microstructure in
Iron–Carbon Alloys 322
9.20 The Influence of Other Alloying
Elements 330
Summary 331
Equation Summary 333
Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance
Summary 334
Important Terms and Concepts 335
References 335
Questions and Problems 335
10. Phase Transformations: Development
of Microstructure and Alteration of
Mechanical Properties 342
Learning Objectives 343
10.1 Introduction 343
PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS 344
10.2 Basic Concepts 344
10.3 The Kinetics of Phase
Transformations 344
10.4 Metastable Versus Equilibrium
States 355
MICROSTRUCTURAL AND PROPERTY CHANGES IN
IRON–CARBON ALLOYS 356
10.5 Isothermal Transformation
Diagrams 356
10.6 Continuous Cooling Transformation
Diagrams 367
10.7 Mechanical Behavior of Iron–Carbon
Alloys 370
10.8 Tempered Martensite 375
10.9 Review of Phase Transformations and
Mechanical Properties for Iron–Carbon
Alloys 378
xvi • Contents
Materials of Importance—Shape-Memory
Alloys 379
Summary 381
Equation Summary 383
Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance
Summary 384
Important Terms and Concepts 385
References 385
Questions and Problems 385
Design Problems 390
11. Applications and Processing of Metal
Alloys 391
Learning Objectives 392
11.1 Introduction 392
TYPES OF METAL ALLOYS 393
11.2 Ferrous Alloys 393
11.3 Nonferrous Alloys 406
Materials of Importance—Metal Alloys
Used for Euro Coins 416
FABRICATION OF METALS 417
11.4 Forming Operations 417
11.5 Casting 419
11.6 Miscellaneous Techniques 420
THERMAL PROCESSING OF METALS 422
11.7 Annealing Processes 422
11.8 Heat Treatment of Steels 425
11.9 Precipitation Hardening 436
Summary 442
Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance
Summary 444
Important Terms and Concepts 444
References 447
Questions and Problems 447
Design Problems 449
12. Structures and Properties of
Ceramics 451
Learning Objectives 452
12.1 Introduction 452
CERAMIC STRUCTURES 453
12.2 Crystal Structures 453
12.3 Silicate Ceramics 464
12.4 Carbon 468
Materials of Importance—Carbon
Nanotubes 471
12.5 Imperfections in Ceramics 472
12.6 Diffusion in Ionic Materials 476
12.7 Ceramic Phase Diagrams 476MECHANICAL PROPERTIES 480
12.8 Brittle Fracture of Ceramics 480
12.9 Stress–Strain Behavior 485
12.10 Mechanisms of Plastic
Deformation 487
12.11 Miscellaneous Mechanical
Considerations 489
Summary 491
Equation Summary 494
Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance
Summary 494
Important Terms and Concepts 495
References 495
Questions and Problems 495
Design Problems 500
13. Applications and Processing of
Ceramics 501
Learning Objectives 502
13.1 Introduction 502
TYPES AND APPLICATIONS OF CERAMICS 503
13.2 Glasses 503
13.3 Glass-Ceramics 503
13.4 Clay Products 505
13.5 Refractories 505
13.6 Abrasives 507
13.7 Cements 508
13.8 Advanced Ceramics 509
Materials of Importance—Piezoelectric
Ceramics 512
FABRICATION AND PROCESSING OF
CERAMICS 512
13.9 Fabrication and Processing of Glasses and
Glass-Ceramics 513
13.10 Fabrication and Processing of Clay
Products 518
13.11 Powder Pressing 523
13.12 Tape Casting 525
Summary 526
Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance
Summary 528
Important Terms and Concepts 529
References 530
Questions and Problems 530
Design Problem 531
14. Polymer Structures 532
Learning Objectives 533
14.1 Introduction 533
14.2 Hydrocarbon Molecules 534
Contents • xvii
14.3 Polymer Molecules 535
14.4 The Chemistry of Polymer
Molecules 537
14.5 Molecular Weight 541
14.6 Molecular Shape 544
14.7 Molecular Structure 545
14.8 Molecular Configurations 547
14.9 Thermoplastic and Thermosetting
Polymers 550
14.10 Copolymers 551
14.11 Polymer Crystallinity 552
14.12 Polymer Crystals 556
14.13 Defects in Polymers 558
14.14 Diffusion in Polymeric Materials 559
Summary 561
Equation Summary 563
Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance
Summary 564
Important Terms and Concepts 565
References 565
Questions and Problems 565
15. Characteristics, Applications, and
Processing of Polymers 569
Learning Objectives 570
15.1 Introduction 570
MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF POLYMERS 570
15.2 Stress–Strain Behavior 570
15.3 Macroscopic Deformation 573
15.4 Viscoelastic Deformation 574
15.5 Fracture of Polymers 578
15.6 Miscellaneous Mechanical
Characteristics 580
MECHANISMS OF DEFORMATION AND FOR
STRENGTHENING OF POLYMERS 581
15.7 Deformation of Semicrystalline
Polymers 581
15.8 Factors That Influence the Mechanical
Properties of Semicrystalline
Polymers 582
Materials of Importance—Shrink-Wrap
Polymer Films 587
15.9 Deformation of Elastomers 588
CRYSTALLIZATION, MELTING, AND GLASS
TRANSITION PHENOMENA IN POLYMERS 590
15.10 Crystallization 590
15.11 Melting 592
15.12 The Glass Transition 592
15.13 Melting and Glass Transition
Temperatures 59215.14 Factors That Influence Melting and Glass
Transition Temperatures 594
POLYMER TYPES 596
15.15 Plastics 596
Materials of Importance—Phenolic
Billiard Balls 598
15.16 Elastomers 599
15.17 Fibers 601
15.18 Miscellaneous Applications 601
15.19 Advanced Polymeric Materials 603
POLYMER SYNTHESIS AND PROCESSING 607
15.20 Polymerization 607
15.21 Polymer Additives 610
15.22 Forming Techniques for Plastics 611
15.23 Fabrication of Elastomers 614
15.24 Fabrication of Fibers and Films 614
Summary 616
Equation Summary 619
Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance
Summary 619
Important Terms and Concepts 620
References 620
Questions and Problems 621
Design Questions 625
16. Composites 626
Learning Objectives 627
16.1 Introduction 627
PARTICLE-REINFORCED COMPOSITES 629
16.2 Large-Particle Composites 630
16.3 Dispersion-Strengthened Composites 634
FIBER-REINFORCED COMPOSITES 634
16.4 Influence of Fiber Length 634
16.5 Influence of Fiber Orientation and
Concentration 636
16.6 The Fiber Phase 645
16.7 The Matrix Phase 646
16.8 Polymer-Matrix Composites 647
16.9 Metal-Matrix Composites 653
16.10 Ceramic-Matrix Composites 655
16.11 Carbon–Carbon Composites 656
16.12 Hybrid Composites 657
16.13 Processing of Fiber-Reinforced
Composites 657
STRUCTURAL COMPOSITES 660
16.14 Laminar Composites 660
16.15 Sandwich Panels 661
Materials of Importance—Nanocomposites
in Tennis Balls 662
xviii • Contents
Summary 663
Equation Summary 666
Important Terms and Concepts 667
References 667
Questions and Problems 668
Design Problems 671
17. Corrosion and Degradation of
Materials 673
Learning Objectives 674
17.1 Introduction 674
CORROSION OF METALS 675
17.2 Electrochemical Considerations 675
17.3 Corrosion Rates 682
17.4 Prediction of Corrosion Rates 683
17.5 Passivity 690
17.6 Environmental Effects 692
17.7 Forms of Corrosion 692
17.8 Corrosion Environments 700
17.9 Corrosion Prevention 701
17.10 Oxidation 703
CORROSION OF CERAMIC MATERIALS 706
DEGRADATION OF POLYMERS 707
17.11 Swelling and Dissolution 707
17.12 Bond Rupture 709
17.13 Weathering 710
Summary 711
Equation Summary 713
Important Terms and Concepts 714
References 715
Questions and Problems 715
Design Problems 718
18. Electrical Properties 719
Learning Objectives 720
18.1 Introduction 720
ELECTRICAL CONDUCTION 721
18.2 Ohm’s Law 721
18.3 Electrical Conductivity 721
18.4 Electronic and Ionic Conduction 722
18.5 Energy Band Structures in Solids 722
18.6 Conduction in Terms of Band and Atomic
Bonding Models 725
18.7 Electron Mobility 727
18.8 Electrical Resistivity of Metals 728
18.9 Electrical Characteristics of Commercial
Alloys 731
Materials of Importance—Aluminum
Electrical Wires 731SEMICONDUCTIVITY 733
18.10 Intrinsic Semiconduction 733
18.11 Extrinsic Semiconduction 736
18.12 The Temperature Dependence of Carrier
Concentration 740
18.13 Factors That Affect Carrier
Mobility 742
18.14 The Hall Effect 746
18.15 Semiconductor Devices 748
ELECTRICAL CONDUCTION IN IONIC CERAMICS
AND IN POLYMERS 754
18.16 Conduction in Ionic Materials 755
18.17 Electrical Properties of Polymers 756
DIELECTRIC BEHAVIOR 757
18.18 Capacitance 757
18.19 Field Vectors and Polarization 759
18.20 Types of Polarization 762
18.21 Frequency Dependence of the Dielectric
Constant 764
18.22 Dielectric Strength 765
18.23 Dielectric Materials 765
OTHER ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF
MATERIALS 765
18.24 Ferroelectricity 766
18.25 Piezoelectricity 767
Summary 767
Equation Summary 770
Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance
Summary 772
Important Terms and Concepts 773
References 774
Questions and Problems 774
Design Problems 779
19. Thermal Properties 781
Learning Objectives 782
19.1 Introduction 782
19.2 Heat Capacity 782
19.3 Thermal Expansion 785
Materials of Importance—Invar
and Other Low-Expansion
Alloys 788
19.4 Thermal Conductivity 789
19.5 Thermal Stresses 792
Summary 794
Equation Summary 795
Important Terms and Concepts 796
References 796
Questions and Problems 796
Design Problems 798
Contents • xix
20. Magnetic Properties 800
Learning Objectives 801
20.1 Introduction 801
20.2 Basic Concepts 801
20.3 Diamagnetism and Paramagnetism 805
20.4 Ferromagnetism 807
20.5 Antiferromagnetism
and Ferrimagnetism 809
20.6 The Influence of Temperature on
Magnetic Behavior 813
20.7 Domains and Hysteresis 814
20.8 Magnetic Anisotropy 818
20.9 Soft Magnetic Materials 819
Materials of Importance—An Iron–Silicon
Alloy That Is Used in Transformer
Cores 821
20.10 Hard Magnetic Materials 822
20.11 Magnetic Storage 825
20.12 Superconductivity 828
Summary 832
Equation Summary 834
Important Terms and Concepts 835
References 835
Questions and Problems 835
Design Problems 839
21. Optical Properties 840
Learning Objectives 841
21.1 Introduction 841
BASIC CONCEPTS 841
21.2 Electromagnetic Radiation 841
21.3 Light Interactions with Solids 843
21.4 Atomic and Electronic Interactions 844
OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF METALS 845
OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF NONMETALS 846
21.5 Refraction 846
21.6 Reflection 848
21.7 Absorption 849
21.8 Transmission 852
21.9 Color 853
21.10 Opacity and Translucency in
Insulators 854
APPLICATIONS OF OPTICAL PHENOMENA 855
21.11 Luminescence 855
Materials of Importance—Light-Emitting
Diodes 856
21.12 Photoconductivity 858
21.13 Lasers 85821.14 Optical Fibers in Communications 863
Summary 865
Equation Summary 868
Important Terms and Concepts 869
References 869
Questions and Problems 869
Design Problem 871
22. Economic, Environmental, and
Societal Issues in Materials
Science and Engineering 872
Learning Objectives 873
22.1 Introduction 873
ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS 873
22.2 Component Design 874
22.3 Materials 874
22.4 Manufacturing Techniques 875
ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIETAL
CONSIDERATIONS 875
22.5 Recycling Issues in Materials Science
and Engineering 878
Materials of Importance—Biodegradable
and Biorenewable Polymers/
Plastics 881
Summary 884
References 884
Design Questions 885
Appendix A The International System of
Units (SI) A1
xx • Contents
Appendix B Properties of Selected Engineering
Materials A3
B.1 Density A3
B.2 Modulus of Elasticity A6
B.3 Poisson’s Ratio A10
B.4 Strength and Ductility A11
B.5 Plane Strain Fracture Toughness A16
B.6 Linear Coefficient of Thermal
Expansion A17
B.7 Thermal Conductivity A21
B.8 Specific Heat A24
B.9 Electrical Resistivity A26
B.10 Metal Alloy Compositions A29
Appendix C Costs and Relative Costs for
Selected Engineering Materials A31
Appendix D Repeat Unit Structures for
Common Polymers A36
Appendix E Glass Transition and Melting
Temperatures for Common Polymeric
Materials A40
Mechanical Engineering Online
Support Module
Biomaterials Online Support
Module
Glossary G1
Answers to Selected Problems S0
Index I1The number of the section in which a symbol is introduced or explained is given
in parentheses.
List of Symbols
A  area
Å  angstrom unit
Ai  atomic weight of
element i (2.2)
APF  atomic packing factor (3.4)
a  lattice parameter: unit cell
x-axial length (3.4)
a  crack length of a surface crack
(8.5)
at%  atom percent (4.4)
B  magnetic flux density (induction) (20.2)
B
r  magnetic remanence (20.7)
BCC  body-centered cubic crystal
structure (3.4)
b  lattice parameter: unit cell
y-axial length (3.7)
b  Burgers vector (4.5)
C  capacitance (18.18)
Ci  concentration (composition)
of component i in wt% (4.4)
 concentration (composition)
of component i in at% (4.4)
, Cp  heat capacity at constant
volume, pressure (19.2)
CPR  corrosion penetration rate
(17.3)
CVN  Charpy V-notch (8.6)
%CW  percent cold work (7.10)
c  lattice parameter: unit cell
z-axial length (3.7)
c  velocity of electromagnetic
radiation in a vacuum (21.2)
D  diffusion coefficient (5.3)
C
y
Ci¿
D  dielectric displacement (18.19)
DP  degree of polymerization
(14.5)
d  diameter
d  average grain diameter (7.8)
dhkl  interplanar spacing for planes of
Miller indices h, k, and l (3.16)
E  energy (2.5)
E  modulus of elasticity or
Young’s modulus (6.3)
e  electric field intensity (18.3)
Ef
 Fermi energy (18.5)
Eg
 band gap energy (18.6)
E
r(t)  relaxation modulus (15.4)
%EL  ductility, in percent elongation
(6.6)
e  electric charge per electron
(18.7)
 electron (17.2)
erf  Gaussian error function (5.4)
exp  e, the base for natural
logarithms
F  force, interatomic or
mechanical (2.5, 6.3)
f  Faraday constant (17.2)
FCC  face-centered cubic crystal
structure (3.4)
G  shear modulus (6.3)
H  magnetic field strength (20.2)
Hc
 magnetic coercivity (20.7)
HB  Brinell hardness (6.10)
HCP  hexagonal close-packed crystal
structure (3.4)
eHK  Knoop hardness (6.10)
HRB, HRF  Rockwell hardness: B and F
scales (6.10)
HR15N, HR45Wsuperficial Rockwell hardness:
15N and 45W scales (6.10)
HV  Vickers hardness (6.10)
h  Planck’s constant (21.2)
(hkl)  Miller indices for a crystallographic plane (3.10)
I  electric current (18.2)
I  intensity of electromagnetic
radiation (21.3)
i  current density (17.3)
iC  corrosion current density
(17.4)
J  diffusion flux (5.3)
J  electric current density (18.3)
Kc
 fracture toughness (8.5)
KIc  plane strain fracture toughness
for mode I crack surface displacement (8.5)
k  Boltzmann’s constant (4.2)
k  thermal conductivity (19.4)
l  length
l
c  critical fiber length (16.4)
ln  natural logarithm
log  logarithm taken to base 10
M  magnetization (20.2)
 polymer number-average
molecular weight (14.5)
 polymer weight-average
molecular weight (14.5)
mol%  mole percent
N  number of fatigue cycles (8.8)
NA  Avogadro’s number (3.5)
Nf
 fatigue life (8.8)
n  principal quantum number (2.3)
n  number of atoms per unit cell
(3.5)
n  strain-hardening exponent (6.7)
n  number of electrons in an
electrochemical reaction (17.2)
n  number of conducting electrons per cubic meter (18.7)
n  index of refraction (21.5)
M
w
Mn
xxii • List of Symbols
n  for ceramics, the number of
formula units per unit cell
(12.2)
ni  intrinsic carrier (electron and
hole) concentration (18.10)
P  dielectric polarization (18.19)
P–B ratio  Pilling–Bedworth ratio (17.10)
p  number of holes per cubic
meter (18.10)
Q  activation energy
Q  magnitude of charge stored
(18.18)
R  atomic radius (3.4)
R  gas constant
%RA  ductility, in percent reduction
in area (6.6)
r  interatomic distance (2.5)
r  reaction rate (17.3)
rA, rC  anion and cation ionic radii
(12.2)
S fatigue stress amplitude (8.8)
SEM  scanning electron microscopy
or microscope
T  temperature
Tc
 Curie temperature (20.6)
TC  superconducting critical
temperature (20.12)
Tg
 glass transition temperature
(13.9, 15.12)
Tm
 melting temperature
TEM  transmission electron
microscopy or microscope
TS tensile strength (6.6)
t  time
t
r  rupture lifetime (8.12)
Ur
 modulus of resilience (6.6)
[u w]  indices for a crystallographic
direction (3.9)
V  electrical potential difference
(voltage) (17.2, 18.2)
VC  unit cell volume (3.4)
VC  corrosion potential (17.4)
VH  Hall voltage (18.14)
Vi  volume fraction of phase i (9.8)
 velocity
vol%  volume percent
y
yWi  mass fraction of phase i (9.8)
wt%  weight percent (4.4)
x  length
x  space coordinate
Y  dimensionless parameter or
function in fracture toughness
expression (8.5)
y  space coordinate
z  space coordinate
 lattice parameter: unit cell y–z
interaxial angle (3.7)
, ,   phase designations
l  linear coefficient of thermal
expansion (19.3)
  lattice parameter: unit cell x–z
interaxial angle (3.7)
  lattice parameter: unit cell x–y
interaxial angle (3.7)
  shear strain (6.2)
  precedes the symbol of a
parameter to denote finite
change
 engineering strain (6.2)
 dielectric permittivity (18.18)
 dielectric constant or relative
permittivity (18.18)
 steady-state creep rate (8.12)
 true strain (6.7)
  viscosity (12.10)
  overvoltage (17.4)
  Bragg diffraction angle (3.16)
D  Debye temperature (19.2)
  wavelength of electromagnetic
radiation (3.16)
  magnetic permeability (20.2)
B  Bohr magneton (20.2)
r  relative magnetic permeability
(20.2)
e  electron mobility (18.7)
h  hole mobility (18.10)
 Poisson’s ratio (6.5)
 frequency of electromagnetic
radiation (21.2)
 density (3.5)
r #s T n n
List of Symbols • xxiii
 electrical resistivity (18.2)
t  radius of curvature at the tip
of a crack (8.5)
 engineering stress, tensile or
compressive (6.2)
 electrical conductivity (18.3)
*  longitudinal strength (composite) (16.5)
c
 critical stress for crack propagation (8.5)
fs  flexural strength (12.9)
m
 maximum stress (8.5)
m
 mean stress (8.7)

m  stress in matrix at composite
failure (16.5)
T  true stress (6.7)

w  safe or working stress (6.12)
y
 yield strength (6.6)
 shear stress (6.2)
c  fiber–matrix bond
strength/matrix shear yield
strength (16.4)
crss  critical resolved shear stress
(7.5)
 magnetic susceptibility (20.2)
SUBSCRIPTS
c  composite
cd  discontinuous fibrous
composite
cl  longitudinal direction (aligned
fibrous composite)
ct  transverse direction (aligned
fibrous composite)
f  final
f  at fracture
f  fiber
i  instantaneous
m  matrix
m, max  maximum
min  minimum
0  original
0  at equilibrium
0  in a vacuum
xm
Index
A
Abrasive ceramics, 503, 507, 527
Abrasives, G0
Absorption coefficient, 851, 868
Absorption of light:
in metals, 845–846
in nonmetals, 846–847
Absorptivity, 844
ABS polymer, 596
A
mBnXp crystal structures, 459
Acceptors, 739, G0
Acetic acid, 536
Acetylene, 534
Acid rain, as corrosion environment,
701
Acids (organic), 536
Acid slags, 507
Acrylics, see Poly(methyl
methacrylate)
Acrylonitrile, see Polyacrylonitrile
(PAN)
Acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber, 600
Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene
(ABS), 596
Activation energy, G0
for creep, 268, 274
for diffusion, 133, 143, 348
free, 347, 351, 383, 384
for viscous flow, 531
Activation polarization, 684–685,
712, G0
Actuator, 11–12, 509
Addition polymerization, 607–608,
681, G0
Additives, polymer, 610–611, 618
Adhesives, 602, 618, G0
Adhesive tape, 18
Adipic acid (structure), 610
Adsorption, 105
Advanced ceramics, 503,
509–512, 527
Advanced materials, 11–12
Advanced polymers, 603–607, 618
Age hardening, see Precipitation
hardening
Air, as quenching medium, 430
AISI/SAE steel designation scheme,
395–396
Akermanite, 466
Alcohols, 536
Aldehydes, 536
Alkali metals, 26, 38
Alkaline earth metals, 26
Allotropic transformation (tin), 53
Allotropy, 52, G0
Alloys, 5, 393, G0. See also Solid
solutions; specific alloys
atomic weight equations, 97
cast, 406
composition specification, 95–96
compositions for various, A29–A30
costs, A31–A33
defined, 94
density equations, 97
density values, A3–A5
ductility values, A11–A13
electrical resistivity values,
A26–A28
fracture toughness values, A16
heat treatable, 408
high-temperature, 269–270
linear coefficient of thermal
expansion values, 785,
A17–A18
low expansion, 788
modulus of elasticity values, 157,
A6–A8
Poisson’s ratio values, 157, A10
specific heat values, 785, A24–A25
strengthening, see Strengthening of
metals
tensile strength values, 168,
A11–A13
thermal conductivity values, 785,
A21–A22
wrought, 406
yield strength values, 168,
A11–A13
Alloy steels, 364, 383, G0. See also
Steels
Alnico, 823, 824
Iron, see Ferrite ()
Alternating copolymers, 551, 552, G0
Alumina, 7. See also Aluminum
oxide
Aluminosilicates, 518
Aluminum:
atomic radius and crystal
structure, 47
bonding energy and melting
temperature, 31
elastic and shear moduli, 157
electrical conductivity, 728
electrical wires, 731–732
for integrated circuit interconnects,
140–141
Poisson’s ratio, 157
recrystallization temperature, 222
slip systems, 203
superconducting critical
temperature, 831
thermal properties, 785
yield and tensile strengths,
ductility, 168
Aluminum alloys, 408–410
fatigue behavior, 277
plane strain fracture toughness,
246
precipitation hardening, 439–440
properties and applications, 409
Aluminum-copper alloys, phase
diagram, 439
Aluminum-lithium alloys, 409, 410
Aluminum oxide:
electrical conductivity, 755
flexural strength, 486
hardness, 491
index of refraction, 848
modulus of elasticity, 486
I0 •
Page numbers preceded by a “A” or a “G” refer to the appendices and the glossary,
respectively.plane strain fracture toughness, 246
Poisson’s ratio, A10
sintered microstructure, 525
stress-strain behavior, 487
thermal properties, 785
translucency, 4, 855
as whiskers and fibers, 646
Aluminum oxide-chromium oxide
phase diagram, 477
Ammonia, bonding energy and
melting temperature, 31
Amorphous materials, 46, 79, G0
Anelasticity, 159, G0
Angle computation between two
crystallographic directions, 207
Anions, 453, G0
Anisotropy, 73–74, 81, G0
of elastic modulus, 74, 161, 189
magnetic, 74, 818–819
Annealing, 368, 422–424, 443, G0
ferrous alloys, 423–424, 443
glass, 516
Annealing point, glass, 514, 527, G0
Annealing twins, 106
Anodes, 675, 711, G0
area effect, galvanic corrosion, 694
sacrificial, 702, G11
Antiferromagnetism, 809, 832, G0
temperature dependence, 813
Aramid:
cost, as a fiber, A35
fiber-reinforced polymer-matrix
composites, 649
melting and glass transition
temperatures, A40
properties as fiber, 646
repeat unit structure, 649, A38
Argon, bonding energy and melting
temperature, 31
Aromatic hydrocarbons (chain
groups), 536, 595
Arrhenius equation, 353
Artificial aging, 442, G0
Asphaltic concrete, 632
ASTM standards, 152
Atactic configuration, 548, G0
Athermal transformation, 364, G0
Atomic bonding, see Bonding
Atomic mass, 20
Atomic mass unit (amu), 20, G0
Atomic models:
Bohr, 21, 22, G1
wave-mechanical, 22, G14
Atomic number, 20, G0
Atomic packing factor, 48, G0
Atomic point defects, 92, 472–474
Atomic radii, of selected metals, 47
Atomic structure, 19–27
Atomic vibrations, 106–107,
783–784, G0
Atomic weight, 20, G0
metal alloys, equations for, 97
Atom percent, 96, G1
Austenite, 319, 332, G1
shape-memory phase
transformations, 379–380
transformations, 356–370, 382
summary, 378
Austenitic stainless steels, 397–398
Austenitizing, 424, G1
Automobiles, rusted and stainless
steel, 673
Automobile transmission, 122
Auxetic materials, 160
Average value, 180–181
Avogadro’s number, 20
Avrami equation, 355, 382, 591
AX crystal structures, 457–458
A
mXp crystal structures, 458–459
B
Bainite, 360–361, 368, 373, 378,
382, G1
mechanical properties, 373
Bakelite, see Phenol-formaldehyde
(Bakelite)
Ball bearings, ceramic, 511
Band gap, 724–725
Band gap energy, G1
determination, 776
selected semiconductors, 734
Bands, see Energy bands
Barcol hardness, 581
Barium ferrite (as magnetic storage
medium), 828
Barium titanate:
crystal structure, 459, 460, 766
as dielectric, 765
as ferroelectric, 766
as piezoelectric, 512, 767
Base (transistor), 750–751
Basic refractories, 507
Basic slags, 507
Beachmarks (fatigue), 259–260
Bend strength, 485. See also flexural
strength
Beryllia, 507
Beryllium-copper alloys, 408
Beverage containers, 1, 197, 391,
872, 885
corrosion of, 872
diffusion rate of CO2 through,
plastic, 560–561
stages of production, 391
Bifunctional repeat units, 540,
562, G1
Billiard balls, 569, 598–599
Bimetallic strips, 781, 788
Binary eutectic alloys, 298–311, 332
tensile strength, 338
Binary isomorphous alloys,
287–298, 331
mechanical properties, 297–298
microstructure development,
equilibrium cooling, 294–295
microstructure development,
nonequilibrium cooling,
295–297
Biodegradable beverage can, 872
Biodegradable polymers/plastics,
872, 881–883
Biomass, 882
Biomaterials, 11
Biorenewable polymers/plastics,
881–883
Block copolymers, 551–552, G1
Blowing, of glass, 515
Blow molding, plastics, 613–614
Body-centered cubic structure,
48–49, G1
Burgers vector for, 204
slip systems, 203
twinning in, 211
Bohr atomic model, 21, 22, G1
Bohr magneton, 805, G1
Boltzmann’s constant, 92, G1
Bonding:
carbon-carbon, 537–538
cementitious, 508
covalent, 32–33, 453, G2
hybrid sp, 25, 26
hydrogen, 35, 36, 37, G6
ionic, 30–31, 453, G6
metallic, 33–34, G7
van der Waals, see van der Waals
bonding
Bonding energy, 29, G1
and melting temperature for
selected materials, 31
Bonding forces, 28–29
Bond rupture, in polymers,
709–710
Bone: as composite, 628
Boron carbide:
hardness, 491
Boron:
boron-doped silicon
semiconductors, 738
fiber-reinforced composites, 654
properties as a fiber, 646
Borosilicate glass:
composition, 503
electrical conductivity, 755
viscosity, 514
Index • I1Borsic fiber-reinforced composites,
654
Bottom-up science, 12
Bragg’s law, 75–76, G1
Branched polymers, 546, G1
Brass, 406, 407, G1
annealing behavior, 221
elastic and shear moduli, 157
electrical conductivity, 728, 775
fatigue behavior, 277
phase diagram, 311, 312
Poisson’s ratio, 157
recrystallization temperature, 222
stress-strain behavior, 165
thermal properties, 785
yield and tensile strengths,
ductility, 168
Brazing, 421, G1
Breakdown, dielectric, 749, 750, 765
Bridge, suspension, 150
Brinell hardness tests, 175, 177, 179
Brittle fracture, 166–167, 234,
239–241, 271, G1
ceramics, 480–485
Brittle materials, thermal shock,
793–794, 795
Bronze, 407, G1
Bronze age, 2, 480
Buckminsterfullerene, 470
Burgers vector, 99, 100, 101, 204
for FCC, BCC, and HCP, 204
magnitude computation, 230
Butadiene:
degradation resistance, 708
melting and glass transition
temperatures, A40
repeat unit structure, 553, A37
Butane, 534–535
C
Cadmium sulfide:
color, 853
electrical characteristics, 733, 734
Calcination, 508, G1
Calendering, 615, 658, 659
Capacitance, 757–759, G1
Capacitors, 757–762
Carbon:
vs. graphite, 646, 648
polymorphism, 52, 468–471
Carbon black, as reinforcement in
rubbers, 599, 631, 632
Carbon-carbon composites,
656–657, G1
Carbon diffusion, in steels, 324, 376
Carbon dioxide emissions, 874
Carbon dioxide (pressure-temperature
phase diagram), 342
Carbon fiber-reinforced polymermatrix composites, 648–649, 650
Carbon fibers, 648
properties as fiber, 646
Carbon nanotubes, 13, 471
Carburizing, 130, G1
Case-hardened gear, 122
Case hardening, 122, 263–264, G1
Cast alloys, 406
Casting techniques:
metals, 419–420
plastics, 614
slip, 510, 520, 521
tape, 525–526
Cast irons, 322, 332, 393,
399–406, G1
annealing, 425
compositions, mechanical properties,
and applications, 403
graphite formation in, 399
heat treatment effect on
microstructure, 404
phase diagram, 400, 404
stress-strain behavior (gray), 190
Catalysts, 105
Catalytic converters (automobiles),
90, 105
Cathodes, 676, G1
Cathodic protection, 694, 702,
713, G1
Cations, 453, G1
Cemented carbide, 630–631
Cementite, 320, G1
decomposition, 399, 404
proeutectoid, 327–328
in white iron, 401, 402
Cementitious bond, 508–509
Cements, 503, 508–509, G1
Ceramic ball bearings, 511
Ceramic-matrix composites,
655–656, G1
Ceramics, 6–7, 452, G1. See also
Glass
advanced, 503, 509–512, 527
application-classification
scheme, 503
brittle fracture, 480–485
coefficient of thermal expansion
values, 785, A19
color, 853–854
corrosion, 706–707
costs, A33–A34
crystal structures, 453–462
summary, 460
defects, 472–476
defined, 6–7
density computation, 462–463
density values, A5
elastic modulus values, 486, A8
electrical conductivity values for
selected, 755
electrical resistivity values, A28
fabrication techniques
classification, 513
flexural strength values, 486, A14
fractography of, 482–485
fracture toughness values, 246,
A16–A17
impurities in, 475
indices of refraction, 848
as electrical insulators,
754–756, 765
magnetic, 809–813
mechanical properties of, 480–489
in MEMS, 510
phase diagrams, 316, 476–480
piezoelectric, 12, 512, 767
plastic deformation, 487–489
Poisson’s ratio values, A10
porosity, 489–490, 523–525
porosity, influence on properties,
489–490
silicates, 464–468
specific heat values, 785, A25
as superconductors, 830–831
thermal conductivity values,
785, A22
thermal properties, 785, 787,
790–791, 793–794
traditional, 7
traditional vs. new, 452–453
translucency and opacity, 855
Cercor (glass ceramic), 505
Cermets, 630, G1
Cesium chloride structure, 458, 460
Chain-folded model, 556–557, G1
Chain-reaction polymerization, see
Addition polymerization
Chain stiffening/stiffness, 545,
594–595
Charge carriers:
majority vs. minority, 737
temperature dependence, 740–741
Charpy impact test, 251, 252, G2
Chevron markings, 239
Chips, semiconductor, 719, 753
Chlorine, bonding energy and
melting temperature, 31
Chloroprene, repeat unit structure,
553, A37
Chloroprene rubber:
characteristics and applications,
600
melting and glass transition
temperatures, A40
cis, 549, G2
I2 • IndexClay, characteristics, 518–519
Clay products, 503, 505
drying and firing, 505, 521–523
fabrication, 518–523
particles, 501
Cleavage (brittle fracture), 240
Clinker, 508
Close-packed ceramic structures,
460–461
Close-packed metal crystal
structures, 69–71
Coarse pearlite, 358, 359, 368, G2
Coatings (polymer), 601–602
Cobalt:
atomic radius and crystal
structure, 47
Curie temperature, 813
as ferromagnetic material, 807
magnetization curves (single
crystal), 819
Coercivity (coercive force), 516, G2
Cold work, percent, 215
Cold working, see Strain hardening
Collector, 750–751
Color, G2
metals, 846
nonmetals, 853–854
Colorants, 611, G2
Compacted graphite iron, 401,
405–406, G2
Compliance, creep, 578
Component, 283, 317, G2
Composites:
aramid fiber-reinforced polymer,
649
carbon-carbon, 656–657
carbon fiber-reinforced polymer,
648–649
ceramic-matrix, 655–656
classification scheme, 628, 629
costs, A35
definition, 10–11, 628
dispersion-strengthened, 629, 634
elastic behavior:
longitudinal, 638–639
transverse, 640–641
fiber-reinforced, see Fiberreinforced composites
glass fiber-reinforced polymer,
647–648
hybrid, 657, G6
laminar, 629, 644, 660–661
large-particle, 629, 630–634
metal-matrix, 653–655
particle-reinforced, 629–634
production processes, 657–660
properties, glass-, carbon-, aramidfiber reinforced, 650
rule of mixtures expressions, 341,
630, 638, 641, 642, 643, 652
strength:
longitudinal, 642
transverse, 642
stress-strain behavior, 636–637
structural, 629, 660–662
Composition, G2
conversion equations, 96–97,
119, 120
specification of, 95–96
Compression molding, plastics, 612
Compression tests, 154–155
Compressive deformation, 153, 173
Computers, semiconductors in,
752–753
magnetic drives in, 800, 825
Concentration, 95, G2. See also
Composition
Concentration cells, 694
Concentration gradient, 126, G2
Concentration polarization,
686–687, G2
Concentration profile, 126, G2
Concrete, 632–634, G2
electrical conductivity, 755
plane strain fracture toughness, 246
Condensation polymerization,
609–610, G2
Conducting polymers, 756–757
Conduction:
electronic, 722–725
ionic, 722, 755–756
Conduction band, 725, G2
Conductivity, see Electrical
conductivity; Thermal
conductivity
Configuration, molecular, 547–550
Conformation, molecular, 544
Congruent phase transformations,
315, G2
Constitutional diagrams, see Phase
diagrams
Continuous casting, 420
Continuous cooling transformation
diagrams, 367–370, G2
4340 steel, 365
1.13 wt% C steel, 388
0.76 wt% C steel, 368
for glass-ceramic, 504
Continuous fibers, 636
Conventional hard magnetic
materials, 823–824
Conversion factors, magnetic
units, 804
Cooling rate, of cylindrical
rounds, 431
Coordinates, point, 55–57
Coordination numbers, 48, 50,
454–456, G2
Copolymers, 540, 551–552, G2
styrenic block, 606
Copper:
atomic radius and crystal
structure, 47
diffraction pattern, 89
elastic and shear moduli, 157
electrical conductivity, 728
OFHC, 731
Poisson’s ratio, 157
recrystallization, 221, 355
slip systems, 203
thermal properties, 785
yield and tensile strengths,
ductility, 168
Copper alloys, 406–408
properties and applications of, 407
Copper-aluminum phase diagram,
439
Copper-beryllium alloys, 407, 408
phase diagram, 450
Copper-nickel alloys:
ductility vs. composition, 214, 298
electrical conductivity, 729–730
phase diagram, 287–288
tensile strength vs. composition,
214, 298
yield strength vs. composition, 214
Copper-silver phase diagram,
298–299
Coring, 297
CorningWare (glass ceramic), 505
Corrosion, G2
of beverage cans, 872
ceramic materials, 706–707
electrochemistry of, 675–681
environmental effects, 692
environments, 700–701
forms of, 692–700
galvanic series, 681–682
overview of, 674
passivity, 690–692
rates, 682–683
prediction of, 683–690
Corrosion fatigue, 264–265, G2
Corrosion inhibitors, 701
Corrosion penetration rate, 683, G2
Corrosion prevention, 701–703
Corundum, 507. See also Aluminum
oxide
crystal structure, 496
Cost of various materials, A31–A36
Coulombic force, 30, G2
Covalency, degree of, 33
Covalent bonding, 32–33, 453,
534, G2
Index • I3Crack configurations, in
ceramics, 483
Crack critical velocity, 482–483
Crack formation, 236
in ceramics, 482–483
fatigue and, 259–261
glass, 517
Crack propagation, 236. See also
Fracture mechanics
in brittle fracture, 239–242
in ceramics, 480–485
in ductile fracture, 236–237
fatigue and, 259–260
Cracks:
stable vs. unstable, 236
Crack surface displacement
modes, 245
Crazing, 579
Creep, 265–270, G2
ceramics, 491
influence of temperature and stress
on, 266–268
mechanisms, 268
in polymers, 578
stages of, 265–266
steady-state rate, 266
viscoelastic, 578
Creep compliance, 578
Creep modulus, 578
Creep rupture tests, 266
data extrapolation, 268–269
Crevice corrosion, 694–695, G2
Cristobalite, 464, 479, 480
Critical cooling rate,
ferrous alloys, 369–370
glass-ceramics, 503–504
Critical fiber length, 635
Critical resolved shear stress,
205, G2
as related to dislocation
density, 232
Critical stress (fracture), 243
Critical temperature,
superconductivity, 829, 831
Critical velocity (crack), 482–483
Crosslinking, 546, G2
elastomers, 588–590
influence on viscoelastic
behavior, 577
thermosetting polymers, 551
Crystalline materials, 46, 72, G2
defects, 91–107
single crystals, 72, G11
Crystallinity, polymers, 552–556, G2
influence on mechanical
properties, 585
Crystallites, 556, G2
Crystallization, polymers, 590–591
Crystallographic directions, 57–63
easy and hard magnetization, 819
families, 59
hexagonal crystals, 60–63
Crystallographic planes, 63–68
atomic arrangements, 66–67
close-packed, ceramics, 460–462
close-packed, metals, 69–71
diffraction by, 74–76
families, 67
Crystallographic point coordinates,
55–56
Crystal structures, 46–55, G2. See
also Body-centered cubic
structure; Close-packed crystal
structures; Face-centered cubic
structure; Hexagonal closepacked structure
ceramics, 453–462
close-packed, ceramics, 460–461
close-packed, metals, 69–71
determination by x-ray diffraction,
74–78
selected metals, 47
types, ceramics, 453–462
types, metals, 47–51, 69–71
Crystallization (ceramics), 504,
518, G2
Crystal systems, 52–55, G2
Cubic crystal system, 52, 54
Cubic ferrites, 809–813
Cunife, 823, 824
Cup-and-cone fracture, 237
Curie temperature, 813, G3
ferroelectric, 766
ferromagnetic, 784
Curing, plastics, 612
Current density, 722
Cyclic stresses, 255–256
D
Damping capacity, steel vs.
cast iron, 404
Data scatter, 181–182
Debye temperature, 784
Decarburization, 146
Defects, see also Dislocations
atomic vibrations and, 106–107
dependence of properties on, 91
in ceramics, 472–476
interfacial, 102–106
point, 92–99, 472–474, G9
in polymers, 558–559
surface, 105
volume, 106
Defect structure, 472, G3
Deformation:
elastic, see Elastic deformation
elastomers, 588–589
plastic, see Plastic deformation
Deformation mechanism maps
(creep), 268
Deformation mechanisms
(semicrystalline polymers),
elastic deformation, 582, 583
plastic deformation, 528, 584
Degradation of polymers,
707–711, G3
Degree of polymerization, 542, G3
Degrees of freedom, 316–318
Delayed fracture, 481
Density:
computation for ceramics, 462–463
computation for metal alloys, 97
computation for metals, 51–52
computation for polymers, 555–556
of dislocations, 200
linear atomic, 68
planar atomic, 69
polymers (values for), 572
ranges for material types (bar
chart), 6
relation to percent crystallinity for
polymers, 554
values for various materials,
A3–A6
Design, component, 874
Design examples:
cold work and recrystallization,
223
conductivity of a p-type
semiconductor, 745–746
cubic mixed-ferrite magnet,
812–813
creep rupture lifetime for an S-590
steel, 269
nonsteady-state diffusion, 136–137
spherical pressure vessel, failure of,
247–250
steel shaft, alloy/heat treatment of,
434–435
tensile-testing apparatus, 183–184
tubular composite shaft, 651–653
Design factor, 182
Design stress, 182, G3
Dezincification, of brass, 697–698
Diamagnetism, 805, G3
Diamond, 468–469
as abrasive, 507
bonding energy and melting
temperature, 31
cost, A34
films, 468–469
hardness, 491
thermal conductivity value, A22
Diamond cubic structure, 468
I4 • IndexDie casting, 419
Dielectric breakdown, 750, 765
Dielectric constant, 759, G3
frequency dependence, 764–765
relationship to refractive
index, 847
selected ceramics and polymers,
758
Dielectric displacement, 759, G3
Dielectric loss, 764–765
Dielectric materials, 757, 765, G3
Dielectric strength, 765, G3
selected ceramics and polymers,
758
Diffraction (x-ray), 44, 74–75, G3
Diffraction angle, 78
Diffractometers, 77
Diffusion, 123–125, G3
grain growth and, 224
in ionic materials, 476
in integrated circuit interconnects,
140–141
in Si of Cu, Au, Ag, and Al, 141
interstitial, 126, G6
mechanisms, 125–126
and microstructure development,
294–297, 307–308
nonsteady-state, 128–132, G8
in polymers, 559–561
in semiconductors, 137–140
short-circuit, 142
steady-state, 126–128, G12
vacancy, 125–126, 476, G14
Diffusion coefficient, 127, G3
relation to ionic mobility, 755
temperature dependence,
132–136
values for various metal
systems, 132
Diffusion couples, 123
Diffusion flux, 126, G3
for polymers, 559
Digitization of information/signals,
826, 863
Dimethyl ether, 536
Dimethylsiloxane, 553, 599, 600, A37.
See also Silicones; Silicone
rubber
melting and glass transition
temperatures, A40
Diode, 748, G3
Dipole moment, 759
Dipoles:
electric, 35, G3
induced, 35
magnetic, 801–802
permanent, 36
Directional solidification, 270
Directions, see Crystallographic
directions
Discontinuous fibers, 636
Dislocation density, 200, 229, 232, G3
Dislocation line, 99, 100, 101, G3
Dislocation motion, 199–200
caterpillar locomotion analogy,
201
in ceramics, 487–488
at grain boundaries, 212–213
influence on strength, 211–212
recovery and, 219
Dislocations, 99–102, G3
in ceramics, 102, 201
characteristics of, 201–202
interactions, 202
multiplication, 202
at phase boundaries, 372, 375
pile-ups, 212
plastic deformation and, 162,
199–208, 211
in polymers, 102, 558
strain fields, 201, 202
Dispersed phase, 628, G3
definition, 628
geometry, 629
Dispersion (optical), 846
Dispersion-strengthened composites,
634, G3
Disposal of materials, 875–876
Domain growth, 815–816
Domains, 807, 814–818, G3
Domain walls, 814
Donors, 736, G3
Doping, 739, 742, 743, G3
Double bonds, 534
Drain casting, 520
Drawing:
glass, 515, 516
influence on polymer properties,
585–586
metals, 417–419, G3
polymer fibers, 615, G3
Drift velocity, electron, 727
Drive-in diffusion, 138
Driving force, 127, G3
electrochemical reactions, 678
grain growth, 224
recrystallization, 219
sintering, 525
steady-state diffusion, 127
Dry corrosion, 703
Dry ice, 342
Drying, clay products, 521
Ductile fracture, 167, 236–237, G3
Ductile iron, 400, 402, G3
compositions, mechanical properties,
and applications, 403
Ductile-to-brittle transition,
251–255, G3
polymers, 578
and temper embrittlement, 377
Ductility, 166–168, G3
fine and coarse pearlite, 372
precipitation hardened aluminum
alloy (2014), 441
selected materials, A11–A15
selected metals, 168
spheroidite, 372
tempered martensite, 376
Durometer hardness, 178, 581
E
Economics, materials selection:
considerations in materials
engineering, 873–874
tubular composite shaft, 652–653
Eddy currents, 820
Edge dislocations, 99, 199–200, G3.
See also Dislocations
interactions, 202
in polymers, 559
E-glass, 646
Elastic deformation, 156–162, G3
Elastic modulus, see Modulus of
elasticity
Elastic (strain) recovery, 173, G4
Elastomers, 571, 588–590, 599–601,
614, G4
in composites, 631
deformation, 588–589
thermoplastic, 605–607
trade names, properties, and
applications, 600
Electrical conduction:
in insulators and semiconductors,
726–727
in metals, 725–726
Electrical conductivity, 721,
727–728, G4
ranges for material types (bar
chart), 8
selected ceramics and polymers, 755
selected metals, 728
selected semiconductors, 734
temperature variation (Ge), 777
values for electrical wires, 732
Electrical resistivity, 721, G10. See
also Electrical conductivity
metals:
influence of impurities, 729–730
influence of plastic deformation,
729, 730
influence of temperature, 729
values for various materials,
A26–A29
Index • I5Electrical wires, aluminum and
copper, 731–732
Electric dipole moment, 759
Electric dipoles, see Dipoles
Electric field, 722, 727, G4
Electrochemical cells, 677–678
Electrochemical reactions, 675–682
Electrodeposition, 677
Electrode potentials, 677–678
values of, 679
Electroluminescence, 856, G4
Electrolytes, 678, G4
Electromagnetic radiation, 841–843
interactions with atoms/electrons,
843–844
Electromagnetic spectrum, 841–842
Electron band structure, see
Energy bands
Electron cloud, 22, 33
Electron configurations, 24–26, G4
elements, 25
periodic table and, 26
stable, 25
Electronegativity, 26–27, 33, G4
influence on solid solubility, 95
values for the elements, 27
Electroneutrality, 472, G4
Electron gas, 725
Electronic conduction, 722, 755
Electronic polarization, 512,
762–763, 844, 849, G9
Electron microscopy, 109–111
Electron mobility, 727
influence of dopant content on,
742, 743
influence of temperature on,
742, 743
selected semiconductors, 734
Electron orbitals, 21
Electron probability distribution, 22
Electrons, 19–20
conduction process, 735, 748–749
role, diffusion in ionic
materials, 476
energy bands, see Energy bands
energy levels, 21–24
free, see Free electrons
scattering, 727, 783
in semiconductors, 734–739
temperature variation of
concentration, 740–741
spin, 23, 805
valence, 25
Electron states, G4
Electron transitions, 844–845
metals, 845–846
nonmetals, 849–852
Electron volt, 31, G4
Electropositivity, 26, G4
Electrorheological fluids, 12
Elongation, percent, 166
selected materials, A11–A15
selected metals, 168
selected polymers, 572
Embrittlement:
hydrogen, 699–700
temper, 377
Embryo, phase particle, 346
Emf series, 678–680
Emitter, 750–751
Endurance limit, 257. See also
Fatigue limit
Energy:
activation, see Activation energy
bonding, 29, 31, G1
current concerns about, 13–14, 876
free, 285, 345–349, G5
grain boundary, 103
photon, 843
surface, 102
vacancy formation, 92
Energy band gap, see Band gap
Energy bands, 722–725
structures for metals, insulators,
and semiconductors, 724
Energy levels (states), 21–24,
723–724
Energy and materials, 877
Energy product, magnetic, 822–823
Engineering stress/strain, 154, G12
Entropy, 285, 345, 588
Environmental considerations and
materials, 875–883
Epoxies:
degradation resistance, 708
polymer-matrix composites, 650
repeat unit structure, A36
trade names, characteristics,
applications, 598
Equilibrium:
definition of, 285
phase, 285, G4
Equilibrium diagrams, see Phase
diagrams
Erosion-corrosion, 698, G4
Error bars, 181
Error function, Gaussian, 129
Etching, 108, 109
Ethane, 535
Ethers, 536
Ethylene, 534
polymerization, 537
Ethylene glycol (structure), 609
Euro coins, alloys used for, 416
Eutectic isotherm, 299
Eutectic phase, 308, G4
Eutectic reactions, 299, 307, G4
iron-iron carbide system, 321
Eutectic structure, 307, G4
Eutectic systems:
binary, 298–311
microstructure development,
305–311
Eutectoid, shift of position, 330
Eutectoid ferrite, 325
Eutectoid reactions, 314, G4
iron-iron carbide system, 321
kinetics, 357–358
Eutectoid steel, microstructure
changes/development, 322–324
Exchange current density, 685
Excited states, 844, G4
Exhaustion, in extrinsic
semiconductors, 741
Expansion, thermal, see Thermal
expansion
Extrinsic semiconductors, 736–739, G4
electron concentration vs.
temperature, 741
exhaustion, 741
saturation, 741
Extrusion, G4
clay products, 519
metals, 418–419
polymers, 613–614
F
Fabrication:
ceramics, 513
clay products, 518–523
fiber-reinforced composites,
657–660
metals, 417–422
Face-centered cubic structure,
47–48, G4
anion stacking (ceramics), 460–461
Burgers vector for, 204
close packed planes (metals),
69–71
slip systems, 203
Factor of safety, 183, 248
Failure, mechanical, see Creep;
Fatigue; Fracture
Faraday constant, 680
Fatigue, 255–265, G4
corrosion, 264
crack initiation and propagation,
259–261
cyclic stresses, 255–256
environmental effects, 264–265
low- and high-cycle, 259
polymers, 580, 581
probability curves, 258–259
thermal, 264
I6 • IndexFatigue life, 258, G4
factors that affect, 262–264
Fatigue limit, 257, 258, G5
Fatigue strength, 257, 258, G4
Fatigue testing, 257
S-N curves, 257–259, 277, 580
Feldspar, 501, 519
Fermi energy, 724, 737, 738, 784, G4
Ferrimagnetism, 809–811, G4
temperature dependence, 813–814
Ferrite (), 319–320, G4
eutectoid/proeutectoid, 325, G10
from decomposition of cementite,
399
Ferrites (magnetic ceramics),
809–811, G4
Curie temperature, 813, 814
as magnetic storage, 828
Ferritic stainless steels, 398, 399
Ferroelectricity, 766, G4
Ferroelectric materials, 766
Ferromagnetic domain walls, 106
Ferromagnetism, 807–808, G4
temperature dependence,
813–814
Ferrous alloys, G4. See also Cast
irons; Iron; Steels
annealing, 423–424
classification, 321–322, 393
continuous cooling transformation
diagrams, 367–370
costs, A31–A32
hypereutectoid, 327–329, G6
hypoeutectoid, 324–326, G6
isothermal transformation
diagrams, 356–367
microstructures, 322–329
mechanical properties of, 370–374,
A11–A12
Fiber efficiency parameter, 644
Fiberglass, 503
Fiberglass-reinforced composites,
647–648
Fiber-reinforced composites,
634–660, G4
continuous and aligned, 636–642
discontinuous and aligned, 643
discontinuous and randomly
oriented, 643–644
fiber length effect, 634–636
fiber orientation/concentration
effect, 636–642
fiber phase, 645–646
longitudinal loading, 636–637, 642
matrix phase, 646–647
processing, 657–660
reinforcement efficiency, 644
transverse loading, 640–641, 642
Fibers, 601, G4
coefficient of thermal expansion
values, A20
in composites, 628
continuous vs. discontinuous, 636
fiber phase, 645–646
length effect, 634–636
orientation and concentration,
636–645
costs, A35
density values, A6
elastic modulus values, 646, A9
electrical resistivity values, A29
optical, 511, 863–865
polymer, 601
properties of selected, 646
specific heat values, A26
spinning of, 614–615
tensile strength values, 646, A15
thermal conductivity values, A23
Fick’s first law, 128, 789, G5
for polymers, 559
Fick’s second law, 128, 139,
798, G5
Fictive temperature, 514
Filament winding, 659–660
Fillers, 610, G5
Films:
diamond, 468–469
polymer, 603
shrink-wrap (polymer), 587
Fine pearlite, 359, 368, 372, G5
Fireclay refractories, 506
Firing, 505, 522–523, G5
Flame retardants, 611, G5
Flash memory, 719, 753
Flexural strength, 485–486, G5
influence of porosity on, ceramics,
489–490
values for selected ceramics,
486, A14
Float process (sheet glass), 516
Fluorescence, 855, G5
Fluorite structure, 459
Fluorocarbons, 538
trade names, characteristics,
applications, 597
Flux (clay products), 519
Foams, 603, G5
Forces:
bonding, 28–30
coulombic, 30, G2
Forging, 418, G5
Formaldehyde, 536, 599
Forming operations (metals),
417–419
Forsterite, 466
Forward bias, 748, 749, G5
Fractographic investigations:
ceramics, 482–485
metals, 238
Fractographs:
cup-and-cone fracture surfaces, 238
fatigue striations, 260
glass rod, 484
intergranular fracture, 241
transgranular fracture, 240
Fracture, see also Brittle fracture;
Ductile fracture; Impact
fracture testing
delayed, 481
fundamentals of, 236
polymers, 578–580
types, 166–167, 236–241
Fracture mechanics, 242–250, G6
applied to ceramics, 481
polymers, 580
use in design, 247–250
Fracture profiles, 237
Fracture strength, 165. See also
Flexural strength
ceramics, 485
distribution of, 481–482
influence of porosity, 489–490
influence of specimen size,
481–482, 645
Fracture surface, ceramics, 483–484
Fracture toughness, 169, 244–246, G5
ceramic-matrix composites,
655–656
ranges for material types (bar
chart), 7
testing, 250–254
values for selected materials, 246,
656, A16–A17
Free electrons, 725–726, G5
contributions to heat capacity, 784
role in heat conduction, 789
Free energy, 285, 345–349, G5
activation, 346, 351
volume, 345
Freeze-out region, 741
Frenkel defects, 472, 473, G5
equilibrium number, 474
Full annealing, 368, 424, G5
Fullerenes, 470
Functionality (polymers), 540, G4
Furnace heating elements, 731
Fused silica, 464
characteristics, 503, 514
dielectric properties, 758
electrical conductivity, 755
flexural strength, 486
index of refraction, 848
modulus of elasticity, 486
thermal properties, 785
Index • I7G
Gadolinium, 807
Gallium arsenide:
cost, A33
electrical characteristics, 734, 736
for lasers, 860
for light-emitting diodes, 856
Gallium phosphide:
electrical characteristics, 734
for light-emitting diodes, 871
Galvanic corrosion, 693–694, G5
Galvanic couples, 678
Galvanic series, 681–682, G5
Galvanized steel, 415, 702, 703
Garnets, 811
Garnet single crystal, 72
Gas constant, 92, G5
Gating system, 419
Gauge length, 153
Gaussian error function, 129
Gecko lizard, 18
Geometrical isomerism, 549, 550
Germanium:
crystal structure, 468
electrical characteristics, 734,
740, 777
Gibbs phase rule, 316–318, G5
Gilding metal, 406
Glass:
as amorphous material, 79
annealing, 424, 516, G0
blowing, 513, 515
classification, 503
color, 854
commercial; compositions
and characteristics, 503
corrosion resistance, 707
cost, A34
dielectric properties, 758
electrical conductivity, 755
flexural strength, 486
forming techniques, 515–516
fracture surface
(photomicrograph), 484
hardness, 491
heat treatment, 516–517
melting point, 514
modulus of elasticity, 486
optical flint, 503
plane strain fracture toughness, 246
refractive index, 848
sheet forming (float process), 516
soda-lime, composition, 503
softening point, 514
strain point, 514
stress-strain behavior, 487
structure, 465
surface crack propagation, 481
tempering, 517, 531
thermal properties, 785
viscous properties, 514
working point, 514, G14
Glass-ceramics, 503–505, G5
composition (PyroCeram), 503
continuous cooling transformation
diagram, 504
fabrication and heat treating, 518
flexural strength, 486
modulus of elasticity, 486
optical transparency, conditions
for, 854
properties and applications, 504
Glass fibers, 513
fiberglass-reinforced composites,
647–648, 650
forming, 516
properties as fiber, 646
Glass transition, polymers, 592
Glass transition temperature, 514,
592, G5
factors that affect, polymers,
594–595
values for selected polymers,
593, A40
Gold, 415
atomic radius and crystal
structure, 47
electrical conductivity, 728
slip systems, 203
thermal properties, 785
Graft copolymers, 551, 552, G5
Grain boundaries, 73, 103–104, G5
Grain boundary energy, 103
Grain growth, 224–225, G5
Grains, G5
definition, 72
distortion during plastic
deformation, 197, 209–210
Grain size, G5
dependence on time, 225
determination of, 113
mechanical properties and,
212–213, 225
reduction, and strengthening of
metals, 212–213
refinement of by annealing, 424
Grain size number (ASTM), 113
Graphite, 469–470
in cast irons, 399
compared to carbon, 646, 648
cost, A34
from decomposition of
cementite, 399
electrical conductivity, 755
properties/applications, 470
properties as whisker, 646
as a refractory, 507
structure of, 469
Gray cast iron, 400, 401, 402, G5
compositions, mechanical properties,
and applications, 403
Green ceramic bodies, 521, G5
Green design, 877
Ground state, 24, 845, G5
Growth, phase particle, 344,
352–354, G5
rate, 353
temperature dependence of rate,
353
Gutta percha, 549
H
Hackle region, 483–485
Half-cells, standard, 678–679
Half-reactions, 676
Hall coefficient, 747
Hall effect, 746–748, G5
Hall-Petch equation, 213
Hall voltage, 747
Halogens, 26
Hard disk drives, 800, 826–827
Hardenability, 425–429, G5
Hardenability band, 430
Hardenability curves, 426–429
Hard magnetic materials,
822–825, G5
properties, 824
Hardness, G5
bainite, pearlite vs. transformation
temperature, 373
ceramics, 490–491
comparison of scales, 178–179
conversion diagram, 178
correlation with tensile strength, 179
fine and coarse pearlite,
spheroidite, 372
pearlite, martensite, tempered
martensite, 374
polymers, 581
tempered martensite, 374, 376, 377
Hardness tests, 174–177
summary of tests, 175
Hard sphere model, 46–47
Head-to-head configuration, 546
Head-to-tail configuration, 547
Heat affected zone, 421
Heat capacity, 782–784, G5
temperature dependence, 784
vibrational contribution, 783
Heat flux, 789
Heat of fusion, latent, 347
Heat transfer:
mechanism, 783, 789
nonsteady-state, 798
I8 • IndexHeat treatable, definition of, 406
Heat treatments, 123. See also
Annealing; Phase
transformations
dislocation reduction, 201
glass, 516–517
hydrogen embrittlement, 700
intergranular corrosion and, 697
polymer morphology, 592
polymer properties, 586
for precipitation hardening,
437–438
recovery, recrystallization, and
grain growth during, 218–225
steel, 425–436
Hertz, 843
Heterogeneous nucleation, 350–352
Hexagonal close-packed structure,
49–50, G5
anion stacking (ceramics),
460–461
Burgers vector for, 205
close-packed planes (metals),
69–71
slip systems, 203
twinning in, 211
Hexagonal crystal system, 52, 54
direction indices, 60–63
planar indices, 67–68
Hexagonal ferrites, 811
Hexane, 535
High carbon steels, 396, 397
High-cycle fatigue, 259
High polymers, 544, G5
High-strength, low-alloy (HSLA)
steels, 394–395, G6
High-temperature superconductors,
830–831
Holes, 725, 733–734, G6
role, diffusion in ionic materials, 476
mobility:
influence of dopant
concentration on, 742, 743
influence of temperature on,
742, 743
values for selected
semiconductors, 734
temperature dependence of
concentration (Si, Ge), 740
Homogeneous nucleation, 345–350
Homopolymers, 540, G6
Honeycomb structure, 661–662
Hooke’s law, 156, 574
Hot pressing, 525
Hot working, 222, 417, G6. See also
Heat treatments
HSLA (high-strength, low-alloy)
steels, 394–395, G6
Hybrid composites, 657, G6
Hydration, of cement, 509
Hydrocarbons, 534–535
Hydrogen:
diffusive purification, 127, 145, 148
reduction, 684
Hydrogen bonding, 31, 35, 36, G6
water expansion upon freezing, 37
Hydrogen chloride, 36
Hydrogen electrode, 678–679
Hydrogen embrittlement,
699–700, G6
Hydrogen fluoride, 36, 42
Hydrogen induced cracking, 700
Hydrogen stress cracking, 700
Hydroplastic forming, 519, G6
Hydroplasticity, 518
Hydrostatic powder pressing, 523
Hypereutectoid alloys, 327–329, G6
Hypoeutectoid alloys, 324–326, G6
Hysteresis (magnetic), 816–817
Hysteresis, ferromagnetic, G6
soft and hard magnetic materials,
819–820, 822–823
I
Ice, 37, 281, 286, 301, 340, 342
Impact energy, 251, G6
fine pearlite, 371
temperature dependence:
high-strength materials, 254
low-strength FCC and HCP
metals, 254
low-strength steels, 253, 254
Impact fracture testing, 250–254
Impact strength, polymers, 580
Imperfections, see Defects;
Dislocations
Impurities:
in ceramics, 475–476
diffusion, 124
electrical resistivity, 729–730
in metals, 93–95
thermal conductivity, 790
Incongruent phase transformation,
315
Index of refraction, 846–847, G6
selected materials, 848
Indices, Miller, 63–64, G8
Indium antimonide, electrical
characteristics, 734
Induced dipoles, 35
Inert gases, 26
Inhibitors, 701, G6
Initial permeability, 815
Injection molding, 613
Insulators (electrical), G6. See also
Dielectric materials
ceramics and polymers as,
754–756, 765
color, 853–854
defined, 722
electron band structure, 724, 726
translucency and opacity,
854–855
Integrated circuits, 753–754, G6
interconnects, 140–141
scanning electron micrograph,
719, 754
Interatomic bonding, 30–34
Interatomic separation, 28, 29
Interconnects, integrated circuits,
140–141
Interdiffusion, 124, G6
Interfacial defects, 102–106
Interfacial energies, 106
for heterogeneous
nucleation, 351
Intergranular corrosion,
696–697, G6
Intergranular fracture, 241, G6
Intermediate solid solutions, 311,
314, G6
Intermetallic compounds, 311, 439,
G6
Interplanar spacing, cubic
crystals, 76
Interstitial diffusion, 125, 126, G6
Interstitial impurity defects,
94, 95
Interstitials:
in ceramics, 472
in polymers, 558
self-, 93, G11
Interstitial solid solutions, 94, 474,
G6
Intrinsic carrier concentration, 734
temperature dependence for Si
and Ge, 740
Intrinsic conductivity, 734–735
Intrinsic semiconductors, 733–736,
G6
Invar, Material of Importance, 788
thermal properties, 785
Invariant point, 299, G6
Inverse lever rule, see Lever rule
Inverse spinel structure, 809–810
Ion cores, 33
Ionic bonding, 30–31, G6
in ceramics, 453
Ionic character (percent), 33, 453
Ionic conduction, 476, 722,
755–756
Ionic polarization, 763, G9
Ionic radii, 454, 456
Iridium, 415
Index • I9Iron, see also Ferrous alloys; Steels
atomic radius and crystal
structure, 47
bonding energy and melting
temperature, 31
Curie temperature, 813
diffraction pattern, 78
electrical conductivity, 728
ferrite (), 319, 320, 325, G4
as ferromagnetic material, 807
magnetic properties, 822
magnetization curves (single
crystal), 818
polymorphism, 52
recrystallization temperature,
222
rolling texture, 821
slip systems, 203
stress-strain behavior (at three
temperatures), 168
thermal properties, 785
yield and tensile strengths,
ductility, 168
Iron age, 2
Iron-carbon alloys, see Ferrous
alloys
Iron-iron carbide alloys, 319–322
Iron-silicon alloys, magnetic
properties, 822
Material of Importance (use in
transformer cores), 821
Isobutane, 535
Isobutylene, 553
Isomerism, 534, G6
geometrical, 549, 550
stereoisomerism, 548, 550
Isomorphous systems, 289, G6
binary, see Binary isomorphous
alloys
Isoprene, 549
ISO standards, 878
Isostatic powder pressing, 523
Isostrain, in fiber-reinforced
composites, 638
Isostress, in fiber-reinforced
composites, 640
Isotactic configuration, 548,
550, G6
Isothermal, G6
Isothermal transformation diagrams,
356–367, 504, G6
4340 alloy steel, 365
0.76 wt% C steel, 364
0.45 wt% C steel, 387
glass-ceramic, 504
Isotopes, 20, 41, G6
Isotropic materials, 73, 645, G6
Izod impact test, 251, 252, G6
J
Jominy end-quench test,
425–426, G7
Junction depth, diffusion, 139
Junction transistors, 750–751, G7
K
Kaolinite clay, 466, 467, 519
Kevlar, see Aramid
Kinetics, 354–355, G7
crystallization of polymers,
590–591
oxidation, 705–706
phase transformations, 344–355
Knoop hardness, 175, 177, 490
Kovar:
as low-expansion alloy, 788
thermal properties, 785
L
Ladder polymer, 710
Lamellae (polymers), 557
Laminar composites, 660–661, G7
Large-particle composites,
630–633, G7
Larson-Miller parameter, 268
Lasers, 858–862, G7
semiconductor, 860–862
types, characteristics, and
applications, 862
Laser beam welding, 421
Latent heat of fusion, 347
Latex, 602
Lattice parameters, 52, 54, G7
Lattices, 47, G7
Lattice strains, 201–202, 214–215,
441, G7
Lattice waves, 783
Laue photograph, 44, 78
Layered silicates, 466–467
Lay-up, in prepreg processing, 659
Lead, 415
atomic radius and crystal
structure, 47
recrystallization temperature, 222
superconducting critical
temperature, 831
Lead-free solders, 304
Lead-tin phase diagram, 300,
305–311
Lead titanate, 512
Lead zirconate, 766
Lead-zirconate-titanate, 512, 766
Leak-before-break design, 248
Leathery region, polymers, 576
LEDs, see Light-emitting diodes
Lever rule, 290, 291, G7
Life cycle analysis/assessment, 877
Light:
absorption, 849–852
reflection, 848
refraction, 846–848
scattering, 854
transmission, 852
Light-emitting diodes:
organic, 857
polymer, 857
semiconductor, 856
Lime, 508
Linear atomic density, 68–69
Linear coefficient of thermal
expansion, 264, 785–788, 792,
793, 799, G13
values for selected materials, 732,
785, 856, A17–A20
Linear defects, 99–102
Linear polymers, 545, 546, G7
Liquid crystal polymers, 604–605, G7
Liquidus line, 288, 289, 298, 299, G7
Liquidus temperatures, Cu-Au
system, 304, 336
Lodestone (magnetite), 801, 809
Longitudinal direction, 637, G7
Longitudinal loading, composites,
636–640, 641–642
Lost foam casting, 417, 420
Lost-wax casting, 419
Low-angle grain boundaries, see
Small-angle grain boundaries
Low carbon steels, 394–395
Low-cycle fatigue, 259
Lower critical temperature (ferrous
alloys), 423, G7
Lower yield point, 163
Low-expansion alloys, 788
Luminescence, 855, G7
M
Macromolecules, 535, G7
Magnesia, see Magnesium oxide
Magnesium:
automobile wheel, 44
diffraction pattern, 44
elastic and shear moduli, 157
Poisson’s ratio, 157
single crystal, cleaved, 44
slip systems, 203
Magnesium alloys, 410–411
Magnesium fluoride, optical
properties, 848
Magnesium-lead phase diagram, 313
Magnesium oxide:
bonding energy and melting
temperature, 31
flexural strength, 486
index of refraction, 848
I10 • Indexmodulus of elasticity, 486
thermal properties, 785
Magnesium oxide-aluminum oxide
phase diagram, 478
Magnetic anisotropy, 818–819, 821
Magnetic ceramics, 809–813
Magnetic dipoles, 801–802
Magnetic domains, see Domains
Magnetic energy product, 822–823
Magnetic field strength, 802, 804, G7
Magnetic field vectors, 802–804
Magnetic flux density, 802, 804, G7
critical values for superconductors,
831
Magnet hard disk drives, 800, 826–827
Magnetic hysteresis, 815–817
factors that affect, 818
soft and hard magnetic materials,
819–820, 822–823
Magnetic induction, see Magnetic
flux density
Magnetic materials:
hard, 822–825
low thermal expansion
characteristics, 788
neodymium-iron-boron alloys,
824–825
samarium-cobalt alloys, 824
soft, 819–822
Magnetic moments, 802, 804–805
cations, 809–811
Magnetic permeability, 803, 804,
842, 847
Magnetic storage, 800, 825–828
Magnetic susceptibility, 804, G7
selected diamagnetic and
paramagnetic materials, 807
various units for, 804, 835–836
Magnetic tapes, 827–828
Magnetic texture, 74, 821
Magnetic units, conversion
factors, 804
Magnetism:
basic concepts, 801–805
electron spin and, 805
Magnetite (lodestone), 801, 809
Magnetization, 803–804, G7
easy and hard directions, 819, 821,
827, 828
saturation, 807–808, 812, G11
Magnetocrystalline anisotropy, 819
Magnetostrictive materials, 12
Magnetorheological fluids, 12
Majority charge carriers, 737
Malleability, see Ductility
Malleable cast iron, 401, 402, G7
compositions, mechanical properties,
and applications, 403
Manganese oxide, as
antiferromagnetic material, 809
Manufacturing techniques,
economics, 875
Martensite, 362–363, 368, 378, G7
alloying to favor formation of, 369
crystal structure, 362
hardness, 373
hardness vs. carbon content, 374
shape-memory phase
transformations, 379–380
tempering of, 375–376
Martensitic stainless steels, 397, 398
Materials:
advanced, 11–13
by design, 12
classification of, 5–11
costs, 652, A31–A35
current and future needs, 13–14
disposal of, 875–876
economic considerations, 873–875
engineered, 875
of the future, 11
historical development of, 2
nanoengineered, 12–13
nonrenewable sources of, 14, 876
smart, 11–12
total cycle, 875–876
Materials engineering, 3–4, 152
Materials of Importance:
aluminum electrical wires, 731–732
aluminum for integrated circuit
interconnects, 140–141
biodegradable and biorenewable
polymers/plastics, 881–883
carbon nanotubes, 471
carbonated beverage containers, 10
catalysts (and surface defects), 105
Invar and other low-expansion
alloys, 788
an iron-silicon alloy that is used in
transformer cores, 821
lead-free solders, 304
light-emitting diodes, 856–857
metal alloys used for euro coins, 416
nanocomposites in tennis balls,
662–663
phenolic billiard balls, 598–599
piezoelectric ceramics, 512
shape-memory alloys, 379–381
shrink-wrap polymer films, 587
tin (its allotropic transformation), 53
water (its volume expansion upon
freezing), 37
Materials science, 3
Matrix phase, G7
definition, 628
fiber-reinforced composites, 646–647
Matthiessen’s rule, 729, G7
Mean stress (fatigue), 255, 262
Mechanical properties, see also
specific mechanical properties
grain size and, 225
variability, 180–182
Mechanical twin, 106, 211. See also
Twinning
Mechanics of materials, 155
Medium carbon steels, 395, 396
Meissner effect, 830
Melamine-formaldehyde, repeat unit
structure, A36
Melting (polymers), 592
Melting point (temperature):
and bonding energy for selected
materials, 31
ceramics, 514
factors that affect (polymers), 594
glasses, 514, G7
polymers, 592–593, A40
Melt spinning, 614
Memory, flash, 719, 753
Mercury:
bonding energy and melting
temperature, 31
superconducting critical
temperature, 831
Mer unit, 536
Metal alloys, see Alloys
Metallic bonding, 33–34, G7
Metallic glasses, 449, 728
Metallographic examination, 108
Metal-matrix composites, 653–655, G7
Metals, see also Alloys; Crystalline
materials
corrosion, see Corrosion
costs, A31–A33
crystal structure, see Crystal
structures
defined, 5–6, G7
density values, A3–A5
elastic modulus values, 157, A6–A8
as electrical conductors, 724
electrical resistivity values,
A26–A28
electron band structure, 724
fabrication, 417–422
fracture toughness for selected,
246, A16
linear coefficient of thermal
expansion values, 785,
A17–A18
optical properties, 845–846
oxidation, 703–706
Poisson’s ratio for selected, 157, A10
shear moduli, 157
specific heat values, 785, A24–A25
Index • I11Metals, see also Alloys; Crystalline
materials (Continued)
strengthening, see Strengthening of
metals
thermal conductivity values, 785,
A21–A22
Metastability, G8
of microstructures, 356
Metastable states, 285
Methane, 32, 534, 535
Methyl alcohol, 536
Methyl group, 535, 537
Mica, 467, 765
dielectric constant and dielectric
strength, 758
Microconstituents, see also specific
microconstituent phases:
definition, 308–309, G8
in eutectic alloys, 308–309
in steel alloys, 324–328
Microcracks, 242–243
in ceramics, 481–482, 493
Microelectromechanical systems
(MEMS), 12, 509–510, G8
Microelectronics, 753–754
Microindentation hardness tests, 177
Micron, 107
Microscopic techniques, useful
resolutions ranges, 112
Microscopy, 107–113, G8
Microstructure, 108, G8
austenite, 320
bainite, 360
bonded ceramic abrasive, 508
brass during recrystallization and
grain growth, 220–221
carbon-black-reinforced rubber, 632
carbon nanotube, 471
cast irons, 400–401, 404
cemented carbide, 631
coarse and fine pearlite, 359
compacted graphite iron, 401
craze in poly(phenylene oxide), 579
development in eutectic alloys,
305–311
development in iron-carbon alloys,
322–329
development in isomorphous alloys:
equilibrium cooling, 294–295
nonequilibrium cooling, 295–297
eutectic (lead-tin), 308
ferrite (), 320
glass fracture surface, 484
gray cast iron, 400
hard disk drive, 800, 827
hypereutectoid steel alloy, 328
hypoeutectoid steel alloy, 325
influence of cooling rate, 427
integrated circuit, 141, 719, 754
magnetic tape storage, 828
martensite, 363
metastable, 285
microscopic examination, 107–112
pearlite, 323, 359
polycrystalline metal before
and after deformation, 197, 210
porcelain, 501, 522
precipitation-hardened aluminum
alloy, 440
single-phase iron-chromium alloy,
110
sintered ceramic, 525
size ranges, various structural
features, 112
spheroidite, 362
spherulite (natural rubber), 532
stress corrosion in copper, 699
TEM (high resolution)—single
crystals of (Ce0.5Zr0.5)O2,
90, 105
tempered martensite, 375
Microvoids, 237, 579
Miller-Bravais index system, 60–63
Miller indices, 63–66, G8
Minority charge carriers, 737
Mirror region (ceramics), 483, 484
Mist region (ceramics), 483, 484
Mixed dislocations, 100, 101, 200,
G8. See also Dislocations
Mobility, of charge carriers, 727, G8
influence of dopant content, 742
influence of temperature, 742, 743
ionic, 755
values for selected semiconductors,
734
Modulus of elasticity, 156–157, G8
anisotropy, 74, 189
atomic bonding and, 157, 158,
189–190
carbon nanotubes, 471
copper reinforced with tungsten, 631
directionality dependence for cubic
crystals, 189
influence of porosity on, in
ceramics, 489
ranges for material types (bar
chart), 6
relation to shear modulus, 161
selected ceramics, 486, A8
selected fiber-reinforcement
materials, 646, A9
selected metals, 157, A6–A8
selected polymers, 572, A8–A9
temperature dependence:
elastomers, 588
metals, 159
and thermal fatigue, 264
and thermal stresses, 792–793
values for various materials,
A6–A9
Modulus of resilience, 168–169
Modulus of rupture, 485. See also
Flexural strength
Mohs hardness scale, 174, 178
Molarity, 677, G8
Molding, plastics, 612–613, G8
Mole, 20, G8
Molecular chemistry, polymers,
537–540, G8
Molecular configurations, polymers,
547–550
Molecular mass, 541
Molecular materials, 38
Molecular shape, polymers, 544–545
Molecular structure, polymers,
545–547, G8
Molecular weight, G8
influence on polymer melting/glass
transition temperatures,
594–595
influence on mechanical behavior,
polymers, 585
number-average, 541, 542–543
weight-average, 542–543
Molecular weight distribution,
541–542
Molecules, polar, 36, G9
Molybdenum, 412, 414
atomic radius and crystal
structure, 47
density, A4
modulus of elasticity, A7
Poisson’s ratio, A10
properties as wire, 646
slip systems, 203
thermal properties, A18, A22, A25
yield strength, tensile strength,
ductility, 168, A13
Moment of inertia, 486, 499, 651–652
Monel, 415
Monoclinic crystal system, 52, 54
Monomers, 536, G8
MOSFET transistors, 750, 752, G8
Mullite, 479, 480
flexural strength, 486
modulus of elasticity, 486
Multiphase transformations, see
Phase transformations
Muntz metal, 406
Muscovite (mica), 467
N
Nanomaterials, 12
Nanotechnology, 12
I12 • IndexNanotubes, carbon, 13, 471
Natural aging, 442, G8
Natural rubber (polyisoprene), 549,
599, 600
degradation resistance, 708
melting and glass transition
temperatures, A40
stress-strain behavior, 589
thermal properties, 785
NBR, see Nitrile rubber (NBR)
Necking, 165
complex stress state in, 171
criterion for, 194
in ductile fracture, 237
polymers, 573
Néel temperature, 813
Neodymium-iron-boron magnets,
824–825
Neoprene rubber, 600, 708
Nernst equation, 680
Network formers (glass), 465
Network modifiers (glass), 465
Network polymers, 546, 547, G8
Network solids, 470
Neutrons, 20
Nichrome, 731
Nickel, 414, 415
atomic radius and crystal
structure, 47
Curie temperature, 813
elastic and shear moduli, 157
as ferromagnetic material, 807
magnetization curves (single
crystal), 818
Poisson’s ratio, 157
recrystallization temperature, 222
slip systems, 203
thermal properties, 785
thoria-dispersed (TD), 634
yield and tensile strengths,
ductility, 168
Nickel ferrite, 811
Niobium, 412
Niobium alloys, as superconductors,
830, 831
Nitinol, 379, 381
Nitrile rubber (NBR), 552
characteristics and applications,
599, 600
degradation resistance, 708
Noble metals, 414, 415
Nodular iron, see Ductile iron
Noncrystalline materials, 46,
79, G8
Nondestructive evaluation, see
Nondestructive testing
Nondestructive inspection, see
Nondestructive testing
Nondestructive testing, 247
Nonequilibrium cooling, 329
Nonequilibrium phases, 354
Nonequilibrium solidification,
295–297
Nonferrous alloys, 406–416, G8.
See also specific nonferrous
alloys
Nonsteady-state diffusion,
128–132, G8
Nonstoichiometry, 473
Normalizing, 368, 423–424, G8
Notches, effect of, 243, 578
Notch toughness, 169, 251
n–p-n Junction transistors, 750–751
n-Type semiconductors, 736–738, G8
Nucleation, 344–352, G8
heterogeneous, 350–352
homogeneous, 345–350
Nucleation rate, 348
temperature dependence, 348
homogeneous vs. heterogeneous,
351–352
Nucleus, phase particle, 346
Number-average molecular weight,
541, 542–543
Nylon, fatigue behavior, 580
Nylon 6,6:
degradation resistance, 708
density, 567, 572, A5
dielectric constant and dielectric
strength, 758
electrical conductivity, 755
mechanical properties, 572, A8,
A10, A14, A17
melting and glass transition
temperatures, 593, A40
repeat unit structure, 540, A37
thermal properties, 785
Nylons, trade names, characteristics,
and applications, 597
O
Octahedral position, 460, 810, G8
Ohm’s law, 721, 722, G8
Oil, as quenching medium, 430–431
Opacity, 844, G8
in insulators, 854–855
in semiconductors, 849–850
Optical fibers, 511, 863–865
Optical flint glass, composition and
properties, 503, 848
Optical microscopy, 108–109, 110,
112
Optical properties, 841
of metals, 845–846
of nonmetals, 846–855
Ordered solid solution, 311, 406
Organic light-emitting diodes, 857
Orientation polarization, 763, G9
Orthorhombic crystal system,
52, 54
Osmium, 415
Overaging, 438, G8
Overvoltage, 683, 685, 686–687
Oxidation, 675, 703–706, G8
kinetics, 705–706
metals, 703–706
Ozone, degradation of polymers,
708, 709–710
P
Palladium, 127, 145, 415
Paraffins, 534–535
Paramagnetism, 806, 817, G8
Parisons, 515, 613
Particle-reinforced composites,
629–634, G8
Pascal-second, 488
Passivity, 690–692, G8
Pauli exclusion principle, 24, G8
Pearlite, 323, G8
coarse, 358, 359, G2
colonies, 323
as composite, 628
fine, 359, 371, G5
formation of, 324, 356–360,
368, 378
hardness vs. transformation
temperature, 373
mechanical properties, 370–373,
378
Pentane, 535
Performance (materials), 3.
See also Processing/structure/
properties/performance
correlations
Periclase, 506, 507. See also
Magnesium oxide
Periodic table, 26–27, G9
Peritectic reaction, 314, G9
Permalloy (45), magnetic
properties, 822
Permanent dipoles, 35, 763
Permeability (in polymers), 559
Permeability coefficient, 559, 560
Permeability, magnetic, 803, 804, 842,
847, G9
Permittivity, 31, 757, 759, 842,
847, G9
Perovskite structure, 459, 460,
766, 830
Perpendicular magnetic recording
media, 826–827
PET, see Polyester(s)
Phase boundaries, 104
Index • I13Phase diagrams, 286–287,
287–294, G9
binary eutectic systems, 298–311
binary isomorphous systems,
287–298
ceramic systems, 316, 476–480
congruent phase transformations,
315
definitions/basic concepts, 283–287
eutectoid and peritectic reactions,
313–314
intermediate phases in, 311–313
interpretation of, 289–294
pressure-temperature (unary),
286–287
specific:
aluminum-copper, 439
aluminum-neodymium, 339
aluminum oxide-chromium
oxide, 477
carbon dioxide (pressuretemperature), 342
cast iron, 404
copper-beryllium, 450
copper-nickel, 288
copper-silver, 298, 318
copper-zinc, 312, 314
halfnium-vanadium, 316
iron-carbon (graphite), 400
iron-iron carbide, 319
lead-tin, 300, 305–309
magnesium-lead, 313
magnesium oxide-aluminum
oxide, 478
nickel-titanium, 315
silica-alumina, 480
sugar-water, 283
tin-bismuth, 304
titanium-copper, 339
water (pressure-temperature),
286, 340
water-sodium chloride, 301
zirconia-calcia, 479
ternary, 316
Phase equilibria, 285, G9
Phases, 284, G9
Phase transformation diagrams:
continuous cooling, G2
metals, 367–370, 388
glass-ceramic, 504
isothermal, 356–367, G6
Phase transformation rate, 355
martensitic transformation, 363
temperature dependence, 353
Phase transformations, G9
athermal, 364
classification, 344
shape-memory effect, 379–381
Phenol, 536
Phenol-formaldehyde (Bakelite):
in billiard balls, 569, 598–599
dielectric constant and dielectric
strength, 758
electrical conductivity, 755
mechanical properties, 572
repeat unit structure, 540, A36
thermal properties, 785
Phenolics, trade names,
characteristics, applications, 598
Phenyl group, 535, 536, 538
Phonons, 783, 789, 790, G9
Phosphorescence, 855, G9
Photoconductivity, 858, G9
Photomicrographs, 108, G9
Photonic signal, 863
Photons, 783, 843, G9
Photovoltaic solar cell, 840
Pickling, of steels, 700
Piezoelectricity, 767, G9
Piezoelectric ceramics, 767
as Materials of Importance, 512
properties and applications, 512
in smart materials/systems, 12
Pilling-Bedworth ratio, 704, G9
selected metals, 705
Pitting corrosion, 695–696, G9
Plain carbon steels, 364, 393, G9
Planar atomic density, 69
Planck’s constant, 843, G9
Planes, see Crystallographic planes
Plane strain, 245, G9
Plane strain fracture toughness,
245, G9
ceramic-matrix composites,
655, 656
selected materials, 246, A16–A17
Plaster of paris, 419, 508, 520
Plastic deformation, 162–179, G9
ceramics, 487–489
dislocation motion and, 199–211
in fracture, 243
influence on electrical conductivity,
730
polycrystalline materials, 208–210
semicrystalline polymers, 582, 584
twinning, 210–211
Plasticizers, 610, G9
Plastics, 596, G9
characteristics and applications,
596–598
in composites, 631
forming techniques, 611–614
Platinum, 415
atomic radius and crystal
structure, 47
electrical conductivity, 728
Plexiglas, see Poly(methyl
methacrylate)
Plywood, 660
p-n-p Junction transistors, 750–751
p-n Junctions:
for light-emitting diodes, 856
for rectification, 748–750
Point coordinates, 55–57
Point defects, 92–99, 472–474, G9
Poise, 488
Poisson’s ratio, 160, G9
selected metals, 157
values for various materials,
A10–A11
Polarization, 761, G9. See also
Electronic polarization; Ionic
polarization; Orientation
polarization
Polarization (corrosion), 683–687,
G9
corrosion rates from, 687–690
Polar molecules, 36, G9
Polyacetylene, repeat unit structure,
756
Polyacrylonitrile (PAN):
carbon fibers, 648
repeat unit structure, 553, A37
Poly(alkylene glycol), as a quenching
agent, 430
Poly(amide-imide) (PAI), repeat
unit structure, A37
Polybutadiene, see Butadiene
Poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT),
repeat unit structure, A37
Polycarbonate:
density, 572
degradation resistance, 708
mechanical properties, 572
melting and glass transition
temperatures, 593, A40
plane strain fracture toughness, 246
reinforced vs. unreinforced
properties, 644
repeat unit structure, 540, A37
trade names, characteristics, and
applications, 597
Polychloroprene, see Chloroprene;
Chloroprene rubber
Polychlorotrifluoroethylene, repeat
unit structure, A37
Polycrystalline materials, 72–73, G9
plastic deformation, 208–210
Polydimethylsiloxane, 599
degradation resistance, 708
repeat unit structure, 599, A37
Polyester(s):
degradation resistance (PET), 708
density (PET), 572
I14 • Indexfatigue behavior (PET), 580
magnetic storage tape (PET), 828
mechanical properties (PET), 572
melting and glass transition
temperatures (PET), 593, A40
in polymer-matrix composites, 650
recycle code and products
(PET), 880
repeat unit structure (PET),
540, A37
trade names, characteristics, and
applications, 598
Polyetheretherketone (PEEK), 650
degradation resistance, 708
melting and glass transition
temperatures, A40
repeat unit structure, A37
Polyetherimide (PEI), 650
Polyethylene, 537, 538, 539
crystal structure of, 553
degradation resistance, 708
density, 555–556, 572, A5
dielectric constant and dielectric
strength, 758
electrical conductivity, 755
fatigue behavior, 580
index of refraction, 848
mechanical properties, 572
melting and glass transition
temperatures, 593, A40
recycle codes and products, 880
single crystals, 556
thermal properties, 785
trade names, characteristics, and
applications, 597
ultra-high-molecular-weight, see
Ultra-high-molecular-weight
polyethylene
Poly(ethylene naphthalate), as
magnetic storage tape, 828
Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET),
see Polyester(s)
Poly(hexamethylene adipamide), see
Nylon 6,6
Polyimides:
glass transition temperature, A40
polymer-matrix composites, 650
repeat unit structure, A38
Polyisobutylene:
melting and glass transition
temperatures, A40
relaxation modulus, 621, 622
repeat unit structure, 553, A38
Polyisoprene, see Natural rubber
(polyisoprene)
Polylactic acid, 872, 882–883
Polymer-matrix composites,
647–653, G9
Polymerization, 537, 607–610
degree of, 542
Polymer light-emitting diodes, 857
Polymers, 8–9, 536, G9. See also
Plastics
additives, 610–611
classification (molecular
characteristics), 550
coefficient of thermal expansion
values, 785, A19–A20
conducting, 756–757
costs, A34–A35
crosslinking, see Crosslinking
crystallinity, 552–555, G2
crystallization, 590–591
crystals, 556–558
defined, 8, 536
defects in, 558–559
deformation (semicrystalline):
elastic, 582, 583
plastic, 582, 584
degradation of, 710–711
density, 554
density values, 572, A5–A6
diffusion in, 559–561
ductility values, 572, A14–A15
elastic modulus values, 572,
A8–A9
elastomers, 588–590, 599–600
electrical properties, 754, 756–757,
758, A28–A29
fibers, 601
fracture mechanics, 580
fracture toughness values, 246, A17
glass transition, 592
glass transition temperatures,
593, A40
as insulators, 756, 765
ladder, 710
as light-emitting diodes, 857
liquid crystal, 604–605
mechanical properties, 570–581
factors that affect, 582, 585–587
values of, 572, A8–A9, A10,
A14–A15, A17
melting of, 592
melting temperatures, 593, A40
miscellaneous applications,
601–603
miscellaneous mechanical
characteristics, 580–581
molecular chemistry, 537–540
molecular configuration, 547–549
molecular shape, 544–545
molecular structure, 545–547
molecular weight, 541–544
natural, 533
opacity and translucency, 855
Poisson’s ratio values, A10
radiation effects, 709
refraction indices, 848
semicrystalline, 554, 557, 581–582,
583, 584, 585
specific heat values, 785, A25–A26
spherulites in, 532, 557–558,
582, 586
stereoisomerism, 548–549
stress-strain behavior, 570–573
swelling and dissolution, 707–709
tensile strength values, 572,
A14–A15
thermal conductivity values, 785,
A22–A23
thermal properties, 787, 792
thermoplastic, see Thermoplastic
polymers
thermosetting, see Thermosetting
polymers
types of, 533
viscoelasticity, 574–578
weathering, 710–711
yield strength values, 572,
A14–A15
Poly(methyl methacrylate):
density, A6
electrical conductivity, 755
fatigue behavior, 580
index of refraction, 848
mechanical properties, 572
melting and glass transition
temperatures, A40
plane strain fracture toughness,
246, A17
repeat unit structure, 540, A38
stress-strain behavior as function
of temperature, 573
trade names, characteristics, and
applications, 597
Polymorphic transformations, in
iron, 319–320
Polymorphism, 52, G9
Poly(paraphenylene
terephthalamide), see Aramid
Poly(phenylene oxide) (PPO),
repeat unit structure, A38
Poly(phenylene sulfide) (PPS), 650
melting and glass transition
temperatures, A40
repeat unit structure, A38
Polypropylene, 538
degradation resistance, 708
density, A6
fatigue behavior, 580
index of refraction, 848
kinetics of crystallization, 591
mechanical properties, 572
Index • I15Polypropylene, (Continued)
melting and glass transition
temperatures, 593, A40
plane strain fracture toughness, A17
recycle code and products, 880
repeat unit structure, 539, A38
thermal properties, 785
trade names, characteristics, and
applications, 597
Polystyrene:
degradation resistance, 708
density, A6
dielectric properties, 758
electrical conductivity, 755
fatigue behavior, 580
index of refraction, 848
mechanical properties, 572
melting and glass transition
temperatures, 593, A40
plane strain fracture toughness,
246, A17
repeat unit structure, 539, A39
thermal properties, 785
trade names, characteristics, and
applications, 597
viscoelastic behavior, 576–577
Polytetrafluoroethylene, 538, 539
degradation resistance, 708
density, 567, A6
dielectric constant and dielectric
strength, 758
electrical conductivity, 755
fatigue behavior, 580
index of refraction, 848
mechanical properties, 572
melting and glass transition
temperatures, 593, A40
repeat unit structure, 539, A39
thermal properties, 785
Poly(vinyl acetate), repeat unit
structure, A39
Poly(vinyl alcohol), repeat unit
structure, A39
Poly(vinyl chloride):
density, A6
mechanical properties, 572
melting and glass transition
temperatures, 593, A40
recycle code and products, 880
repeat unit structure, 538, 539, A40
Poly(vinyl fluoride):
melting and glass transition
temperatures, A40
repeat unit structure, A39
Poly(vinylidene chloride):
melting and glass transition
temperatures, A40
repeat unit structure, A39
Poly(vinylidene fluoride):
glass transition temperature, A40
repeat unit structure, A39
Porcelain, 501, 519
dielectric constant and dielectric
strength, 758
electrical conductivity, 755
microstructure, 522
Porosity:
ceramics, 489–490
formation during sintering,
524–525
influence on flexural strength,
ceramics, 489–490
influence on modulus of elasticity,
ceramics, 489
influence on thermal conductivity,
791
optical translucency and opacity,
854–855
refractory ceramics, 506
Portland cement, 508–509
Portland cement concrete, 632–633
Posttensioned concrete, 633
Potassium chloride, 42
Potassium niobate, 512
Powder metallurgy, 420, G9
Powder pressing, ceramics,
523–525
Powder x-ray diffraction techniques,
77–78
Precipitation-hardenable stainless
steels, 398
Precipitation hardening, 436–442,
G10
heat treatments, 437–438
mechanism, 439–442
Prepreg production processes,
658–659, G10
Pressing:
ceramics, powdered, 523–525
glass, 515
Prestressed concrete, 633, G10
Primary bonds, 30–34, G10
Primary creep, 265, 266
Primary phase, 308, G10
Principal quantum number, 23
Principle of combined action,
628, G10
Process annealing, 422–423, G10
Processing, materials, 3. See also
Processing/structure/properties/
performance correlations
Processing/structure/properties/
performance correlations:
glass-ceramics, 45, 83, 452, 494–495,
502, 529
summary, 529
introduction, 14–16
polymer fibers, 19, 40, 533, 564,
570, 619
summary, 620
silicon semiconductors, 19, 40, 91,
117, 123, 144, 720, 772–773
summary, 773
steels (iron-carbon alloys), 45, 83,
91, 117, 123, 144, 151, 187, 198,
228–229, 282, 334, 343,
384–385, 392, 445
summary, 446
topic timelines, 15–16
Proeutectoid cementite, 327, G10
Proeutectoid ferrite, 325, G10
Propane, 535
Properties, G10. See also Processing/
structure/properties/performance
correlations
categories of, 3
Proportional limit, 163, G10
Predeposition step (diffusion in
semiconductors), 138
Protons, 19–20
PTFE, see Polytetrafluoroethylene
p-Type semiconductors, 738–739, G10
Pultrusion, 657–658
Pyrex glass:
composition, 503
density, A5
electrical resistivity, A28
index of refraction, 848
joined to low-expansion alloys, 788
mechanical properties, A8, A10,
A14
plane strain fracture toughness,
A16
thermal properties, 785, A19
thermal shock, 794
PyroCeram:
composition, 503
density, A5
electrical resistivity, A28
flexural strength, 486
modulus of elasticity, 486
plane strain fracture
toughness, A16
Poisson’s ratio, A10
thermal properties, 785
Q
Quantum mechanics, 20, G10
Quantum numbers, 22–23, G10
magnetic, 23, 805
Quartz, 464, 501, 519, 522
grains, 501
index of refraction, 848
as piezoelectric material, 767
I16 • Indexsingle crystal, 451
structure of, 451
Quenching media, 430–431
R
Radiation effects, polymers, 709
Random copolymers, 551, 552, G10
Range of stress, 255
Recombination, electron-hole,
748–749, 851
in light-emitting diodes, 856
Recovery, 219, G10
Recrystallization, 219–222, 423, G10
effect on properties, 221
kinetics for copper, 355
Recrystallization temperature, 219,
222, G10
dependence on alloy content,
219–220
dependence on percent cold work,
222
selected metals and alloys, 222
Rectification, 748–750
Rectifying junctions, 748–750, G10
Recycling:
issues in materials science and
engineering, 878–881
of beverage cans, 872
of composite materials, 880–881
of glass, 879
of metals, 878–879
of plastics and rubber, 879–880
Recycling codes and products, 880
Reduction (electrochemical),
675, G10
Reduction in area, percent, 166
Reflection, 848, G10
Reflectivity, 844, 848
Refraction, 846–847, G10
index of, 846, G6
Refractories (ceramics), 503,
505–507, G10
corrosion, 707
Refractory metals, 412–414
Reinforced concrete, 633–634, G10
Reinforcement efficiency, table of, 644
Relative permeability, 804, 805, G10
Relative permittivity, see
Dielectric constant
Relaxation frequency, 764, G10
Relaxation modulus, 575–577, G10
Relaxation time, 621
Remanence (remanent induction),
816, G10
Repeated stress cycle, 255, 256
Repeat units, 536
bifunctional and trifunctional, 540
table of, 539–540, A36–A39
Residual stresses, 423, G10. See also
Thermal stresses
glass, 516
martensitic steels, 375
Resilience, 168–169, G10
Resin, polymer, 647
Resistance (electrical), 721
Resistivity, see Electrical
resistivity
Resolved shear stresses, 205, G10
Retained austenite, 363
Reverse bias, 748, G10
Reversed stress cycle, 256
Rhodium, 415
Rhombohedral crystal system,
52, 54
Rochelle salt, 766
Rock salt structure, 457, 460
Rockwell hardness tests, 174–176
Rolling, of metals, 418, G10
Rouge, 508
Rovings, 658
Rubbers, 545, 552
natural, see Natural rubber
(polyisoprene)
synthetic, 552, 599–601
trade names, characteristics, and
applications, 600
Rubbery region, polymers, 576
Ruby, see also Aluminum oxide
lasers, 858–860
optical characteristics, 853
Rule of mixtures, G11
composites, 630, 638, 641, 642,
643, 652
electrical resistivity, 730
Rupture, 266, G11
Rupture lifetime, 266
extrapolation of, 268–269
Rust, 673, 677
Ruthenium, 415
S
Sacrificial anodes, 702, G11
Safe stress, 183, G11
Safety factors, 183, 248
Samarium-cobalt magnets, 824
Sand casting, 419
Sandwich panels, 661–662, G11
Sapphire, see also Aluminum oxide
optical transmittance, 853
Saturated hydrocarbons, 534, G11
Saturation, extrinsic semiconductors,
741
Saturation magnetization, 807, 812,
816, G11
temperature dependence, 814
SBR, see Styrene-butadiene rubber
Scaling, 703
Scanning electron microscopy,
111, G11
Scanning probe microscopy, 12,
111–112, G11
Scanning tunneling microscope, 471
Schmid factor, 230
Schottky defect, 472, 473, 476, G11
equilibrium number, 474
Scission, 709, G11
Scleroscope hardness, 178
Screw dislocations, 99, 100, 101, 1
99, 200, G11. See also
Dislocations
in polymers, 558, 559
Seawater, as corrosion environment,
701
Secant modulus, 157, 158
Secondary bonds, 34–36, G11
Secondary creep, 266
Segregation, 297
Selective leaching, 697–698, G11
Self-diffusion, 125, G11
Self-interstitials, 93, G11
SEM, see Scanning electron
microscopy
Semiconductor devices, 748–754
Semiconductor lasers, 860–862
Semiconductors:
band structure, 724, 725
carbon nanotubes as, 471
in computers, 752–753
costs, A34
defined, 11, 722, G11
diffusion in, 137–140
extrinsic, 736–739, G4
fullerenes as, 470
intrinsic, 733–736, G6
intrinsic carrier concentration,
734, 740
light absorption, 849–852
n-type, 736–738, G8
p-type, 738–739, G10
temperature dependence:
electron concentration, n-type
Si, 741
electron mobility, Si, 743
hole mobility, Si, 743
intrinsic carrier concentration of
Ge, 740
intrinsic carrier concentration of
Si, 740
Semicrystalline polymers, 554
deformation mechanisms:
elastic, 582, 583
plastic, 582, 584
Sensors, 11–12
Severity of quench, 430
Index • I17Shape memory:
alloys, 12, 379–381
phase transformations, 379–381
Shear deformation, 153, 173
Shear modulus, 158
relationship to elastic
modulus, 161
selected metals, 157
Shear strain, 155, G11
Shear stress, 155, G11
resolved, 205
resolved from tensile stress, 155
Shear tests, 155
Sheet glass forming (float
process), 516
Shot peening, 263
Shrinkage, clay products, 521
Shrink-wrap polymer films, 587
Silica, 7, 464
crystalline and noncrystalline
structures, 79
fibers for optical communications,
511, 863–865
fused, see Fused silica
as refractory, 506–507
Silica-alumina phase diagram, 480
Silica glasses, 464–465
viscosity, 514
Silicates:
glasses, 464–465
layered, 466–467
tetrahedral structure, 451, 464
types and structures, 464–468
Silicon:
bonding energy and melting
temperature, 31
conduction in, 735
cost, A34
electrical characteristics, 734
electron concentration vs.
temperature, n-type, 741
electron/hole mobility vs. impurity
concentration, 742
electron/hole mobility vs.
temperature, 743
fracture toughness, 510
intrinsic carrier concentration vs.
temperature, 740
in MEMS, 510
Silicon carbide:
as abrasive, 507
flexural strength, 486
hardness, 491
modulus of elasticity, 486
properties as whiskers and
fibers, 646
as refractory, 507
Silicon dioxide, see Silica
Silicone rubber, 599–600
characteristics and applications, 600
degradation resistance, 708
Silicon nitride:
ceramic ball bearings, 511
compressive strength, 511
flexural strength, 486
fracture strength distribution, 482
hardness, 491, 511
modulus of elasticity, 486
properties as a whisker, 646
Silly Putty, 574
Silver, 415
atomic radius and crystal
structure, 47
electrical conductivity, 141, 728
slip systems, 203
thermal properties, 785
Simple cubic crystal structure, 84
Single crystals, 72, G11
slip in, 204–208
Sintered aluminum powder
(SAP), 634
Sintering, 523–525, G11
SI units, A1–A2
Ski, cross-section, 626
Slip, 162, 200, G11
compared to twinning, 211
polycrystalline materials,
208–209
single crystals, 204–208
Slip casting, 520, G11
Slip direction, 202
Slip lines, 206, 208, 209
Slip plane, 200, 202, 203
Slip systems, 202–204, G11
selected metals, 203
Small-angle grain boundaries,
103, 213
Smart materials, 11–12
Societal considerations, materials
science, 875–883
Soda-lime glasses:
composition, 503
dielectric properties, 758
electrical conductivity, 755
hardness, 491
thermal properties, 785
thermal shock, 794
viscosity, 514
Sodium chloride:
bonding energy and melting
temperature, 31
bonding energy determination, 42
ionic bonding, 30
structure, 457
Sodium-silicate glass, 465
Softening point (glass), 514, G11
Soft magnetic materials,
819–822, G11
properties, 822
Soils, as corrosion environments, 701
Solar panels, 840
Soldering, 304, 421, 422, G11
Solders, lead-free, 304
Solid-solution strengthening,
213–215, 297, G11
Solid solutions, G11
in ceramics, 475
intermediate, 311, 315, G6
interstitial, 94, 475, G6
in metals, 93–95
ordered, 311, 406
terminal, 311, G13
Solidus line, 288, 289, 299, G11
Solubility limit, 283, G11
factors that influence for solid
phases, 94–95
Solutes, G12
defined, 94
Solution heat treatment, 438–439, G12
Solvents, G12
defined, 94
Solvus line, 299, G12
Sonar, use of piezoelectric ceramics
in, 512
Specific heat, 782, G12
values for selected materials, 785,
A24–A26
Specific modulus, 410, 634, G12
selected fiber-reinforcement
materials, 646
Specific strength, 410, 634, G12
selected fiber-reinforcement
materials, 646
Sphalerite structure, 458, 460
Spheroidite, 361–362, G12
hardness and ductility, 372
Spheroidization, 424, G12
Spherulites, in polymers, 532,
557–558, G12
alteration during deformation, 582
photomicrograph of polyethylene,
558
transmission electron
micrograph, 532
Spinel, 460, 461, 477
flexural strength, 486
index of refraction, 848
modulus of elasticity, 486
structure, 461
thermal properties, 795
Spin magnetic moment, 23, 805
Spinnerets, 614
Spinning, polymer fibers,
614–615, G12
I18 • IndexStabilized zirconia, 478, 655
Stabilizers, 611, G12
Stacking faults, 106
Stainless steels, 397–399, G12. See
also Ferrous alloys; specific
steels
compositions, properties, and
applications for selected, 398
creep resistance, 270
electrical conductivity, 728
passivity, 691
thermal properties, 785
weld decay, 697
Standard deviation, 180–181
Standard emf series, 678–680
Standard half-cells, 678, 679, G12
Static fatigue, 481
Steady-state creep rate, 265
Steady-state diffusion, 126–128
Steatite, dielectric properties, 758
Steels, 322. See also Alloy steels;
Stainless steels
AISI/SAE designation scheme,
395–396
classification, 364, 393
costs, A31–A32
elastic and shear moduli, 157
electrical conductivity, 728
fatigue behavior (1045), 277
heat treatments, 423–436
impact energy, 254
magnetic properties, 824
overview of types, 394–399
plane strain fracture toughness,
246, A16
Poisson’s ratio, 157
properties as wires (fiber
reinforcement), 646
thermal properties, 785
yield and tensile strengths, ductility
(1020), 168
Step reaction polymerization, see
Condensation polymerization
Stereoisomerism, G12
polymers, 548–549
Sterling silver, 94, 415
Stiffness, see Modulus of elasticity
Stoichiometry, 472, G12
Stone age, 2
Strain, 154. See also Stress-strain
behavior
engineering, 154, G12
lattice, 201, 214–215, 441, G7
shear, 155, G11
true, 170, G13
Strain hardening, 173, 215–218, 417,
G2, G12
corrosion and, 692
influence on electrical resistivity,
729, 730
influence on mechanical
properties, 216, 217
recrystallization after, 219–222
Strain-hardening exponent, 171, 217
determination of, 194
selected metal alloys, 171
Strain point (glass), 514, G12
Strength, 163
flexural, 485-487, G5
fracture, 165
ranges for material types (bar
chart), 7
Strengthening of metals:
grain size reduction, 212–213
mechanism, 212
solid-solution strengthening,
213–215
strain hardening, see Strain
hardening
Stress, see also Stress-strain behavior
critical (for fracture), 243
effect on creep, 267–268
engineering, 154, G12
mean (fatigue), 255, 256, 262
normal (resolved from pure
tensile), 155–156
range (fatigue), 255, 256
residual, see Residual stresses
safe, 183, G11
shear, 155, 156, 205, G11
shear (resolved from pure tensile),
155–156
thermal, see Thermal stresses
true, 170, G13
working, 183
Stress amplitude, 255, 256
Stress concentration, 242–243, 251,
262, G12
polymers, 578
Stress concentration factor, 243
Stress corrosion cracking, 698–699,
G12
in ceramics, 481
Stress raisers, 243, 262, G12
in ceramics, 481–482, 489
Stress ratio, 255
Stress relaxation measurements, 575
Stress relief annealing, 423, G12
Stress state, geometric
considerations, 155–156
Stress-strain behavior:
brass, 165
ceramics, 485–487
composite, fibrous (longitudinal),
637
elastic deformation, 156–159
cast iron (gray), 190
natural rubber, vulcanized and
unvulcanized, 589
nonlinear (elastic), 157, 158
plastic deformation, 163–168
polymers, 570–573
shape-memory alloy, 381
for steel, variation with percent
cold work, 217
steel alloy, 189
true, 171
Striations (fatigue), 259–260
Structural clay products, 503, 505,
518, 526, G12
Structural composites, 660–662, G12
Structure, 3. See also
Processing/structure/properties/
performance correlations
atomic, 19–26
definition, G12
Structures, crystal, see Crystal
structures
Styrene, 553
Styrene-butadiene rubber
(SBR), 552
characteristics and applications,
599, 600
degradation resistance, 708
Styrenic block copolymers, 606
Substitutional impurity defects, 94
Substitutional solid solutions, 94,
475, G12
Superalloys, 414
compositions of selected, 414
creep resistance, 270
fiber reinforcement, 654
Superconductivity, 828–831, G12
applications, 831
Superconductors, 829
critical properties, 831
high-temperature, 830–831
types I and II, 830
Supercooling, 349, 356, G12
degrees for homogeneous
nucleation, 349
Superficial Rockwell hardness tests,
174–176
Superheating, 356, G12
Super Invar, 785
as low-expansion alloy, 788
Supermalloy, magnetic
properties, 822
Surface energy, 102–103, 345, 351
Susceptibility, magnetic, 804
Sustainability (environmental), 878
Symbols, list, xxi–xxiii
Syndiotactic configuration, 548, G12
Synthetic rubbers, 552, 599–600, 708
Index • I19Systems:
definition, 283, G12
homogeneous vs. heterogeneous,
284
T
Talc, 467
Tangent modulus, 157, 158
Tantalum, 412, 414
Tape casting, 525–526
Tarnishing, 703
Tear strength, polymers, 581
Teflon, see Polytetrafluoroethylene
TEM, 102, 105, 110–111, G13
Temperature gradient, 789
thermal stresses, 793
Temper designation, 408, G12
Tempered martensite, 375–376, G13
hardness vs. carbon content, 374
mechanical properties:
vs. tempering temperature,
376, 377
dependence on cylinder
diameter, 434–435, 436
Temper embrittlement, 377
Tempering:
glass, 482, 517, 531
steels, 375–376
Tennis balls (nanocomposites in),
662–663
Tensile strength, 164, G13
carbon nanotubes, 471
correlation with hardness, 179
fibrous composites, 641–642
fine pearlite, 371
influence of recrystallization on, 221
precipitation-hardened aluminum
alloy, 441
ranges for material types (bar
chart), 7
selected fiber-reinforcement
materials, 646
selected metals, 168
selected polymers, 572
tempered martensite, 376
values for various materials,
A11–A15
Tensile test apparatus, 150, 152–154
Tensile tests, 152–154. See also
Stress-strain behavior
Terephthalic acid (structure), 609
Terminal solid solutions, 311, G13
Ternary phase diagrams, 316
Tertiary creep, 265–266
Tetragonal crystal system, 52, 54
Tetrahedral position, 460, 461,
810, G13
Textile fibers, 601
Texture:
magnetic, 74, 821
rolling (sheet, BCC iron), 821
Thermal conduction, 789
Thermal conductivity, 789–792, G13
influence of impurities, 790
selected materials, 785, A21–A23
Thermal diffusivity, 798
Thermal expansion, 785–788
linear coefficient of, 264, 785,
792–794, G13
relation to bonding, 786
selected materials, 785, A17–A20
volume coefficient of, 786
Thermal fatigue, 264, G13
Thermally activated processes,
353, G13
Thermal properties, 782. See also
specific thermal properties
selected materials, 785, A17–A26
Thermal shock, 516, 787, G13
brittle materials, 793–794
maximum temperature change
without, 799
Thermal shock resistance, 794
Thermal stresses, 264, 792–794, G13
avoidance at metal-to-glass
junctions, 788
glass, 516
Thermal tempering (glass),
517, G13
Thermoplastic elastomers,
605–607, G13
Thermoplastic polymers,
550–551, G13
characteristics and applications,
596–598
degradation resistance, 708
forming techniques, 611–614
Thermosetting polymers, 551, G13
characteristics and applications,
598
degradation resistance, 708
forming techniques, 611–614
Thermostat (operation of), 781
Thoria-dispersed (TD) nickel, 634
Tie lines, 290, G13
Tilt boundaries, 103, 104
Time-temperature-transformation
diagrams, see Isothermal
transformation diagrams
Tin, 415
allotropic transformation for, 53
crystal structures, 53
density, A5
electrical resistivity, A27
mechanical properties, A13
recrystallization temperature, 222
superconducting critical
temperature, 831
thermal properties, A18, A22, A25
Tin cans, 703
Titanium:
atomic radius and crystal
structure, 47
density, A4
elastic and shear moduli, 157
electrical resistivity, A27
Poisson’s ratio, 157
slip systems, 203
superconducting critical
temperature, 831
thermal properties, A18, A21, A24
yield and tensile strengths,
ductility, 168
Titanium alloys, 411–412, 413
compositions, 413, A30
densities, A4
electrical resistivities, A27
mechanical properties, A7,
A10, A13
plane strain fracture toughness,
246, A10
properties and applications of, 413
thermal properties, A18, A21, A24
Tool steels, 396, 397
Top-down science, 12
Torque, 153
Torsion, 155
Torsional deformation, 153, 173
Torsional tests, 155
Toughness, 151, 169, 182, G13
Tows, 658
Trade names:
selected elastomers, 600
selected plastics, 596–598
Trans, 549, G13
Transducers, 512, 767
Transfer molding, plastics, 613
Transformation rate, 355, G13
temperature dependence, 353
Transformation toughening, 655–656
Transformer cores, 74, 820, 821
Transgranular fracture, 240–241, G13
Transient creep, 265
Transistors, 750–752
Transition metals, 26
Transition temperature, ductilebrittle, see Ductile-to-brittle
transition
Translucency, 844, G13
insulators, 854–855
Transmission (of light), 852
Transmission electron microscopy,
102, 105, 110–111, G13
Transmissivity, 844
I20 • IndexTransparency, 844, G13
Transverse bending test, 485–486
equation for maximum deflection,
499, 651
Transverse direction, 636, G13
Transverse loading, composites,
640–641, 642
Triclinic crystal system, 52, 54
anisotropy in, 73
Tridymite, 464
Trifunctional (polymers), 540, G13
Trigonal crystal system, see
Rhombohedral crystal system
Triple point, 287
True stress/strain, 170–171, G13
T-T-T diagrams, see Isothermal
transformation diagrams
Tungsten, 412, 414
atomic radius and crystal
structure, 47
bonding energy and melting
temperature, 31
density, A4
elastic and shear moduli, 157
electrical resistivity, A27
Poisson’s ratio, 157
properties as wire, 646
recrystallization temperature, 222
slip systems, 203
superconducting critical
temperature, 831
thermal properties, 785
yield and tensile strengths,
ductility, A13
Tungsten carbide:
as abrasive, 507
hardness, 491
Turbine blades, 270
Twin boundaries, 104, 106
Twinning, 210–211
compared to slip, 211
role in shape-memory effect,
379–380
Twins, 106
U
Undercooling, see Supercooling
UHMWPE (Ultra-high-molecularweight polyethylene), 603–604,
G13
properties as a fiber, 646
Unary phase diagrams, 286–287
Uniaxial powder pressing, 523–524
Unidirectional solidification, 270
Uniform corrosion, 692–693
Unit cells, 47, G14. See also Crystal
structures
crystal systems, 52, 54
Units:
electrical and dielectric
parameters, 761
magnetic parameters, 804
SI, A1–A2
Unsaturated hydrocarbons,
534, G14
UNS designation scheme, 396
Upper critical temperature, 423, G14
Upper yield point, 163
V
Vacancies, 92–93, G14
in ceramics, 472
diffusion, 125–126, 476, G14
equilibrium number, 92
in polymers, 558, 559
Valence band, 725, G14
Valence electrons, 25, G14
van der Waals bonding, 34–36, G14
in clays, 467
gecko lizards, 18
hydrocarbons, 534
in polymers, 545, 582
Vibrational heat capacity, 783
Vibrations, atomic, 106–107, 783
Vickers hardness tests, 175, 177,
490–491
Video recorders, 825
Vinyl esters, polymer-matrix
composites, 650
Vinyls, 597
Viscoelastic creep, 578
Viscoelasticity, 159, 574–578, G14
Viscoelastic relaxation modulus,
575–578, G10
Viscosity, 488, 531, G14
temperature dependence for
glasses, 514
Viscous flow, 162
in ceramics, 488
in polymers, 576, 577
Visible spectrum, 842
Vision (glass ceramic), 505
Vitreous silica, see Fused silica
Vitrification, 522, G14
Volatile organic compound (VOC)
emissions, 602
Volume defects, 106
Volume expansion coefficient, 786
Volume fraction (phase), 293
Vulcanization, 546, 589–590, G14
Vycor, 503
W
Wallner line, 485
Water:
as corrosion environment, 701
bonding energy and melting
temperature, 31
desalination of, 560
hydrogen bonding in, 36, 37
phase diagram (pressuretemperature), 281, 286, 340, 342
as quenching medium, 430, 431
volume expansion upon freezing, 37
Wave-mechanical atomic model,
22, G14
Weathering, of polymers, 710–711
Weight-average molecular weight,
542, 563
Weight percent, 95–96, G14
Weld decay, 697, G14
Welding, 421–422, G14
Wetting, 351
Whiskers, 243, 645, G14
White cast iron, 401, 402, G14
Whitewares, 503, 505, 518, G14
Wiedemann-Franz constant, 790, 797
values of, for metals, 785
Wiedemann-Franz law, 790
Wires, 645, 646
Wood:
as composite, 628
cost, A35
density, A6
electrical resistivity, A29
modulus of elasticity, A9
specific heat, A26
tensile strength, A15
thermal conductivity, A23
thermal expansion coefficient, A20
Work hardening, see Strain
hardening
Working point (glass), 514, G14
Working range (glass), 514
Working stress, 183
Wrought alloys, 406, G14
Wüstite, 473, 777, 780
X
X-ray diffraction, 44, 74–78
X-rays, 841, 842
Y
Yielding, 163, G14
Yield point phenomenon, 163
Yield strength, 163, 571–572, G14
dependence on grain size
(brass), 213
fine pearlite, 371
selected metals, 168
selected polymers, 572
tempered martensite, 376
values for various materials, 246,
A11–A15
Index • I21Young’s modulus, see Modulus of
elasticity
Yttrium barium copper oxide,
830, 831
Yttrium iron garnet (YIG), 811, 836
Z
Zinc:
atomic radius and crystal
structure, 47
density, A5
electrical resistivity, A28
mechanical properties, A8,
A10, A13
recrystallization temperature, 222
slip systems, 203
thermal properties, A18, A22, A25
Zinc alloys, 415
Zinc blende structure, 458, 460
Zinc telluride, electrical
characteristics, 734
Zirconia:
density, A5
electrical resistivity, A28
flexural strength, 486
hardness, 491
modulus of elasticity, 486
plane strain fracture toughness, A17
Poisson’s ratio, A10
as refractory, 507
stabilized, 478
transformation toughening, 655
Zirconia-calcia phase diagram, 479
Zirconium:
alloys, 415
density, A5
electrical resistivity, A28
mechanical properties, A8,
A10, A13
slip systems, 203
thermal properties, A18,
A22, A25
I22 • Index
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