Materials for Springs

Materials for Springs
اسم المؤلف
Y. Yamada
التاريخ
16 يوليو 2018
المشاهدات
التقييم
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Materials for Springs
Y. Yamada
Contents
1 A Guide to Spring Material Selection 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Functions and Qualities Required for Springs and the Spring
Material Selection . 2
1.2.1 Basic Items to be considered in Spring Material Selection 2
1.2.2 Spring Material Selection Method . 5
1.2.3 General Considerations of Spring Durability 21
1.3 Supplements: Delayed Fracture of High Strength Steel and
the Testing Methods . 42
1.3.1 Delayed Fracture Tests of Straight Bar . 42
1.3.2 Testing for Helical Springs 45
2 Metallic Material for Springs 47
2.1 Steel Material . 47
2.1.1 Manufacturing Method of Steel Material for Springs . 47
2.1.2 Various Characteristics Required for Hot-Formed
Spring Steel 72
2.1.3 Cold Formed Springs 120
2.2 Heat Resisting Material for Springs 235
2.2.1 Introduction 235
2.2.2 Types of Heat Resisting Spring Material . 235
2.2.3 Manufacturing Process of Heat-Resisting Spring
Material 242
2.2.4 Characteristics of Superalloy 244
2.2.5 Spring Characteristics of Superalloy . 248
2.3 Constant Modulus and High Modulus Spring Material . 249
2.3.1 Constant Modulus Spring Material 249
2.3.2 High Modulus Spring Material 255
2.4 Copper Base Alloy Spring Material 259
2.4.1 General Remarks 259
2.4.2 Brass 270XIV Contents
2.4.3 Phosphor Bronze and Nickel Silver 273
2.4.4 Copper Beryllium . 282
2.4.5 Other Copper Alloy . 292
2.5 Titanium Alloys for Springs . 296
2.5.1 Resource and Refining Process of Titanium . 296
2.5.2 Melting Process of Titanium 297
2.5.3 Forging, Rolling and Finishing of Titanium . 298
2.5.4 Physical Properties of Titanium . 299
2.5.5 Properties of Titanium and Titanium Alloys 300
2.5.6 Spring Characteristic of Titanium . 303
2.6 Ni–Ti Shape Memory Alloys and Super-Elasticity . 308
2.6.1 General Principles . 309
2.6.2 Manufacturing and Evaluation Method . 321
2.6.3 Applications 324
3 Polymeric Materials . 327
3.1 Plastics 327
3.1.1 Introduction 327
3.1.2 Comparison of Typical Material Properties . 327
3.1.3 Consideration of Shape . 331
3.1.4 Consideration of Fabrication 331
3.1.5 Application Examples 333
3.1.6 Instruction for Plastic Use 333
3.2 Rubber 335
3.2.1 A Choice of Rubber Materials for Springs 335
3.2.2 Compounding Ingredients 335
3.2.3 Manufacturing Process of Anti-Vibration Component 338
3.2.4 Examples of Molding 339
3.2.5 Material Properties for Vibration Isolator 339
3.2.6 Testing Methods for Rubber Vibration Isolators . 341
3.3 Composite Materials . 343
3.3.1 Various FRP Springs 343
3.3.2 Material Composition of FRP Spring 343
3.3.3 Manufacturing Process of FRP Spring . 344
3.3.4 Material Properties for Design 344
3.3.5 Evaluation of FRP Spring Products 346
3.3.6 Tips on FRP Materials . 346
4 Inorganic Materials 348
4.1 Ceramics . 348
4.1.1 Ceramics for Spring . 348
4.1.2 Strength of Ceramic Spring . 350
4.1.3 Operational Temperature of Ceramic Spring 352
4.2 RCC (Reinforced Carbon-Carbon) . 353
4.2.1 Properties of RCC . 353Contents XV
4.2.2 Manufacturing Method and Material Characteristics . 353
4.2.3 Shapes and Properties of C/C Spring 354
5 Appendix 357
5.1 Price of Spring Material 357
5.2 Comparison between JIS and International Standards 360
5.3 Data Books for Spring Material . 364
5.4 Material Manufacturers and Products 365
5.5 Unit Conversion Table . 370
Index
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