Mastering 3D Printing

Mastering 3D Printing
اسم المؤلف
Joan Horvath
التاريخ
7 يوليو 2022
المشاهدات
339
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
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Mastering 3D Printing
Modeling, Printing, and Prototyping With REPRAP-Style 3D Printers
Joan Horvath
Contents at a Glance
About the Author xvii
About the Technical Reviewer . xix
Acknowledgments . xxi
Introduction xxiii

  • Part 1: Open Source 3D Printers . 1
  • Chapter 1: A Brief History of 3D Printing 3
  • Chapter 2: The Desktop 3D Printer .11
  • Chapter 3: Open Source 21
  • Part 2: The 3D Printing Process 31
  • Chapter 4: Making a 3D Model .33
  • Chapter 5: Slicing a 3D Model 47
  • Chapter 6: Driving Your Printer: G-code 65
  • Chapter 7: Material Considerations 77
  • Chapter 8: Case Studies 89
  • Part 3: 3D Printing Meets Traditional Prototyping 111
  • Chapter 9: Moving to Metal .113
  • Chapter 10: Large Prints and Post-Processing .129
  • Chapter 11: Troubleshooting .137
  • Part 4: Using Your Printer . 149
  • Chapter 12: Printers in the Classroom 151
  • Chapter 13: Scientific Visualization 165
  • Chapter 14: Futures .175
  • Appendix A: Typical Printer Settings 183
  • Appendix B: Links and Resources 189
    Index
    Contents
    About the Author xvii
    About the Technical Reviewer . xix
    Acknowledgments . xxi
    Introduction . xxiii
  • Part 1: Open Source 3D Printers . 1
  • Chapter 1: A Brief History of 3D Printing 3
    What Is 3D Printing? .3
    Nature’s 3D Printers 3
    Historical Additive Manufacturing . 5
    Types of 3D Printers .5
    The Early Days of Robotic 3D Printers 6
    The RepRap Movement 7
    The Rise of Crowdfunding 7
    Enabling Technologies .8
    The Arduino 8
    Open Source Code Repositories 8
    A Case Study of Printer Evolution 8
    Summary .10
  • Chapter 2: The Desktop 3D Printer 11
    Who Uses Consumer 3D Printers? .11
    Types of Filament-Based Consumer Printers 13
    Cartesian Printers 13
    Deltabots . 14- CONTENTS
    viii
    Kits vs. Assembled Printers .16
    3D Printer Design Considerations 16
    Filament . 16
    Frame 16
    Build Platform . 16
    Extruder Design . 17
    Moving Parts 17
    Control Electronics 19
    Machine Tool or Computer Peripheral? 19
    Safety and Ventilation 19
    Summary .20
  • Chapter 3: Open Source 21
    Open Source Infrastructure .22
    GNU Licenses . 22
    Wikis, Forums, and Open Source Repositories 23
    Open Source Pros and Cons 25
    Meeting the Open Source 3D-Printing Community .25
    The Maker Movement 25
    Makerspaces and Hackerspaces . 27
    Contributing to the Open Source Community 29
    Summary .29
  • Part 2: The 3D Printing Process 31
  • Chapter 4: Making a 3D Model 33
    What Makes A Model Printable on A 3D Printer? 33
    3D Model File Formats . 33
    What Does “Watertight and Manifold” Mean? . 34
    Scanning a Model 34
    Consumer-Level 3D Scanners . 35
    CT Scanners 35- CONTENTS
    ix
    Downloading and Modifying Existing Models 36
    Models of Everyday Things 36
    Specialized Databases . 36
    Creating a New Model .37
    Using a CAD Program 37
    Programs for Specific Applications . 41
    Design Considerations .44
    Complexity Is Free: Hardware as a Service . 45
    Speed vs. Customization . 45
    Summary .46
  • Chapter 5: Slicing a 3D Model .47
    What Is “Slicing?” .47
    3D Printing as Cooking 47
    Tools and Techniques 48
    Starting a Print and Getting a Model to Stick to the Platform 49
    Supporting and Orienting a Model . 52
    Effects of Layer Height 55
    Speed . 57
    Managing Internal Open Space . 57
    Getting Started: How to Slice an Object 60
    Slicing Programs: Slic3r 60
    Alternative Hosting and Slicing Programs . 63
    Summary .63
  • Chapter 6: Driving Your Printer: G-code 65
    Controlling Your 3D Printer .65
    Understanding G-code .66
    Using Host Programs .67
    Repetier Host . 67
    MatterControl 69
    Octoprint 70- CONTENTS
    x
    When a Print Starts .70
    During a Print 71
    When a Print Finishes Normally 71
    Getting a Part off the Build Platform 71
    Picking Off Support and Cleaning Up The Print . 72
    Restarting or Shutting Off the Printer 72
    Manually Controlling Your Printer 72
    Stopping a Print . 73
    Changing Filament . 73
    Changing Temperatures During a Print 74
    Basic Hardware Troubleshooting 74
    Running from an SD Card 76
    Summary .76
  • Chapter 7: Material Considerations 77
    Filament Quality Control 78
    Selecting and Using a Filament . 79
    Temperature and Speed Settings 82
    Will My Filament Spool Run Out During My Print? . 83
    Filament Materials 83
    Polylactic Acid (PLA) . 83
    Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) . 84
    Nylon . 84
    T-glase (PET) 85
    Polycarbonate 85
    Thermoplastic Elastomers (TPEs) 85
    Research Filaments . 85
    Multiple Extruders .86
    Printing Dissolvable Support . 86
    Dual-Extruder Printing with Two Different Materials . 86
    Summary .87- CONTENTS
    xi
  • Chapter 8: Case Studies 89
    Simple Print .89
    Simple Print Example 1: Heart Pendant . 90
    Simple Print Example 2: Abstract Base . 96
    Printing a Vase 98
    Printing a Complex Object with Fine Detail .100
    Printing with Support 103
    Hand-Building Support 107
    Dual Extruders .107
    Dual Extruders: Using One Head for Support Material . 107
    Dual Extruders: Models in Two Colors (or Two Materials) 108
    Speed Settings 110
    Summary .110
  • Part 3: 3D Printing Meets Traditional Prototyping . 111
  • Chapter 9: Moving to Metal .113
    The Sand-Cast Process .113
    Sand-Casting Terminology . 114
    Patterns Made from PLA 115
    Filling the Flask with Sand 116
    Cutting Sprues and Runners 120
    Pouring in the Metal 122
    Finishing the Sand Casting 122
    Planning Ahead for Better Casting 123
    Adding Draft to Patterns 125
    Avoiding Undercuts 125
    Layer Orientation 125
    Shrinkage and Clearances . 125
    Printing Your Sprues? 126
    Investment Casting .126
    Lost-PLA Process . 127- CONTENTS
    xii
    Casting vs. Printing in Metal .128
    Finding Casting Services 128
    Summary .128
  • Chapter 10: Large Prints and Post-Processing .129
    Printing Computationally Complex Objects .129
    Printing Physically Big Objects 130
    Objects That Are Too Long for the Build Platform 130
    Objects That Are Too Big in More Than One Dimension . 131
    Gluing the Pieces Together 131
    Sanding, Chemical Smoothing, Painting, and Dyeing .132
    Sanding 132
    Smoothing and Bonding ABS with Acetone . 133
    Painting ABS and PLA 135
    Dyeing Nylon 135
    Summary .135
  • Chapter 11: Troubleshooting 137
    Clicking or Grinding Noises .137
    Environmental Issues .138
    Drafts . 138
    Ambient Temperature 138
    Humidity 139
    Dust . 139
    Printer Internal Alignment Issues 140
    Prints Not Sticking to the Build Platform .141
    Clogged Nozzle Solutions 142
    Cold Pull . 143
    Wire Brush Bristle 145
    Extruder Drive Gear Teeth Clogged 146- CONTENTS
    xiii
    Eliminate Stringing 146
    Software Upgrades 146
    Summary 147
  • Part 4: Using Your Printer . 149
  • Chapter 12: Printers in the Classroom 151
    Teaching Design, Engineering, and Art 151
    Hands-on History .154
    William Hand, Jr. Boat Hull 154
    Herreshoff Cleat . 157
    Reactions to the 3D Prints . 160
    Learning Through Re-Creating History 161
    The Special-Needs Student .162
    After-School Activities .162
    Robotics Clubs and Teams . 162
    DIY Girls . 163
    Young Maker Programs . 163
    Career Tech Ed . 163
    Early-Adopter Experiences 164
    Summary .164
  • Chapter 13: Scientific Visualization 165
    Visualizing Molecular Biology .165
    Model Accuracy Considerations . 166
    Example: 3D-Printed Models of Six-Helix DNA Bundles 166
    Visualizing Mathematical Abstractions .167
    Parabola Math Manipulative 168
    Surfaces of Revolution 170
    Sinusoids 171
    General Surface Modeling . 174
    Other Scientific Uses of 3D Printing 174
    Summary .174- CONTENTS
    xiv
  • Chapter 14: Futures .175
    Technology Trends .175
    Extreme Users 175
    Improving the User Experience 177
    Faster Printing . 177
    Filament 177
    Emerging 3D-Printing Applications .178
    Printing Food . 178
    3D Printing in Medicine . 179
    The Developing World 181
    The Business of 3D Printing 181
    Printer Patent Issues . 181
    Hardware as a Service . 182
    Summary .182
  • Appendix A: Typical Printer Settings .183
    Slic3r Typical Settings .183
    Cura Settings Differences 188
  • Appendix B: Links and Resources .189
    Chapter 1: A Brief History of 3D Printing .189
    Chapter 2: The Desktop 3D Printer 189
    Chapter 3: Open Source 189
    Chapter 4: Making a 3D Model 190
    Chapter 5: Slicing a 3D Model .190
    Chapter 6: Driving Your Printer: G-Code 190
    Chapter 7: Material Considerations .190
    Chapter 8: Case Studies 190
    Chapter 9: Moving to Metal .191
    Chapter 10: Large Prints and Post-Processing 191
    Chapter 11: Troubleshooting 191- CONTENTS
    xv
    Chapter 12: Printers in the Classroom .191
    Chapter 13: Scientific Visualization .191
    Chapter 14: Futures .191
    Media Sites Focusing on 3D Printing 192
    Index .193
    „„„„„„„„„A, B
    Abstract base, 96
    Acetone Slurry, 132
    „„„„„„„„„C
    Cartesian printers, 13
    Casting, 191
    lost-wax investment casting, 113
    sand casting process, 113
    vs. metal printing, 128
    searching, 128
    Computer-aided design (CAD)
    programs, 33, 37
    Computer numerically
    controlled (CNC), 163
    Crowdfunding platform, 7
    CT scanners, 35
    Cura settings, 188
    „„„„„„„„„D, E
    Deltabots, 13–14
    Digital light projection (DLP), 5
    Dual extruders
    support material, 107
    twocolors/materials
    Kaptontape platform, 110
    OpenScad code, 108
    Slicr3r settings, 109
    „„„„„„„„„F
    Filament, 77, 190
    characteristics, 83
    dissolvable support, 86
    dual-extruder, 86–87
    materials
    acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), 84
    nylon, 84
    polycarbonate, 85
    polylactic acid (PLA), 83
    research ilaments, 85
    T-glase (PET), 85
    thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs), 85
    multiple extruders, 86
    PLA fan, 81
    polylactic acid (PLA) ilament, 77
    quality control
    diametres, 78
    directional strength, 80
    erratic print quality, 79
    extruder nozzles, 79
    print bed, 80
    storing and handling, 82
    thermoplastic
    elastomers (TPEs), 79
    ventilation and drafts, 81
    spools of nylon, 77
    Uniform Filament Identiication
    system (UFID), 78
    „„„„„„„„„G, H, I, J, K
    G-code, 190
    CNC market, 66
    commands, 66
    during print, 71
    host program
    MatterControl host, 69
    Octoprint, 70
    Repetier host, 67
    manual controls, 72
    changing ilament, 73
    kill job/stop button, 73
    temperature changes, 74
    trouble shooting, 74
    Index
    193microSD card, 76
    printer’s irmware, 70
    print inishes
    build platform, 71
    painstaking process, 72
    restarting or shutting, 72
    Slic3r program, 68
    3D printer
    irmware, 65
    hardware and
    software architecture, 66
    microSD card, 66
    tool change command, 67
    „„„„„„„„„L
    Layer height, 55
    Lost-wax investment casting
    lost-PLA process, 127
    variations, 126
    „„„„„„„„„M, N
    MeshLab, 130
    „„„„„„„„„O
    OpenSCAD, 38
    Open source, 21, 189
    infrastructure
    forums, 23–24
    GNU licenses, 22
    open source repositories, 23–24
    pros and cons, 25
    wikis (see Wikipedia)
    3D-printing community
    contribution, 29
    hackerspaces/makerspaces, 27
    maker movement, 25
    „„„„„„„„„P, Q, R
    Polylactic acid (PLA), 51
    Print bed
    blue painter’s tape, 80
    Kapton tape, 81
    Printer
    Inill, 186
    layers and perimeters, 186
    recommended material, 186
    skirt and brim, 187
    speed, 187
    support material, 187
    Protein databank (PDB), 36
    „„„„„„„„„S
    Sand casting process
    boat and sprues, 123
    lask illing
    backing board, 116
    parting compound, 117
    runners, 120
    sprue cutter, 120
    with molten aluminum cooling, 122
    layer orientation, 125
    pattern, 113
    patterns, 125
    Petrobond, 114
    PLA patterns, 115
    shrinkage and clearances, 125
    sprues printing, 126
    terminology, 114
    undercuts, 125
    Scientiic visualization, 191
    mathematicians, 167
    general surface modeling, 174
    generatrix, 170
    OpenSCAD, 170
    parabola math manipulative, 168
    sinusoids, 171
    molecular biologists, 165
    DNA origami, 166
    model accuracy considerations, 166
    Selective laser sintering (SLS), 5
    Simple print
    heart pendant
    ilament settings, 94
    Inill settings, 92
    layers and perimeters, 92
    layer view simulation, 95
    MatterControl 3D viewer, 94
    MatterControl screen, 91
    real printer, 94
    skirt and brim settings, 93
    support material settings, 93
    Slic3r typical settings, 183
    ilament, 184
    Printer, 184, 186
    Slicing, 190
    cutting model, 55
    deinition, 47
    gimbal, 101
    layer height efects, 55
    matter control, 48
    orientation model, 53
    post-processing, 48
    Slic3r program
    downloading, 60
    ilament settings, 61
  • ฀INDEX
    194
    G-code (cont.)open source Cura program, 63
    printer settings, 61
    print settings, 61
    Repetier Host program, 61
    speed
    bridging, 57
    inill, 59
    perimeter, 58
    retraction, 59
    supported model, 52
    tools and techniques, 48
    brims, 49
    heated platforms, 51
    PLA models, 51–52
    rafts, 51
    skirts, 50
    Stereolithography (SLA), 5
    Surface Tesselation Language (STL), 33
    „„„„„„„„„T, U, V
    3D model, 33, 190
    CAD programs
    architectural project, 42
    cubes, 38
    engineering tool, 42
    OpenSCAD, 38
    sculptural models, 41
    sculptural tools, 43
    Tinkercad, 37
    visual-efects developers, 42
    existing models
    protein databank (PDB), 36
    STL ile, 36
    scanning
    consumer-level, 35
    CT scanners, 35
    point cloud, 34
    stray relections, 34
    3D printer
    consumer-level printers, 45
    manifold object, 34
    speed vs. customization, 45
    surface tesselation language (STL), 33
    watertight object, 34
    3D printers, 11, 189, 191
    build platform, 16
    challenges, 161
    CNC, 163
    control electronics, 19
    DIY Girls, 163
    early-adopter experiences, 164
    extruder design
    Bowden extruder, 17
    direct-drive extruder, 17
    nozzles, 17
    retraction, 17
    ilament, 16
    ilament-based consumer printers
    Cartesian, 13
    Deltabots, 13–14
    frame, 16
    full-hull models, 156, 160
    Hand speedboat, 161
    Hart Nautical collections, 154
    Herreshof cleat, 158
    kits vs. assembled, 16
    machine tools, 19
    MIT Museum, 160
    opportunities, 161
    personalization, 12
    program makers, 163
    robotics clubs and team, 162
    safety and ventilation, 19
    sketchup program, 156
    stepper motors, 17
    tactile learners, 162
    teaching
    CAD program, 151
    engineering and design classes, 153
    student designs, 152
    uses, 11
    3D printing, 174, 189–190. See also Scientic visualization
    additive manufacturing, 5
    Arduino, 8
    Bear platform
    build up, 106
    completed bear, 106
    MatterControl’s visualization, 103
    MatterSlice support, 105
    support material, 104
    tail down, 104
    big objects
    acetone slurry, 132
    build platform, 130
    cutting process, 131
    gluing, 131
    clogged nozzle solutions, 142
    cold-pull technique, 143
    drive gear teeth clogged, 146
    wire brush bristle, 145
    complex objects, 129
    description, 3
    digital light projection, 5
    disruptive technology, 175
    dual extruders
    support material, 107
    twocolors/materials, 108
    dyeing nylon, 135
    environmental issues
  • ฀INDEX
    195ambient temperature, 138
    drafts, 138
    dust-catcher, ilament, 139
    humidity, 139
    evolution of, 9
    future aspects, 181, 191
    Gimbal
    layers and perimeters, 101
    layer visualizations, 101
    object settings, 101
    on printer, 103
    slicing, 101
    three-ring, 100
    two axes, 103
    Github, 8
    hand-building support, 107
    in medicine, 179
    bio printing, 180
    medical devices, 180
    prosthetic hands, 180
    MeshLab, 130
    nature’s 3D printers, 3
    painting ABS and PLA, 135
    printer patent issues, 181
    printing food, 178
    robotic 3D printers
    contour crafting, 6
    crowdfunding, 7
    history of, 6
    RepRap movement, 7
    two-photon polymerization, 6
    sanding, 132
    selective laser sintering, 5
    services, 182
    simple print, 89
    abstract base, 96
    Heart pendant, 90
    slicing (see Slicing)
    smoothing and bonding ABS, 133
    speed settings, 110
    stereolithography, 5
    technology trends
    contour crafting, 175
    faster printing, 177
    ilament, 177
    microfabrication, 175
    user experience, 177
    troubleshooting, 191
    clicking/grinding
    noises, 137
    designed to fail, 141
    eliminate stringing, 146
    feeler gauge, 140
    software upgrades, 146
    squaring, 140
    tramming the platform, 140
    vase printing, 98
    „„„„„„„„„W, X, Y
    Wikipedia
    RepRap project, 24
    wiki accuarcy, 23
    „„„„„„„„„Z
    Zbrush, 42
  • ฀INDEX
    196
    3D printing (cont.)

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