Maritime – Welding Handbook

Maritime – Welding Handbook
اسم المؤلف
غير معروف
التاريخ
7 أغسطس 2020
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Maritime – Welding Handbook
Welding and Related Processes for Repair and Maintenance
Onboard – 14th edition – 2nd revision
Unitor Welding Handbook
2.01 Introduction & quick guides to processes 35
2.02 Filler material consumption 47
2.03 Metal identification 50
2.04 Unalloyed / low alloyed steel 55
2.05 Problem steels 62
2.06 Stainless steels 65
2.07 Cast iron 78
2.08 Copper and copper alloys 104
2.09 Aluminium 112
2.10 Evaluation of welds 114
3.01 Coated Electrodes 125
3.02 TIG Welding Rods & Fluxes 197
3.03 Wires for Wire Welding 217
3.04 Gas Welding Rods & Fluxes 241
3.05 Brazing Rods & Fluces 249
3.06 Cold Repair Compounds 275
4.01 Electrode welding & gouging 331
4.02 TIG Welding 381
4.03 Wire Welding 403
4.04 Plasma Cutting 441
4.05 Current Distribution System 459
5.01 AC/OX cutting, welding, brazing 465
5.02 Gas Supplies and gas distribution system 517
535
1 SAFETY IN WELDING
2 SOLUTIONS
3 CONSUMABLES
4 ARC WELDING AND
CUTTING PROCESS
& EQUIPMENT
5 GAS WELDING AND
CUTTING PROCESS &
EQUIPMENT
6 MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION 6.001.00
UNITOR WELDING HANDBOOK
1 SAFETY IN WELDING 9
1 01 Introduction 10
1 02 How to use the handbook 11
1 03 Welding instructions and training 12
1 04 Personal protection 13
1.04.01 Arc welding face shields . 14
1.04.02 Protective goggles . 18
1.04.03 Welder’s protective clothing 20
1 05 Work site protection 22
1.05.01 Welding curtain 22
1.05.02 Welding blanket . 22
1.05.03 Fire extinguisher . 23
1 06 Welding fumes 24
1.06.01 Welding fumes 26
1.06.02 Fume extraction . 27
1 07 Safety check list 30
1.07.01 Equipment 30
1.07.02 Work place 31
1.07.03 Hot work procedure 32
1.07.04 Operator protection 32
2 SOLUTIONS 35
2 01 Introduction 36
2.01.01 Quick reference for cutting . 37
2.01.02 Quick reference for joining 38
2.01.03 Quick reference for rebuilding,
hardfacing and coating . 41
2.01.04 Quick reference to
cold repairs . 43
2 02 Filler material consumption 45
2 03 Metal identification 48
2 04 Unalloyed / low alloyed steel 53
2.04.01 Introduction . 53
2.04.02 Unalloyed steel 53
2.04.03 Low alloyed steel 53
2.04.04 Heat resistant steel 53
2.04.05 Low temperature steel 54
2.04.06 Weathering steel 54
2 05 Problem steels 62
2 06 Stainless steels 65
2.06.01 Introduction . 65
2.06.02 Austenitic Stainless Steel . 66
2.06.03 Ferritic Stainless Steel 68
2.06.04 Martensitic Stainless Steel 69
2.06.05 Duplex Stainless Steel 70
2.06.06 Clad Steel . 71
2.06.07 Stainless Steel corrosion types 72
2.06.08 Storing and handling of
Stainless Steel onboard 74
2.06.09 Grinding/cutting consumables
for Stainless Steel . 75
2.06.10 Unitor Safety Grinder . 77
2 07 Cast iron 78
2.07.01 Introduction . 78
2.07.02 Grey cast iron . 79
2.07.03 White cast iron 80
2.07.04 Malleable cast iron 80
2.07.05 Ductile cast iron . 81
2.07.06 High alloy cast iron 82
2.07.07 Identification of cast iron . 83
2.07.08 Preparation of the
work piece 84
2.07.09 Arc welding of cast iron 87
2.07.10 Braze welding of cast iron 95
2.07.11 Cold repair on cast iron . 97
2 08 Copper and copper alloys 104
2.08.01 Introduction . 104
2.08.02 Brass . 104
2.08.03 Aluminium brass (Yorcalbro) 105
2.08.04 Bronze 106
2.08.05 Nickel bronses (Cunifer) 107
2 09 Aluminium 112
2 10 Evaluation of welds 114
2.10.01 Typical welding faults 114
2.10.02 Inspection of welded joints . 118
2.10.03 Crack detection 123
3 CONSUMABLES 125
3 01 Coated Electrodes 126
3.01.01 Introduction . 127
3.01.02 Types of electrodes 128
3.01.03 Storing and re-drying . 134
3.01.04 Classification and approvals 140
3.01.05 Welding positions 1481.00
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3.01.24 NICKEL-333 N
Nickel Electrode for Cast Iron 184
3.01.25 TINBRO-341
Electrode for Copper Alloys . 186
3.01.26 ALBRONZE-344
Electrode for Copper Alloys . 188
3.01.27 ALUMIN-351 N
Electrode for Aluminum . 190
3.01.28 CH-2-382
Electrode for Chamfering . 192
3.01.29 ACA-384
Electrode for Air Carbon Arc
Gouging 194
3 02 TIG welding rods and fluxes 197
3.02.01 Introduction . 198
3.02.02 Classification 199
3.02.03 IMS-210 200
3.02.04 ICROMO-216 202
3.02.05 18/8 Mo-221 . 204
3.02.06 ALUMAG-235 206
3.02.07 IDUPLEX-222 208
3.02.08 ICUNI-30-239 210
3.02.09 IALBRO . 212
3.02.10 I-FLUX-238 PF . 214
3 03 Wires for Wire Welding 217
3.03.01 Introduction . 218
3.03.02 Classification 219
3.03.03 Storage and handling for
Flux Cored wires . 221
3.03.04 GPS-W-200 222
3.03.05 MS-W-201 Selfshield . 224
3.03.06 Coreshield 8 Selfshield . 226
3.03.07 S 316 M-GF-221 228
3.03.08 S 309 M-GF-222 230
3.03.09 Icuni-W-239 . 232
3.03.10 Ialbro-W-237 234
3.03.11 Alumag-W-235 . 236
3.03.12 Abratech-W-230 . 238
3 04 Gas Welding Rods & Fluxes 241
3.04.01 Introduction . 242
3.04.02 MS-200 . 244
3.04.03 ALUMAG-235 246
3.04.04 Aluflux-234 F 248
3.01.06 GPO-302 N
General Purpose Electrode
For Mild Steel . 150
3.01.07 GPR-300H
High Recovery Electrode
for Mild Steel 152
3.01.08 SPECIAL-303 N
Double Coated Electrode for
Mild and Ship Quality Steel 154
3.01.09 LH-314 N
Low Hydrogen Electrode for
Ship Quality Steel 156
3.01.10 LHH-314 H
High Recovery Low Hydrogen
Electrode for Ship Quality Steel 158
3.01.11 LHV-316 N
Vertical Down Welding Low
Hydrogen Electrode for
Ship Quality Steel 160
3.01.12 LHT-318 N
Electrode for High Temperature
Steel . 162
3.01.13 LHL-319 N
Electrode for Low Temperature
Steel . 164
3.01.14 LHR-320 N
Electrode for Weathering Steel 166
3.01.15 TENSILE-328 N
Electrode for Difficult-toWeld Steel 168
3.01.16 IMPACT-329 S
Electrode for Heat Resistant
Overlays 170
3.01.17 WEARMAX-327
Electrode for Joining & Wear
Resistant Overlays . 172
3.01.19 18/8-321 N
Electrode for Stainless Steel 174
3.01.20 23/14-322 N
Electrode for Stainless Steel 176
3.01.21 DUPLEX-325 N
Electrode for Duplex Steel 178
3.01.22 PICKLING GEL
Pickling Gel for Stainless Steel 180
3.01.23 NIFE-334 N
Nickel Iron Electrode for
Cast Iron 1821.00
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3 05 Brazing Rods & Fluxes 249
3.05.01 Introduction . 250
3.05.02 Bronze-264 254
3.05.03 FC-Bronze-261 . 256
3.05.04 FC-Wearbro-262 . 258
3.05.05 Cast Iron-237 260
3.05.06 AG-45-253 . 262
3.05.07 AG-60-252 . 264
3.05.08 Tin-241 AG 266
3.05.09 Fluxes for Brazing 268
3.05.10 Bronze Flux-261 PF . 269
3.05.11 Wearbro Flux-262 PF . 270
3.05.12 AG-60/45 Flux-252 PF . 271
3.05.13 Albro Flux-263 PF 272
3.05.14 Cast Iron Flux-236 F 273
3 06 Cold Repair Compounds 275
3.06.01 Introduction . 276
3.06.02 Typical application areas . 276
3.06.03 How do Polymers work? 278
3.06.04 How to prepare the surface . 279
3.06.05 How to apply the product . 280
3.06.06 Polymer Kit-A . 282
3.06.07 Product overview 284
3.06.08 Leak Stop – Pipe repair . 286
3.06.09 Metalgrade Ready-Stick 290
3.06.10 Metalgrade Express 294
3.06.11 Metalgrade Rebuild 296
3.06.12 Metalgrade Hi-Temp . 302
3.06.13 Aquagrade Rebuild . 306
3.06.14 Ceramigrade Rebuild . 310
3.06.15 Ceramigrade Liner . 314
3.06.16 Ceramigrade Abrashield 318
3.06.17 Rubbergrade 6 Rebuild . 322
3.06.18 Rubbergrade 6 Remould 326
4 ARC WELDING AND CUTTNG PROCESS &
EQUIPMENT 331
4 01 Electrode welding & gouging 333
4.01.01 Introduction . 334
4.01.02 Basic principles . 337
4.01.03 Power source characteristics 338
4.01.04 Selecting power source 340
4.01.05 UWI-150 TP . 342
4.01.06 UWI-230 TP AC/DC . 345
4.01.07 UWI-203 TP 348
4.01.08 UWI-320 TP . 350
4.01.09 UWI-500 TP . 352
4.01.10 Primary extension cables . 359
4.01.11 Secondary cables 360
4.01.12 Electrode holders, cable
connectors & return
clamp assembly . 362
4.01.13 Accessories . 370
4.01.14 Welding techniques 371
4.01.15 Edge preparation 373
4.01.16 Electrodes for electrode
welding & gouging . 374
4.01.17 Air Carbon arc gouging . 377
4 02 TIG Welding 381
4.02.01 Introduction . 382
4.02.02 Basic principles . 383
4.02.03 Shielding gas 384
4.02.04 Tungsten electrodes 386
4.02.05 TIG torch . 388
4.02.06 Regulator & accessories 391
4.02.07 Preparing the torch 393
4.02.08 Welding parameters 394
4.02.09 Welding technique . 395
4.02.10 Edge preparation 398
4.02.11 Rods and Flux for TIG welding 400
4 03 Wire Welding 403
4.03.01 Introduction . 404
4.03.02 Basic principles . 405
4.03.03 Shielding gas 411
4.03.04 Equipment 412
4.03.05 UWW-161 TP 414
4.03.06 UWF-102 420
4.03.07 Regulator & accessories 426
4.03.08 Application areas 428
4.03.09 Preparation for welding . 429
4.03.10 Welding technique . 431
4.03.11 Edge preparation 434
4.03.12 Wires for wire welding . 438
4 04 Plasma Cutting 441
4.04.01 Introduction . 4431.00
UNITOR WELDING HANDBOOK
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5.01.23 Consumables and parameters
for gas welding 509
5.01.24 Soldering and brazing
techniques 510
5.01.25 Edge preparation 512
5.01.26 Consumables and parameters
for brazing 514
5 02 Gas supplies and gas distribution
system 517
5.02.01 Introduction . 518
5.02.02 Argon 519
5.02.03 Argon-Carbon Dioxide mixture 520
5.02.04 Carbon-Dioxide 521
5.02.05 Oxygen . 522
5.02.06 Acetylene . 524
5.02.07 Rules & Safety precautions
for handling and use of
Gas cylinders 528
5.02.08 Gas Distribution System for
Acetylene and Oxygen 530
6 MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION 535
5 04 International system of units . 536
5 05 The Greek Alphabet . 537
5 06 General conversion factors 538
5 07 Roman numerals 539
5 08 Metric and decimal equivalents
of fractions of an inch . 540
5 09 Wire cross section AWG/mm2 540
5 10 Common gauge series for sheet
thickness and wire 541
5 11 Physical properties of some
elements . 542
5 12 Hardness comparison table 543
5 13 Corrosion of galvanic couples in
sea water 544
5 14 Temperature scales . 546
5 15 Pressure variations related
to temperature . 547
5 16 Abbreviations and welding
terminology . 548
4.04.02 Basic principles . 445
4.04.03 Plasma cutting equipment 446
4.04.04 UPC-310 TP . 447
4.04.05 UPC-1041 . 451
4.04.06 Cutting technique 454
4.04.07 Maintenance and
trouble shooting . 456
4 05 Current Distribution System 459
5 GAS WELDING AND CUTTING PROCESS &
EQUIPMENT 463
5 01 Ac/Ox cutting, welding, brazing 465
5.01.01 Introduction . 466
5.01.02 The Combination Torch UCT-500 468
5.01.03 UCT-500 Components and
spares 470
5.01.04 The Unitor Workshop Cabinet 472
5.01.05 Welding and grinding goggles 474
5.01.06 Accessories . 475
5.01.07 Portable gas equipment 476
5.01.08 Gas hoses 479
5.01.09 Hose connectors 482
5.01.10 Gas regulators for cylinders . 485
5.01.11 Flashback . 487
5.01.12 Flashback arrestors 488
5.01.13 The acetylene/oxygen flame 489
5.01.14 Operating instructions for
UCT-500 cutting torch 492
5.01.15 Cutting procedure 494
5.01.16 Common cutting faults 496
5.01.17 Operating instructions for
UCT-500 brazing, welding &
heating torch 498
5.01.18 Maintenance of blowpipes 500
5.01.19 Heating techniques 502
5.01.20 Flame straightening techniques 503
5.01.21 Welding techniques 505
5.01.22 Butt joints for gas welding
of steel . 508
MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION
548
Abbreviations and Welding Terminologi
ABS Abbreviation for American Bureau of Shipping
(classification institute).
ACETONE Colourless, volatile, water-soluble, flammable liquid.
ACETYLENE Colourless gas with high carbon content, lighter than
air, C2H2.
AC Alternating current
AlR CARBON Removal of material from electrically conductive metals
ARC GOUGING by means of an electric arc between carbon electrode
and workpiece combined with an air pressure jet
adjacent to the electrode.
AlSl Abbreviation for American Iron and Steel Institute.
ALLOYED STEEL Steel which, in addition to carbon, contains certain
alloy elements to provide special characteristics.
ALUMINIUM Aluminium alloys with high copper content. See section
BRONZE on Metals and Alloys.
«A»-MEASUREMENT Measurement denoting depth of fillet welds.
AMMETER Instrument for measuring electrical current measured
in amperes.
AMPERAGE Strength of an electrical current measured in amperes.
ANNEAL Removal of internal stresses in metal by heating and
slow cooling.
ANSI Abbreviation for American National Standard Institute.
ARC BLOW Deflection of intended arc pattern by magnetic fields.
ARGON Inert gas – used as shielding gas in wire welding and
TIG welding.
ASM Abbreviation for American Society for Metals.
ASME Abbreviation for American Society of Mechanical
Engineering. Issues regulations relating to planning and
construction of welded installations.
ASPHYXIATION Loss of consciousness due to lack of oxygen.
ASTM Abbreviation for American Society for Testing and
Materials.
AUSTENITE Nonmagnetic stainless steel that cannot be hardened
by heat treatment. This type of steel is characterized
by its unique grain structure. Contains at least 11 %
chromium with varying amounts of nickel.
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AWS Abbreviation for American Welding Society.
BACKUP BAR Tool or fixture attached to the root of weld joint. Tool
may or may not control the shape of the penetrating
metal.
BACKUP GAS Shielding gas which protects the root of the weld from
the atmosphere.
BASE MATERIAL The material in components to be joined by welding.
The composition and dimension of the base materials
are the deciding factors for the welding process and
filler material to be used.
BASIC COATING Electrode coating consisting of calcite, fluorspar,
ferromanganese and ferrosilicium.
BERYLLIUM Hard, light metallic element used in copper for better
fatigue endurance.
BEVEL Angular type of edge preparation.
BOILER STEEL Better known as heat resistant construction
steel. Weldable and corrosion resistant steel with
satisfactory resistance under high thermic conditions,
approx. 500–700°C. This type of steel may be unalloyed,
low alloyed or stainless.
BORE Inside diameter of hole, tube or hollow object.
BRAZING The method where surface bonding between the base
material and filler metal is achieved.
BRIGHT METAL Material preparation where the surface has been
ground or machined to a bright surface to remove scale
or oxides.
BRINELL HARDNESS Abbreviated HB, denoting load in kp from a hard steel
ball divided by the spherical area of indentation in mm2.
Expressed in kp mm2.
BS Abbreviation for British Standard.
BURNTHROUGH Weld which has melted through, resulting in a ho!e and
excessive penetration.
BV Abbreviation for Bureau Veritas (French classification
institute).
CADMIUM White ductile metallic element used for plating material
to prevent corrosion.
CAPILLARY BRAZING Method of brazing using the capillary forces to draw
the filler metal into narrow gaps. Max. gap for capillary
brazing is 0.1 mm.
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CARBIDES Compound of carbon with one or more metal elements.
CAST IRON Welding electrode specially suitable for welding and
ELECTRODES repair of cast iron. The electrode has a core of nickel or
nickel alloy and a slag forming and arc stabilizing
coating.
CE Equipment with CE-markings fulfils the the basic
requirements of the Low Voltage and Electromagnetic
Compatibility Guideline.
CLADDING Layer of material applied to a surface for the purpose of
improved corrosion resistance.
COLD LAPS Area of weld that has not fused with the base metal.
CONCAVE WELD
CROWN Weld crown that is curved inward.
CONSTRUCTION General expression denoting weldable steel in strength
STEEL classification 37–60 kp/mm2.
CONTAMINATION Indicates a dirty part, impure shielding gas or impure
filler metal.
CONTOUR Shape of the weld bead or pass.
CONVEX WELD
CROWN Weld crown that is curved outward.
COPPER Metal element with melting point at 1083 °C. Cu.
CORROSION Eating away of material by a corrosive medium.
CRATER Depression at the end of a weld that has insufficient
cross section.
CRATER CRACKS Cracking that occurs in the crater.
CSA Equipment with CSA-Test mark fulfils the requirements
made in the relevant standards for Canada and the
USA.
CUNIFER Alloy of copper and nickel. Seawater resistant. See
section on Metals and Alloys.
DC Direct current.
DEEP WELDING Electrodes with acid or rutile organic coatings which
ELECTRODES increase the arc effect and generation of heat in the
melting-in process.
DEMURRAGE Monetary charge applied to the user of gas cylinders
beyond agreed rental period.
DEOXIDIZED FILLER Filler materials which contains deoxidizers such as
MATERIALS aluminium, zirconium and titanium for welding steels.
6.00MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION
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DESTRUCTIVE DT – series of tests by destruction to determine the
TESTING quality of a weld.
DEWARS Specially constructed tank similar to a vacuum bottle
for the storage of Iiquified gases.
DIN Abbreviating for Deutsche lnstitut für Normung.
DIRECT CURRENT Flow of current (electrons) in only one direction, either
to the workpiece or to the electrode.
DIRECT CURRENT
ELECTRODE
NEGATIVE (DCEN) Direct current flowing from electrode to the work.
DIRECT CURRENT
ELECTRODE
POSITIVE (DCEP) Direct current from work to the electrode.
DIRECT CURRENT
REVERSE POLARITY
(DCRP) See Direct Current Electrode Positive.
DIRECT CURRENT
STRAIGHT POLARITY
(DCRP) See Direct Current Electrode Negative.
DNV Abbreviation for Det Norske Veritas (Norwegian
classification institute).
DUCTILITY Property of material causing it to deform permanently,
or to exhibit plasticity without breaking while under
tension.
DUTY CYCLE Arc/time factor – the relationship between the time the
arc is in operation and the total working time measured
over a period of 10 minutes. Expressed in % of the time
the welding machine can work at a certain amperage
in this period. I.e. a 30% intermittence the arc can be
in operation 3 min. of the period. During the remaining
time the machine will be at rest while electrodes are
changed, slag removed etc.
ELECTRIC STEEL Steel produced in an electro-furnace.
ELONGATION Permanent elastic extension which metal undergoes
during tensile testing. Amount of extension is usually
indicated by percentages of original gauge length.
Measurements is usually based on 5 x D or 10 x D,
where «D» is the diameter of the test rod.
EN The European Community for standardization has
developed a nomenclature in welding, Euronorm E.N.
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FCAW Flux Cored Arc Welding
FERROUS METALS Group of metals containing substantial amounts of iron.
FERRUM Latin name for chemically pure iron (Fe).
FILLET WELD Weld of approximately triangular cross section joining
two surfaces approximately at right angles and a lap
joint, «T» joint or corner joint.
FILLET WELD LEG Leg Iength of largest isosceles right triangle which can
be inscribed within fillet weld cross section.
FLOW METER Mechanical device used for measuring shielding gas
rate of flow. Usually measurements are liter per. min.
– «l/min.» or in cubic feet per hour – «CFH».
FLUX Material in the form of powder or paste, used in gas
welding and brazing to prevent or facilitate removal
of oxide and other contaminating substances from the
surface of the base material. Fluxes may be corrosive.
GAS SHIELDED Welding processes where the arc and molten pool are
ARC WELDING surrounded by a protective – shielding – gas. The gas
may be of inert type or Carbon Dioxide or a mixture of
these gases together with Hydrogen or Oxygen.
GMAW Gas Metal Arc Welding.
GRAPHITE Carbon flakes in cast iron. (Not chemically fused with
the iron).
GREY CAST IRON Cast iron in which most of the carbon is in the form of
graphite flakes.
GROOVE ANGLE The angle of a V-groove expressed in degrees. Normal
groove angle for electric arc welding is 50–60°,
depending on welding position and metal thickness.
GTAW Gas Tungsten Arc Welding. The shielding gas will here
always be of INERT type. Same welding method as TIG
welding.
HARD BRAZING A common name of brazing methods where capillary
forces are used. See Capillary brazing.
HARD SURFACING Hard material applied to surface of softer material for
protection from abrasion and wear.
HIGH ALLOY STEEL Steel containing more than 5% of one or more alloy
elements.
IMPACT RESISTANCE The energy, expressed in kp.m or Joule, absorbed
by a test rod of predetermined shape at a certain
temperature.
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INERT GAS Gas that does not normally combine chemically with
the base metal or filler material. Also referred to as
nobel gas.
INTERMITTANCE See duty cycle.
INTERPASS In multiple pass weld, minimum and maximum
TEMPERATURE temperature specified for the deposited metal before
next weld pass is started.
INVERTER Welding power source were the normal frequency is
set to a very high value thereby reducing the need for a
heavy iron core in order to reduce the voltage.
ISO Abbreviation for International Standardization
Organisation.
KILLED STEEL Steel which contains fairly large quantities of
ferrosilicium or aluminium. This type of steel is suitable
for welded connections.
LOW ALLOY STEEL Steel containing 1–5% alloy elements.
LR Lloyds Register of Shipping (British classification
institute).
MAGNETIC ARC
BLOW See Arc Blow.
MAG-WELDING Metal Active Gas-welding. (see also GMAW).
MANGANESE An important alloy in steel, melting point 1245 °C.
Chemical symbol Mn.
MARTENSITE Structure obtained when steel is heated and cooled to
achieve its maximum hardness.
MIG-WELDING Metal Inert Gas-welding. See also Gas Shielded Arc
Welding and GMAW.
MILD STEEL Unalloyed steel, maximum carbon content 0.25%.
MPa Mega Pascal
NDT-TESTS Abbreviation for Non-Destructive Testing, i.e. testing
and investigation materials or components without
destroying these. Involves use of radiography,
supersonic testing, magnetic powder, penetrating fluids
etc.
NON-RETURN VALVE An appliance fitted on the outlet of the regulator of a
gas cylinder which prevent any flame from a backfire in
the welding torch from returning to the gas cylinder.
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NS Abbreviation for the Norwegian Standards Association.
NSFI Abbreviation for the Norwegian Research Institute for
Ships.
OUT-OF POSITION Welding that is performed in a non-standard way such
WELDING as vertical or overhead.
OXIDE FILM Film formed on base material as a result of exposure to
oxidizing agents, atmosphere, chemicals or heat.
OXYGEN Colourless gas without odour or taste. Chemical symbol
0
2. Oxygen is not flammable itself, but feeds flames and
is used together with Acetylene for welding and cutting.
ORGANIC Electrodes having consumable organic components in
ELECTRODES the coating i.e. cellulose. Small slag deposits.
POLARITY Direction of current. Current moving from the electrode
to the workpiece is DCEN or DCSP. Current flow from
the workpiece to the electrode is DCEP or DCRP.
POLYMER Chemical reaction between resin (Base) and a hardener
(Activator) producing an extensive interlocking polymer
network.
POROSITY Pores within a weld caused by gas entrapment during
solidification of weld metal.
POSTHEAT Heat which is applied at the end of the weld cycle to
slow down cooling rate to prevent cracking and to
relieve stress.
PPM-VALUE Parts per million.
PRIMARY CABLE The cable which carries current from the mains supply
to the primary side of a welding machine.
PROPANE Colourless, flammable gas, heavier than air, chemical
formula 3
RECTIFIER A welding power-source which gives DC welding
current. Part of a power-source which converts AC to
DC.
REGULATOR An appliance for the reduction of gas pressure from
a gas cylinder to a suitable pressure for welding or
cutting. Equipped with pressure gauges indicating
cylinder pressure and working pressure.
REMOTE CONTROL Control of welding current from the welding area.
Adjustment is by means of additional cable or through
the welding cable.
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ROOT PASS The first welding pass in a groove.
RUTILE ELECTRODES Coated electrodes containing ilmenite, TiO2, in the
coating.
SECONDARY CABLE The cable which carries current from the secondary
side of a welding machine to the workpiece and
electrode holder.
S Power source for use in spaces with increased
electrical danger (e.g. boilers) must be identified by the
«S» (for «Safety») mark.
SPATTER Small pieces of metal which have been ejected from
molten pool and attached to base material outside the
weld.
SPOT WELD Controlled weld cycle to procedure sheet metal weld
with spesific characteristics. Belongs to the group
«Resistance Welding».
STAINLESS STEEL Common term for two main groups: chrome alloy
(ferritic) and chrome-nickel alloy (austenitic) steel.
Austenitic steel is non-magnetic.
STRINGER BEAD Weld bead made without oscillation, side-to-side
motion.
SURFACING Applying material to the surface of another material for
protection from chemipals, heat, wear, rust etc.
TACK WELD Weld made to hold parts of weldment in alignment until
final weld is made.
TENSILE STRENGTH Indicates the breaking strength of a material,
expressed in N/mm2.
TENSILE TEST A destructive test where a weld is pulled apart.
This test determines how much tension a weld can
withstand before the weld gives.
THERMIC SPRAYING A method of bulling up a workpiece by spraying
on finely powdered metal alloys. Can also be used
for spraying zinc and plastic powders for surface
protection.
TIG WELDING Tungsten inert gas welding.
THERMOCROME Temperature indicating crayons. Used to control
CRAYONS temperature levels.
TUNGSTEN An electrode of pure tungsten or tungsten alloyed with
ELECTRODE rare earths, lanthanum, cerium, torium or zirconium.
High melting point – 3410 °C. Used for TIG welding.
Tungsten is also known as Wolfram.
6.00 MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION
UNALLOYED STEEL Steel containing up to 1 % alloy elements.
WASH BEAD Weld beads made with an oscillation – side-to-side
technique to widen the weld bead.
WELDING DIRECTION An expression used in welding and brazing indicating
the direction of the welding process in relation to the
welder.
WELDING
TRANSFORMER Welding power-source giving AC welding current.
WHISKERS Pieces of weld wire which have penetrated through
the weld joint and melted. The wire extends beyond the
penetration on the root side of the weld.
WIG Wolfram Inert Gas. Same welding method as TIG
welding.
WROUGHT MATERIAL Material made by processes other than casting.
YIELD POINT The stress level at which a steel material starts to
become plastic and shows signs of cross-contraction
and permanent deformity. Expressed in N/mm2.
YORCALBRO Seawater resistant alloy of aluminium and brass.
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