Manufacturing Processes

Manufacturing Processes
اسم المؤلف
H.N. Gupta, R.C. Gupta, Arun Mittal
التاريخ
1 أبريل 2019
المشاهدات
التقييم
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Manufacturing Processes 2nd Edition
H.N. Gupta
Visiting Professor
Department of Mechanical Engineering
I.E.T., Lucknow, U.P. Technical University
B.Sc., G.I. Mech.E (London), FIE
R.C. Gupta
Professor and Head
Department of Mechanical Engineering
I.E.T., Lucknow, U.P. Technical University
B.Sc., B.E., M.Tech., Ph.D.
Arun Mittal
Senior Faculty
Department of Mechanical Engineering
I.E.T., Lucknow, U.P. Technical University
Preface to the Second Edition . v
Preface to the First Edition vii
Unit I
BASIC METALS AND ALLOYS : PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS
1 PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 3–10
Introduction . 3
Properties of Materials . 3
Stress-Strain Diagram 3
Malleability and Ductility 6
Brittleness 6
Stiffness and Resilience . 6
Toughness and Impact Strength . 6
Hardness 7
Fracture of Material . 8
Fatigue Failure . 9
Creep Failure 9
Questions . 10
2 FERROUS MATERIALS 11–18
Introduction . 11
Iron and Steel . 11
Classification of Steels . 11
Wrought Iron . 13
Cast Iron 13
Alloy Steels 15
Heat Treatment of Carbon Steels 17
Questions . 18
Contents3 NON-FERROUS METALS AND ALLOYS 19–25
Introduction . 19
Properties and Uses of Non-Ferrous Metals . 19
Alloys of Copper 20
Cupro-Nickels 22
Aluminium Alloys . 22
Alloys of Nickel . 22
Questions . 23
Objective Type Questions . 24-25
Unit II
INTRODUCTION TO METAL FORMING AND CASTING PROCESS
1 BASIC METAL FORMING PROCESSES AND USES 29–33
Introduction . 29
Advantages of Mechanical Working Processes 29
Difference Between Hot and Cold Working 30
Advantages and Disadvantages of Cold and Hot Working Processes . 31
Classification of Metal Forming Processes According to Type of Stress Employed . 32
Questions . 33
2 FORGING 34–44
Introduction . 34
Classification of Forging 34
Die Forging with Power Hammers . 40
Open Die Forging 40
Impression Die Forging . 41
Closed Die Forging 41
Drop Stamping or Drop Forging Hammers 41
Some Important Considerations Leading to Sound Forgings . 42
Forging Presses . 42
Machine Forging 42
Forging Defects . 43
Heat Treatment of Forgings 43
Cold Forging 44
Questions . 44
3 ROLLING 45–56
Introduction . 45
Nomenclature of Rolled Products . 46
Mechanism of Rolling 46Types of Rolling Mills 48
Rolls and Roll Pass Design 50
Ring Rolling . 51
Cold Rolling . 52
Rolling Defects 53
Questions . 56
4 EXTRUSION, WIRE DRAWING, TUBE DRAWING AND MAKING 57–65
Extrusion Processes 58
Machines for Extrusion . 62
Extrusion Defects 62
Wire Drawing . 62
Tube Drawing 63
Tube Making 64
Questions . 65
5 PRESS WORK AND DIE-PUNCH ASSEMBLY 66–72
Tools 66
Other Operations Performed with Presses 68
Bending 68
Deep Drawing 69
Coining and Embossing . 70
Coining . 70
Guillotine Shear 71
Questions . 72
6 CASTING PROCESS 73–85
Introduction . 73
Patterns 74
Pattern Allowances 74
Types of Patterns . 74
Moulding Sand and its Properties 76
Mould Making Technique 77
Cores 79
Core Prints . 79
Gates, Runners and Risers 80
Cupola 81
Construction 81
Operation of Cupola . 82
Casting Defects . 82
Die Casting . 83Steps in Die Casting . 84
Questions . 85
Objective Type Questions 86–87
Unit III
INTRODUCTION TO MACHINING
AND ITS APPLICATIONS
1 LATHE 91–99
Introduction . 91
Centre Lathe . 92
Cutting Tools Used on the Lathe . 94
Holding the Work Piece in the Chuck and Centering 95
Taper Turning 96
Profile or Form Turning 98
Questions . 99
2 SHAPERS AND PLANERS 100–105
Introduction . 100
Shaping Machines or Shaper . 100
Drive 101
Cutting Tools Used in Shaping 102
Operations Performed on Shapers 102
Planer or Planning Machine . 104
Principle of Working 104
Questions . 105
3 DRILLING MACHINES 106–110
Twist Drill 106
Drilling Machines . 107
Questions . 110
4 MILLING PROCESS 111–119
Introduction 111
Basic Milling Process 111
Types of Milling Processes 112
Peripheral Milling . 113
Face Milling . 115
End Milling . 116
Milling Machines 117
Horizontal Milling Machine 117
Questions . 1195 GRINDING PROCESS 120–126
Introduction . 120
Choice of Abrasives . 120
Classification of Wheels 121
Grit . 121
Bond and Grade . 121
Wheel Structure . 121
Wheel Shapes . 122
Mounting a Wheel on Machine, Balancing, Truing and Dressing . 123
Grinding Operations and Grinding Machines 123
Coolant . 126
Questions . 126
6 WELDING PROCESS 127–141
Classification 127
Gas Welding Process . 127
Equipment Needed for Gas Welding . 128
Types of Flames 130
Welding Operation . 130
Use of Filler Rods and Fluxes . 133
Oxyacetylene Cutting . 133
Arc Welding . 133
Striking an Arc . 134
Heat Affected Zone 135
Arc Blow 135
Welding Positions . 135
Arc Welding Defects 136
Electric Resistance Welding . 136
Soldering and Brazing 140
Soldering Process 140
Brazing Process . 140
Questions . 141
Objective Type Questions 142–143
Unit IV
MISCELLANEOUS TOPICS
1 IMPORTANCE OF MATERIALS AND MANUFACTURING 147–153
Introduction . 147
Proper Selection of Material 147
Importance of Materials 148Historical Perspective 149
Materials as Driving-Force Behind Technological Developments . 149
Direct and Indirect Linkages Among Materials, Manufacturing,
Technological Development and Socioeconomic Improvement . 152
Conclusion . 152
Questions . 153
2 LOCATION AND LAYOUT OF PLANTS, PRODUCTION
AND PRODUCTIVITY 154–157
Introduction . 154
Location of Plants 154
Layout of Plants . 155
Advantages of a Good Layout . 155
Types of Layouts . 155
Types of Production 156
Production and Productivity 157
Questions . 157
3 NON-METALLIC MATERIALS 158–167
Common Types and Uses of Wood . 158
Uses of Wood 159
Cement Concrete . 159
Ceramics 160
Rubbers 160
Plastics . 162
Composite Materials 165
Questions . 167
4 MISCELLANEOUS PROCESSES 168–173
Powder Metallurgy Process 168
Plastic Products Manufacturing Processes . 169
Galvanising Process . 171
Electroplating Process . 172
Faraday’s Laws of Electrolysis . 173
Questions . 173
Objective Type Questions 174–175
QUESTION PAPER 177–179
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