Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials – Sixth Edition in SI Units

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials – Sixth Edition in SI Units
اسم المؤلف
Serope Kalpakjian, Steven R. Schmid
التاريخ
27 سبتمبر 2022
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289
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Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials
Sixth Edition in SI Units
Serope Kalpakjian, Steven R. Schmid
SI Contributions by K. S. Vijay Sekar
Contents
Preface
About the Authors
Introduction
. What Is Manufacturing?
. Product Design and Concurrent Engineering
. Design for Manufacture, Assembly, Disassembly, and
Service
. Environmentally Conscious Design, Sustainable Manufacturing, and Product Life Cycle
. Selecting Materials
. Selecting Manufacturing Processes
. Computer-Integrated Manufacturing
. Lean Production and Agile Manufacturing
. Quality Assurance and Total Quality Management
. Manufacturing Costs and Global Competitiveness
. General Trends in Manufacturing
Fundamentals of the Mechanical Behavior of Materials
. Introduction
. Tension
. Compression
. Torsion
. Bending
. Hardness
. Fatigue
. Creep
. Impact
. Residual Stresses
. Yield Criteria
. Work of Deformation
Summary Bibliography Questions
Problems
Contents
Structure and Manufacturing Properties
of Metals
. Introduction
. The Crystal Structure of Metals
. Deformation and Strength of Single Crystals
. Grains and Grain Boundaries
. Plastic Deformation of Polycrystalline Metals
. Recovery, Recrystallization, and Grain Growth
. Cold, Warm, and Hot Working
. Failure and Fracture
. Physical Properties
. General Properties and Applications of Ferrous Alloys
. General Properties and Applications of Nonferrous
Metals and Alloys
Summary Bibliography Questions
Problems
Tribology, Metrology, and Product
Quality
. Introduction
. Surface Structure and Properties
. Surface Texture and Roughness
. Tribology: Friction, Wear, and Lubrication
. Surface Treatments, Coatings, and Cleaning
. Engineering Metrology and Instrumentation
. Dimensional Tolerances
. Testing and Inspection
. Quality Assurance
Summary Bibliography Questions
Problems
Casting Processes and Heat
Treatment
. Introduction
. Solidification of Metals
. Cast Structures
. Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer
. Melting Practice and Furnaces
. Casting Alloys
. Ingot Casting and Continuous Casting
. Expendable-Mold, Permanent-Pattern Casting
Processes
. Expendable-Mold, Expendable-Pattern Casting
Processes Contents
. Permanent-Mold Casting Processes
. Heat Treatment
. Design Considerations
. Economics of Casting
Summary Bibliography Questions
Problems Design
Bulk Deformation Processes
. Introduction
. Forging
. Rolling
. Extrusion
. Rod, Wire, and Tube Drawing
. Swaging
. Die-Manufacturing Methods
. Die Failures
. Economics of Bulk Forming
Summary Bibliography Questions
Problems Design
Sheet Metal Processes
. Introduction
. Sheet Metal Characteristics
. Shearing
. Bending of Sheet and Plate
. Miscellaneous Forming Processes
. Deep Drawing
. Sheet Metal Formability
. Equipment for Sheet Metal Forming
. Design Considerations
. Economics of Sheet Metal Forming
Summary Bibliography Questions
Problems Design
Machining Processes
. Introduction
. Mechanics of Chip Formation
. Tool Wear and Failure
. Surface Finish and Surface Integrity
. Machinability
. Cutting-Tool Materials
. Cutting Fluids
. High-Speed Machining
. Cutting Processes and Machine Tools for Producing
Round Shapes Contents
. Cutting Processes and Machine Tools for Producing
Various Shapes
. Machining and Turning Centers
. Vibration and Chatter
. Machine-Tool Structures
. Design Considerations
. Economics of Machining
Summary Bibliography Questions
Problems Design
Abrasive and Other Material Removal
Processes
. Introduction
. Abrasives
. Bonded Abrasives
. Mechanics of Grinding
. Grinding-Wheel Wear
. Grinding Operations and Machines
. Finishing Operations
. Deburring
. Ultrasonic Machining
. Chemical Machining
. Electrochemical Machining
. Electrochemical Grinding
. Electrical-Discharge Machining
. High-Energy-Beam Machining
. Water-Jet, Abrasive Water-Jet, and Abrasive-Jet
Machining
. Hybrid Machining Systems
. Design Considerations
. Process Economics
Summary Bibliography Questions
Problems Design
Polymer Processing and Additive
Manufacturing
. Introduction
. The Structure of Polymers
. Thermoplastics: Behavior and Properties
. Thermosets: Behavior and Properties
. Thermoplastics: General Characteristics and
Applications
. Thermosets: General Characteristics and
Applications
. High-Temperature Polymers, Electrically Conducting
Polymers, and Biodegradable Plastics Contents
. Elastomers (Rubbers): General Characteristics and
Applications
. Reinforced Plastics
. Processing of Plastics
. Processing of Polymer-Matrix-Reinforced Plastics
. Additive Manufacturing
. Design Considerations
. Economics of Processing Plastics
Summary Bibliography Questions
Problems Design
Powder Metallurgy and Processing of
Ceramics and Glasses
. Introduction
. Powder Metallurgy
. Compaction of Metal Powders
. Sintering
. Secondary and Finishing Operations
. Design Considerations for Powder Metallurgy
. Economics of Powder Metallurgy
. Ceramics: Structure, Properties, and Applications
. Shaping Ceramics
. Glasses: Structure, Properties, and Applications
. Forming and Shaping Glass
. Design Considerations for Ceramic and Glass
Products
. Graphite and Diamond
. Processing Metal-Matrix and Ceramic-Matrix
Composites
. Processing Superconductors
Summary Bibliography Questions
Problems Design
Joining and Fastening Processes
. Introduction
. Oxyfuel Gas Welding
. Arc Welding Processes: Consumable Electrode
. Arc Welding Processes: Nonconsumable Electrode
. High Energy Beam Welding
. Cutting
. The Fusion Welded Joint
. Cold Welding
. Ultrasonic Welding
. Friction Welding
. Resistance Welding Contents
. Explosion Welding
. Diffusion Bonding
. Brazing and Soldering
. Adhesive Bonding
. Mechanical Fastening
. Joining Nonmetallic Materials
. Design Considerations in Joining
. Economic Considerations
Summary Bibliography Questions
Problems Design
Micro- and Nanomanufacturing
. Introduction
. Clean Rooms
. Semiconductors and Silicon
. Crystal Growing and Wafer Preparation
. Films and Film Deposition
. Oxidation
. Lithography
. Etching
. Diffusion and Ion Implantation
. Metallization and Testing
. Wire Bonding and Packaging
. Yield and Reliability of Chips
. Printed Circuit Boards
. Roll-to-Roll Printing of Flexible Electronics
. Micromachining of MEMS Devices
. LIGA and Related Microfabrication Processes
. Solid Freeform Fabrication of Devices
. Mesoscale Manufacturing
. Nanoscale Manufacturing
Summary Bibliography Questions
Problems Design
Automation of Manufacturing Processes
and Operations
. Introduction
. Automation
. Numerical Control
. Programming for Numerical Control
. Adaptive Control
. Material Handling and Movement
. Industrial Robots
. Sensor Technology
. Flexible Fixturing Contents
. Assembly, Disassembly, and Service
. Design Considerations
. Economic Considerations
Summary Bibliography Questions
Problems Design
Computer-Integrated Manufacturing
Systems
. Introduction
. Manufacturing Systems
. Computer-Integrated Manufacturing
. Computer-Aided Design and Engineering
. Computer-Aided Manufacturing
. Computer-Aided Process Planning
. Computer Simulation of Manufacturing Processes and
Systems
. Group Technology
. Cellular Manufacturing
. Flexible Manufacturing Systems
. Holonic Manufacturing
. Just-in-Time Production
. Lean Manufacturing
. Communications Networks in Manufacturing
. Artificial Intelligence in Manufacturing
Summary Bibliography Questions
Problems Design
Competitive Aspects of Product Design
and Manufacturing
. Introduction
. Product Design and Robust Design
. Product Quality as a Manufacturing Goal
. Life-Cycle Assessment and Sustainable
Manufacturing
. Energy Consumption in Manufacturing
. Selection of Materials for Products
. Substitution of Materials in Products
. Capabilities of Manufacturing Processes
. Selection of Manufacturing Processes
. Manufacturing Costs and Cost Reduction
Summary Bibliography Questions
Problems Design
Answers to Selected Problems
Index
Index
A
Ablation, ,
Ablative materials,
Abrasion theory of friction,
Abrasive
belts,
grains,
machining,
machining economics,
water-jet machining,
wear,
Abrasive-flow machining,
Abrasive-jet
cutting,
machining,
Abrasives,
bonded,
coated,
Accelerated
life testing,
strain aging,
Accelerometer manufacture,
Accuracy,
Acetal clear epoxy solid injection
molding,
Acetals,
Acetylene,
Acid flux,
Acoustic
emission, ,
holography,
impact,
impedance,
Acrylic
adhesive systems,
concrete,
Acrylics,
Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene,
Adaptive control, ,
constraint,
optimization,
Added value,
Addition polymerization,
Additive manufacturing, , ,
, ,
Additives
in ceramics,
in free-machining steels,
in oils,
in polymers,
lubricants,
Adhesion theory of friction,
Adhesive
bond (friction),
bonding, , , ,
systems,
wear,
Adhesives,
Adiabatic,
Adjustable-force clamping,
Adsorption, ,
Advanced composites,
Advanced machining processes,
Age
forming,
hardening,
Aggregation,
Agile manufacturing,
Aging,
Air
bending,
carbon-arc cutting,
gages,
Alclad,
Alkyds,
Alligatoring,
Allotropic transformation,
Allotropism,
Allowable wear land,
Allowance,
Alloy steels,
Alloying,
elements in iron,
mechanical,
Alloys, ; see also individual metals
Alloys (solidification),
Alpha ferrite,
Alumina,
Alumina-base ceramics,
Aluminizing,
Aluminosilicate glass,
Aluminum
alloys, properties,
bronze,
casting alloys,
filled molds,
foil,
Aluminum oxide, ,
abrasives,
ceramic tools,
coatings,
Aminos,
Amorphous,
alloys, ,
layer,
polymers,
Anaerobic adhesive system,
Analog sensors,
Analog-to-digital converters,
Angle
gage blocks,
measuring instruments,
milling cutter,
of acceptance,
of twist,
Angles in castings,
Anisotropy, , ,
etching,
in crystals,
in polymers,
normal, ,
of thermal expansion, ,
planar, ,
ratio (etching),
vs. limited drawing ratio,
Annealing,
glass,
Anode,
Anodic oxidation,
Anodizing,
Anthropomorphic,
robot,
Antioch process,
Antioxidants,
Apron, lathe,
Aramids, ,
Arbor cutters,
Arc
cutting, ,
deposition,
of contact,
strikes,
Arc welding processes,
consumable electrode,
nonconsumable electrode,
Archard, J.F.,
Arduino platform,
Arithmetic
average,
mean, ,
Arm and wrist (robot),
Arrays (sensors),
Arrowhead fracture,
Artificial
aging,
intelligence, ,
neural networks, ,
Ashing, ,
Aspect ratio, powder metals,
Asperities,
Aspiration,
Assembly, ,
automated,
design for, ,
efficiency,
systems,
Assignable variations,
ASTM designations grain size,
Astroloy,
Atomic-force microscope,
Atomic-hydrogen welding,
Atomization,
Attributes,
Attritious wear,
Ausforming,
Austempering,
Austenite,
former,
retained,
Austenitic stainless steels,
Autoclave, ,
Autocollimator,
Autogeneous weld,
Automated
assembly, ,
guided vehicle,
inspection, ,
material handling,
measurement,
storage/retrieval systems,
Automatic
bar machine,
lathe,
pallet changer,
screw machine,
tool changers,
Automation, ,
goals,
hard,
history,
of manufacturing processes,

soft,
Availability of materials,
Average of averages,
Automotive air bag sensor
manufacture,
Autonomous guidance,
B
B-splines,
Babbitts,
Back
etching,
grinding,
rake angle,
tension,
Backing rolls,
Backlash, ,
Backward
extrusion,
spinning,
Baekeland L.H.,
Bainite,
Bainitic steel,
Bakelite,
Ball bearing
ceramic,
manufacturing,
Ball burnishing,
Ball mill,
Ball-grid array,
Ball-nose end mills,
Ballizing,
Bamboo defect,
Band
files,
saw, ,
Bar codes,
Bar drawing; see rod drawing
BARC; see barrier antireflective
coating
BARL; see barrier antireflective layer
Barrel
finishing,
plating,
Barreling, ,
Barrier
antireflective coating,
antireflective layer,
Base metal (welding),
Baseball bats,
Basic
hole system,
shaft system,
size,
Bat,
Batch production,
Bauschinger effect, ,
Beach marks,
Beading,
Beads, draw, ,
Beads foam molding,
Bearings ceramic,
Bed,
Bed-of-nails device,
Bed-type machines,
Beilby layer,
Bellows manufacturing,
Belt (abrasive),
Bench
grinder,
lathe,
Benchmark,
Bend
allowance,
angle,
radius,
Bend tests,
welded joints,
Bendability,
Bending,
force,
Index
Bending (continued)
sheet and plate,
tubes and sections, –
Bernoulli’s theorem,
Beryllium,
bronze,
Bevel
angle,
protractor,
Beveling of punches,
Bezier curves,
Biaxial tension,
Big area additive manufacturing,
Big data, ,
Bilateral tolerance,
Bill of materials,
Billet, ,
Binary phase diagram,
Binder,
Binder jet printing,
Binders (for sand),
Bioceramics,
Biodegradable plastics, ,
Biological
cycle,
effects (metalworking fluids),
Biomanufacturing,
Bioprinting,
Bipolar junction transistor,
Black ceramics, ,
Blackening,
Blanchard-type grinder,
Blane,
Blank design,
Blankholder,
force,
Blanking,
chemical,
fine,
Blasting shot,
Bleeder cloth,
Blending (metal powders),
Blends (polymer),
Blind riser, ,
Blisk,
Blocking,
Bloom, ,
Blow molding,
Blowing
agent,
glass,
Blown film,
Blue arc machining,
Blue brittleness,
Body-centered cubic, –
Bond
fracture,
types for abrasives,
Bonded abrasives,
Bonding
adhesive, ,
clad,
material for abrasives,
of abrasives,
of polymers,
Boring, ,
bar,
machines,
mills,
Boron
etch stop,
fibers,
Boronizing,
Borophosphosilicate glass,
Borosilicate glass,
Bottle manufacturing, ,
Bottoming
in bending,
taps,
Boundary lubricants,
Boundary representation,
Branched polymers,
Brass,
Braze
metals,
welding, ,
Brazing, ,
filler metals,
of cutting tools,
Breaking down of ingot,
Breaking stress,
BREP; see boundary representation
Bridge die,
Brinell hardness,
Brinelling,
Brittle fracture,
Brittle materials testing, ,
Broach,
Broaching,
Bronze,
Brush processing,
Buckling,
Buffer, ,
layer,
Buffered hydrofluoric acid,
Buffered oxide etch,
Buffing,
Build chamber,
Building-block principle,
Built-up edge,
Bulge test,
Bulging (tubes),
Bulk
micromachining,
modulus,
Bulk-deformation processes,
general characteristics,
Bulk-molding compound,
Bull block,
Bundle drawing,
Bur,
Burning (in grinding),
Burnished surface,
Burnishing, ,
Burr, ,
Business
execution,
planning,
C
CAD systems,
CAD/CAM systems,
CAIBE; see chemically assisted
ion-beam etching
Calcium-deoxidized steels,
Calendering,
Caliper gages,
Calipers,
Cam plastometer,
Camber,
Capacitor-discharge stud welding,
Capacity planning,
Capital costs,
Carbide, , ,
Carbides, coated,
Carbon; see also graphite
black,
fibers,
footprint,
in steels,
nanotubes, , –
Carbon steel,
rephosphorized,
resulfurized,
Carbon-dioxide process,
Carbon-fiber reinforced plastic,
Carbonitriding, ,
Carbonyls,
Carburizing, ,
flame,
Carpal tunnel syndrome,
Carriage,
Case hardening, , –
Cast
irons, , – ,
stainless steels,
steels,
structures,
structures in welding,
Cast-cobalt alloy tools,
Castability,
Casting,
alloys,
continuous,
defects,
design, ,
economics,
expendable mold, ,
expendable pattern,
ferrous alloys,
non-ferrous alloys, ,
of ceramics,
of ingots,
of plastics,
of trailer hitch,
permanent mold,
permanent patterns,
processes, , ,
sand,
Catastrophic failure,
Cathode,
Cavities, ; see also porosity
Cellular manufacturing, ,
Cellulose,
Cellulosics,
Cemented carbides,
Cementite,
Center
cracking, ,
drill,
type grinding,
Centerburst defect,
Centerless grinding,
Centrifugal atomization,
Centrifugal casting
glass,
metals,
polymers,
spraying (glass),
Centrifuge casting,
Centrifuging,
Ceramic
ball bearings,
bond,
coatings, ,
grinding wheel; see vitrified bond
packages (chip),
Ceramic-matrix composites,
Ceramic-mold casting,
Ceramic-shell investment casting,
Ceramics,
applications,
cutting tools,
general characteristics,
joining,
properties,
shaping,
structure,
Cerium,
Cermets, ,
Chain-growth polymerization,
Chain-reaction polymerization,
Chain-type code,
Chance variations,
Channel furnace,
Chaplets,
Charpy test,
Chatter
fifth-octave,
grinding,
in rolling,
machining,
marks,
third-octave,
torsional,
Chemical
blanking,
cleaning,
guide path,
machining,
mechanical planarization,
mechanical polishing, ,
milling,
properties,
reaction priming,
synthesis processes,
tempering,
Chemical vapor deposition, ,

low pressure,
medium temperature,
plasma-enhanced,
Chemical vapor infiltration,
Chemically assisted ion-beam
etching,
Chemically reactive adhesive,
Chevron cracking,
Chill tempering,
Chills, , ,
Chip (machining),
breaker, ,
compression ratio,
curl,
depth of cut,
flow angle,
formation, ,
morphology, ,
on board,
types,
velocity,
Chipping (cutting tools),
Chips (metal),
Chisel-edge angle,
Chisel-point drill,
Choke core,
Choking,
Chromium,
carbide,
in stainless steels,
plating,
Chuck,
Chuckers,
Chucking machines,
Chvorinov’s rule,
Circuit board,
Circular
cutters,
interpolation,
saws,
tracing,
Circumscribing-circle diameter,

CLA process,
Clad bonding,
Cladding, , ,
Clamps,
Class of clean room,
Classification and coding systems,

Clay,
Clean room,
Cleaning
fluids,
of castings,
processes, Index
Clearance,
angle,
in deep drawing,
Cleavage plane,
Climb milling,
Clinching,
Closed-die forging,
Closed-loop control, ,
Cloud storage,
Cluster mill,
CLV process,
CNC incremental forming,
Co-injection molding,
Coalescence of voids,
Coarse pearlite,
Coated
abrasives,
sheet metal,
tools,
tools, multiphase,
Coatings
ceramic, ,
conversion, ,
for cutting tools,
for electrodes,
for rod and wire drawing,
for sheet metal,
Coaxial extrusion,
Cobalt (in tungsten carbide),
Cobalt-base superalloys,
Cobot,
Cocuring,
Coding systems,
Coefficient of friction,
in cutting,
in metalworking processes,
in ring compression,
measurement,
Coextrusion,
Cogging,
Coining, , ,
Cold
cracking (welds),
extrusion,
forging,
forming of plastics,
forming; see individual processes
isostatic pressing,
roll forming,
saws,
shut, ,
welding,
working, ,
Cold-box mold,
Cold-chamber process,
Cold-pressed ceramics,
Cold-runner molds,
Cold-setting processes,
Cold-work steels,
Collaborative robot,
Collapsibility,
cores,
Collapsible taps,
Collapsing,
Collet,
Colorants,
Coloring,
Columbium,
Column-and-knee milling machine,

Columnar
dendrites,
grains,
Combination
square,
spraying,
synthesis,
Commercially available forms of
materials,
Comminution, ,
Communications
network,
standards,
Compacted-graphite iron,
Compacting pressure,
Compaction of metal powders,
Compacts,
Comparative length measurement,

Comparator,
Competitive aspects of
manufacturing,
Complex-phase steels,
Compliant end effector, ,
Complimentary metal-on-oxide
semiconductor,
Composite coatings, , ,
Composite materials
ceramic-matrix,
hybrid,
in aircraft,
metal-matrix,
Compound
dies,
rest,
Compounded oils,
Compressibility metal powders,

Compression molding, ,
Compression test,
Compressive strength various
materials,
Computer
integrated manufacturing,
numerical control, , ,
simulation, ,
vision, ,
Computer-aided
design,
engineering,
manufacturing,
part programming,
process planning, ,
Computer-assisted tomography,

Computer-controlled lathes,
Computer-integrated
manufacturing, ,
Concentration gradient,
Concurrent engineering,
Condensation polymerization,
Conditioning of rolls,
Conductive
graphite fibers,
polymers, –
Conductivity
electrical,
thermal,
Conductor,
Connecting rod forging,
Consistency index,
Constants for control charts,
Constitutional diagram,
Constructive solid geometry,
Consumable electrode,
Contact,
area (apparent),
molding,
Contaminants in welds,
Continued process verification,
Continuity,
Continuous
casting, –
chip,
dressing, creep feed grinding,
fibers,
improvement, –
laser,
path system,
products,
systems (assembly),
Contour cooling,
Contour roll forming,
Contouring
lathe,
system,
Contraction (solidification),
Control
adaptive,
charts, ,
limits,
numerical,
systems (robots),
Controlled metal buildup,
Controllers, ,
Conventional
milling, ,
spinning,
Conversion coating, , ,
Convex shear die,
Conveyance card,
Coolants,
Cooling; see individual processes
rate (castings),
Coordinate measuring machine,
Cope, ,
Cope-and-drag investment casting,

Copolymers,
Copper and alloys,
casting alloys,
Copy milling machines,
Core,
blowers,
boxes,
drill,
furnace,
prints,
Cored dendrites, –
Coreless induction furnace,
Cores,
Corner radii in deep drawing,
Corners,
Corrosion,
Corrosion tests (welds),
Corrugation process (honeycomb),

Corundum,
Cost
accounting,
justification,
machining,
materials and processing,
reduction, , ,
Cost-benefit analysis,
Costs; see also economics of
manufacture and individual
processes
machinery,
Coulomb,
Counter-gravity low-pressure
process,
Counterblow hammers,
Counterboring,
Countersinking,
Covalent bond, ,
Crack velocity,
Cracks; , ; see also defects
and individual processes
Cracks in weld,
Cradle-to-cradle,
Cradle-to-grave,
Crank press,
Crankshaft drill,
Crater wear,
Craters,
Crazing,
Creep, ,
age forming,
feed grinding,
function,
polymers, ,
rupture,
tests (welds),
Crevice corrosion,
Crimping,
Critical
dimension,
quality attributes,
shear stress,
Cross slide,
Cross-feeding,
Cross-functional teams,
Cross-linked polymers, ,
Cross-rolling,
Cross-tension test (spot welds),
Crow’s foot package,
Crown,
Crucible furnace,
Crush
dressing,
forming,
Crushing,
Cryogenic
diamond turning,
dry etching,
grinding,
machining,
tempering,
treatment cutting tools,
Crystal
growing, ,
pulling,
Crystalline structure,
Crystallinity (polymers),
effects of,
Crystallites,
Crystallographic anisotropy, ,

Crystals,
Cubic boron nitride, , ,
Cubic interpolation,
Cubitron,
Cumulative distribution,
Cup (casting),
Cup-and-cone fracture,
Cupola,
Cupping tests,
Cure depth (stereolithography),
Curing (thermosets),
Curl (chip),
Cutoff (roughness),
Cutters; see individual processes
Cutting, ; see also machining
dry,
edge angle
force, ,
off, ,
processes,
ratio,
temperature,
threads,
time,
Cutting fluids,
applications,
effects of,
Cutting speeds; see also individual
processes
drilling,
milling,
turning,
Cutting tools
geometry, – ,
tool life curves,
wear,
Cyaniding, , Index
Cyanoacrylate adhesive systems,
Cylindrical grinding,
CZ process; see Czochralski
process
Czochralski process, ,
D
Dacron,
Dampers,
Damping
external,
in cast iron,
in machine tools,
Data acquisition system,
Data fusion,
Database, ,
Datum,
Dead-metal zone, ,
Debinding,
Deburring,
Decarburization,
Decision-tree coding,
Dedicated
fixtures,
machines,
Deep
drawability,
drawing,
drawing lubrication,
hole drilling,
reactive ion etching, ,
ultraviolet lithography,
Defects, , , ; see also
individual processes
castings, –
drawing,
forging,
surface,
Deflection (rolls),
Deflocculent,
Deformation
plastic,
processing,
rate,
single crystals,
speed in metalworking,
work,
zone, extrusion,
zone geometry,
Degradation (polymers), ,
Degree
of crystallinity,
of polymerization,
Delamination reinforced plastics,
Delayed tack adhesives,
Delight customers, ,
Delivery reel,
Delrin,
Delta ferrite,
Demand scheduling,
Deming, W.E.,
fourteen points,
Dendrite multiplication,
Dendrites,
Densification,
Density, –
various materials,
Dent resistance,
Deoxidized,
Deposition chemical vapor,
– ,
Depth of cut,
Depth-of-cut line,
Derivative CAPP system,
Design
analysis,
attributes,
manufacturing cell,
of experiments, ,
process,
requirements,
review,
Design for
abrasive machining,
additive manufacturing,
adhesive bonding,
assembly, ,
bending,
blanking,
brazing and joining,
broaching,
casting,
chemical machining,
disassembly, ,
drilling,
electrical discharge machining,
electrochemical machining,
electron beam machining,
fixturing,
gear manufacture,
glass,
grinding,
heat treating,
laser machining,
manufacturing,
mechanical fastening,
milling,
powder metallurgy, –
reaming,
recycling,
service, ,
tapping,
the environment,
thread cutting,
turning,
ultrasonic machining,
welding,
Design considerations; see also
individual processes
casting,
polymers,
sheet-metal forming,
Destructive testing, ,
welded joints,
Detonation spraying,
Deviation-type measuring
instruments,
Devitrification,
Dial indicator,
Diamond,
abrasives,
coatings, ,
cutting tools,
film,
pyramid hardness,
saws,
turning,
Diamond-like carbon, ,
Diamond-type fcc,
Die,
characteristics,
chip,
cutting,
design (forging),
distortion,
drawing,
failures,
geometry; see individual processes
inserts,
life; see individual processes
manufacturing methods,
materials (forging),
pressure in drawing,
quenching,
radii,
segments,
sinking,
steels,
swell,
Die casting,
alloys,
cold chamber,
hot chamber,
Dielectric
fluid,
strength,
Dielectrics,
Dies (drawing), ; see also
individual processes
Diffraction gratings,
Diffuse necking, ,
Diffusion, ,
adhesives,
bonding, , ,
brazing,
coating,
crater wear,
sintering,
welding,
Digital
light processing,
radiography,
sensors,
Dilatation,
Dimensional accuracy,
Dimensional tolerances, , ,

in castings,
Dimples (ductile fracture),
Dimpling,
Dip
brazing,
molding,
Direct
emulsion, ,
labor costs,
laser metal sintering (DMLS),
manufacturing,
metal deposition,
numerical control,
probe,
Directional solidification,
Directionality, , ; see also
anisotropy
Disassembly, ,
Discontinuities,
in welds,
Discontinuous chips, ,
Discrete products,
Disk test,
Dislocations,
density,
Dispersion, ,
Distortion; see also warping
dies,
welds,
Distortion-energy criterion,
Distributed numerical control,
Distribution (statistical),
Doctor-blade process,
Documentation,
Dopants, ,
Doping, ,
Double
barreling,
bevel,
exposure,
patterning,
Dough molding compound,
Down milling,
Draft,
Draft (rolling),
Draft angles, forging,
Drag, ,
flow,
line,
Drain
casting,
terminal,
Draw
beads, ,
bench,
cut,
Drawability; see deep drawability
Drawing
deep,
dies,
exchange format,
glass,
out,
stress,
strip,
tubes,
without blankholder,
Dressing, grinding wheels,
DRIE; see deep reactive ion etching
Drift pin,
Drill press,
Drilling, ,
machines,
Drills,
geometry,
life,
Drive-in diffusion,
Dross,
traps,
Dry
bag process,
chemical etching,
drawing,
etching,
machining, ,
oxidation,
pressing (ceramics),
spinning,
stripping,
Drying (ceramics),
Dual in-line,
Dual ion-beam assisted deposition,

Dual-phase steels,
Ductile
fracture,
iron,
Ductile regime
cutting,
grinding,
Ductility,
Dummy
bar,
block,
Duplex structure steels,
Duplicating
lathe,
milling machine,
Duranickel,
Durometer, –
Dwell,
Dynamic
compaction,
loading,
scheduling,
stiffness,
Dynamometer,
Dysprosium,
E
E-beam lithography; see
electron-beam lithography
Earing, Index
Eccentric press,
Economic
multiplier, –
order quantity,
production quantity (plastics),
Economics; see also costs and
individual processes
abrasive machining,
assembly,
casting,
forming,
joining,
machining,
plastics processing,
powder metallurgy,
sheet metal forming,
Eddy-current inspection,
Edge
condition,
cracks,
dislocation,
Edger mill,
Edging,
roll,
EFAB; see electrochemical
fabrication
Effective
strain,
stress,
Efficiency, ,
Ejectors,
Elastic
deformation,
limit,
modulus; see modulus of
elasticity
recovery,
Elastomers,
processing,
Electric-arc furnace,
Electric-discharge forming,
Electrical
conductivity,
properties (polymers),
resistivity,
spraying,
Electrical-discharge
grinding,
machining,
wire cutting, ; see also wire
EDM
Electrically
assisted forging,
assisted forming,
conducting adhesives, ,
conducting polymers,
conductive ceramics,
Electrochemical
discharge grinding,
fabrication,
grinding,
honing,
machining,
Electrode coatings,
Electrode wear (EDM),
Electrodes
electo-discharge machining
welding,
Electroforming,
and LIGA,
Electrogas welding,
Electrohydraulic forming,
Electroless plating,
Electroluminescence,
Electrolytic
cleaning,
deposition,
grinding,
Electromagnetic bonding,
Electromigration,
Electron beam
lithography, ,
machining,
melting,
welding,
Electronic gage,
Electronic-grade silicon,
Electroplating,
Electropolishing,
Electrorheological fluid,
Electroslag welding,
Elements in steel; see also
individual materials
Elongation, ,
Embossing, ,
Embrittlement,
hydrogen,
Emery,
Emulsification,
Emulsions, ,
Enamel,
Enameling, –
Encapsulation,
End
cutting edge angle, ,
effector,
grains,
milling,
relief angle, ,
End-feed grinding,
End-of-arm tooling,
Endurance limit, ; see also
fatigue limit
Energy
consumption,
content of materials,
ideal,
limited,
per unit volume,
requirements; see specific energy
Engine lathe,
Engineered
abrasives,
materials, ,
Engineering
metrology,
strain,
strain rate, ,
stress,
Enterprise resource planning,

Entry zone, rolling,
Environment, design for,
Environmental
considerations,
effects,
stress cracking,
Environmentally conscious design
and manufacturing,
Epitaxy layers,
Epoxies,
Epoxy molds,
Epoxy-based adhesive systems,
Equiaxed grains,
Equilibrium diagram,
Equipment; see individual processes
Equivalent
strain,
stress,
Equotip,
Erichsen test,
Error of form,
Etch
rates,
stop, ,
Etchant,
Etching, –
anisotropic,
chemically assisted ion-beam,
cryogenic,
deep reactive ion,
dry,
dry chemical,
isotropic,
of silicon dioxide,
of silicon nitride,
physical-chemical,
reactive ion beam,
reactive plasma,
sputter,
wet,
Eutectoid
cementite,
ferrite,
reaction,
Evaporation (film deposition),
Evaporative
adhesives,
pattern casting,
Execution functions,
Exit zone, rolling,
Exothermic welding,
Expanded polystyrene process,
Expansion
in casting,
process (honeycomb),
thermal,
Expendable
mold, ,
pattern,
Experimental design,
Expert systems, , ,
Explosion welding,
Explosive
compaction,
forming,
hardening,
External
damping,
grinding; see cylindrical grinding
spinning,
Extreme ultraviolet lithography,
Extruder,
characteristic,
flow rate,
Extrusion,
blow molding,
ceramics,
cold,
constant,
defects, ,
hot,
hydrostatic,
impact,
plastics,
powders,
ratio,
F
Face milling,
Face-centered cubic, –
Facing,
Factorial design,
Failure,
Failure in time, chips,
Families of part,
Faraday’s constant,
Fasteners,
Fastening, ,
Fatigue,
fracture, ,
fracture surfaces,
limit,
static,
strength, effect of manufacturing
process,
strength improvement,
thermal,
wear,
Fault-tolerant design,
Feed; see also individual processes
force,
marks, ,
rod,
section,
Feedback,
devices,
Feeders,
Feldspar,
Ferrite,
former,
Ferritic
gray iron,
stainless steels,
Ferromagnetism,
Ferrous
alloys, , – ,
metals,
Ferrule,
Fiber,
pullout,
Fiber-reinforced epoxy,
Fiberglass,
Fibering (mechanical), , ,
Fibers, ,
Fibrous,
Field effect transistor,
Fifth-octave chatter,
Filament winding,
File transfer protocol,
Filing,
Fill density,
Filled gold,
Filler
metal, ,
rod,
wire,
Fillers, in polymers,
Film
deposition,
extrusion,
Films, blown,
diamond,
Filters,
Fine
blanking,
ceramics,
pearlite,
Finish; see surface finish
Finishing cut,
Finishing operations,
casting, ,
ceramics,
gear,
powder metallurgy,
Finite-element method forging,
Fir-tree cracking,
Fire polishing,
Firing,
First generation AHSS,
Fishmouthing; see alligatoring
Fishtailing,
Fixed
costs,
gages,
position automation,
sequence robot,
Fixtures,
flexible,
Flame
cutting,
hardening, , Index
Flame (continued)
retardants,
types,
Flammability (polymers),
Flanging,
Flank wear,
Flaring,
Flash, ,
in butt welding,
in casting,
in compression molding,
in forging,
in friction welding,
Flaskless molding,
Flat areas in casting,
Flat bed screen printing,
Flat rolling, ,
Flatness,
Flattening
by bending,
by roller leveling,
of rolls,
Flaws; see defects
Flexibility,
Flexible
assembly,
automation,
fixturing,
manufacturing cell, ,
manufacturing system, ,
molds,
PVC,
Flexographic printing,
Flexure; see bending
Flights,
Flint,
Flip-chip,
Float glass,
Floating-zone method,
Flood cooling,
Floor-to-floor time,
Flow
lines,
rules,
stress, , ,
turning,
Flowline,
Fluid flow (casting), ,
Fluid-forming process,
Fluid-to-fluid extrusion,
Fluidity,
Fluorescent penetrant,
Fluorocarbons,
Flute,
Flux, , ,
Flux-cored arc welding,
Fly cutting,
Flyer plate,
Foam (metal),
Foam molding,
Folding,
Folds, ,
Force; see also individual processes
bending,
cutting,
forging, ,
grinding,
hubbing,
per unit width,
shearing,
spinning,
Forced vibration,
Forgeability, ,
various materials,
Forging,
closed-die,
dies,
electrically assisted,
equipment selection,
force, ,
force impression die,
hot,
ideal work,
impression-die,
incremental,
isothermal,
lubrication,
of powder metals,
open-die,
orbital,
precision,
pressure,
rocking die,
rotary,
swing,
temperatures,
Form
block,
cutting,
grinding,
milling,
tools, cutting,
Formability; see individual processes
Forming; see individual processes
Forming economics,
Forming-limit diagram,
various materials,
Forward
extrusion,
slip, rolling,
spinning,
Foundries,
Foundry automation,
Four-high mill,
Four-point bending,
Four-slide machine,
Fourteen points, Deming,
Fracture, ; see also cracking
and defects
abrasive bonds,
abrasive grains,
brittle,
ductile,
modes,
stress,
surface, , ,
Free
bending,
cutting wheels,
machining steels,
space,
volume,
Freezing range,
Frequency distribution, ,
Fretting corrosion,
Friability, abrasives, ,
Friction,
and forming limit diagram,
angle,
factor,
hill forging,
in ceramics,
in metals,
in metalworking; see individual
processes
in polymers,
in ring compression,
in rolling,
measurement,
reduction,
sawing, ,
stir modeling,
stir welding,
work,
Friction welding,
inertia,
linear,
polymers,
stir,
Frictional stress, ,
Front tension,
Fuel gas,
Fukui test,
Full annealing,
Full indicator movement,
Full-mold process,
Fullering,
Fully gray iron,
Functional layout,
Functionally-graded carbides,
Furnace
brazing,
melting,
selection,
Fused
aluminum oxide,
deposition modeling,
silica,
Fusion
bonding silicon,
weld joints,
welding,
zone,
Fuzzy logic,
models,
G
G-code,
Gage
blocks,
marks,
numbers (sheet rolling),
Gages,
Gain ,
scheduling,
Gallium arsenide,
Galvanic corrosion,
Galvanized steel,
Galvanizing, ,
Gamma iron,
Gantry robot,
Gap lathe,
Garnet,
Gas
atomization,
metal arc welding,
tungsten arc welding,
Gas-assist molding,
Gases (shielding); see individual
processes
Gases, trapped,
Gate design,
Gate terminal,
Gating system,
Gaussian,
Gear manufacturing
finishing,
form cutting,
generating,
rolling,
shapers,
Gear teeth measurement,
Gel spinning,
Generalized Hooke’s law,
Generative CAPP system,
Gentle grinding,
Geometric
effects (lubrication),
modeling,
softening,
Germanium,
Giant molecules,
GLARE,
Glass,
ceramics,
fibers, ,
former,
lubrication, ,
point,
processing,
temperature,
tubing,
wool,
Glass-reinforced fiber-metal
laminate,
Glass-transition temperature,
various polymers,
Glasses
as bonding agent,
joining,
properties,
strengthening,
types,
Glassy behavior, ,
Glazing, ,
in grinding wheels,
Global competitiveness,
Globular transfer,
GO gage,
Gob,
Gold,
Golf club,
Good statistical control,
Goodyear, C.,
Grade (bonded abrasives),
Graduated instruments,
Grain,
abrasive,
depth of cut,
flow patterns, forging,
force,
fracture,
growth,
size, ,
size number,
structure casting, ,
Grain boundary, , –
embrittlement,
sliding,
Grand average,
Granite-epoxy composite,
Graphene,
Graphenite,
Graphite, , ; see also carbon
fibers,
lubricant,
Gravity segregation,
Gravure printing,
Gray (cast) iron,
Greases,
Green
ceramics,
compact,
density,
design, ,
design guidelines,
molding sand,
Grindability,
Grinding
cryogenic,
electrical-discharge,
electrochemical,
fluids,
mechanics,
operations,
ratio,
specific energy,
Grinding wheels, ; see also
bonded abrasives
dressing,
glazing, Index
loading,
selection,
types,
wear,
Grit blasting,
Grit number (abrasive),
Group
layout,
machine cell,
technology, ,
Guitar,
Gull wing package,
Gun drilling,
Gutter, –
H
Hacksaws,
Hafnium nitride,
Hall-Heroult process,
Hall-Petch equation,
Hammers (forging),
Hand lay-up,
Hard
acting wheel,
automation,
chromium plating,
facing,
glass,
turning, ,
Hardenability,
Hardeners,
Hardening,
case,
spark,
Hardness,
bonded abrasives,
hot,
tests, –
various abrasives,
various materials, ,
vs. strength,
Hastelloy, –
Hazards; see individual processes
Head tennis racquet,
Headers,
Heading,
Headstock,
Heat,
affected zone, friction sawing,
checking, , ,
flow,
in resistance welding,
treating (welds),
Heat treatment, ,
ferrous alloys,
nonferrous alloys,
Heat transfer,
in casting,
in welding,
Heat-affected zone, , ,
Heat-resistant alloys, ; see also
superalloys
Helix angle,
Hemming, ,
HEPA filter,
HERF,
Heterogeneous nucleation,
Heuristic,
Hexagonal close-packed, –
Hexapod,
HEXSIL,
Hierarchical coding,
High-carbon steel,
High-efficiency deep grinding,
High-efficiency machining range,
High-energy beam machining,
High-energy rate forging,
High-energy rate forming,
High-frequency induction welding,

High-frequency resistance welding,

High-performance particulate air
(HEPA),
High-pressure refrigerated coolant,

High-removal rate machining,
High-speed
automated assembly,
machining,
milling,
steels, ,
High-strength low-alloy steels,
High-temperature
alloys, , ; see also
superalloys
polymers,
superconductors,
High-velocity oxyfuel gas spraying,

Hinge manufacture,
History
of automation,
of manufacturing, –
HNA etching system,
Hob,
Hold-down ring,
Hole preparation (fastening),
Holemaking processes; see also
nontraditional processes
drilling,
punching,
Hollow end mill,
Holographic interferometry,
Holography,
Holonic,
Homogeneous deformation,
Homogenization,
Homologous temperature, ,
Homopolymers,
Honeycomb structures
(manufacturing),
Honing,
Hooke’s law, ,
Hooker process,
Horizontal
machining center,
upsetter,
Host atoms,
Hot
cracking (welds),
dipping,
extrusion,
forging, ,
hardness, ,
isostatic pressing, , ,

machining,
pressing (ceramics),
pressure welding,
roll bonding,
rolling,
shortness, ,
spot, ,
stamping,
tearing, ,
working,
Hot-chamber process,
Hot-melt adhesives,
Hot-plate welding,
Hot-pressed ceramics, ,
Hot-rolled wire rods,
Hot-runner mold,
Hot-tool welding,
Hot-twist test,
Hot-work steels,
Hubbing,
Hybrid,
casting,
code,
composites,
machining,
welding,
Hydraulic press, ,
Hydrodynamic
fluid film,
lubrication,
machining,
Hydroforming, ,
Hydrogen,
embrittlement,
Hydroplastic forming,
Hydroplasticity,
Hydrospinning,
Hydrostatic
extrusion, ,
pressure, effects of, , ,
tensile stress,
Hygroscopy,
Hygrothermal,
Hysteresis,
I
I-beam lithography; see ion-beam
lithography
Ice-cold molding,
Ideal
deformation, ,
energy,
work,
Idler roll,
If-then rules,
IGES; see initial graphics exchange
specification
Immersion lithography,
Impact,
extrusion, ,
molding,
plating,
toughness,
wear,
Imperfections (crystals),
Impregnation,
Impression-die forging,
Impurity atom,
In good statistical control,
In-line indexing,
In-process
annealing,
inspection,
measurement,
Incipient melting, ,
Inclination angle,
Inclusions, , , , ,

effects of,
Incoloy,
Incomplete
casting,
fusion,
penetration,
Inconel, –
Incremental
forging,
forming,
stretch expanding,
Indenters,
Indexable inserts,
Indexing assembly,
Indirect
emulsion,
extrusion,
reading instruments,
Indium in oxide,
Induction
brazing,
furnace,
hardening, ,
welding,
Industrial
ceramics,
cycle,
diamond,
robots, ,
Industry . (industrial revolution),

Inertia friction welding,
Infeed grinding,
Inference,
engine,
Infiltration,
Information technology,
Infrared
brazing,
radiation,
Ingot, casting,
Inhomogeneity factor,
Inhomogeneous deformation,
drawing,
Initial graphics exchange
specification,
Initiator,
Injection
blow molding,
foam molding,
Injection molding
and LIGA,
ceramics,
foam,
polymers,
powders,
reaction,
Ink-jet printer manufacture,
Inkjet printing,
Inoculant,
Inorganic adhesives,
Insert molding, ,
Inserts (cutting tool),
Inspection automated,
Inspection castings,
Instability, ,
in tension,
in torsion,
Instant masking,
Insulators,
Integral transfer devices,
Integrated
circuit,
communications systems,
mills,
snap fasteners,
Intelligent
fixturing systems,
robot, ,
Interactive computer graphics,
Interchangeable parts, ,
Interconnections,
Interferometry,
Intergranular, ,
corrosion,
fracture,
Intermediate
annealing,
shape,
Intermediates (glass),
Intermetallic compounds,
in welding,
Internal
centerless grinding,
damping,
grinding,
spinning, Index
Internet of Things, ,
Interpolation,
Interstitial
atom,
solid solutions,
Invar, ,
Inventory zero,
Inverse lever rule,
Inverse segregation,
Inverted extrusion,
Investment casting,
and LIGA,
Ion
implantation, , ,
plating,
Ion-beam lithography,
Ionic bond,
Iron,
effects of various elements,
Iron-base superalloys,
Iron-carbon system,
Iron-iron carbide phase diagram,
Ironing, ,
ISO Standards,
, ,
,
Isolation layer,
Isostatic pressing,
ceramics,
Isothermal
forging,
transformation diagram,
Isotropic etchants,
IT diagram,
Izod test,
J
Jacket,
Jet engine,
Jiggering,
Jigs,
Jo block,
Job shops,
Joggling,
Johansson blocks,
Joining
ceramics,
glasses,
plastics,
processes, ,
thermoplastics,
thermosets,
Jominy test,
Junction growth,
Junctions,
Juran, J.M.,
Just-in-time production, ,
K
Kaikaku,
Kaizen, ,
Kanban,
Kaolinite,
Keltool,
Kelvin model,
Kerf, , , – ,
Kevlar, ,
Key-seat cutter,
Keyhole technique (welding),
Kickout; see ejectors
Killed steel,
KK- coding system,
Knee,
Knockout; see ejectors
Knoop hardness,
Knowledge
engineering,
based system,
Knuckle-joint press,
Knurling,
Kodel,
Kovar, ,
L
Labor
costs,
intensive,
rate,
Lactic-based polymers,
Lamellae (pearlite),
Lamellar tears,
Laminar flow,
Laminate strengthening,
Laminated glass,
Laminated-object manufacturing,
Lancing,
Land,
in forging die,
Lanthanum,
Lapping,
Laps, , ; see also defects
Laser
beams,
engineered net shaping (LENS),
forming,
GMAW,
microjet,
peening,
polishing,
profilometer,
types, –
Laser-assisted forming,
Laser-beam
cutting,
machining,
torch,
welding,
Latex,
Lathes,
Lattice structure,
Lay,
Lay-up,
Layered structure,
Layout,
functional,
group,
Leaching, ,
Lead,
angle,
glass,
screw,
time, ,
Lead-alkali glass,
Lead-free
solders,
steels,
Leaded steels,
Lean
manufacturing,
production,
Leathery behavior,
Leeb,
Lehr,
Lettering,
Leveling rolls,
Lever rule,
Levitation melting,
Lévy-Mises equations,
Lexan,
Life cycle, ,
assessment,
engineering,
Life testing,
LIGA, –
Light section microscope,
Light-metal castings,
Limiting dome height test,
Limiting drawing ratio,
and anisotropy,
Line representation,
Line width (stereolithography),
Line-graduated instruments,
Linear
defects,
elastic behavior,
friction welding, ,
interpolation,
polymers,
variable differential transformer,
Linewidth,
Lip-relief angle,
Liquid
nitrogen,
penetrants,
Liquid-metal embrittlement,
Liquid-phase
epitaxy,
processing,
sintering,
Liquid-surface acoustical
holography,
Liquidus,
Lithium aluminum silicate,
Lithography,
deep ultraviolet,
electron beam,
extreme ultraviolet,
immersion,
ion beam,
soft,
X ray,
Load limited, presses,
Load-stroke curve,
Loading (grinding wheels),
Local area network,
Localized necking,
Lock seams,
Logarithmic strain, –
Long fibers,
Long-chain molecules,
Loss
cost,
function,
of quality,
Lost-foam process,
Lost-pattern casting,
Lost-wax process,
Lot size, , ,
Low-carbon stainless steels,
Low-carbon steel,
Low-expansion alloys,
Low-melting point metals,
Low-pressure casting,
Low-pressure chemical vapor
deposition,
Low-stress grinding,
Low-temperature superconductors,

Lower
control limit,
yield point,
Lubricant, ,
Lubricants boundary,
Lubricants; see also individual
processes
boundary,
Lubrication,
boundary,
drawing,
extrusion,
forging,
geometric effects,
deep drawing,
rolling,
mixed,
regimes,
thick film,
thin film,
Lucite,
Lueder’s bands, ,
M
M-series high-speed steel,
Machinability,
metals,
plastics,
stainless steels,
steels,
various materials,
Machinable ceramics,
Machine tools structures, ;
see also individual processes
Machine vision, ,
Machining,
allowance in casting,
center, ,
cost,
dry,
economics,
golf club,
Machinist’s rule,
Macromanufacturing,
Macromolecules,
Macroporosity,
Macrosegregation,
Material selection,
Magazine (tool),
Magnesium and alloys, – ,

Magnetic
abrasive finishing,
brush,
field assisted polishing,
float polishing,
particle inspection,
properties,
pulse forming,
strips,
Magnetorheological
finishing,
fluid,
Magnetostriction,
Magnetron sputtering,
Main turret,
Major strain,
Maker movement, , ,
Maker space, ,
Makerbot,
Makrolon,
Malleable,
iron,
Management product life cycle,
Mandrel drawing,
Mandrels,
Manganese sulfide inclusions,
Manipulators,
robots,
Mannesmann process,
Manual assembly,
Manual part programming,
Manufacturing,
attributes,
cell, , ,
cell design,
characteristics of materials,

costs, , ; see also costs
design for,
execution system,
history, –
holon, Index
methods,
process selection, ,
properties,
readiness level,
resource planning,
systems,
trends,
Maraging,
Margin (drill),
Marking,
Markings in castings,
Marquenching,
Martempering,
Martensite,
Martensitic
gray iron,
stainless steels, –
Mash-seam welding,
Mask,
Mask projection stereolithography,

Maskant,
Masking, ,
Masonry drills,
Mass
continuity,
production, ,
Master alloys,
Masticated,
Match-plate pattern,
Material
handling and movement,
handling system,
properties,
selection,
substitution,
Material-removal rate; see also
individual processes
EDM,
electrochemical grinding,
electrochemical machining,
milling,
turning,
Material-requirements planning,

Materials; see specific materials
Materials manufacturing
characteristics,
Materials substitution,
Matrix
in composite materials,
materials,
Mats,
Maturation period,
Maximum
reduction per pass drawing,
roughness height,
shear-stress criterion,
Maxwell model, ,
Mean,
stress,
Measurement of roughness,
Mechanical
alloying,
behavior of materials,
cleaning,
fastening, ,
fibering, , , ,
plating,
press,
properties, ; see also specific
materials
shock,
Mechanization,
Medium temperature CVD,
Medium-carbon steel,
Melamine,
Melt section, extrusion,
Melt spinning, , ,
Melting
furnaces,
practice,
Melting point,
various materials,
MEMS; see microelectromechanical
systems
Mer,
Merchant, M.E.,
Merlon,
Mesh,
Mesoscale manufacturing,
Metal
bonds (grinding wheels),
flow pattern extrusion,
foam,
inert-gas welding,
injection molding,
oxide semiconductor,
powders,
removal rate turning,
structure,
Metal-matrix composite,
brake,
Metal-oxide semiconductor,
Metal-powder spaying,
Metallic
coatings,
glasses, ,
projections (castings),
Metallizing,
Metallurgical
burn,
transformation,
Metalworking fluids, , ;
see also individual processes
Method of
attributes,
variables,
Metrology,
MICLASS,
Micro-contact printing,
Micro-transfer molding,
Microabrasive blasting,
Microalloyed steels,
Microchipping,
Microcontrollers,
devices,
systems, , ,
Microelectronic device,
Microencapsulated powders,
Microforming,
Micrograin carbides,
Microhardness,
Micromachining,
Micromanufacturing,
Micromechanical device,
Micrometer,
depth gage,
Micromolding in capillaries,
Microporosity,
Microreplication,
Microscopes,
Microsegregation,
Microstereolithography,
Microstructure casting, ; see
structure and specific metals
Microwave sintering,
Microwelds,
Mild
steel,
wear,
Mill (rolling),
Miller indices,
Milling,
cutters, ,
machines,
MIMIC,
Mineral oils,
Minimills,
Minimization of deviation,
Minimum
bend radius various metals,
cost; see individual processes
dimensions; various processes,

quantity lubrication,
Minor strain,
Minting coins,
Miscible blends,
Mist cooling,
Mixed lubrication,
Mixing (metal powders),
Mobile robot,
Mode size powder metals,
Modeling, ,
of casting,
of sheet forming,
Modified austempering,
Modifiers (glass),
Modular, ,
fixture,
Modulus, bulk,
Modulus of elasticity,
fibers,
reinforced plastics,
various materials, ,
Modulus of
resilience,
rigidity,
rupture,
Mohr’s circles,
Mohs hardness,
Moisture effects in
ceramics,
polymers,
sand,
Mold
ablation,
layout,
wash,
Molding; see also individual
processes
compound,
machines,
of tungsten,
reinforced plastics,
Molds for plastics, ; see also
individual processes
Molecular weight (polymers),
Molecular-beam epitaxy,
MolTun, see molding of tungsten
Molybdenum and alloys,
Molybdenum disulfide,
Monel, ,
Monocode,
Monomer,
Moore’s Law,
MOSFET,
Mounted wheels,
Move card,
MRL; see manufacturing readiness
level
MRP-II, see manufacturing
resource planning
MTConnect, –
Mulling machines,
Mullite,
Multi-component injection
molding,
Multiaxis EDM,
MultiClass coding system,
Multilayer
blow molding,
X ray lithography,
Multiphase coatings (tools),
Multiplexing,
Mushy zone,
Mushy-state extrusion,
Mylar,
N
n-type dopants,
Nano-alloyed steels,
Nanocoatings,
Nanoelectromechanical systems,
Nanogrinding,
Nanomanufacturing,
Nanomaterials,
Nanophase ceramics, ,
Nanopowders,
Nanotubes,
Natural
adhesives,
aging,
rubber,
strain, –
Near-dry machining,
Near-net-shape manufacturing,
Necking,
diffuse,
strain,
Negative
dopants,
springback,
NEMS,
Neodymium,
Nesting, ,
Net-shape,
forging,
forming,
Network polymers,
Neural networks,
Neurons,
Neutral
flame,
point, ,
Newtonian,
Nibbling,
Nichrome,
Nickel and alloys, –
Nickel-base superalloys,
properties,
Nimonic,
Niobium (columbium),
Nitrides,
Nitriding, ,
No-bake mold,
No-slip point rolling,
No-wear EDM,
Noble metals,
Nodular iron,
Noise,
Nominal
size,
strain,
stress,
Noncutting time,
Nondestructive testing,
welded joints,
Nonferous
alloys,
metals, , ,
Nonhomogeneous chips,
Nonproductive labor,
Nonsynchronous system
(assembly),
Nontraditional machining, ,
Nontransferred arc,
Nonuniform
deformation,
rational B-splines,
Normal anisotropy, ,
various metals, Index
Normal distribution curve,
force cutting,
rake angle, –
segregation,
Normalizing,
Nose radius,
NOT GO gage,
Notch sensitivity,
Notching,
in cutting tools,
Nucleation, ,
agent,
Nugget (weld),
Numerical control, ,
programming for,
robot,
NURBS,
Nylons,
O
Oblique cutting,
Octree,
Offset,
forming,
Oils, ,
Olsen test,
On-line inspection,
One-dimensional defects,
One-piece pattern,
Open riser,
Open-die forging,
Open-loop control, ,
Opitz coding system,
Optical
ceramics,
comparator,
flat,
glasses,
polymers,
projectors,
Optimization, ; see also
individual processes
Optimum
cutting speed, ,
die angle, ,
tool life,
Orange peel, ,
Orbital
forging,
welding,
Organic
acid polymers,
coatings,
grinding wheels,
light emitting diode (OLED),
materials,
Orientation (polymers),
Orientation-dependent etching,
Orthogonal
arrays,
cutting,
Osprey process,
Out of control,
Out of roundness,
Outsourcing, , ,
Overaging,
Overarm,
Overbending,
Overcasting,
Overcut,
Overlap,
Overmolding,
Oxalate coatings,
Oxidation,
Oxide
ceramics,
films,
powder in tube process,
Oxides; see specific materials
Oxidizing flame,
Oxychloride bond,
Oxyfuel gas
cutting,
spraying,
welding,
Oxyfuel-gas (flame) cutting of
sheet,
Oxyfuel-gas cutting,
P
p-type dopants,
Pack rolling,
Packaging (chip) ,
Paddings,
Painting,
Pallet,
Paperless design,
Parabolic interpolation,
Parallel
kinematic linked machines,
processing,
Parametric model,
Parison,
Part
build cylinder,
checking station,
families,
programming,
Partially stabilized zirconia,
Particle size distribution,
Parting,
agent, , ,
line,
forging,
Passivation, ,
layer,
Paste soldering, ,
Patenting,
Pattern, –
recognition,
Patternmaker’s shrinkage
allowance,
Payload (robots),
Payoff reel,
Pearlite, ,
Pearlitic gray iron,
Pedestal grinder,
Pedestal-type fixture,
PEDOT, ,
Peel test (spot welds),
Peeling (adhesives),
Peen
forming,
plating,
Peening, ,
Pellets, ,
Pencil sources,
Penetrants (liquid),
Percussion welding,
Perfectly plastic,
Perforating,
Peripheral milling,
Permanent
deformation,
mold casting,
patterns,
Permeability,
Personal area networks,
Pewter,
Phase
boundaries,
diagram,
transformation,
Phase-change materials,
Phenolics,
Phosphate coating,
Phosphor bronze,
Phosphosilicate glass, ,
Photochemical blanking,
Photoetching,
Photoinitiator,
Photolithography,
Photomask,
Photonic integrated circuit, –
Photopolymer,
Photoresist, ,
Physical
chemical etching,
properties, , ; see also
specific materials
tempering,
vapor deposition, ,
Pick-and-place robot,
Pickling, ,
Piece-part production,
Piercing, ,
Piezoelectric, ,
Pilger mill,
Pin-grid array,
Pinch rolls,
Pipe defect, ,
Piranha solutions,
Pitch splitting,
Planar
anisotropy, , ,
imperfections,
Planarization, ,
Plane of twinning,
Plane strain, , , ,
compression,
drawing,
rolling,
Plane stress, ,
Plane-strain compression test,
Planer-type milling machine,
Planers,
Planing,
Planning functions,
Plant layout,
Plasma, ,
forming,
spraying,
Plasma-arc
cutting, ,
welding,
Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor
deposition,
Plaster of paris,
Plaster-mold casting,
Plastic
anisotropy, ,
deformation, , , , ,
,
forming (ceramics),
modulus,
Plasticizer, ,
Plastics,
for coatings,
friction,
general recommendations,
joining,
machining,
processing,
processing characteristics,
reinforced,
structure,
Plastisols,
item Plastometer,
Plate, ,
glass,
Plating
electroless,
electroplating,
mechanical,
peen,
Platinum,
Playback robot,
PLC,
Plexiglas,
Plowing
friction,
in grinding,
Plug gages,
Plugs,
tube bending,
tube bulging,
Plunge grinding, – ,
Pneumatic gages,
Point
angle,
defects,
Point-to-point control,
Pointing,
Poisson’s effect,
Poisson’s ratio,
various materials, ,
Polarity (arc welding),
Polishing,
Polyamides,
Polyblends,
Polycarbonates,
Polycodes,
Polycrystalline diamond,
Polycrystals,
Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS),
Polyesters, ,
Polyethylenes,
Polygonization,
Polyimide bond,
Polyimides, ,
Polyjet,
Polymer, , ; see also plastics
precursor,
structure,
tubing,
Polymer-matrix reinforced
plastic,
Polymeric coatings (lubrication),

Polymerization,
degree of,
Polymethylmethacrylate, ;
Polymorphic transformation,
Polymorphism,
Polypropylenes,
Polysilicon,
Polystyrene,
beads,
Polysulfones,
Polytetrafluoroethylene; see
fluorocarbons
Polyurethane,
foam processing,
Polyvinyl chloride,
Population,
mean,
Porcelain,
enameling,
Porosity, –
bonded abrasives,
ceramics,
castings,
ingots,
welds,
Portable
grinder,
hardness tester,
Porthole die,
Position measurement,
Positioning,
accuracy,
Positive dopants,
Positive mold,
Post-uniform elongation, , Index
Postbaking,
Postprocess inspection,
Potting,
Pouring basin, ,
Powder
bed,
feed cylinder,
injection molding,
metallurgy,
rolling,
spraying,
Powders (metal),
Power
hammer,
in rolling, –
law index (polymers),
requirements; see specific energy
spinning,
Powerhead production units,
Prebaking,
Precious metals,
Precipitates,
Precipitation hardening,
steels,
Precipitation metal powders,
Precision,
casting,
forging,
machining, ,
metal deposition,
Precoated sheet steel, ,
Precursor, ,
Preexpanded beads,
Preferred orientation,
Preform,
Prepregs,
Press
brake, –
fit,
forming,
selection (sheet forming),
working,
Presses
hydraulic, ,
mechanical,
screw,
servo,
Pressing
ceramics,
glass,
powders,
stem,
Pressure
casting,
die casting,
distribution, rolling,
gas welding,
in explosive forming,
in forging,
pouring,
sensitive adhesives,
sintering,
Pressure-multiplying factor,

Pressureless compaction,
Pressworking; see sheet metal
forming processes
Prestressed ceramics,
Primary
bonds,
metals,
shear zone,
working,
Primitives of solids,
Principal stresses, ,
Printed circuit board,
wiring board,
Prism-shaped machines,
Process
annealing,
capabilities, , ; see also
individual processes
design,
energy demand,
optimization,
planning,
qualification,
selection, ,
simulation,
validation,
verification,
viability,
Producibility,
Product
data exchange specification,
design, ,
design considerations,
integrity,
liability,
life cycle, ,
life cycle management,
quality,
Production,
card,
flow analysis, ,
methods,
quantity (volume),
rate, , ; see also
individual processes
rate (cutting),
Productive labor,
Productivity,
Proeutectoid cementite,
ferrite,
Profile
measurement,
milling machine,
Profilometer,
Programmable
automation,
for NC,
logic controllers,
Programming languages,
Progressive die, ,
Projection welding,
Projections (castings),
Proof stressing,
Properties of materials; see specific
materials
Proportional limit,
Protector tennis racquet,
Prototype,
Protractor,
Pseudo-isostatic pressing,
Pseudoplastic,
Pulforming,
Pull
broach,
system, ,
Pulsed
arc,
electrochemical machining,
laser,
spray deposition,
Pultrusion,
Pulverization,
Pumping section, extruder,
Punch,
force in deep drawing,
Punching,
Pure
drawing,
metals (solidification),
shear,
stretching,
Push
broach,
cut,
system,
Pyroceram,
Pyrolysis,
Pyrometer,
Pyrophoric,
Q
QS standard,
Qualification,
Quality
assurance, ,
attributes,
control,
process certification,
Quench cracking,
Quenching,
media,
severity,
R
Rack
plating,
shaper,
Radial force, machining,
Radial forging,
Radiation effects,
Radiator closure,
Radio-frequency sputtering,
Radiography,
Rake,
Rake angle, ,
Rammed graphite molding,
Random sampling,
Range (statistics),
Rapid prototyping, ; see also
additive manufacturing
materials,
processes,
Rapid solidification,
Rare-earth metals,
Raspberry pi platform,
Reaction-injection molding,
Reactive sputtering,
Reagents,
Real area of contact,
Reamers,
Reaming,
Reciprocating screw extruder,
Reconfigurable machines, ,
Recovery,
Recrystallization,
temperature,
Recyclability of polymers,
Recycling design for,
Recycling,
Redrawing,
Reduction
in height,
of area,
Redundant work, , ,
Refrigerated coolant,
Refractory metals and alloys,
Regenerative chatter,
Regulating wheel,
Reinforced plastics,
applications,
elastic modulus,
processing,
properties,
strength,
Reinforced resinoid wheels,
Relative grain force,
Relaxation
stress,
time,
Release agent; see parting agent
Release cloth,
Relief
angle, ,
notch in bending,
René,
Rephosporized carbon steel,
Replicast CS process, –
Residual stresses, , ,
bending,
grinding,
reduction of,
rod drawing,
rolling,
Resilience,
Resin transfer molding, ,
Resinoid bond,
Resins; see polymers
Resistivity (electrical),
Resolution,
Resulfurized
carbon steel,
steels,
Resultant force cutting,
Retained austenite,
Reverse
extrusion,
redrawing,
Reynolds number,
Rheocasting, , –
Rib, ,
Ribbon,
Rigid PVC,
Rimmed steel,
Ring
compression test,
gages,
rolling, –
Risers,
design,
Roboextrusion,
Robotic
assembly,
deburring,
Robots,
classification,
industrial,
intelligent,
selection,
Rocking-die forging,
Rockwell hardness,
Rod drawing,
Roll
bending,
deflections,
flattening,
force,
forging,
forming,
grinder,
pass design,
separating force,
stands,
torque,
Roller
burnishing,
leveling,
Rolling
chatter,
lubrication,
metals,
mills,
power, –
strain rate,
Rolls,
Root-mean-square average,
Rotary
bending,
blades,
file, Index
Rotary (continued)
forging,
swaging,
table grinder,
table milling machine,
tube piercing,
ultrasonic machining,
Rotational molding,
Rotomolding,
Roughing cuts,
Roughness, ; see also surface
finish and surface roughness
and cost,
height,
measurement,
Rounding roll,
Roundness,
Roving,
Rubber,
bond,
forming,
modified polymers,
Rubbers; see elastomers
Rubbery behavior,
Runner,
choke,
Runnerless mold,
Runners,
Running-in,
Rupture,
modulus,
S
S-N curves,
Saddle,
Safety; see also individual
processes glass; see laminated
glass in machining magnesium,

Sag point,
Samarium,
Sample size,
Sand
casting, ,
molding machines,
molds,
slingers,
Sands (casting),
Sandwich molding,
Saponification,
Saran,
Sawing,
EDM,
Saws,
Scanning
acoustical holography,
electron microscope,
Scarfing,
Scleroscope,
Scoring,
Scrap
shearing,
various processes,
Screw
dislocation,
extruder,
machines,
press,
threads cutting,
Seam defect, , ,
Seaming,
Seamless tube production,
Search units,
Season cracking,
Second generation AHSS,
Second-phase particles,
Secondary
bonds,
shear zone,
tensile stresses, ,
working,
Section thickness in castings,
Seeded gel abrasives,
Segmented
chips,
dies,
Segments,
Segregation,
Seizure,
Séjournet process,
Selection criteria, manufacturing
processes,
Selective
laser melting,
laser sintering,
leaching,
Self-excited vibration, ,
Self-interstitial,
Semi-killed steel,
Semicentrifugal casting,
Semipermanent mold,
Semipositive mold,
Semisolid metal forming,
Semisynthetic
cutting fluids,
solutions,
Sendzimir mill,
Sensitivity,
Sensors,
classification,
fusion,
Serrated chips,
Service,
life,
Servo press,
Severe wear,
Severity of quench,
Shank,
cutter,
Shape
factor (extrusion),
rolling,
Shape-memory
alloys,
polymers,
Shaped-tube electrolytic machining,

Shapers,
Shaping (grinding wheels),
Shaving, ,
Shaw process,
Shear
angle,
die,
factor,
modulus,
plane,
spinning,
strain, ,
cutting,
strain rate,
strength (single crystals),
stress,
stress (critical),
yield stress,
Shear-angle relationships,
Shearing,
Sheet, ,
extrusion (polymers),
molding compound,
plastic,
Sheet metal forming, ; see also
individual processes
Shell
in casting,
mills,
mold-casting,
Shellac bond,
Shielding gas; see individual
processes
Shock-resisting steels,
Shore hardness test,
Short fibers,
Shot
blasting,
chamber,
peening, , ,
Shrink flanging,
Shrinkage,
cavity,
in casting,
porosity,
Sialon,
Side
cutting edge angle, ,
rake angle, ,
relief angle, ,
Silane,
Silicate bond,
Silicate-bonded sand process,
Silicon carbide,
Silicon nitride-base ceramics,
Silicones, ,
Silver,
Simple shear,
Simultaneous engineering,
Sine bar,
Single minute exchange of dies,
Single-crystal
casting,
growing,
turbine blades,
Sintered carbides,
Six sigma,
Size effect,
grinding,
Sizing,
Sizing pass,
Skelp,
Skew rolling,
Skill required; see individual
processes
Skin
in casting,
pass,
rolling,
Skin-dried mold,
Skiving, ,
Slab, ,
method of analysis, ,
milling,
Slag, ,
Slip,
bands,
planes,
system,
Slitting,
saws,
Slotters,
Slug, ,
Slush
casting, ,
molding,
Snagging,
Snap gages,
Soak,
Soaking,
Soaps,
Sodium silicate process,
Soft-acting wheel,
Solid lubricants,
Solid solution, ,
Solid-metal embrittlement,
Solid-phase forming (plastics),
Solidification,
alloys,
contraction (various metals),
front, ,
pattern, ,
pure metals,
time,
Solidus,
Solubility,
Soluble oils; see emulsions
Solute,
atoms,
Solution treatment,
Solvent,
cleaning,
crazing,
Sonotrode,
Soot,
Spade drill,
Spark hardening,
Spark-erosion machining,
Sparks (grinding),
Specific
energy, , ,
cutting,
cutting (various metals),
grinding (various metals),

heat,
stiffness,
strength,
volume,
Specifications,
Spectra fiber,
Speed cracking, ,
Speeds; see individual
processes
Spheroid,
Spheroidite,
Spider die, ,
Spin forging,
Spindle,
Spinnability,
Spinneret,
Spinning,
conventional,
fibers,
shear,
tube,
Splat cooling, ,
Splatter,
Split
female mold,
pattern,
Spray-up,
Spraying (thermal),
Spreading, rolling,
Springback, ,
compensation for,
factor,
negative,
Sprue, ,
design,
Sputtering,
Square
die,
turret,
Squeeze casting,
Stainless steels,
Stamping, , ; see also
sheet-metal forming
processes
Stand grinder,
Standard deviation,
Standards,
Standoff,
Stands (rolling),
Starch-based polymers,
Starter bar,
State of stress, Index
Statistical
control,
process control, ,
quality control,
Statistics,
Steckel rolling,
Steel-rule die,
Steels, ; see also individual types
properties,
Stellite,
Step drill,
Step-growth polymerization,
Step-reaction polymerization,
Step-type gage,
Stereolithography,
cure depth,
line width,
Sterling silver,
Stewart platform,
Sticking,
Sticking condition,
Stiction,
Stiffness-to-weight ratio,
Stones, abrasive,
Stop-off,
Stored energy, ,
Straddle milling,
Straightening,
rods,
sheet,
Straightness,
Strain
aging,
effective,
engineering,
hardening, ,
hardening exponent,
logarithmic,
natural,
nominal,
ratio,
shear, ,
softening, ,
true,
volume,
Strain rate,
drawing,
extrusion,
in metalworking,
in rolling,
sensitivity,
Strain-rate sensitivity
exponent,
polymers,
various metals,
Strand casting,
Strength
coefficient, ,
coefficient, various metals, ,

reinforced plastics,
single crystals,
Strength; see individual materials
Strength-to-weight ratio,
Stress
cracking, ,
effective,
engineering,
flow, – ,
mean,
relaxation, ,
relief annealing,
relieving,
shear,
Stresses thermal,
true,
whitening,
Stress-corrosion cracking, , ,

Stress-relief annealing,
Stress-strain curves,
types,
various metals,
various polymers,
Stretch
bending,
flanging,
forming,
Stretcher strains, ,
Striations,
Stringers,
Strip
casting,
drawing,
rolling,
Stripper,
Stroke limited,
Structural
defects in rolling,
foam molding,
grade steels,
Structure; see specific materials
bonded abrasives,
insensitive,
metals,
sensitive,
Structure-property relationships
(casting),
Stuffing box,
Stylus,
Styrofoam,
Subcritical annealing,
Substitutional
atom,
solid solutions,
Substrate,
Subtractive processes,
Sugar,
Superabrasives,
Superalloys, –
Superconductivity,
Superficial hardness,
Superfinishing,
Superheat,
Superplastic forming,
Superplasticity, ,
Support structure,
Surface
cleaning,
cracking, ,
defects, , ; see also
individual processes
energy,
fatigue wear,
finish and cost,
finish (cutting),
grinder,
grinding, ,
hardening,
integrity, ,
measurement, –
profilometer,
rolling, ,
structure,
tension,
texture,
texturing, ,
treatments,
Surface roughness,
and lubrication,
in machining, –
various machining processes,
Surfaces,
Sustainable manufacturing,
Swaging,
Swift test,
Swing (lathe),
Swing forging,
Swing-frame grinder,
Synthetic
cutting fluids,
organic polymers,
rubbers,
solutions,
Synthetics,
T
T-series high speed steel,
T-slot cutter,
Tailor-welded blanks,
Tailpipe (defect),
Tailstock,
Tandem
drawing,
rolling,
Tantalum and alloys,
Tap,
Tapping,
Taylor, F.W.,
Tearing
in casting,
in deep drawing,
Technology readiness level,
Teemed,
Teflon,
Telescoping gages,
Temper
designations,
embrittlement, ,
rolling, ,
Temperature; see also individual
processes
cutting,
effects,
in forging,
Temperature rise,
in friction,
in grinding,
Tempered martensite,
Tempering
in grinding,
of metals, ,
Tensile strength, ; see also
ultimate tensile strength
various fibers,
Tension test,
Tensions in rolling,
Terpolymers,
Terbium,
Terne,
Testing
destructive,
nondestructive,
Texture,
surface,
Texturing,
Theoretical (ideal)
shear strength,
tensile strength,
Thermal
aging,
barrier,
camber,
conductivity,
energy in deburring,
expansion,
expansion anisotropy,
fatigue, ,
inspection,
properties (polymers),
shock, ,
spraying,
stresses,
Thermally assisted machining,
Thermoforming,
Thermographic inspection,

Thermomechanical processing,

Thermoplastics,
applications,
Thermosets, ,
applications,
Thick-film lubrication,
Thick-molding compound,
Thickness and forming limit
diagram,
Thin-film lubrication,
Third generation AHSS,
Third-octave chatter,
Thixoforming (thixocasting),
Thixotropic behavior,
Thread
cutting,
gages,
grinding,
measurement,
rolling, ,
Threading, ,
Three-dimensional printing,
Three-dimensional surface
measurement,
Three-high mill,
Three-plate mold,
Three-point bending,
Through hardening,
Through-feed grinding,
Thrust force, ,
cutting,
drilling,
Tie line,
Time-temperature-transformation
diagram,
Tin,
bronze,
cry,
plate,
Titanium
alloys, properties, ,
aluminide intermetallics,
aluminum nitride,
carbide, ,
carbonitride,
nitride,
Tolerance and surface roughness,

Tolerances, ; see also individual
processes
machining processes,
Tool
checking station,
condition monitoring,
failure,
geometry,
holders milling,
materials,
post,
shank,
steels,
storage,
wear,
wear measurement,
Tool-exchange arm,
Tool-life curves,
Tool-post grinder,
Toolmaker’s microscope,
Toolroom lathe,
Tools; see individual processes
Torlon,
Torque in rolling, –
Torsion test,
Torsional chatter, Index
Total
elongation,
indicator reading,
quality management, ,
specific energy,
Touch probes,
Toughness,
Tracer lathe,
Tractor,
Tractrix curve,
Trailer hitch,
Transducers,
Transfer
dies,
lines,
molding,
Transfer/injection molding,
Transformation
diagrams,
induced plasticity,
phase,
Transgranular fracture,
Transition section,
Transition temperature,
Transits,
Transverse rupture strength,
Trapped gases, casting,
Traverse grinding,
Tree (investment casting),
Trends in manufacturing,
Trepanning,
Tresca
criterion,
friction,
Triaxial stresses,
Tribology, ,
Trim loss,
Trimming,
TRIP steels,
TRL, see technology readiness level
True
centrifugal casting,
strain,
strain rate, ,
stress,
stress-true strain curves, ,

Truing,
TTT diagram; see timetemperature-transformation
diagram
Tube
bending, –
drawing,
hydroforming,
production,
rolling,
sinking,
spinning,
Tundish,
Tungsten and alloys,
Tungsten carbide,
Turbine blades, , –
casting, –
single crystal,
Turbulence (in casting),
Turk’s head,
Turn broaching,
Turning,
centers,
Turret lathe,
Twin-wire arc,
Twinning,
Twinning induced plasticity;
TWIP steels,
Twist drill,
Two-dimensional imperfections,

Two-high mill,
Two-phase systems,
Two-plate mold,
Tygon,
U
Udimet,
Ultimate tensile strength,
ideal,
various materials,
vs. fatigue,
vs. hardness,
Ultra high-strength steels,
Ultra high speed machining,
Ultraprecision machining,
manufacturing,
Ultrasonic
cleaning,
inspection,
machining,
machining, rotary,
peening,
vibrations, drawing,
Ultraviolet radiation,
Uncoated carbides,
Unconventional
machining,
processes,
Undeformed chip
length,
thickness, – ,
Undercut,
Underwater spark forming,
Unfused alumina,
Uniform
deformation,
elongation, ,
strain,
Unit cell,
Unit costs,
Universal
grinder,
machining center,
tool and cutter grinder,
Universe, quality control,
Up
grinding,
milling,
Upper control limit,
Upper yield point,
Upsetters; see headers
Upsetting,
test,
Urea,
V
V dies,
V process,
Vacancy,
Vacuum
casting,
forming,
molding,
Vacuum-bag molding,
Validation, –
Value,
van der Waals bonds,
Vapor
blanket,
degreasing,
Vapor deposition,
chemical,
physical,
Variability,
Variable blankholder force,
Vent,
Verification,
Vernier calipers,
Vertical flaskless molding,
Very high speed machining,
Vibration,
in rolling,
in machining,
Vibratory finishing,
Vickers hardness,
Vinyls; see polyvinyl chloride
Virtual prototyping,
Viscoelastic,
modulus,
Viscosity
in casting,
vs. strain rate various polymers,

vs. temperature various polymers,

Visible penetrant,
Vitreous; see glasses
Vitrified bond,
Voids, ; see also porosity
Voigt model, ,
Volume strain,
von Mises
criterion,
stress,
Vulcanization, ,
W
Warm
forging,
working,
Waspaloy,
Water absorption (polymers),

Water jet cutting,
Water-base emulsions,
Water-jet
machining,
peening,
Waterglass,
Waviness,
height,
width,
Wavy edges rolling,
Wax patterns (casting),
Waxes,
Ways, lathe,
Wear,
abrasive,
adhesive,
attritious,
coefficient,
cutting tools,
electrodes, EDM,
flat,
grinding wheels,
impact,
land (allowable),
parts,
plates,
Web,
Welding, ; see also individual
processes
Welding-chamber method,
Well (casting),
Wet
drawing,
spinning,
Wheel depth of cut,
Whisker-reinforced tool materials,

Whiskers, , ,
White
cast iron,
ceramics,
metals,
Whitney, E.,
Wiping die,
Wire
arc,
brushing,
drawing,
EDM,
spraying,
Wire-cutting machining centers,
Wöhler diagram,
Work
envelope,
hardening, ; see also strain
hardening
in progress,
of deformation,
of deformation, forging, –
roll,
softening,
Work-hardened layer,
Workability; see individual
processes
Workholding devices; see
individual processes
World-class manufacturing,
Worms,
Wrinkling, ,
Wrought structure, ,
X
X rays,
Y
Yarn,
Yield
point,
stress,
Yield criteria,
experimental verification,
Yield-point elongation, ,

Young’s modulus, ; see also
modulus of elasticity
Yttrium,
Z
Z mill (rolling),
Zero-base waste,
Zinc,
casting alloys,
phosphate coating,
Zipper cracks,
Zirconium,
nitride,
oxide,

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