Make – The Annotated Build-It-Yourself Science Laboratory

Make – The Annotated Build-It-Yourself Science Laboratory
اسم المؤلف
Raymond Barrett and Windell Oskay
التاريخ
10 أكتوبر 2023
المشاهدات
269
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
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Make – The Annotated Build-It-Yourself Science Laboratory
Raymond Barrett and Windell Oskay
Table of Contents
Foreword xi
Getting Started . xv
Original Preface xxi
Original Introduction xxiii
PART I. Chemistry

  1. General Laboratory Equipment 3
    Science Laboratory Workbench 3
    Gravity Wash Bottle . 4
    Light Bulb Chemistry Flask 5
    Cutting Glass Tubing 6
    Bending Glass Tubing . 6
    Graduated Cylinder and Chemistry Flask . 7
    Alcohol Burner 8
    Broad Flame Alcohol Burner . 9
    Pipette 10
    Mouth Pipette . 10
    Blowtorch Type of Alcohol Burner 11
    Large Pipette-Glass Blowing 12
    Burette Clamp and Test Tube Holder . 12
    Mason Jar Chemistry Flask . 13
    Funnel 13
    String Filter 14
    Plant Pot Filter . 14
    Tripod and Adjustable Rings . 14
    Support Stand . 16
    Ring Support for Support Stand and Test Tube Holder 16
    Bottle Etcher . 17
    Glass Cutter . 17
    vBottle Cutter . 18
    Salt Water Rheostat 19
    Carbon Arc Furnace 21
    Adjustable Glass Bottle Etcher 22
    Test Tubes . 23
    Test Tube Racks 23
    Retort and Liebig Condenser . 23
    Distillation Condenser . 24
    Clothes Hanger Chemistry Stands—Filter Paper 25
    Graduated Beaker . 26
    Stirring Rod 26
    Petri Dish 27
    Measuring Spoon 27
    Acid Bottle 27
    Wash Bottle . 28
    Asbestos Board 28
    Drilling Glass 28
    Litmus Paper 30
    Sensitive Gram Scale . 30
    Metric Weights 31
    Soda Straw Chemical Balance 32
    Bridge for Pneumatic Trough . 32
    Thistle Tube . 33
    Hydrogen Generator . 34
    Oxygen Generator . 34
    Chemical Source of Hydrogen 35
    Safety Gas Generator . 36
    X Connector . 37
    T Tube . 37
    Adjustable Clamp 37
    Crystal Coal Garden 38
    Growing Crystal Candy . 39
    Growing Gem Crystals . 40
    Recipes for Growing Crystals . 44
    Polarimeter 46
    Hydrometer . 47
    Cartesian Diver 48
    Problems to Investigate in the Study of Chemistry 49
    PART II. Physics
  2. Astronomy and Light . 65
    Star Chart 65
    Refracting Telescope . 67
    Spectroscope 68
    Astrolabe 69
    vi Make: The Annotated Build-It-Yourself Science LaboratoryDip Circle Meter . 70
    Universal Sundial 71
    Planetarium Model of the Solar System . 73
    Umbrella Planetarium 73
    Planetarium Projector 74
    Foucault Pendulum 75
    Sunspot Viewer 76
    Moon Range Finder 77
    Water Faucet Vacuum Pump . 78
    Vacuum Jar Pressure Gauge 78
    Vacuum Pump . 80
    Vacuum Jar—Bell Jar . 81
    Solar Furnace 81
    Solar Distillation Apparatus 83
    Constellarium . 84
    Problems to Investigate in the Study of Astronomy and Light . 85
  3. Atomic Energy . 99
    Radiometric Dating 99
    Spinthariscope . 100
    Dosimeter 101
    Diffusion Cloud Chamber . 103
  4. Electricity and Magnetism 107
    Making a Magnet (or Recharging a Magnet) . 107
    Magnetometer . 108
    Needle Compass . 109
    Watch Spring Compass . 110
    Columbus Compass 110
    Iron Filings . 110
    Electroscope . 111
    Pith Ball Electroscope . 112
    Electronic Electroscope . 113
    Electrophorus 115
    Leyden Jar . 116
    Solenoid . 118
    Lemon Battery 118
    Blotting Paper Battery 119
    Electric Cell . 119
    Galvanoscope 120
    Storage Battery . 121
    Mercury Switch . 121
    Safety Pin Switch . 122
    Rheostat . 123
    Push Button 123
    Pencil Rheostat . 123
    Table of Contents viiCurrent Reverser 124
    Conductivity Tester . 125
    AC or DC Power Supply . 126
    Variable Load . 129
    Lamp Bank Rectifier and Battery Charger 130
    Carbon Rods—Carbon Electrodes . 131
    Electrolysis Tank 132
    Test Tube Electric Motor 133
    Bolt and Nut Motor . 134
    Doorbell . 135
    Electric Buzzer 135
    Telegraph Key 136
    Telegraph Sounder . 136
    Telegraph Solenoid Sounder 136
    International Code 137
    Current Flow Indicator 137
    Analog Computer 139
    Digital Computer . 141
    Problems to Investigate in the Study of Electricity and Magnetism . 142
  5. Force, Measurement, and Motion 153
    Spring Scale 153
    Rubber Band Weighing Scales 153
    Meter Stick . 154
    Optical Micrometer . 155
    Centrifugal Force Indicator 155
    Hand Stroboscope 157
    Motorized Stroboscope . 158
    Water Hourglass 158
    Stop Clock 159
    Harmonograph . 160
  6. Geology . 163
    General Equipment Needed for Geology 163
    Rock and Mineral Worksheet 164
    Specific Gravity Test 166
    Bead Test . 167
    Special Properties 168
    Seismograph . 169
    Volcano 172
  7. Meteorology (Weather) . 175
    Anemometer . 175
    Rain Gauge . 176
    Wind Vane . 177
    Nephoscope . 178
    viii Make: The Annotated Build-It-Yourself Science LaboratoryBeaufort Wind Scale 179
    Wind Chill Table 179
    Balloon Barometer 180
    Aneroid Barometer . 181
    Hair Hygrometer 182
    Wet- and Dry-bulb Hygrometer . 183
    What Determines Weather 184
    Mercury Barometer . 184
    Chemical Weather Glass 187
    Air Current Detector 188
    Air Thermometer . 189
    Cloud Jar . 190
    Air Barometer 191
    Convection Current Box 192
    Sunshine Recorder . 193
    Radiometer . 194
    Weather Balloon 195
    Problems to Investigate in the Study of Meteorology (Weather) 197
    PART III. Biology
  8. General Biology Equipment . 209
    Light Source for a Microscope . 209
    Water Drop Magnifying Glass . 210
    Eyedropper . 210
    Low-Power Microscope . 210
    Leeuwenhoek-type Microscope . 211
    Bacteria Garden 212
    Micrograph . 214
    Polarized Light Filters . 215
    Microbiology Cultures 217
    Growing Brine Shrimp 218
    Microscope Slide Making . 221
    Microtome . 223
    Precision Microtome 224
    Animal Maze . 225
    Insect Net 226
    Killing Jar . 227
    Insect Mounting Box 227
    Quick Freeze Chamber 227
    Chest Cavity 229
    Metabolism Chamber . 230
    Aquarium 230
    Terrarium 231
    Dissecting Needle 232
    Dissecting Pins . 233
    Table of Contents ixDissecting Knife 233
    Animal Cage 233
    Problems to Investigate in the Study of Biology 234
    PART IV. Appendix
    Appendix A. Sourcing Chemicals and Materials . 263
    Appendix B. Weights and Measures . 273
    Appendix C. Temperature Conversion Table 275
    Appendix D. Table of the Elements . 277
    Appendix E. Extended Notes . 279
    Index 297
    Index
    Symbols
    50 Dangerous Things (you should
    let your children do) (book), xiii
    A
    absolute zero, 275
    AC/DC power supply, 126
    acid bottle, 28
    acid test (geology), 166
    acid, working with, 284
    adjustable bottle etcher, 22
    adjustable clamp, 37
    adjustable rings, 14
    air barometer, 191
    air current
    convection current box, 192
    detector, 188
    air pressure measurement
    air barometer, 191
    aneroid barometer, 181
    balloon barometer, 180
    mercury barometer, 184
    air thermometer, 189
    albumin, 61
    alcohol burner, 8
    blowtorch type, 11
    broad flame, 9
    alcohol thermometer, 91
    alcohol, usage guidelines for, 281
    Alpha particle, 105
    alum, 42, 55, 58
    ammonia, 52, 55
    ammonium aluminum sulfate
    crystals, 58
    ammonium sulfate, 42
    Amoeba, 219
    amphoteric substance, 54
    analog computer, 139
    anemometer, 175
    aneroid barometer, 181
    animal cage, 233
    animal maze, 225
    animal(s), guidelines for
    experimentation with, 279
    aquarium, 230
    arc furnace, 21-22
    asbestos board, 28
    astrolabe, 69
    astronomy and light, 65-84
    astrolabe, 69
    constellarium, 84
    dip circle meter, 70
    Foucault pendulum, 75
    moon range finder, 77
    planetarium, 73
    planetarium projector, 74
    refracting telescope, 67
    spectroscope, 68
    star chart, 65
    sunspot viewer, 76
    umbrella planetarium, 73
    universal sundial, 71
    vacuum jar pressure gauge, 78
    vacuum jar — Bell jar, 81
    vacuum pump, 80
    water faucet vacuum pump, 78
    atomic clock, 99
    atomic energy, 99-105
    diffusion cloud chamber,
    103-105
    dosimeter, 101-103
    radiometric dating, 99
    spinthariscope, 100
    B
    baby bottles, 281
    bacilli, 213
    bacteria, 89
    garden, 212
    Petri dish, 27
    baking soda, 42
    balloon
    barometer, 180
    weather, 195, 295
    barometer
    air, 191
    aneroid, 181
    balloon, 180
    mercury, 184
    water, 293
    Barrett, Raymond E., xii
    battery
    blotting paper, 119
    297electric cell, 119
    lamp bank rectifier/battery
    charger, 130
    lemon, 118
    No. 6 dry cell, 288
    storage, 121
    usage guide for, 282
    zinc-carbon, 282
    bead test (geology), 167
    beaker, graduated, 26
    Beaufort Wind Scale, 179
    Bell jar, 81
    bell, electric, 135
    bending glass tubing, 6
    Berkeley, Edmund C., 291
    beta particles, 105
    Big Dipper, 70
    biology, 209-234
    animal cage, 233
    animal maze, 225
    aquarium, 230
    bacteria garden, 212
    brine shrimp, 218
    chest cavity model, 229
    dissecting knife, 233
    dissecting needle, 232
    dissecting pins, 233
    eyedropper, 210
    insect mounting box, 227
    insect net, 226
    killing jar, 227
    Leeuwenhoek-type
    microscope, 211
    light source for microscope,
    209
    low-power microscope, 210
    metabolism chamber, 230
    microbiology cultures, 217
    micrograph, 214
    Petri dish, 27
    polarized light filters, 215
    quick freeze chamber, 227
    terrarium, 231
    vacuum pump, 80
    water drop magnifying glass,
    210
    bituminous coal, 59
    black lights, 96
    bleach, 52
    blotting paper battery, 119
    blowtorch-type alcohol burner, 11
    boiling chips, 39
    boiling point, 91
    bolt and nut motor, 134
    borax, 57
    boric acid, 42, 57
    bottle cutter, 18
    bottle etcher, 17, 22
    bottle(s)
    for acid, 28
    wash, 28
    BRAINIAC, 291
    bridge rectifier, 290
    bridge, pneumatic trough, 32
    brine shrimp, growing, 218
    broad flame alcohol burner, 9
    Brownian motion, 90
    buoyancy, cartesian diver and, 48
    burette clamp and test tube
    holder, 12
    burner, alcohol, 8
    blowtorch type, 11
    broad flame, 9
    burning metal, 58
    buzzer, electric, 135
    C
    cage, animal, 233
    Campbell–Stokes recorder, 193
    candles, 49, 56
    candy, crystal, 39
    capacitor, 118
    carbon, 60
    carbon arc furnace, 282
    carbon arc, safety guidelines for,
    282
    carbon dating, 99
    carbon dioxide, 37, 50, 51
    carbon rods, 21
    carbon rods/electrodes, 131
    carbon tetrachloride, 285
    cartesian diver, 48
    cell, electric, 119
    Celsius temperature scale, 275
    centrifugal force, 292
    centrifugal force indicator, 155
    centripetal force, 292
    chemical balance, 32
    chemical tests (geology), 169
    chemical weather glass, 187, 294
    chemicals, working safely with,
    284
    chemistry equipment, 3-49
    acid bottle, 28
    adjustable clamp, 37
    adjustable glass bottle etcher,
    22
    alcohol burner, 8
    alternative load for carbon arc
    furnace, 282
    asbestos board, 28
    blowtorch-type alcohol burner,
    11
    bottle cutter, 18
    bottle etcher, 17
    bridge for pneumatic trough,
    32
    broad flame alcohol burner, 9
    burette clamp and test tube
    holder, 12
    carbon arc furnace, 21-22
    cartesian diver, 48
    chemistry stands, 25
    distillation condenser, 24
    drilling glass, 28
    filter paper, 26
    flask, Mason jar, 13
    funnel, 13
    general laboratory equipment,
    3-49
    glass cutter, 17
    glass tubing, 6
    graduated beaker, 26
    graduated cylinder/chemistry
    flask, 7
    gravity wash bottle, 4
    hydrogen generator, 34
    hydrometer, 47
    light bulb chemistry flask, 5
    litmus paper, 30
    measuring spoon, 27
    metric weights, 31
    mouth pipette, 10
    oxygen generator, 34
    Petri dish, 27
    298 Indexpipette, 10
    pipette, large (glass blowing),
    12
    plant pot filter, 14
    polarimeter, 46
    retort and Liebig condenser, 23
    ring support for support stand
    and test tube holder, 16
    safety gas generator, 36
    salt water rheostat, 19
    science laboratory workbench,
    3
    sensitive gram scale, 30
    soda straw chemical balance,
    32
    spectroscope, 68
    stirring rod, 26
    string filter, 14
    support stand, 16
    T tube, 37
    test tube racks, 23
    test tubes, 23
    thistle tube, 33
    tripod and adjustable rings, 14
    wash bottle, 28
    X connector, 37
    chemistry experiments, 49-62
    crystal candy, 39
    crystal coal garden, 38
    crystal recipes, 44-46
    gem crystals, 40-42
    chemistry stands, 25
    chest cavity, model of, 229
    chlorine, 52
    chrome alum, 44
    chromium potassium sulfate, 42
    clamp
    adjustable, 37
    burette, 12
    clock
    radiometric dating, 99
    stop, 159, 293
    universal sundial, 71
    water hourglass, 158
    clothes hanger chemistry stands,
    25
    cloud chamber, 103-105, 287
    cloud jar, 190
    cloud motion, nephoscope and,
    178
    coal, 59
    coal, crystal garden, 38
    coat hangars, 25
    coat hangers, 16
    cobalt chloride, 42
    Cocci, 213
    coefficient of linear expansion, 92
    coin weights, 31, 283
    colloids, 61
    color test (geology), 165
    Columbus compass, 110
    compass
    Columbus, 110
    needle, 109
    watch spring, 110
    compounds vs. mixtures, 50
    computer
    analog, 139
    digital, 141, 291
    condenser
    distillation, 24
    Liebig, 23
    conductivity tester, 125
    constellarium, 84
    constellation, 65
    convection current box, 192
    convex lenses, 67
    copper sulfate, 42, 59
    crystal(s)
    candy, 39
    coal garden, 38
    gem, 40-42
    handedness of, 43
    polarimeter and, 46
    recipes for, 44-46
    cultures, microbiology, 217
    current flow indicator, 137, 290
    current reverser, 124
    cutting glass tubing, 6
    D
    Daphnia, 219
    dating, radiometric, 99
    DC power supply, 126
    density measurements, 58
    density, specific gravity vs., 285
    desalination, solar distillation
    apparatus for, 83
    diffraction gratings, 286
    diffusion cloud chamber, 103-105,
    287
    digital computer, 141, 291
    dip circle meter, 70
    dissecting knife, 233
    dissecting needle, 232
    dissecting pins, 233
    dissection, 295
    distillation
    condenser, 24
    retort and Liebig condenser, 23
    solar apparatus, 83
    ditto fluid, usage guidelines for,
    281
    doorbell, 135
    dosimeter, 101-103
    drag effect, 86
    drilling glass, 28
    dry cell, No. 6, 288
    dry ice, 25
    dry ice, safety guidelines for, 283
    E
    Earth, rotation of, 72, 75
    earthquakes, seismograph for
    detecting/measuring, 169, 171
    electric buzzer, 135
    electric cell, 119
    electric motor
    bolt and nut, 134
    test tube, 133
    electrical current
    current flow indicator, 137, 290
    current reverser, 124
    doorbell, 135
    galvanoscope, 120
    electricity and magnetism,
    107-142
    AC/DC power supply, 126
    alternative load for carbon arc
    furnace, 282
    analog computer, 139
    Index 299battery charger/lamp bank
    rectifier, 130
    blotting paper battery, 119
    bolt and nut motor, 134
    carbon rods/electrodes, 131
    Columbus compass, 110
    conductivity tester, 125
    current flow indicator, 137, 290
    current reverser, 124
    digital computer, 141, 291
    doorbell, 135
    electric buzzer, 135
    electric cell, 119
    electrolysis tank, 132
    electronic electroscope, 113,
    288
    electrophorus, 115
    electroscope, 111
    galvanoscope, 120
    iron filings, 110
    lamp bank rectifier/battery
    charger, 130
    lemon battery, 118
    Leyden jar, 116
    light source for microscope,
    209
    magnet, making/recharging,
    107
    magnetometer, 108
    mercury switch, 121, 289
    modern bridge rectifier, 290
    needle compass, 109
    oscilloscope, 291
    pencil rheostat, 123
    pith ball electroscope, 112
    push button switch, 123
    rheostat, 123
    safety guidelines for exposed
    wiring, 281
    safety pin switch, 122
    salt water rheostat, 19
    solenoid, 118
    storage battery, 121
    telegraph key, 136
    telegraph solenoid sounder,
    136
    telegraph sounder, 136
    test tube electric motor, 133
    variable load, 129
    watch spring compass, 110
    electrodes, carbon, 131
    electrolysis, 50
    electrolysis tank
    building, 132
    carbon rods/electrodes in, 131
    electronic electroscope, 113, 288
    electrophorus, 115
    electroscope, 102, 111
    electronic, 113, 288
    pith ball, 112
    Epsom salts, 42, 55
    Euglena, 219
    evaporation, 55, 86
    exposed wiring, safety guidelines
    for, 281
    eyedropper, 210
    F
    fabrics, 61
    Fahrenheit scale, 91
    Fahrenheit temperature scale, 275
    fats, 61
    feel, of minerals, 168
    ferrous sulfate, 42
    filament transformer, 290
    filter
    plant pot, 14
    string, 14
    filter paper, 26
    fire extinguisher, 51
    fire/flame, safety guidelines for,
    280
    FitzRoy, Robert, 294
    flask, chemistry
    from Mason jar, 13
    graduated cylinder, 7
    light bulb, 5
    support stands for, 16
    fluorescent bulbs, 5
    Foote, Jonathan, 290
    force, measurement, and motion,
    153-161
    centrifugal force indicator, 155
    hand stroboscope, 157
    harmonograph, 160
    meter stick, 154
    motorized stroboscope, 158,
    292
    optical micrometer, 155
    rubber band weighing scales,
    153
    spring scale, 153
    stop clock, 159, 293
    water hourglass, 158
    Foucault pendulum, 75, 86
    freezing point, 91
    funnel, 13
    furnace, carbon arc, 21-22
    furnace, solar, 81
    fusibility test (geology), 166
    fusing point, 94
    G
    Galilean thermometer, 49
    Galilei, Galileo, 68, 89
    Galileo thermometer, 90
    galvanoscope, 120
    gamma rays, 105
    gas generator(s)
    hydrogen, 34
    oxygen, 34
    safety gas generator, 36
    gases
    bridge for pneumatic trough,
    32
    hydrogen, chemical source of,
    35
    gelatin, 59
    gelatin slide, 222
    gem crystals, 40-42
    GENIAC, 291
    geology, 163
    bead test, 167
    rock and mineral worksheet,
    164
    seismograph, 169-173, 171
    special properties of minerals,
    168
    specific gravity test, 166
    volcano model, 172
    glass
    drilling, 28
    safety guidelines, 279, 280
    300 Indexglass cutters, 17, 22
    glass tubing
    bending, 6
    cutting, 6
    glucose, 60
    Goethe barometer, 293
    graduated beaker, 26
    graduated cylinder/flask, 7
    gram scale, 30
    graphite, 124
    gravity wash bottle, 4
    gyrocompass, 87
    H
    hair hygrometer, 182
    hand stroboscope, 157
    handedness of crystals, 43
    hardness of water, 57
    hardness test (geology), 164
    harmonograph, 160
    heat content, 90
    heat of fusion, 94
    heat of vaporization, 95
    helium, 91
    hot glass, safety guidelines for,
    280
    hourglass, water, 158
    humidity, 59, 85, 103
    humidity measurement
    hair hygrometer, 182
    wet- and dry-bulb hygrometer,
    183
    Hydra, 219
    hydrated lime, 51
    hydrochloric acid, 52, 55, 57
    hydrogen, 51, 91
    chemical source of, 35
    generator, 34
    hydrogen peroxide, 33, 34
    hydrogen sulfide, 56
    hydrometer, 47
    hygrometer
    hair, 182
    wet- and dry-bulb, 183
    hypo, 42, 56
    I
    insect net, 226
    insect(s)
    killing jar for, 227
    mounting box for, 227
    iodine, 38, 55, 56, 61
    iron chloride, 53
    iron filings, 50, 110
    J
    Jupiter, 66
    moons of, 85
    K
    Kelvin temperature scale, 275
    Kepler’s Law, 85
    ketchup, 49
    killing jar, 227
    kinetic energy, 90
    known weights, listed, 31
    L
    laboratory workbench, 3
    lamp bank rectifier, 130
    laser cutters, xvii
    latitude, dip circle meter for
    determining, 70
    laundry bluing, 38
    lead-lead dating, 99
    Leeuwenhoek-type microscope,
    211
    lemon battery, 118
    length measurement, meter stick
    for, 154
    lenses, 95, 286
    Leyden jar, 116
    lichens, 89
    Liebig condenser, 23
    light
    polarimeter, 46
    polarized light filters, 215
    solar distillation apparatus, 83
    solar furnace, 81
    spectroscope, 68
    light bulb chemistry flask, 5
    light source, microscope, 209
    lime water, 50, 51
    linear expansion coefficient, 92
    litmus paper, 30, 53
    making, 54
    lizards, 232
    load
    transformer vs., 289
    variable, 129
    low-power microscope, 210
    luster test (geology), 165
    lye, 54, 58
    M
    magnesium, 58
    magnesium sulfate (Epsom salt),
    42
    magnet wire, 133
    magnet(s)
    making/recharging, 107
    solenoid, 118
    magnetic lines of force, iron filings
    for detecting, 110
    magnetism test (geology), 168
    magnetometer, 108
    magnifying glass, water drop, 210
    magnitude of stars, 84
    manganese dioxide, 33, 34, 55
    manganese sulfate, 42
    Mars, 66, 81
    Mason jar chemistry flask, 13
    Mason jar(s), usage guidelines for,
    281
    maze, animal, 225
    measuring spoon, 27
    melting points, 90
    Mercurochrome, 38
    Mercurochrome, alternatives to,
    285
    mercury barometer, 184
    mercury pressure gauge, 78, 286
    mercury switch, 121, 289
    mercury thermometer, 91
    metabolism chamber, 230
    metals
    Index 301plating, 59
    replacement series for, 59
    meteorites, 85
    meteorology (weather), 175-196
    air barometer, 191
    air current detector, 188
    air thermometer, 189
    anemometer, 175
    aneroid barometer, 181
    balloon barometer, 180
    chemical weather glass, 187,
    294
    cloud jar, 190
    convection current box, 192
    hair hygrometer, 182
    mercury barometer, 184
    nephoscope, 178
    radiometer, 194
    rain gauge, 176
    sunshine recorder, 193
    water barometer, 293
    weather balloon, 195, 295
    wet- and dry-bulb hygrometer,
    183
    wind chill table, 179
    wind vane, 177
    meter stick, 154
    methane, 60
    metric weights, 31
    microbiology cultures, 217
    micrograph, 214
    micrometer, optical, 155
    microscope
    Leeuwenhoek-type, 211
    light source for, 209
    low-power, 210
    micrograph, 214
    microtomes for, 223
    polarized light filters, 215
    precision microtome for, 224
    slide making for, 221-223
    microscope slide making, 221-223
    microscopes, 43, 56
    microtome, 223, 224
    mineral fluorescence, 96
    mixtures vs. compounds, 50
    moisture measurement
    hair hygrometer, 182
    wet- and dry-bulb hygrometer,
    183
    molecular size, 58
    Moon, 70, 87-89
    moon range finder, 77
    moth balls, 285
    motor oil, 48
    motor, electric
    bolt and nut motor, 134
    test tube, 133
    motorized stroboscope, 158, 292
    mouth pipette, 10
    mustard, 57
    N
    naphthalene, 60
    Nauplius, 219
    navigation, astrolabe for, 69
    needle compass, 109
    nephoscope, 178
    net, insect, 226
    Newton, Isaac, 68
    nichrome wire, 18, 57
    nickel sulfate, 42
    nitrogen, 52
    No. 6 dry cell, 288
    North Magnetic Pole, 71
    North Star, 70
    northern lights, 77
    nuclear physics, 99-105
    O
    odor test (geology), 168
    OMSI (Oregon Museum of Science
    and Industry), xii
    optical micrometer, 155
    oscilloscope, 291
    oxygen, 51
    generator, 34
    metabolism chamber and, 230
    P
    parachutes, 86
    paramecia, 27
    Paramecium, 219
    Pasteur, Louis, 237
    pencil rheostat, 123
    pendulum clock, 92
    Petri dish, 27
    phenolphthalein, 54, 55
    physics
    astronomy and light, 65-84
    atomic energy, 99-105
    electricity and magnetism,
    107-142
    force, measurement, and
    motion, 153-161
    geology, 163
    meteorology, 175-196
    piezo-electrical effect, 43
    pinhole camera, 85
    pipette, 10
    large (glass blowing), 12
    mouth, 10
    pith ball electroscope, 112
    Planaria, 219
    planetarium
    constellarium, 84
    model, 73
    projector, 74
    umbrella projector, 73
    planets, model of, 73
    planisphere, 285
    plant pot filter, 14
    plantarium software, 286
    plating, 59
    Plato crater, 89
    pneumatic trough, bridge for, 32
    polarimeter, 46
    polarized light, 56
    polarized light filters, 43, 46, 215
    polarizing filters, 56
    Polaroid filter, 46
    potassium aluminum sulfate
    crystals, 44, 58
    potassium chromate, 42
    potassium chromium sulfate
    crystals, 44
    potassium dichromate, 42
    potassium ferricyanide crystals, 46
    potassium iodide, 55, 56
    potassium nitrate, 57
    potassium permanganate, 42, 58
    302 Indexpotassium sodium tartarate
    crystals, 45
    potential energy, 90
    power supply
    AC/DC, 126
    modern bridge rectifier, 290
    precision microtome, 224
    pressure gauge
    mercury and, 286
    vacuum jar, 78
    pressure measurements, 8
    printers, 3D, xvii
    problems to investigate
    biology, 234-259
    black lights, 96
    chemistry, 49-62
    color, 89-95
    electricity, 142-152
    heat, 89-95
    lenses, 95
    light, 89-95
    magnetism, 142-152
    Moon, 87-89
    space, 85-87
    weather, 197-205
    propane torch, 6
    protozoa, 52, 218
    push button switch, 123
    Q
    quick freeze chamber, 227
    R
    radiation, dosimeter
    measurement of, 101-103
    radioactive material, household
    sources of, 287
    radiometer, 194
    radiometric dating, 99
    radium, 104
    rain gauge, 176
    range finder, moon, 77
    rayon, 62
    rectifier
    AC/DC power supply, 126
    bridge, 290
    lamp bank, 130
    refracting telescope, 67
    refraction, 68
    refractive index, 68, 96
    replacement series, 59
    retort, 23
    rheostat, 123
    pencil, 123
    salt water, 19
    rings, adjustable, 14
    rochelle salt, 45
    rock and mineral worksheet, 164
    rock candy, 39
    rotation of Earth, 72, 75
    Rotifer, 219
    rubber band weighing scales, 153
    rust, 59
    S
    safety
    overview, xvii
    safety gas generator, 36
    safety guidelines, 279-295
    burning metal, 58
    chemicals, 284
    dry ice, 283
    electricity, 281
    glass, 279
    hot glass, 280
    intense light, 282
    open flames, 280
    radioactive materials, 287
    wiring, 281
    safety pin switch, 122
    salamanders, 232
    saliva, 61
    salt, 42
    salt water rheostat, 19
    salt water, freezing point, 91
    saltpeter, 57
    saltwater aquarium, 231
    saturated solution, 54
    Saturn, 66
    scale
    gram, 30
    rubber band, 153
    spring, 153
    science laboratory workbench, 3
    scotch tape slide, 221
    seed crystals, 40, 43
    preparing, 41
    seismograph, 169-173, 171
    selenium rectifier, 290
    silicon garden, 57
    silver, 59
    silver bromide, 59
    SkySafari, 286
    slide, microscope
    making, 221-223
    microtomes for, 223
    snakes, 232
    soap, 61
    soda straw chemical balance, 32
    sodium bisulfate, 53, 55
    sodium bromate crystals, 45
    sodium carbonate, 60
    sodium chlorate crystals, 45
    sodium hydroxide, 58
    sodium nitrate crystals, 46
    sodium silicate, 57
    sodium thiosulfate, 42, 56
    solar distillation apparatus, 83
    solar furnace, 81
    solar system
    planetarium model of, 73
    planetarium projector, 74
    umbrella planetarium, 73
    soldering, 293
    solenoid, 118
    telegraph solenoid sounder,
    136
    solenoid coils, 71
    solubility test (geology), 168
    sonic boom, 86
    specific gravity
    density vs., 285
    hydrometer for measuring, 47
    specific gravity test (geology), 166
    spectroscope, 68
    Spiegler, Julie, xiii
    spinthariscope, 100
    Spirilla, 213
    spring scale, 153
    star chart, 65, 285
    starch, 56, 61
    Starry Night, 286
    Index 303stars
    classification of, 85
    magnitude of, 84
    static electricity
    electrophorus, 115
    electroscope, 111, 112, 113, 288
    Leyden jar, 116
    steel wool, 53
    Stellarium, 286
    Stentor, 219
    stirring rod, 26
    stop clock, 159, 293
    storage battery, 121
    streak test (geology), 165
    string filter, 14
    stroboscope
    hand, 157
    motorized, 158, 292
    subatomic particles, diffusion
    cloud chamber for, 103-105,
    287
    sublimation, 60, 95
    sugar, 42, 60
    sugar crystals, 39
    sulfur, 50, 56
    sulfuric acid, 35, 56
    sunburn, 85
    sundial, universal, 71
    sungazing, 282
    sunlight, radiometer for
    measuring, 194
    sunshine recorder, 193
    sunspots, 67, 85
    viewer, 76
    supersaturated solution, 40, 55
    support stand, 16
    switch
    mercury, 121, 289
    push button, 123
    safety pin, 122
    T
    T tube/connector, 37
    tadpoles, 232
    tarnish, 59
    telegraph key, 136
    telegraph solenoid sounder, 136
    telegraph sounder, 136
    telescope, 89
    inexpensive options, 287
    refracting, 67
    temperature conversion table, 275
    temperature measurement
    air thermometer, 189
    wet- and dry-bulb hygrometer,
    183
    terrarium, 231
    test tube electric motor, 133
    test tube holder
    and burette clamp, 12
    ring support for, 16
    test tube rack, xvii
    test tube racks, 23
    test tube(s)
    home-made, 23
    support stand for, 16
    thermal expansion, 91, 92
    thermometer, 72, 90, 91
    air, 189
    wet- and dry-bulb hygrometer,
    183
    thermoplastics, 62
    thermosetting plastics, 62
    thermostat, 92
    thistle tube, 33
    thunderstorms, electronic
    electroscope and, 113
    tides, 87, 88
    time measurement
    radiometric dating, 99
    stop clock, 159, 293
    universal sundial, 71
    water hourglass, 158
    tin cans
    soldering, 293
    usage guidelines for, 281
    titration, 55
    Tomlinson, Charles, 295
    transformer
    filament, 290
    in AC/DC power supply, 126
    load vs., 289
    tripod, with adjustable rings, 14
    trough, pneumatic, 32
    Tulley, Gever, xiii
    turmeric, 57
    turpentine, 28, 60
    TYNIAC, 291
    U
    umbrella, 81
    umbrella planetarium, 73
    universal sundial, 71
    uranium, 99
    V
    vacuum jar pressure gauge, 78
    vacuum jar — Bell jar, 81
    vacuum pump
    tire pump, 80
    water faucet, 78
    van Leeuwenhoek, Anton, 237
    variable load, 129
    vaseline slide, 221
    Venus, 66
    volcano, model, 172
    voltage, variable load and, 129
    volume measurements, 7
    Volvox, 219
    Vorticella, 219
    W
    wash bottle, 28
    wash bottle, gravity-operated, 4
    washing soda, 42, 60
    water barometer, 293
    water cycle, 50
    water drop magnifying glass, 210
    water drop slide, 221
    water faucet vacuum pump, 78
    water hourglass, 158
    water, hardness of, 57
    weather balloon, 195, 295
    weather glass
    chemical, 187, 294
    water, 293
    weights, metric, 31
    well slide, 222
    wind chill table, 179
    wind direction, wind vane for, 177
    304 Indexwind speed, anemometer for, 175
    wind vane, 177
    wiring, exposed, safety guidelines
    for, 281
    workbench, science laboratory, 3
    worksheet, rock and mineral, 164
    X
    X connector, 37
    XKCD, 292
    Y
    yardsticks, 30
    Yates, Alan, 288
    Z
    zinc sulfate, 4electric cell, 119
    lamp bank rectifier/battery
    charger, 130
    lemon, 118
    No. 6 dry cell, 288
    storage, 121
    usage guide for, 282
    zinc-carbon, 282
    bead test (geology), 167
    beaker, graduated, 26
    Beaufort Wind Scale, 179
    Bell jar, 81
    bell, electric, 135
    bending glass tubing, 6
    Berkeley, Edmund C., 291
    beta particles, 105
    Big Dipper, 70
    biology, 209-234
    animal cage, 233
    animal maze, 225
    aquarium, 230
    bacteria garden, 212
    brine shrimp, 218
    chest cavity model, 229
    dissecting knife, 233
    dissecting needle, 232
    dissecting pins, 233
    eyedropper, 210
    insect mounting box, 227
    insect net, 226
    killing jar, 227
    Leeuwenhoek-type
    microscope, 211
    light source for microscope,
    209
    low-power microscope, 210
    metabolism chamber, 230
    microbiology cultures, 217
    micrograph, 214
    Petri dish, 27
    polarized light filters, 215
    quick freeze chamber, 227
    terrarium, 231
    vacuum pump, 80
    water drop magnifying glass,
    210
    bituminous coal, 59
    black lights, 96
    bleach, 52
    blotting paper battery, 119
    blowtorch-type alcohol burner, 11
    boiling chips, 39
    boiling point, 91
    bolt and nut motor, 134
    borax, 57
    boric acid, 42, 57
    bottle cutter, 18
    bottle etcher, 17, 22
    bottle(s)
    for acid, 28
    wash, 28
    BRAINIAC, 291
    bridge rectifier, 290
    bridge, pneumatic trough, 32
    brine shrimp, growing, 218
    broad flame alcohol burner, 9
    Brownian motion, 90
    buoyancy, cartesian diver and, 48
    burette clamp and test tube
    holder, 12
    burner, alcohol, 8
    blowtorch type, 11
    broad flame, 9
    burning metal, 58
    buzzer, electric, 135
    C
    cage, animal, 233
    Campbell–Stokes recorder, 193
    candles, 49, 56
    candy, crystal, 39
    capacitor, 118
    carbon, 60
    carbon arc furnace, 282
    carbon arc, safety guidelines for,
    282
    carbon dating, 99
    carbon dioxide, 37, 50, 51
    carbon rods, 21
    carbon rods/electrodes, 131
    carbon tetrachloride, 285
    cartesian diver, 48
    cell, electric, 119
    Celsius temperature scale, 275
    centrifugal force, 292
    centrifugal force indicator, 155
    centripetal force, 292
    chemical balance, 32
    chemical tests (geology), 169
    chemical weather glass, 187, 294
    chemicals, working safely with,
    284
    chemistry equipment, 3-49
    acid bottle, 28
    adjustable clamp, 37
    adjustable glass bottle etcher,
    22
    alcohol burner, 8
    alternative load for carbon arc
    furnace, 282
    asbestos board, 28
    blowtorch-type alcohol burner,
    11
    bottle cutter, 18
    bottle etcher, 17
    bridge for pneumatic trough,
    32
    broad flame alcohol burner, 9
    burette clamp and test tube
    holder, 12
    carbon arc furnace, 21-22
    cartesian diver, 48
    chemistry stands, 25
    distillation condenser, 24
    drilling glass, 28
    filter paper, 26
    flask, Mason jar, 13
    funnel, 13
    general laboratory equipment,
    3-49
    glass cutter, 17
    glass tubing, 6
    graduated beaker, 26
    graduated cylinder/chemistry
    flask, 7
    gravity wash bottle, 4
    hydrogen generator, 34
    hydrometer, 47
    light bulb chemistry flask, 5
    litmus paper, 30
    measuring spoon, 27
    metric weights, 31
    mouth pipette, 10
    oxygen generator, 34
    Petri dish, 27
    298 Indexpipette, 10
    pipette, large (glass blowing),
    12
    plant pot filter, 14
    polarimeter, 46
    retort and Liebig condenser, 23
    ring support for support stand
    and test tube holder, 16
    safety gas generator, 36
    salt water rheostat, 19
    science laboratory workbench,
    3
    sensitive gram scale, 30
    soda straw chemical balance,
    32
    spectroscope, 68
    stirring rod, 26
    string filter, 14
    support stand, 16
    T tube, 37
    test tube racks, 23
    test tubes, 23
    thistle tube, 33
    tripod and adjustable rings, 14
    wash bottle, 28
    X connector, 37
    chemistry experiments, 49-62
    crystal candy, 39
    crystal coal garden, 38
    crystal recipes, 44-46
    gem crystals, 40-42
    chemistry stands, 25
    chest cavity, model of, 229
    chlorine, 52
    chrome alum, 44
    chromium potassium sulfate, 42
    clamp
    adjustable, 37
    burette, 12
    clock
    radiometric dating, 99
    stop, 159, 293
    universal sundial, 71
    water hourglass, 158
    clothes hanger chemistry stands,
    25
    cloud chamber, 103-105, 287
    cloud jar, 190
    cloud motion, nephoscope and,
    178
    coal, 59
    coal, crystal garden, 38
    coat hangars, 25
    coat hangers, 16
    cobalt chloride, 42
    Cocci, 213
    coefficient of linear expansion, 92
    coin weights, 31, 283
    colloids, 61
    color test (geology), 165
    Columbus compass, 110
    compass
    Columbus, 110
    needle, 109
    watch spring, 110
    compounds vs. mixtures, 50
    computer
    analog, 139
    digital, 141, 291
    condenser
    distillation, 24
    Liebig, 23
    conductivity tester, 125
    constellarium, 84
    constellation, 65
    convection current box, 192
    convex lenses, 67
    copper sulfate, 42, 59
    crystal(s)
    candy, 39
    coal garden, 38
    gem, 40-42
    handedness of, 43
    polarimeter and, 46
    recipes for, 44-46
    cultures, microbiology, 217
    current flow indicator, 137, 290
    current reverser, 124
    cutting glass tubing, 6
    D
    Daphnia, 219
    dating, radiometric, 99
    DC power supply, 126
    density measurements, 58
    density, specific gravity vs., 285
    desalination, solar distillation
    apparatus for, 83
    diffraction gratings, 286
    diffusion cloud chamber, 103-105,
    287
    digital computer, 141, 291
    dip circle meter, 70
    dissecting knife, 233
    dissecting needle, 232
    dissecting pins, 233
    dissection, 295
    distillation
    condenser, 24
    retort and Liebig condenser, 23
    solar apparatus, 83
    ditto fluid, usage guidelines for,
    281
    doorbell, 135
    dosimeter, 101-103
    drag effect, 86
    drilling glass, 28
    dry cell, No. 6, 288
    dry ice, 25
    dry ice, safety guidelines for, 283
    E
    Earth, rotation of, 72, 75
    earthquakes, seismograph for
    detecting/measuring, 169, 171
    electric buzzer, 135
    electric cell, 119
    electric motor
    bolt and nut, 134
    test tube, 133
    electrical current
    current flow indicator, 137, 290
    current reverser, 124
    doorbell, 135
    galvanoscope, 120
    electricity and magnetism,
    107-142
    AC/DC power supply, 126
    alternative load for carbon arc
    furnace, 282
    analog computer, 139
    Index 299battery charger/lamp bank
    rectifier, 130
    blotting paper battery, 119
    bolt and nut motor, 134
    carbon rods/electrodes, 131
    Columbus compass, 110
    conductivity tester, 125
    current flow indicator, 137, 290
    current reverser, 124
    digital computer, 141, 291
    doorbell, 135
    electric buzzer, 135
    electric cell, 119
    electrolysis tank, 132
    electronic electroscope, 113,
    288
    electrophorus, 115
    electroscope, 111
    galvanoscope, 120
    iron filings, 110
    lamp bank rectifier/battery
    charger, 130
    lemon battery, 118
    Leyden jar, 116
    light source for microscope,
    209
    magnet, making/recharging,
    107
    magnetometer, 108
    mercury switch, 121, 289
    modern bridge rectifier, 290
    needle compass, 109
    oscilloscope, 291
    pencil rheostat, 123
    pith ball electroscope, 112
    push button switch, 123
    rheostat, 123
    safety guidelines for exposed
    wiring, 281
    safety pin switch, 122
    salt water rheostat, 19
    solenoid, 118
    storage battery, 121
    telegraph key, 136
    telegraph solenoid sounder,
    136
    telegraph sounder, 136
    test tube electric motor, 133
    variable load, 129
    watch spring compass, 110
    electrodes, carbon, 131
    electrolysis, 50
    electrolysis tank
    building, 132
    carbon rods/electrodes in, 131
    electronic electroscope, 113, 288
    electrophorus, 115
    electroscope, 102, 111
    electronic, 113, 288
    pith ball, 112
    Epsom salts, 42, 55
    Euglena, 219
    evaporation, 55, 86
    exposed wiring, safety guidelines
    for, 281
    eyedropper, 210
    F
    fabrics, 61
    Fahrenheit scale, 91
    Fahrenheit temperature scale, 275
    fats, 61
    feel, of minerals, 168
    ferrous sulfate, 42
    filament transformer, 290
    filter
    plant pot, 14
    string, 14
    filter paper, 26
    fire extinguisher, 51
    fire/flame, safety guidelines for,
    280
    FitzRoy, Robert, 294
    flask, chemistry
    from Mason jar, 13
    graduated cylinder, 7
    light bulb, 5
    support stands for, 16
    fluorescent bulbs, 5
    Foote, Jonathan, 290
    force, measurement, and motion,
    153-161
    centrifugal force indicator, 155
    hand stroboscope, 157
    harmonograph, 160
    meter stick, 154
    motorized stroboscope, 158,
    292
    optical micrometer, 155
    rubber band weighing scales,
    153
    spring scale, 153
    stop clock, 159, 293
    water hourglass, 158
    Foucault pendulum, 75, 86
    freezing point, 91
    funnel, 13
    furnace, carbon arc, 21-22
    furnace, solar, 81
    fusibility test (geology), 166
    fusing point, 94
    G
    Galilean thermometer, 49
    Galilei, Galileo, 68, 89
    Galileo thermometer, 90
    galvanoscope, 120
    gamma rays, 105
    gas generator(s)
    hydrogen, 34
    oxygen, 34
    safety gas generator, 36
    gases
    bridge for pneumatic trough,
    32
    hydrogen, chemical source of,
    35
    gelatin, 59
    gelatin slide, 222
    gem crystals, 40-42
    GENIAC, 291
    geology, 163
    bead test, 167
    rock and mineral worksheet,
    164
    seismograph, 169-173, 171
    special properties of minerals,
    168
    specific gravity test, 166
    volcano model, 172
    glass
    drilling, 28
    safety guidelines, 279, 280
    300 Indexglass cutters, 17, 22
    glass tubing
    bending, 6
    cutting, 6
    glucose, 60
    Goethe barometer, 293
    graduated beaker, 26
    graduated cylinder/flask, 7
    gram scale, 30
    graphite, 124
    gravity wash bottle, 4
    gyrocompass, 87
    H
    hair hygrometer, 182
    hand stroboscope, 157
    handedness of crystals, 43
    hardness of water, 57
    hardness test (geology), 164
    harmonograph, 160
    heat content, 90
    heat of fusion, 94
    heat of vaporization, 95
    helium, 91
    hot glass, safety guidelines for,
    280
    hourglass, water, 158
    humidity, 59, 85, 103
    humidity measurement
    hair hygrometer, 182
    wet- and dry-bulb hygrometer,
    183
    Hydra, 219
    hydrated lime, 51
    hydrochloric acid, 52, 55, 57
    hydrogen, 51, 91
    chemical source of, 35
    generator, 34
    hydrogen peroxide, 33, 34
    hydrogen sulfide, 56
    hydrometer, 47
    hygrometer
    hair, 182
    wet- and dry-bulb, 183
    hypo, 42, 56
    I
    insect net, 226
    insect(s)
    killing jar for, 227
    mounting box for, 227
    iodine, 38, 55, 56, 61
    iron chloride, 53
    iron filings, 50, 110
    J
    Jupiter, 66
    moons of, 85
    K
    Kelvin temperature scale, 275
    Kepler’s Law, 85
    ketchup, 49
    killing jar, 227
    kinetic energy, 90
    known weights, listed, 31
    L
    laboratory workbench, 3
    lamp bank rectifier, 130
    laser cutters, xvii
    latitude, dip circle meter for
    determining, 70
    laundry bluing, 38
    lead-lead dating, 99
    Leeuwenhoek-type microscope,
    211
    lemon battery, 118
    length measurement, meter stick
    for, 154
    lenses, 95, 286
    Leyden jar, 116
    lichens, 89
    Liebig condenser, 23
    light
    polarimeter, 46
    polarized light filters, 215
    solar distillation apparatus, 83
    solar furnace, 81
    spectroscope, 68
    light bulb chemistry flask, 5
    light source, microscope, 209
    lime water, 50, 51
    linear expansion coefficient, 92
    litmus paper, 30, 53
    making, 54
    lizards, 232
    load
    transformer vs., 289
    variable, 129
    low-power microscope, 210
    luster test (geology), 165
    lye, 54, 58
    M
    magnesium, 58
    magnesium sulfate (Epsom salt),
    42
    magnet wire, 133
    magnet(s)
    making/recharging, 107
    solenoid, 118
    magnetic lines of force, iron filings
    for detecting, 110
    magnetism test (geology), 168
    magnetometer, 108
    magnifying glass, water drop, 210
    magnitude of stars, 84
    manganese dioxide, 33, 34, 55
    manganese sulfate, 42
    Mars, 66, 81
    Mason jar chemistry flask, 13
    Mason jar(s), usage guidelines for,
    281
    maze, animal, 225
    measuring spoon, 27
    melting points, 90
    Mercurochrome, 38
    Mercurochrome, alternatives to,
    285
    mercury barometer, 184
    mercury pressure gauge, 78, 286
    mercury switch, 121, 289
    mercury thermometer, 91
    metabolism chamber, 230
    metals
    Index 301plating, 59
    replacement series for, 59
    meteorites, 85
    meteorology (weather), 175-196
    air barometer, 191
    air current detector, 188
    air thermometer, 189
    anemometer, 175
    aneroid barometer, 181
    balloon barometer, 180
    chemical weather glass, 187,
    294
    cloud jar, 190
    convection current box, 192
    hair hygrometer, 182
    mercury barometer, 184
    nephoscope, 178
    radiometer, 194
    rain gauge, 176
    sunshine recorder, 193
    water barometer, 293
    weather balloon, 195, 295
    wet- and dry-bulb hygrometer,
    183
    wind chill table, 179
    wind vane, 177
    meter stick, 154
    methane, 60
    metric weights, 31
    microbiology cultures, 217
    micrograph, 214
    micrometer, optical, 155
    microscope
    Leeuwenhoek-type, 211
    light source for, 209
    low-power, 210
    micrograph, 214
    microtomes for, 223
    polarized light filters, 215
    precision microtome for, 224
    slide making for, 221-223
    microscope slide making, 221-223
    microscopes, 43, 56
    microtome, 223, 224
    mineral fluorescence, 96
    mixtures vs. compounds, 50
    moisture measurement
    hair hygrometer, 182
    wet- and dry-bulb hygrometer,
    183
    molecular size, 58
    Moon, 70, 87-89
    moon range finder, 77
    moth balls, 285
    motor oil, 48
    motor, electric
    bolt and nut motor, 134
    test tube, 133
    motorized stroboscope, 158, 292
    mouth pipette, 10
    mustard, 57
    N
    naphthalene, 60
    Nauplius, 219
    navigation, astrolabe for, 69
    needle compass, 109
    nephoscope, 178
    net, insect, 226
    Newton, Isaac, 68
    nichrome wire, 18, 57
    nickel sulfate, 42
    nitrogen, 52
    No. 6 dry cell, 288
    North Magnetic Pole, 71
    North Star, 70
    northern lights, 77
    nuclear physics, 99-105
    O
    odor test (geology), 168
    OMSI (Oregon Museum of Science
    and Industry), xii
    optical micrometer, 155
    oscilloscope, 291
    oxygen, 51
    generator, 34
    metabolism chamber and, 230
    P
    parachutes, 86
    paramecia, 27
    Paramecium, 219
    Pasteur, Louis, 237
    pencil rheostat, 123
    pendulum clock, 92
    Petri dish, 27
    phenolphthalein, 54, 55
    physics
    astronomy and light, 65-84
    atomic energy, 99-105
    electricity and magnetism,
    107-142
    force, measurement, and
    motion, 153-161
    geology, 163
    meteorology, 175-196
    piezo-electrical effect, 43
    pinhole camera, 85
    pipette, 10
    large (glass blowing), 12
    mouth, 10
    pith ball electroscope, 112
    Planaria, 219
    planetarium
    constellarium, 84
    model, 73
    projector, 74
    umbrella projector, 73
    planets, model of, 73
    planisphere, 285
    plant pot filter, 14
    plantarium software, 286
    plating, 59
    Plato crater, 89
    pneumatic trough, bridge for, 32
    polarimeter, 46
    polarized light, 56
    polarized light filters, 43, 46, 215
    polarizing filters, 56
    Polaroid filter, 46
    potassium aluminum sulfate
    crystals, 44, 58
    potassium chromate, 42
    potassium chromium sulfate
    crystals, 44
    potassium dichromate, 42
    potassium ferricyanide crystals, 46
    potassium iodide, 55, 56
    potassium nitrate, 57
    potassium permanganate, 42, 58
    302 Indexpotassium sodium tartarate
    crystals, 45
    potential energy, 90
    power supply
    AC/DC, 126
    modern bridge rectifier, 290
    precision microtome, 224
    pressure gauge
    mercury and, 286
    vacuum jar, 78
    pressure measurements, 8
    printers, 3D, xvii
    problems to investigate
    biology, 234-259
    black lights, 96
    chemistry, 49-62
    color, 89-95
    electricity, 142-152
    heat, 89-95
    lenses, 95
    light, 89-95
    magnetism, 142-152
    Moon, 87-89
    space, 85-87
    weather, 197-205
    propane torch, 6
    protozoa, 52, 218
    push button switch, 123
    Q
    quick freeze chamber, 227
    R
    radiation, dosimeter
    measurement of, 101-103
    radioactive material, household
    sources of, 287
    radiometer, 194
    radiometric dating, 99
    radium, 104
    rain gauge, 176
    range finder, moon, 77
    rayon, 62
    rectifier
    AC/DC power supply, 126
    bridge, 290
    lamp bank, 130
    refracting telescope, 67
    refraction, 68
    refractive index, 68, 96
    replacement series, 59
    retort, 23
    rheostat, 123
    pencil, 123
    salt water, 19
    rings, adjustable, 14
    rochelle salt, 45
    rock and mineral worksheet, 164
    rock candy, 39
    rotation of Earth, 72, 75
    Rotifer, 219
    rubber band weighing scales, 153
    rust, 59
    S
    safety
    overview, xvii
    safety gas generator, 36
    safety guidelines, 279-295
    burning metal, 58
    chemicals, 284
    dry ice, 283
    electricity, 281
    glass, 279
    hot glass, 280
    intense light, 282
    open flames, 280
    radioactive materials, 287
    wiring, 281
    safety pin switch, 122
    salamanders, 232
    saliva, 61
    salt, 42
    salt water rheostat, 19
    salt water, freezing point, 91
    saltpeter, 57
    saltwater aquarium, 231
    saturated solution, 54
    Saturn, 66
    scale
    gram, 30
    rubber band, 153
    spring, 153
    science laboratory workbench, 3
    scotch tape slide, 221
    seed crystals, 40, 43
    preparing, 41
    seismograph, 169-173, 171
    selenium rectifier, 290
    silicon garden, 57
    silver, 59
    silver bromide, 59
    SkySafari, 286
    slide, microscope
    making, 221-223
    microtomes for, 223
    snakes, 232
    soap, 61
    soda straw chemical balance, 32
    sodium bisulfate, 53, 55
    sodium bromate crystals, 45
    sodium carbonate, 60
    sodium chlorate crystals, 45
    sodium hydroxide, 58
    sodium nitrate crystals, 46
    sodium silicate, 57
    sodium thiosulfate, 42, 56
    solar distillation apparatus, 83
    solar furnace, 81
    solar system
    planetarium model of, 73
    planetarium projector, 74
    umbrella planetarium, 73
    soldering, 293
    solenoid, 118
    telegraph solenoid sounder,
    136
    solenoid coils, 71
    solubility test (geology), 168
    sonic boom, 86
    specific gravity
    density vs., 285
    hydrometer for measuring, 47
    specific gravity test (geology), 166
    spectroscope, 68
    Spiegler, Julie, xiii
    spinthariscope, 100
    Spirilla, 213
    spring scale, 153
    star chart, 65, 285
    starch, 56, 61
    Starry Night, 286
    Index 303stars
    classification of, 85
    magnitude of, 84
    static electricity
    electrophorus, 115
    electroscope, 111, 112, 113, 288
    Leyden jar, 116
    steel wool, 53
    Stellarium, 286
    Stentor, 219
    stirring rod, 26
    stop clock, 159, 293
    storage battery, 121
    streak test (geology), 165
    string filter, 14
    stroboscope
    hand, 157
    motorized, 158, 292
    subatomic particles, diffusion
    cloud chamber for, 103-105,
    287
    sublimation, 60, 95
    sugar, 42, 60
    sugar crystals, 39
    sulfur, 50, 56
    sulfuric acid, 35, 56
    sunburn, 85
    sundial, universal, 71
    sungazing, 282
    sunlight, radiometer for
    measuring, 194
    sunshine recorder, 193
    sunspots, 67, 85
    viewer, 76
    supersaturated solution, 40, 55
    support stand, 16
    switch
    mercury, 121, 289
    push button, 123
    safety pin, 122
    T
    T tube/connector, 37
    tadpoles, 232
    tarnish, 59
    telegraph key, 136
    telegraph solenoid sounder, 136
    telegraph sounder, 136
    telescope, 89
    inexpensive options, 287
    refracting, 67
    temperature conversion table, 275
    temperature measurement
    air thermometer, 189
    wet- and dry-bulb hygrometer,
    183
    terrarium, 231
    test tube electric motor, 133
    test tube holder
    and burette clamp, 12
    ring support for, 16
    test tube rack, xvii
    test tube racks, 23
    test tube(s)
    home-made, 23
    support stand for, 16
    thermal expansion, 91, 92
    thermometer, 72, 90, 91
    air, 189
    wet- and dry-bulb hygrometer,
    183
    thermoplastics, 62
    thermosetting plastics, 62
    thermostat, 92
    thistle tube, 33
    thunderstorms, electronic
    electroscope and, 113
    tides, 87, 88
    time measurement
    radiometric dating, 99
    stop clock, 159, 293
    universal sundial, 71
    water hourglass, 158
    tin cans
    soldering, 293
    usage guidelines for, 281
    titration, 55
    Tomlinson, Charles, 295
    transformer
    filament, 290
    in AC/DC power supply, 126
    load vs., 289
    tripod, with adjustable rings, 14
    trough, pneumatic, 32
    Tulley, Gever, xiii
    turmeric, 57
    turpentine, 28, 60
    TYNIAC, 291
    U
    umbrella, 81
    umbrella planetarium, 73
    universal sundial, 71
    uranium, 99
    V
    vacuum jar pressure gauge, 78
    vacuum jar — Bell jar, 81
    vacuum pump
    tire pump, 80
    water faucet, 78
    van Leeuwenhoek, Anton, 237
    variable load, 129
    vaseline slide, 221
    Venus, 66
    volcano, model, 172
    voltage, variable load and, 129
    volume measurements, 7
    Volvox, 219
    Vorticella, 219
    W
    wash bottle, 28
    wash bottle, gravity-operated, 4
    washing soda, 42, 60
    water barometer, 293
    water cycle, 50
    water drop magnifying glass, 210
    water drop slide, 221
    water faucet vacuum pump, 78
    water hourglass, 158
    water, hardness of, 57
    weather balloon, 195, 295
    weather glass
    chemical, 187, 294
    water, 293
    weights, metric, 31
    well slide, 222
    wind chill table, 179
    wind direction, wind vane for, 177
    304 Indexwind speed, anemometer for, 175
    wind vane, 177
    wiring, exposed, safety guidelines
    for, 281
    workbench, science laboratory, 3
    worksheet, rock and mineral, 164
    X
    X connector, 37
    XKCD, 292
    Y
    yardsticks, 30
    Yates, Alan, 288
    Z
    zinc sulfate, 42

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