Make – Electronics – Learning by Discovery

Make – Electronics – Learning by Discovery
اسم المؤلف
Charles Platt
التاريخ
15 مايو 2024
المشاهدات
185
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Make – Electronics – Learning by Discovery
A hands-on primer for the new electronics enthusiast
Burn things out, mess things up – that’s how you learn.
Second Edition
Charles Platt
Table of Contents
What’s New in the Second Edition . vii
Preface: How to Have Fun with This Book ix

  1. The Basics 1
    Necessary Items for Chapter One . 1
    Experiment 1: Taste the Power! . 7
    Experiment 2: Let’s Abuse a Battery! . 12
    Experiment 3: Your First Circuit 18
    Experiment 4: Variable Resistance . 22
    Experiment 5: Let’s Make a Battery 34
  2. Switching 41
    Necessary Items for Chapter Two 41
    Experiment 6: Very Simple Switching 50
    Experiment 7: Investigating a Relay 60
    Experiment 8: A Relay Oscillator . 66
    Experiment 9: Time and Capacitors 75
    Experiment 10: Transistor Switching . 84
    Experiment 11: Light and Sound 91
  3. Getting Somewhat More Serious 99
    Necessary Items for Chapter Three 99
    Experiment 12: Joining Two Wires Together 109
    Experiment 13: Roasting an LED 121
    Experiment 14: A Wearable Pulsing Glow . 124
    Experiment 15: Intrusion Alarm, Part One . 132
  4. Chips, Ahoy! . 141
    Necessary Items for Chapter Four 142
    Experiment 16: Emitting a Pulse 145
    Experiment 17: Set Your Tone 155
    vExperiment 18: Intrusion Alarm (Almost) Completed 163
    Experiment 19: Reflex Tester . 178
    Experiment 20: Learning Logic . 191
    Experiment 21: A Powerful Combination . 201
    Experiment 22: Race to Place . 210
    Experiment 23: Flipping and Bouncing . 218
    Experiment 24: Nice Dice 223
  5. What Next? 237
    Tools, Equipment, Components, and Supplies 237
    Customizing Your Work Area . 237
    Labeling 240
    On the Bench 240
    Reference Sources Online 242
    Books . 242
    Experiment 25: Magnetism 243
    Experiment 26: Tabletop Power Generation 247
    Experiment 27: Loudspeaker Destruction . 252
    Experiment 28: Making a Coil React 255
    Experiment 29: Filtering Frequencies . 258
    Experiment 30: Make It Fuzzy 267
    Experiment 31: One Radio, No Solder, No Power 271
    Experiment 32: Hardware Meets Software 278
    Experiment 33: Checking the Real World . 290
    Experiment 34: Nicer Dice . 297
  6. Tools, Equipment, Components, and Supplies . 311
    Kits . 311
    Searching and Shopping Online . 311
    Checklists of Supplies and Components 316
    Buying Tools and Equipment . 324
    Suppliers 326
    Index 327
    Index
    Numbers &
    Symbols
    1N4001 diode, 108
    1N4148 diode, 108
    2N2222 transistor, 49, 84
    4026B decade counter, 182, 184
    (see also counter)
    555 timer
    applications, 152
    astable, 149, 155, 264
    audio frequency source, 260
    audio test, 156
    basics, 145
    bipolar version, 154
    bistable, 152, 184, 213
    buying guide, 323
    calibration, 189
    capacitor values, 150
    combinations, 159
    connected with counter, 184
    control pin, 150, 159
    delayed initial response, 165
    diode, 158
    discharge pin function, 148
    frequency, 157, 159
    history, 153
    internal function, 151, 157
    monostable, 149, 186
    pin numbering, 146
    pinouts, 146
    pulse duration, 149, 150
    pulse suppression, 152, 161,
    168
    reset pin function, 149
    resistor values, 150
    retriggering, 149
    siren sound, 162
    specifications, 154
    test circuit, 147, 155
    trigger pin function, 147
    TTL and CMOS versions, 154
    unequal cycles, 158
    556 timer, 163
    7402 quad 2-input OR, 198
    7404 hex inverter NOT, 198
    7410 triple 3-input NAND, 198
    7411 triple 3-input AND, 198
    7420 dual 4-input NAND, 198
    7421 dual 4-input AND, 198
    7427 triple 3-input NOR, 198
    7432 quad 2-input OR, 198, 217
    744002 dual 4-input NOR, 198
    744075 triple 3-input OR, 198
    747266 quad 2-input XNOR, 198
    7486 quad 2-input XOR, 198
    74HC00 quad 2-input NAND, 192,
    222
    74HC08 quad 2-input AND, 204
    74HC393 binary counter, 223
    74xx family (see chip, 74xx family)
    A
    AC (alternating current)
    basics, 16
    symbol, 57
    through a coil, 258
    with capacitors, 84
    AC adapter
    basics, 99
    buying guide, 322
    modification, 116
    single voltage type, 99
    universal type, 99
    alarm system project (see
    intrusion alarm)
    alligator clip
    copper, 106, 122, 123
    test leads, 5, 102
    alternating current (see AC)
    ambient pressure, 264
    amp (see ampere)
    amperage (see current)
    ampere, 14
    (see also current)
    basics, 14, 15
    conversion table, 15
    measurement, 25, 37
    Ampère, André-Marie, 14, 17
    amplifier chip LM386, 259, 276
    AND
    7408 quad 2-input, 204
    7411 triple 3-input, 198
    3277421 dual 4-input, 198
    74HC08 quad 2-input, 193
    demo, 193
    symbol, 196
    truth table, 196
    anode, 137
    anti-static wrist strap (see wrist
    strap)
    Arduino
    advantages and disadvantages,
    289
    analog input, 290
    blink test, 284
    clock, 300
    comment line, 285
    dice simulation program, 297,
    302
    errors, 303
    IDE, 280, 281
    installation, 282
    integers, 304
    introduction, 278
    language reference, 297
    Mac installation, 283
    protoshield, 293
    pseudocode, 298
    random function, 297, 305
    setup, 280
    sketch, 285
    summary, 287
    thermostat simulation
    program, 294
    unlicensed copies, 281
    Windows troubleshooting, 283
    Atmel, 279, 289
    atomic structure, 35
    audio (see sound)
    autoranging in multimeter (see
    multimeter, autoranging)
    B
    Bardeen, John, 90
    base of a transistor, 86
    BASIC Stamp, 308
    battery
    attaching to breadboard, 68
    basics, 4
    buying guide, 320
    car, 12, 32
    carrier, 4, 13
    connector, 4
    electrolyte, 13
    how it works, 10, 13
    internal resistance, 32
    lemon juice, 34
    lithium, 12, 32
    parallel, 39
    primary, 36
    secondary, 36
    series, 39
    short circuit, 12, 13, 32
    symbol, 57
    Bell, Alexander Graham, 253
    bias, 88
    binary code, 226
    binding posts, 176
    board
    cut-board, 107
    perforated, 107, 126, 170
    perforated errors, 172
    perforated, buying guide, 317
    bolts, 107
    bolts buying guide, 317
    books recommended, 242
    Boole, George, 194
    boolean logic, 195
    box, project, 107, 173
    Brattain, Walter, 90
    breadboard
    basics, 43, 66
    bus, 44, 68
    buying guide, 321
    component depiction, 66
    dual-bus, 44
    fault tracing, 73
    interior connections, 68
    mini, 44
    single-bus, 44
    break-to-make circuit, 133
    bubble, 196
    button blocker
    breadboarded, 216
    phase 1, 211
    phase 2, 211
    phase 3, 212
    phase 4, 212
    phase 5, 212
    schematic, 213
    sequence, 213
    C
    C language, 285
    calipers, 105
    Camenzind, Hans, 153
    capacitance, 4
    capacitor
    AC application, 84
    basics, 49, 72
    buying guide, 318
    bypass, 96
    ceramic, 50, 72
    charge-discharge demo, 71, 76
    coupling, 80, 96
    DC blocking, 76
    displacement current, 82
    electrolytic, 50, 72
    filtering audio frequencies, 262
    measuring the value, 4
    polarity, 71, 73
    polyester, 266
    RC network, 76
    shock hazard, 72
    symbol, 73
    tantalum, 73
    test circuit, 75
    time constant, 77
    variable, 276
    car battery, 12, 32
    carrier frequency, 277
    cathode, 137
    ceramic capacitor (see capacitor,
    ceramic)
    checklists of supplies and
    components, 316
    chip
    4000 series, 197
    74xx family, 142
    buying guide, 323
    dual-inline package, 142
    HC, 143
    history, 145, 197
    LS series, 197
    package, 142
    328 Indexpart number, 142, 198
    pin numbering, 146
    size, 146
    socket, 143
    static discharge damage, 178
    surface-mount, 142, 143
    through-hole, 142
    TTL and CMOS, 197
    clipping, 268
    clocked flip-flop, 222
    CMOS output current, 182
    coil
    AM radio, 272, 277
    audio filter, 262, 262, 266
    compared with capacitor, 257
    inductance, 245
    inductive reactance, 257
    iron core, 246
    loudspeaker, 253
    power generation, 247
    symbol, 246
    tap, 273
    transformer, 246
    voltage spike, 139
    collector of a transistor, 86
    combination lock
    breadboarded, 202, 204
    computer interface, 207
    enhancements, 209
    installation, 207
    introduction, 201
    logic diagram, 202
    schematics, 202
    testing, 206
    common anode, 181
    common cathode, 181
    comparator, 151
    components
    checklist, 317
    vendors, 311
    conductor definition, 9
    connector, 108
    contacting the author, x
    continuity testing, 3, 53
    conventional current (see current,
    conventional)
    coulomb, 37
    counter
    4026B, 182
    74HC393, 223
    binary, 223
    carry out, 184
    clock disable, 183
    clock input, 183
    coded outputs, 182
    decade, 182, 223
    edge-triggered, 226
    modulus, 227
    reset pin, 227
    crossover network, 266
    current
    basics, 14, 16
    conventional, 55
    danger, 32
    displacement, 82
    flow direction, 36
    measurement, 25
    resistance, relationship, 14
    uniform in a simple circuit, 26
    D
    Darlington array, 182
    datasheet, LED, 29
    DC (direct current)
    basics, 16
    plug-and-socket, 108
    DeArmond, Harry, 270
    debouncing (see switch, bounce)
    deburring tool, 105
    decimal points, 31
    desk lamp, 127
    desoldering braid, 104
    desoldering pump, 101, 103
    desoldering wick, 104
    dice simulation
    introduction, 223
    logic diagram, 229
    randomicity, 234
    schematic, 231
    slowdown effect, 235
    two dice, 233
    diode
    1N4001, 108
    1N4148, 108
    555 timer, 158
    anode, 137
    basics, 108, 137
    buying guide, 322
    cathode, 137
    germanium, 274
    germanium buying guide, 324
    protection, 139
    radio, 278
    rectifier, 136, 251
    symbol, 137
    voltage drop, 137
    with logic chip, 206
    DIP (see chip, dual-inline package)
    direct current (see DC)
    displacement current, 82
    display, numeric
    seven-segment display, 144
    distortion, 268
    double-throw switch (see switch,
    configurations)
    DPDT (see switch, configurations)
    drilling holes in plastic, 174
    Dummer, W. A., 145
    E
    earphone, 274
    earphone buying guide, 323
    edge-triggered counter, 226
    electricity and magnetism, 243
    electrolyte, 13
    electrolytic capacitor (see
    capacitor, electrolytic)
    electromagnet, 244
    electron holes, 35
    electrons, 10, 13, 32, 35, 36, 37
    emitter of a transistor, 86
    Encyclopedia of Electronic
    Components, 242
    errata reports, xi
    error notifications, x
    F
    farad
    basics, 72
    conversion table, 72
    Faraday, Michael, 72, 75, 246
    fault tracing, x, 73, 173
    Index 329feedback
    from author to reader, x
    from reader to author, x, xi
    filtering audio frequencies, 262
    flip-flop, 151, 153, 207, 213, 219,
    222
    floating pin, 149, 183
    flush cutters, 42
    forward current, 20
    forward voltage, 20
    Franklin, Benjamin, 36
    fuse
    automotive, 5, 15
    buying guide, 320
    cartridge, 5, 15
    how to blow, 15
    suitable types, 5
    G
    gauge of wire (see wire, gauge)
    germanium, 145, 274
    glasses, safety (see safety glasses)
    ground
    grounding yourself, 178
    power outlet, 16
    radio, 274, 275
    symbol, 57
    H
    Hammond organ, 270
    harmonics, 264
    HC generation (see chip, HC)
    headers, 108
    headers buying guide, 322
    heat gun, 103, 115
    heat sink, 123
    heat transfer, 114, 122, 123
    heat-shrink tubing, 106, 114, 117,
    119, 120
    heat-shrink tubing buying guide,
    317
    helping hand, 101, 109, 119, 122
    henry (unit of inductance), 245
    Henry, Joseph, 245, 246
    hertz, 157
    Hertz, Heinrich, 157
    holes (positive charges), 35
    hookup wire (see wire, hookup)
    hysteresis, 294
    I
    IC (see chip)
    inches
    conversion of fractions, 129
    conversion to metric, 129
    inductance
    basics, 28
    created by a coil, 245
    inductive reactance, 257
    insulator definition, 9
    integers, 304
    integrated circuit (see chip)
    internal resistance of a battery, 32
    intrusion alarm
    arming, 167
    breadboard layout, 139
    complete circuit, 168
    installation, 176
    part one, 132
    part two, 163
    soldering, 170
    usage, 167
    wish list, 132
    inverter (see NOT)
    J
    jack plug, 54
    jam-type flip-flop, 222
    Jeopardy game, 210
    joule, 32
    jumper wire
    basics, 46
    how to make, 67
    precut, 46
    precut buying guide, 316
    with plugs, 5, 46, 261
    K
    keypad encoding, 209
    Kilby, Jack, 145
    kilohm, 9
    kilovolt, 15
    kilowatt, 33
    knife switch (see switch, knife)
    L
    latch, 153
    leads, test (see test leads)
    learning methods, ix
    LED
    basics, 6, 20
    buying guide, 320
    datasheet, 29
    display, 181
    forward current, 20
    forward voltage, 20
    generic, 6
    heat damage, 121
    indicator, 181
    installation, 128
    low-current, 6, 144
    low-current buying guide, 320
    polarity, 20
    series resistor, 24, 30
    symbol, 55, 58
    test circuit, 20
    threshold voltage, 24
    through-hole, 181
    lemon battery, 34
    light-emitting diode (see LED)
    lightning, 37
    lithium battery (see battery,
    lithium)
    LM386 amplifier chip, 259, 276
    LM7805 voltage regulator, 144,
    191
    logic chip (see chip)
    logic diagram
    combination lock, 202
    dice simulation, 229
    NAND demo, 193
    logic gate, 192
    (see also AND, NAND, OR, NOR,
    XOR, XNOR, and NOT)
    rules, 200
    voltages, 200
    logic probe, 142
    330 Indexlogic symbols, 196
    logic-high, 193
    logic-low, 192
    loudspeaker
    basics, 50
    coil, 253
    disassembly, 252
    enclosure, 259
    history, 253
    mounting in a tube, 98
    loupe, 102
    M
    machine screws, 107
    machine screws buying guide, 317
    magnet
    buying guide, 323
    cautions, 250
    charging a capacitor, 251
    power generation, 247
    wire, 248
    magnet wire, 267
    magnetic field, 257
    magnetic sensor (see switch,
    magnetic sensor)
    magnetism and electricity, 243
    magnifying lens, 102, 127
    Make: More Electronics, xi, 222,
    235, 242, 294
    Marconi, Guglielmo, 277
    measurement units, 129
    megawatt, 33
    megohm, 9
    meter (see multimeter)
    metric system
    conversion to inches, 129
    origins, 129
    microamp, 15
    microcontroller
    applications, 279
    ATmega, 279
    history, 288
    options, 308
    microfarad, 72
    microphone, 254
    milliamp, 15
    millivolt, 15
    milliwatt, 33
    minigrabbers, 102
    modulus of a counter, 227
    Moore, Gordon, 145
    multimeter
    autoranging, 3
    basics, 3, 4, 8
    best, 2
    better, 2
    BK, 2
    buying options, 2
    cheapest, 2
    continuity testing, 3
    current measurement, 26
    Extech, 2
    probes, 8
    purpose, 2
    ranging, 3
    recommended, 2
    setup, 7
    sockets, 8
    N
    NAND
    7410 triple 3-input, 198
    7420 dual 4-input, 198
    74HC00 quad 2-input, 192
    demo, 192
    gate, 193
    switch debouncing, 220, 222
    symbol, 196
    truth table, 195, 196
    nanofarad, 72
    newton, 38
    nicerdice Arduino program, 302
    NOR
    7402 quad 2-input, 198
    7427 triple 3-input, 198
    744002 dual 4-input, 198
    switch debouncing, 220
    symbol, 196
    truth table, 196
    NOT
    7404 hex inverter, 198
    inverter, 196
    symbol, 196
    Noyce, Robert, 145
    numeric display (see sevensegment display)
    O
    ohm
    conversion table, 9
    definition, 8
    European notation, 9
    named after, 9, 11
    Ohm’s law
    applications, 29, 30, 31
    basics, 28
    units, 28
    Ohm, Georg Simon, 9, 11
    omega symbol, 9
    OR
    7432 quad 2-input, 198, 217
    744075 triple 3-input, 198
    symbol, 196
    three or more inputs, 213
    truth table, 196
    oscillator, two-transistor, 94
    P
    P2N2222 transistor, 49
    part numbers for chips (see chip,
    part number)
    PDIP (see chip, dual-inline
    package)
    perforated board (see board,
    perforated)
    PICAXE, 289, 308
    picofarad, 72
    pinouts
    4026B counter, 182
    555 timer, 146
    7402 quad 2-input NOR, 198
    7404 hex inverter NOT, 198
    7410 triple 3-input NAND, 198
    7411 triple 3-input AND, 198
    7420 dual 4-input NAND, 198
    7421 dual 4-input AND, 198
    7427 triple 3-input NOR, 198
    7432 quad 2-input OR, 198, 217
    744002 dual 4-input NOR, 198
    7440750 triple 3-input OR, 198
    Index 331747266 quad 2-input XNOR,
    198
    7486 quad 2-input XOR, 198
    74HC00 quad 2-input NAND,
    193
    74HC08 quad two-input AND,
    193
    74HC393 binary counter, 223
    LM386 amplifier chip, 259
    LM7805 voltage regulator, 191
    seven-segment display, 181
    pliers (see tools)
    plug and socket, 108
    plywood, 107
    point-to-point wiring, 126
    pole of switch (see switch, pole)
    potential difference
    definition, 25
    measuring, 25, 28
    potentiometer
    basics, 5
    buying guide, 320
    internal parts, 22
    symbol, 58
    test circuit, 22, 23
    track, 23
    trimmer, 49, 86
    wiper, 23
    power
    basic requirements, 4
    connector, 108
    generation with magnet and
    coil, 247
    outlet, 16
    supply, 99, 100, 128
    symbol, 57
    power cord, shortening, 118
    power, watts, 32
    printed circuit, 124
    program
    Arduino IDE environment, 285
    code, 285
    compile, 285, 286
    pseudocode, 298
    storage, 288
    upload, 285, 287
    programmable unijunction
    transistor (see PUT)
    project box, 107, 173
    project box buying guide, 317
    protection diode, 139
    prototyping board (see
    breadboard)
    pseudocode, 298
    pulldown resistor (see resistor,
    pulldown)
    pullup resistor (see resistor,
    pullup)
    pulsing glow project, 124
    pushbutton, 47
    (see also switch, tactile)
    switch, 144
    symbol, 58
    PUT, 95
    R
    radio
    AM, 271, 275, 277
    amplifier, 276
    antenna, 273
    coil, 272, 277
    crystal, 271
    enhancements, 276
    ground, 274
    history, 277
    randomicity, 234, 298, 305
    ranging in multimeter (see
    multimeter, ranging)
    RC network, 76, 95, 149
    reactance, 257
    reed switch (see switch, reed)
    reference books, 242
    reference sources online, 242
    reflex tester
    basics, 178
    calibration, 189
    circuit malfunction, 188
    enhancements, 190
    operation, 187
    wish list, 184
    registering for updates, x
    relay
    basics, 48
    buying guide, 321
    buzzer circuit, 70
    coil voltage, 65
    combination lock, 204
    datasheets, 63
    inductive load, 66
    internal parts, 62, 65
    intrusion alarm, 134, 165
    latching, 48, 63, 135
    LED flasher, 67
    opening it up, 63
    operating current, 65
    oscillator, 66, 70
    pin functions, 63
    polarity of coil, 48, 60
    power requirements, 209
    resistive load, 66
    self-locking, 135
    set voltage, 65
    small-signal type, 63
    switching capacity, 66
    symbols, 63
    terminology, 65
    test circuit, 60
    transistor comparison, 91
    resistance
    basics, 14
    current, relationship, 14
    parallel, 28
    series, 28, 30
    skin, 10
    tongue, 9, 10
    water, 11
    wires and heat, 31
    resistor
    basics, 6
    buying guide, 317
    color codes, 19
    power rating, 33
    pulldown, 149, 183
    pullup, 149
    standard multipliers, 21
    storage, 18
    symbol, 58
    value measurement, 18, 21
    rosin core, 101
    S
    safety glasses, 4
    saw, miniature, 104
    332 Indexschematic
    basics, 55, 56
    color-coded, 59
    crossovers, 59
    layout, 58, 150
    pin-shuffling, 150
    screwdrivers, 41
    Scribner, Charles E., 54
    search techniques, 312
    self-inductance, 257, 258
    semiconductor, 89
    seven-segment display, 144, 180,
    181
    seven-segment display buying
    guide, 323
    Shannon, Claude, 195
    Shockley, William, 90, 145
    shopping online, 311
    short-circuit a battery, 12, 32
    Siemens, Ernst, 253
    Signetics, 153
    sine wave, 263
    single-throw switch (see switch,
    configurations)
    skin resistance, 10
    slide switch (see switch, slide)
    socket for IC (see chip, socket)
    solder, 100, 101, 105, 109
    solder buying guide, 316
    soldering
    alternatives, 112
    errors, 111
    myths, 111
    technique, 109, 113, 116, 120,
    171
    wave-soldering, 112
    soldering iron
    basics, 100
    general duty, 101, 109, 122
    low-power, 100, 113, 122
    pencil type, 101
    pistol grip, 101
    stand, 104
    Weller, 101
    solderless breadboard (see
    breadboard)
    sound
    and electricity, 254
    distortion, 268
    filtering frequencies, 262
    frequency, 157
    microphone, 254
    siren, 162
    waves, 254
    sound synthesizer, 91
    SPDT (see switch, configurations)
    speaker (see loudspeaker)
    SPST (see switch, configurations)
    square wave, 264, 268
    static electricity (see chip, static
    discharge damage)
    stomp box, 269
    storage boxes, 238
    subwoofer, 266
    suppliers, 326
    supplies checklists, 316
    switch
    bounce, 218
    configurations, 51
    continuity testing, 53
    domestic lighting, 56
    jack-knife, 54
    knife, 51
    magnetic sensor, 133, 144, 177
    momentary, 53
    pole, 51, 175
    reed, 133
    screw terminals, 47
    slide, 144
    slider buying guide, 322
    soldering, 175
    sparking prevention, 53
    symbol, 56
    table of configurations, 53
    tactile, 47
    tactile buying guide, 321
    tactile symbol, 58
    telephone systems, 54
    test circuit, 50
    toggle, 47, 51
    toggle buying guide, 321
    T
    tactile switch (see switch, tactile)
    test leads, 5, 102
    Texas Instruments, 145
    thermistor, 290, 291
    thermistor buying guide, 324
    Thomson, J. J., 36
    time constant, 77
    timer, 555 (see 555 timer)
    toggle switch (see switch, toggle)
    tongue
    resistance, 9, 10
    test with 9V battery, 7
    tools
    buying guide, 324
    flush cutters, 42
    pliers, long-nosed, 41
    pliers, sharp-nosed, 42, 122
    screwdrivers, 41
    vendors, 312
    wire cutters, 42
    wire strippers, 43
    transformer, 246
    transistor
    2N2222 substitutions, 49, 84
    amplifying current, 88
    base, 86
    basics, 49
    bipolar, 86
    collector, 86
    damage, 90
    emitter, 86
    fingertip demo, 85
    history, 90
    measuring the value, 4, 90
    NPN vs. PNP, 86
    P2N2222, 49
    principle, 85, 88
    relay comparison, 91
    summary, 89
    tremolo, 270
    trimmer (see potentiometer,
    trimmer)
    truth table, 195, 195, 196
    tweeter, 266
    U
    uncontrolled variable, 11, 80
    units of measurement, 129
    Index 333V
    vendors
    components, 311
    tools, equipment, 312
    URLs, 326
    Venn diagram, 194
    vibrato, 270
    volt
    conversion table, 15
    named after, 13
    Volta, Alessandro, 17
    voltage
    basics, 13, 14, 15, 37
    drop, 137
    regulator, 99, 144, 191
    W
    wafer, 142
    water, 11
    resistance, 11
    watt
    basics, 32, 38
    conversion table, 33
    formula, 32
    power, 32
    Watt, James, 33
    waveform, 263, 264, 268
    Wheeler’s approximation, 245
    wire
    bulk, 45
    color-coded, 46, 59
    gauge, 43, 45, 67
    hookup, 45, 109
    hookup buying guide, 316
    joining two pieces, 117
    magnet, 248, 267
    solid, 45
    spools, 45
    stranded, 45, 47, 175
    stranded buying guide, 316
    wire cutters, 42, 43
    wire strippers, 43
    wire, jumper (see jumper wire)
    wire-wrap, 112
    woofer, 266
    work area layout, 237
    work bench configuration, 238
    wrist strap, 178
    X
    XNOR
    747266 quad 2-input, 198
    symbol, 196
    truth table, 196
    XOR
    7486 quad 2-input, 198
    symbol, 196
    truth table, 196

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