Make : Design for CNC – Furniture Projects and Fabrication Technique

Make : Design for CNC – Furniture Projects and Fabrication Technique
اسم المؤلف
Anne Filson, Gary Rohrbacher, Anna Kaziunas France, Bill Young
التاريخ
4 فبراير 2022
المشاهدات
89
التقييم
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Make : Design for CNC – Furniture Projects and Fabrication Technique
Anne Filson, Gary Rohrbacher, Anna Kaziunas France
with contributions from Bill Young
CONTENTS
Foreword XIII
Preface XVII
PART I. DESIGNING FOR FABRICATION . 27
01/A MODERN WAY OF MAKING . 29
The Geography of Distributed Making . 29
Why Do CNC Projects Look the Way They Do? . 30
A Very Brief History of CNC Furniture . 33
Join the Revolution . 34
02/END MILL TO FURNITURE COLLECTION . 37
Subtractive Machining 37
End Mills . 37
Drilling . 38
Cutting Laterally 38
The Inside Corner Problem . 38
Fillets . 41
Tool Diameter Matters . 41
Exercise: How to Draw Fillets . 42
Toolpaths 44
Profile Toolpaths 44
Outside Profile 45
Inside Profile 45
Pocket Toolpath . 46
Drill Toolpath . 46
Drawing Smooth Motion 47
Eight Basic CNC Joint Conditions 47
Flat Parts From Sheet Materials . 48
Overlap . 49
Edge to Edge . 49
Edge-to-Edge-to-Edge 50
End-to-Face . 50
End to Face to Edge . 51
CONTENTS iiiThrough 51
Three-Way 52
Four-Way . 52
Assemblies 53
S/Z Joint . 53
Tab Assembly . 54
Hanger Assembly 54
Corner Assembly 55
Foot Assembly 55
Structures . 56
Shear 56
Torsion . 57
Vierendeel 57
Rotational 58
Programs 58
The 5-30 Minute Chair 59
Iteration and Design Frameworks 61
Evolution From the Chair to AtFAB . 62
Rotational Stools 62
Cat in Bag ii Table . 63
90-Minute Lounge Chair 63
One to Several Table . 64
Open Storage Cabinet . 64
Poke Credenza 65
Cellular Screen 65
AtFAB Furniture Collection 65
03/3D MODEL TO 2D PARTS 71
From Design to Fabrication 71
Mise en Place 72
Download Files 72
Layers . 73
Add Layers . 73
Underlays . 74
Draw Sheet Material . 74
Flattening and Layout . 74
Face Right Side Up 74
Consider Grain Direction . 75
Leave Space Between Parts 75
Minimize Material Waste . 76
Flatten and Layout Parts . 76
Components . 76
Create Unique Components 78
Profiles 79
Make 3D Parts into 2D Profiles . 79
iv DESIGN FOR CNCCutting Layers . 80
Assign Profiles to Cutting Layers 80
Export Options . 83
Save as SketchUp 2014 83
Optional: Export a DXF File . 84
04/GETTING STARTED WITH DESIGN . 87
Define a Project Program 88
Ergonomics . 88
Fabrication Constraints 88
File Setup For Design . 88
Layer Naming Conventions . 89
Create File, Add Layers 90
Draw the Cut Sheet Underlay . 91
Massing Model and Stock Material . 92
Create Massing . 93
Model Material Stock 93
Standards Versus Proportions . 94
Refine Massing Dimensions . 94
Schematic Design: Model Parts 94
Copy and Modify Stock, Form Seat 95
Create Bench Sides 96
Add Front and Back Parts 97
Using Reference Lines 98
Form Legs 99
Modeling Feet . 100
Form Feet . 100
Evaluate and Analyze 101
Scale . 101
Iteration . 101
Evaluate and Refine Structure 102
Add a Center Beam . 102
Organize with Components . 103
Define Components . 104
Flatten Model, Layout Parts . 105
Design Development: Joinery . 106
Joinery Organization 106
Draw Seat Reference Lines 107
Draw Sides Reference Lines . 108
Make Joinery . 110
Create Seat Slots 110
Make Joinery on Front 112
Make Joinery on Sides 113
Make Hanger Assembly . 114
Form Foot Assembly 115
CONTENTS vAnalyze Bench Joinery . 117
Evaluate Joints . 117
Design Refinement 118
Evaluate the Overall Design 118
Sniglets and Fasteners . 118
Draw Sniglet and Hole Components 119
Model Sniglets . 120
Model Holes . 122
Visualize and Simulate . 123
PART II. VIRTUAL MEETS PHYSICAL 125
05/PRECISION-FIT PLYWOOD JOINERY 127
Plywood 127
Selecting Materials . 128
Nominal Thickness 129
Calipers . 130
How to Digitally Dial In Joinery Fit . 131
Designed for 19mm Plywood 131
Measure Your Materials . 132
Scale Your CAD File 133
Scaling, Offsetting, and Parameters . 134
Why Scaling Works . 134
Why Offsets Don’t Work . 134
The Parametric Solution 134
Prototyping . 136
Partial Prototypes 136
Test Pieces 136
Scale Prototypes . 137
06/MACHINING FOR DESIGNERS 141
Machining Begins with Material and Tooling 141
Spindles and Speed 142
Chip Formation 142
What Is a Milling Machine? 143
What Is a Router? 143
High-Speed Spindles 143
Machining Variables . 145
Relating Everything to Everything 145
Where to Begin? . 146
CNC Router Anatomy 146
Safety . 147
Workholding Strategies 148
Screws and Clamps . 148
Vacuum Systems . 148
vi DESIGN FOR CNCEnd-Mill Anatomy . 150
Collets . 151
End-Mill Geometries . 152
End Types . 152
Flute Types 153
Feed Direction 154
Conventional Cutting . 154
Climb Cutting 155
Feed Direction Strategies . 155
Ramp Moves and Tabs . 155
Smooth Ramps 156
Spiral Ramps 156
Tabs 156
Pockets 158
Offset . 158
Raster 158
Stepover 159
Depth of Cut 159
Putting It All Together . 160
Troubleshooting 160
07/MODELING SOFTWARE TO MACHINE . 165
From CAD to CAM . 165
Digital/Physical Alignment 166
Units 166
VCarve Pro . 167
Download and Install 168
Open VCarve and Create a New File 169
Job Setup 170
Job Type 170
Job Size . 171
Z Zero Position . 171
XY Datum Position . 171
Design Scaling . 172
Modeling Resoluton . 172
Complete Setup 172
Importing Vectors . 173
Import Stools SketchUp File . 173
Layout of Imported Data 173
Create Circles/Arcs 174
Component/Group Handling . 174
Data to Import . 174
Vector and Layer Adjustments 175
Align Cut file to material stock . 175
Ungroup Vectors . 177
CONTENTS viiJoin Open Vectors 179
Creating Profile Toolpaths From Vectors . 180
Rotational Stools Toolpaths . 181
VCarve’s Multi-Menu Interface . 181
Fastener Hole Toolpaths . 182
Select Profile Toolpath Operation 182
Open the Tool Database . 183
Select 1⁄8″ Tool . 184
Cutting Depths . 185
Edit Passes 185
Machine Vectors . 186
Name and Calculate Toolpath 186
Simulate Toolpaths . 187
Seat Inside Profile Toolpaths . 189
Select Profile Inside Vectors . 189
Create Seat Inside Profile Toolpaths 190
Simulate Inside Profiles . 191
Outside Profile Toolpaths . 192
Turn On Layer, Select Vectors . 192
Select ¼″ Tool . 192
Create Outside Profiles . 192
Simulate Outside Profiles 192
Adding Ramps 193
Add Smooth/Spiral Ramps 194
Toolpath Order 195
Define Cut Sequence . 195
Simulation and Analysis 195
Visualize and Analyze . 196
Quality Control . 196
Save Toolpaths for Fabrication 197
Toolpath Summary . 197
Save Toolpaths to File 197
Ready to Fabricate? 197
08/ROTATIONAL STOOLS 199
About the Design 200
Before You Begin 200
Measure and Scale 200
Cut and Evaluate Fit . 201
Evaluate the Lazy Stool . 201
Evaluate the Lively Stool 202
Troubleshooting . 202
Measure . 202
Analyze . 202
Adjust . 203
viii DESIGN FOR CNCEvaluate and Iterate 203
Assemble . 204
Fasteners . 204
How to Drill 206
09/CAT IN BAG ii TABLE . 209
About the Design 210
Before You Begin 210
Finishes for CNC Projects 210
Partial Prototyping: Using a Test Piece . 212
Measure and Scale . 213
Measure Material . 213
Scale Test Piece CAD file 213
Assign CAM Settings . 214
Evaluate Your Test Piece 215
Prototyping Finishes 215
Record Settings and Adjustments 216
Apply Test Piece Settings to the Full-Scale File . 216
Cut and Finish . 217
Assembly . 218
PART III. 2D & 3D MODIFICATIONS . 221
10/5-30 MINUTE CHAIR 223
About the Design 224
Before You Begin 224
Develop a Program . 224
Select Materials 224
Design Decisions: 2D and 3D Modifications 225
2D Design Transformations 225
3D Design Transformations 226
Working with Scale Prototypes . 226
Exercise: Transform the Chair into a Bench . 228
Measure and Scale 230
Create the Partial Prototpye 230
Prepare File 231
Prepare Toolpaths 231
Cut, Assemble, and Evaluate 231
Adjust and Cut Chair 232
Assemble . 233
11/90-MINUTE LOUNGE CHAIR . 235
About the Design 236
Before You Begin 236
Select Materials 236
CONTENTS ixDesign Decisions: 2D and 3D Modifications 237
2D Modifications . 237
Exercise: 3D Transformations 238
Measure & Scale 239
Partial Prototpye 239
Prepare Toolpaths 241
About the Pockets 241
Create Pocket Toolpaths 242
Simulate 243
Cut Sequence for Complex Parts . 243
Pocket Cutting: Top Down or Bottom Up? . 244
Assemble and Evaluate the Test Piece . 245
Evaluate Fit 245
Evaluate Cut Depth . 245
Adjust and Cut Chair Files 246
Assemble . 248
Using the Jig . 248
PART IV. PARAMETRIC TRANSFORMATIONS 251
12/PARAMETRIC DESIGN 253
What are Parameters? . 253
AtFAB’s Parameters . 254
Tool Diameter 255
Material Thickness . 255
Shape . 256
Module 256
Dimensions 257
Details 257
Designing Parameters 258
Parametric Case Study: the Cat in Bag ii Table . 258
Functions, Variables, and Limits . 259
Parametric Processing Applets 260
Installing and Using the Apps 261
13/ONE TO SEVERAL TABLE . 263
About the Design 264
Before You Begin 264
Establish a Program and Dimensions . 264
Select Materials 264
Parametric Transformation . 266
Parametric Design 266
Using the One to Several Table App . 267
Set Overall Conditions 268
Prepare CAD File . 269
x DESIGN FOR CNCMeasure & Scale 270
Create the Partial Prototpye 270
Prepare File 271
Prepare Toolpaths 271
Cut, Assemble, and Evaluate 271
Adjust and Cut Table 273
Assemble Table . 274
14/OPEN STORAGE CABINET . 277
About the Design 278
Before You Begin 278
Establish a Program and Dimensions . 278
Select Materials 278
Measure Two Materials 279
Find TCMAX 279
Find TDMAX 279
Parametric Transformation . 280
Using the Open Storage app . 280
Set Overall Conditions 281
Prepare CAD File 282
Layout Parts . 283
Prepare for CAM Import . 283
Calculate the Scaling Multiplier . 283
Scale Toolpaths 284
Create a Partial Prototpye 284
Prepare File 285
Prepare Toolpaths 285
Cut, Assemble, and Evaluate 286
Adjust Cabinet Files and Prepare for Cutting . 288
Cut Pockets on the Correct Side . 288
Cut Cabinet . 289
Assemble . 289
PART V. MOVING PARTS AND LARGE STRUCTURES 293
15/POKE CREDENZA . 295
About the Design 296
Before You Begin 296
Materials 296
Patterns and Modifications 296
What to Draw? . 297
Measure and Scale 298
Create the Partial Prototpye 298
Prepare File 298
Adjust Slots . 298
CONTENTS xiPrepare Toolpaths 299
Prepare Toolpaths for Sliding Doors 300
Cut Sequence 300
Cut, Assemble, and Evaluate 301
Adjust and Cut Credenza . 302
Cut on the Correct Side . 302
Assemble . 305
16/CELLULAR SCREEN . 307
About the Design 308
Before You Begin a Large Project . 308
Materials 308
Manage Parts 310
Measure & Scale 310
Scale CAD file & Test Piece 311
Partial Prototyping Large Projects . 311
Create the Partial Prototpye 312
Screen: Multi-Sheet Workflow . 315
Assign toolpaths to each sheet 315
Cut Screen File and Stage Parts 315
Assemble the Screen 316
PART VI. RESOURCES . 319
A/DESIGN RESOURCES . 321
B/SOURCING MATERIALS 323
C/MACHINING RESOURCES . 326
D/GLOSSARY 327
INDEX . 330
INDEX
Symbols
100kGarages, 31, 34
5-30 Minute Chair, 59-62, 72,
223-233
2D and 3D modifications,
225-230
assembly, 233
materials selection, 224
Queen Anne Chair by Greg Flanagan, 336
transforming into a bench,
228-230
90-Minute Lounge Chair, 63,
235-249
2D and 3D modifications,
237-239
adjust and cut, 246-248
assembly, 248-249
measure and scale, 239
pocket cutting, 244
test pieces, 239-245
transform into sofa, 238
A
acrylics, 325
aesthetics of CNC projects, 30-33
appearance setting, 172
assemblies (see joint assemblies)
AtFAB, xiv, xvii, 32, 62
parameters, 254-257
B
ball-nose end mill, 152
bench design, 88-123
define a program, 87-88
design file setup, 88-91
ergonomic standards versus
proportions, 94
evaluate and analyze, 101
joinery, 106-123
joinery design, 106-110
massing model, 92-93
model feet, 100
model parts, 94-97
organizing with SketchUp
components, 103-105
reference lines, 98-99
refine structure, 102
stock material, 92-93
box joints, 49
bridges, 156
C
cabinet (see Open Storage Cabinet)
CAD (computer-aided design) software
adjustments for fit, 203
blocks, 77
CAD to CAM transitioning,
165-167
clones, 77
components (see components)
file preparation, 282-283
file setup, 71
parametric tools, 254
scaling files, 76, 133, 283-284
working with SketchUp components, 76-78
calipers, 130
CAM (computer-aided manufacturing) software, 165-197
adjustments for fit, 203
CAD to CAM workflow,
165-167
offsetting, 171
unit settings, 166
VCarve Pro, 167-197
(see also VCarve Pro)
cantilevered corners, 58
Cat in Bag ii table, 63, 209-218
assembly, 218
cut and finish, 217-218
finish selection, 210
parametric design of, 258-260
test pieces, 212-217
Cellular Screen, 65, 307-317
assembly, 316
cutting and staging parts,
315-316
materials selection, 308
measure and scale, 310
multi-sheet workflow, 315
parts management, 310
chairs (see 5-30 Minute Chair; 90-
Minute Lounge Chair)
chip formation, 142
chip load, 145
clamps and screws, 148
climb cutting, 155
CNC (computer-numerically controlled) machinery, defining, xiii,
xviii, 44
collets, 151
components, 76-78
organizing with, 103-105
power of, 113
composite materials, 324
compression spiral, 154
conditions, 268, 281-282
construction lines, 110
conventional cutting, 154
corner assembly, 55, 110, 112
corner joints, 50
craftsmanship, 30
330 INDEX 330credenza (see Poke Credenza)
cross-lap, 51
cut area, 147
cut layer, 89
cutting depths, 185
cutting edge diameter (CED), 151
cutting edge length (CEL), 151
cutting laterally, 38
cutting layers, 80-82
D
datum, 171
deck, 146
deflection, 151
depth of cut, 159
design file setup, 88-91
Design for Download, 33
design framework, 61
design process, 87-123
defining a project program, 88
evaluate and analyze, 101
evaluate and refine structure,
102
file setup, 88-91
joinery, 106-123
(see also joinery)
massing model, 92-93
model parts, 94-97
modeling feet, 100
modes of thinking, 109
organizing with components,
103-105
reference lines, 98-99
schematic design, 103-105
(see also components,
organizing with)
visualize and simulate, 123
design program (see program)
design refinement, 118
design resources, 321-322
design scaling, 172
details parameters, 257
diaphragm, 52
digital fabrication, defined, xviii
dimension parameter, 257
distribution, 29
dogbone fillet, 41
dogbone fillets, 42-43
double underscore (), 79 dovetails, 49 downcut spiral, 153 downcut tool, 157 drill toolpath, 46, 82 drilling, 38, 206 Droog, 33 dust extraction, 147 DXF format, 84 Dyvik, Jens, 33 E edge-to-edge connections, 49 edge-to-edge-to-edge connections, 50, 55 edit passes, 185 end mill diameter, 41, 255 end mill materials, 150 end mills, 37-38, 44 end-mill anatomy, 150-151 end-mill geometries, 152 end types, 152-153 flute types, 153-154 end-to-face connections, 50, 210 end-to-face-to-edge connections, 51, 263 engineered wood sheeting, 324 engraving end mills, 153 ergonomic standards versus proportions, 94 ergonomics, 88 export options, 83-84 F fabbers, 31 FabHub, 34 fabrication constraints, 88 fabrication preparation, 71-72 layers, 73-74 fastener hole toolpaths, 182-187 fasteners, modeling, 118 (see also sniglets) fasteners, working with, 204-206 feed direction, 154-155 feed rate, 145 feet, modeling, 100 file setup for design, 88-91 fillets, 41-43 (see also sniglets) finger joints, 49, 50 finish/flat end mill (FEM), 152 finishes, 210-212, 324 fishtail end mills, 152 fit, evaluating, 201-202 flatten layer, 73 flattening and layout, 74-76 flattening layer, 89 flip-milling, 32 flutes, 38, 150, 153-154 foot assembly, 55, 110, 115 four-way connection, 52 frame, 51, 57-58, 60 G gantry, 146 grain direction, 75, 324 Grasshopper, 33 green materials, 323 grouping layers, 80 H half lap scarf, 49 hanger assembly, 54, 110, 114-115 hardware, 324 hardware overview, xxii helical flutes, 153 INDEX 331high-density polyethylene (HDPE), 324 high-speed spindles, 143 history of CNC furniture, 33 hold-down methods, 157 (see workholding strategies) How to draw fillets, 41 I Ierodiaconou, Nick, 33 if/then statements, 266 inside corner problem, 37-41 inside profile, 82 inside profile toolpaths, 189-191 integrated joinery, 60 iteration, 101 J jigs, 239, 248 job size, 171 joinery, 47-52, 106-123 analyzing, 117 compound finger, 51 corners, 50, 55, 110, 112 cross-lap, 51 diaphragm, 52 dovetails, 49 finger joints, 49-50 half lap, 49 half lap scarf, 49 integrated, 60 keyed overlap, 49 lazy fingers, 49 modeling, 110-117 mortise and tenon, 50 organizing, 106-110 overlap, 49 plywood, 127-138 scarfing, 49 splice lap, 49 tab and slot, 50 through connection, 51 torsion box, 52 joint assemblies, 53-56 corner, 50, 55, 110, 112 foot, 55 hanger, 54 S/Z, 53 tab, 54 K Kadushen, Ronen, 33 kerf, 44 L large projects, managing (see Cellular Screen) laser cutters, xx Layer Chair, 33 layers, 73-74 adding, 73 assigning profiles to, 80 cutting, 80-82 naming conventions, 74, 89 lazy fingers, 49, 53 Lazy Stool, 201 (see also Rotational Stools) left-hand rotation tools, 153 legs, forming, 99 limited optimization, 30-31 Lively Stool, 202 (see also Rotational Stools) lounge chair (see 90-Minute Lounge Chair) M Mac OS workarounds, 168 machine vectors, 186 machining, 141-162 collets, 151 depth of cut, 159 end-mill anatomy, 150-151 end-mill geometries, 152-154 feed direction, 154-155 material and tooling choices, 141 pockets, 158-159 putting it all together, 160 resources on, 326 spindles and speed, 142-143 strategies, 157 troubleshooting, 160-162 variables, 145-146 vibration, minimizing, 155-156 workholding strategies, 148 makers, 31 marking toolpath, 148 mass customization, 29 massing model, 92-93, 97 material efficiency, 32 material stock, 92-93 material thickness parameter, 255 materials finishing materials, 136 material thickness actual, 129, 132 material thickness nominal, 129, 131 measuring, 130, 132 purchasing, 130 selecting, 128-129 sources, 323-325 milling machines, 143 mise en place, 72, 89 model parts, 94-97 modeling layer, 89 modeling resolution setting, 172 module parameter, 256 moment frames, 60 mortise and tenon joint, 50 multi-sheet workflow, 315 332 DESIGN FOR CNCO offset pockets, 158 offsetting, 134, 171 One to Several Table, 64, 263-274 adjust and cut, 273-274 assembly, 274 CAD files, 282-283 materials selection, 264 measure and scale, 270 parametric app for, 267-269 parametric transformation, 266 program definition, 264 test piece for, 270-271 toolpath creation for, 271 onion-skin strategy, 155 Open Storage Cabinet, 277-290 adjust and cut, 288-289 assembly, 289-290 materials selection and measuring, 278-280 parametric transformation, 280-282 program development, 278 scaling multiplier, 283-284 test pieces, 284-286 OpenDesk, 33 outside profile, 82 outside profile toolpaths, 192 overall tool length (OTL), 151 overlapping joints, 49 P parametric definitions, 254-257 parametric design, 253-261, 266 apps for, 267-269, 280-282 case study in, 258-260 constraints in, 258 defining, 253-254 functions, variables, and limits, 259-260 Processing applets, 260-261 parametrics, 134 partial prototypes, 136 (see also test pieces) for large projects, 311-312 particleboard, 31 pass depth, 159 patterns, 297 peck drilling, 46 plunge-end end mills, 152 plywood, 128 plywood joinery, 127-138 ensuring fit, 131 measuring, 130-133 nominal thickness, 129 properties of plywood, 127 prototyping, 136-138 scaling, offsettin, and parametrics, 133-134 surplus material, 138 test pieces, 136-137 types/grades of plywood, 128 pockets, 46, 158-159, 241-244, 286, 288, 300 Poke Credenza, 65, 295-305 adjust and cut, 302-303 assembly, 305 materials selection, 296 measure and scale, 298 patterns and modifications, 296-297 program development, 296 test pieces, 298-302 Processing, 267-269 profile cutting, 32 profile toolpaths, 44-45, 82, 180-182, 187-192 profiles, 79-80 program, 58-59, 88, 224, 236, 264 proportions versus ergonomic standards, 94 protective finishes, 210-212 prototypes, 136-138, 226 prototyping case study, 311 R r adial flutes, 153 rails, 146 ramp moves, 155, 193-194 rapid prototyping, 136 raster pockets, 158 reference lines, 98-99, 106 Rhino, 33 Rohrbacher, Gary, xviii Rorke, Tiago, 33 rotational cutters, 37 Rotational Stools, 62, 181, 199-206 assembly, 204 AtFAB SketchUp file, 166-197 cut and fit, 201-202 drilling holes, 206 fasteners, 204-206 Lazy Stool, 201 Lively Stool, 202 measure and scale, 200 troubleshooting, 202-204 rotational structures, 58 routers evolution of, 143 router anatomy, 146-148 router bits, 37, 150 (see also end-mill anatomy) router safety, 147 versus laser cutters, xx S sacrificial layer, 146 Saul, Greg, 33 scale prototypes, 136-138, 226, 237, 283 scaling, 41, 101, 133, 283-284 scarfing (see joinery) schematic design, 103 INDEX 333model parts (see model parts) screen program, 59 screws and clamps, 148 seating program, 59 shank (SHK), 150 shape parameter, 256 shear structures, 56 sheet materials, 48, 324 ShopBot, 31 ShopBot PRS Alpha, 48 simple half lap, 49 simulation and analysis, 195-197 SketchChair, 33 SketchUp, xxii, 72 components, 76-78 double underscore (), 79
exporting options, 83-84
groups, 91
Layer0, 89
Make Group tool, 80
managing vectors, 80
Push/Pull tool, 93
slots, adjusting, 298
smooth ramps, 156, 193-194
sniglets, 39, 43, 47, 53, 118-122
software overview, xxii
sourcing materials, 323-325
speed, 145
spindle speed, 145
spindles, 142-143
spiral ramps, 156, 193-194
spirals, 153-154
splice lap, 49
spoilboard, 146
spring collets, 151
standard end mills, 152
Steiner, Joni and David, 33
stepover value, 159
stools (see Rotational Stools)
storage unit (see Open Storage
Cabinet)
store program, 59
straight flute, 154
strength-to-weight ration, 127
structural elements
frame, 51
structural evaluation, 102
structures, 56-58
diaphragm, 52
moment frame, 60
rotational, 58
shear, 56
torsion, 52, 57
Vierendeel, 57, 278
subtractive machining, 37-41, 44
surplus materials, 323
swallow tail end mills, 152
S/Z joint, 53
T
T-bone fillet, 41
T-bone fillets, 42-43
tab and slot joint, 50
tab assembly, 54, 110
tables (see Cat in Bag ii table; One
to Several Table)
tabs, 156
temporary layers, 89
test pieces
5-30 Minute Chair, 230-232
90-Minute Lounge Chair,
239-245
Cat in Bag ii Table, 212-217
Cellular Screen, 311-312
One to Several Table, 270-271
Open Storage Cabinet,
284-286
Poke Credenza, 298-302
purpose of, 136-137
thickness actual, 132
thickness nominal, 129, 131
thickness of materials, 129-133
three-way connections, 52, 263
through connections, 51
tooling catalogs, 154
toolpath layers, 89-90 (see layers)
toolpaths
calculate, 186-189
cut sequence, 195
fastener holes, 182-187
inside, 180-181, 189-191
name, 186
One to Several Table, 271
outside, 180-181, 192
outside toolpaths, 195
pocket, 49, 242-243
Poke Credenza, 299-300
preparing, 231, 241
simulate, 187-189
types of, 44-46
tools/tooling, 37
torsion box, 52
torsion structures, 57
troubleshooting, 160-162, 202-204
twist drill, 38
U
undercuts, 147
underlays, 74, 89, 91, 93
unique components, 78
unit settings coordination, 166
units of measure, 92, 106
units, CAM settings, 171
units, imperial versus metric, 129
upcut spiral, 153
V
v-bit end mill, 152
vacuum hold-down systems, 148,
157
VCarve Pro, xxii, 167-197
adding ramps, 193-194
and Mac OS, 168
creating profile toolpaths from
vectors, 180-182
defining toolpaths, 182-187
334 DESIGN FOR CNCdownloading/installing,
168-169
importing from SketchUp,
83-84
importing vectors, 173-174
job setup, 170-172
multi-menu interface, 181
simulation and analysis,
195-197
toolpath order, 195
vector and layer adjustments,
175-179
Vierendeel structure, 57, 278
virtual sheet goods, 94
visualization modes, 123
W
waste board, 146
waste minimization, 76
work program, 59
workholding strategies, 148
working layer, 89
workspace organization, 72
workzone, 147
X
XY datum position, 171
Y Y
Z car, 146
Z
Z Zero, 171, 244
z-axis, 171, 244
zeroing the z-axis, 244

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