اسم المؤلف
B.S. Dhillon
التاريخ
22 مايو 2024
المشاهدات
182
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)

Maintainability, Maintenance, and Reliability for Engineers
B.S. Dhillon
Contents
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Need for Maintainability, Maintenance, and Reliability .1
1.2 History 2
1.2.1 Maintainability .2
1.2.2 Maintenance .2
1.2.3 Reliability .2
1.3 Maintainability, Maintenance, and Reliability Terms
and Definitions .3
1.4 Useful Information on Maintainability, Maintenance,
and Reliability 4
1.4.1 Journals and Magazines .4
1.4.2 Books 5
1.4.3 Data Information Sources 5
1.4.4 Organizations 6
1.5 Problems .6
References 7
Chapter 2 Maintainability, Maintenance, and Reliability Mathematics .9
2.1 Introduction 9
2.2 Boolean Algebra Laws and Probability Properties .9
2.3 Useful Definitions and Probability Distributions 12
2.3.1 Probability 12
2.3.2 Cumulative Distribution Function 12
2.3.3 Probability Density Function .13
2.3.4 Reliability Function 13
2.3.5 Continuous Random Variable Expected Value 13
2.3.6 Discrete Random Variable Expected Value .13
2.3.7 Exponential Distribution 13
2.3.8 Rayleigh Distribution .14
2.3.9 Weibull Distribution .15
2.3.10 Gamma Distribution .15
2.3.11 Normal Distribution .16
2.3.12 Lognormal Distribution 16
2.3.13 Binomial Distribution .17
2.4 Laplace Transforms and Their Applications to Differential
Equations 17
2.4.1 Laplace Transforms: Initial and Final Value Theorems 18
2.4.2 Laplace Transform Application to Differential Equations 19
© 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC2.5 Problems .20
References 21
Chapter 3 Introduction to Engineering Reliability .23
3.1 Need for Reliability .23
3.2 Bathtub Hazard Rate Concept .23
3.3 General Reliability Analysis Formulas 25
3.3.1 Failure Density Function .25
3.3.2 Hazard Rate Function 25
3.3.3 General Reliability Function 26
3.3.4 Mean Time to Failure 27
3.4 Reliability Networks 28
3.4.1 Series Network .29
3.4.2 Parallel Network .30
3.4.3 M-Out-of-N Network .32
3.4.4 Standby System 33
3.4.5 Bridge Network 35
3.5 Reliability Allocation .36
3.5.1 Hybrid Method .37
3.6 Problems .38
References 38
Chapter 4 Reliability Evaluation Tools .41
4.1 Introduction 41
4.2 Failure Modes and Effect Analysis (FMEA) .41
4.3 Network Reduction Method .42
4.4 Decomposition Method 44
4.5 Delta–Star Method .46
4.6 Markov Method 49
4.7 Supplementary Variables Method 51
4.8 Problems .53
References 54
Chapter 5 Reliability Management .55
5.1 Introduction 55
5.2 General Management Reliability Program Responsibilities .55
5.3 A Method for Establishing Reliability Goals and Guidelines
for Developing Reliability Programs .55
5.4 Reliability and Maintainability Management Tasks in System
Life Cycle .57
5.4.1 Concept and Definition Phase .57
5.4.2 Acquisition Phase .58
5.4.3 Operation and Maintenance Phase 59
5.4.4 Disposal Phase .59
© 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC5.5 Reliability Management Tools and Documents 59
5.5.1 Configuration Management 60
5.5.2 Value Engineering 60
5.5.3 Critical Path Method 60
5.5.4 Reliability Manual 61
5.6 Reliability Department Functions and Tasks of
Reliability Engineer .61
5.7 Pitfalls in Reliability Program Management .62
5.8 Problems .63
References 63
Chapter 6 Mechanical and Human Reliability .65
6.1 Introduction 65
6.2 General Mechanical Failure Causes and Modes .65
6.3 Safety Factors .67
6.3.1 Safety Factor 1 .67
6.3.2 Safety Factor 2 .67
6.3.3 Safety Factor 3 .68
6.4 Stress-Strength Interference Theory Modeling .68
6.4.1 Model 1 .69
6.4.2 Model 2 .70
6.5 Graphical Method for Estimating Mechanical Item’s
Reliability .71
6.6 Human Error Occurrence Facts and Figures .74
6.7 Human Error Categories and Causes .75
6.8 Human Stress–Performance Effectiveness and Stress Factors 76
6.9 Human Performance Reliability in Continuous Time
and Mean Time to Human Error Measure 77
6.10 Methods for Performing Human Reliability Analysis 78
6.10.1 Fault Tree Analysis .78
6.10.2 Markov Method 81
6.11 Problems .83
References 83
Chapter 7 Introduction to Engineering Maintainability .87
7.1 Need for Maintainability 87
7.2 Engineering Maintainability versus Engineering Maintenance 87
7.3 Maintainability versus Reliability 88
7.4 Maintainability Functions 88
7.4.1 Maintainability Function for Exponential Distribution .89
7.4.2 Maintainability Function for Rayleigh Distribution 90
7.4.3 Maintainability Function for Weibull Distribution 90
7.4.4 Maintainability Function for Gamma Distribution .91
7.4.5 Maintainability Function for Erlangian Distribution .92
© 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC7.4.6 Maintainability Function for Normal Distribution 92
7.4.7 Maintainability Function for Lognormal Distribution 93
7.5 Problems .94
References 94
Chapter 8 Maintainability Tools and Specific Maintainability Design
Considerations 97
8.1 Introduction 97
8.2 Fault Tree Analysis 97
8.3 Cause and Effect Diagram .101
8.4 Failure Modes, Effects, and Criticality Analysis (FMECA) .101
8.5 Total Quality Management 103
8.6 Maintainability Design Factors 104
8.7 Standardization and Modularization 105
8.8 Simplification and Accessibility 107
8.9 Interchangeability and Identification .107
8.10 Problems .108
References 109
Chapter 9 Maintainability Management and Costing 111
9.1 Introduction 111
9.2 Maintainability Management Tasks during Product Life Cycle .111
9.3 Maintainability Organization Functions 113
9.4 Maintainability Program Plan 114
9.5 Maintainability Design Reviews 115
9.6 Maintainability Investment Cost Elements 116
9.7 Life Cycle Costing .116
9.8 Life Cycle Cost Estimation Models 117
9.8.1 Life Cycle Cost Estimation Model 1 .118
9.8.2 Life Cycle Cost Estimation Model 2 .118
9.8.3 Life Cycle Cost Estimation Model 3 .119
9.9 Problems .123
References 124
Chapter 10 Human Factors in Maintainability .125
10.1 Introduction 125
10.2 General Human Behaviors .125
10.3 Human Sensory Capabilities and Body Measurements 126
10.3.1 Touch 126
10.3.2 Sight 126
10.3.3 Hearing .127
10.3.4 Body Measurements .127
10.4 Auditory and Visual Warnings in Maintenance Work .128
© 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC10.5 Human Factors-Related Formulas .129
10.5.1 The Decibel 130
10.5.2 Character Height Estimation Formulas 130
10.5.2.1 Formula 1 130
10.5.2.2 Formula 2 131
10.5.4 Glare Constant Estimation .132
10.6 Problems .132
References 132
Chapter 11 Introduction to Engineering Maintenance .135
11.1 Need for Maintenance 135
11.2 Facts and Figures Related to Engineering Maintenance .135
11.3 Maintenance Engineering Objectives 136
11.4 Maintenance-Related Data Information Sources .136
11.5 Maintenance Measures .136
11.5.1 Index 1 137
11.5.2 Index 2 137
11.5.3 Index 3 137
11.5.4 Index 4 138
11.5.5 Index 5 138
11.5.6 Index 6 138
11.5.7 Index 7 138
11.5.8 Index 8 139
11.5.9 Index 9 139
11.6 Safety in Maintenance .139
11.7 Quality in Maintenance 140
11.8 Problems .141
References 141
Chapter 12 Corrective and Preventive Maintenance .143
12.1 Introduction 143
12.2 Types of Corrective Maintenance 143
12.3 Corrective Maintenance Steps, Downtime Components,
and Time-Reduction Strategies at System Level .144
12.4 Corrective Maintenance Measures .145
12.4.1 Mean Corrective Maintenance Time 145
12.4.2 Median Active Corrective Maintenance Time .146
12.5 Mathematical Models for Performing Corrective Maintenance .146
12.5.1 Mathematical Model 1 .146
12.5.2 Mathematical Model II .149
12.6 Preventive Maintenance Components and Principle
for Choosing Items for Preventive Maintenance .152
12.7 Steps for Developing Preventive Maintenance Program .152
© 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC12.8 Preventive Maintenance Measures .153
12.8.1 Mean Preventive Maintenance Time 153
12.8.2 Median Preventive Maintenance Time .154
12.9 Mathematical Models for Performing Preventive Maintenance .154
12.9.1 Model 1 .154
12.9.2 Model 2 .155
12.10 Preventive Maintenance Benefits and Drawbacks .158
12.11 Problems .158
References 159
Chapter 13 Reliability-Centered Maintenance 161
13.1 Introduction 161
13.2 RCM Goals and Principles 161
13.3 RCM Process-Associated Questions and RCM Process .163
13.4 Key RCM Program Elements 164
13.4.1 Reactive Maintenance .164
13.4.2 Predictive Testing and Inspection 165
13.4.3 Proactive Maintenance .166
13.4.4 Preventive Maintenance 166
and Monitoring Periodicities 167
13.5 RCM Program Measures .167
13.5.1 Index 1 168
13.5.2 Index 2 168
13.5.3 Index 3 168
13.5.4 Index 4 169
13.5.5 Index 5 169
13.6 RCM Benefits and Causes for RCM Methodology Failures 169
13.7 Problems .170
References 170
Chapter 14 Maintenance Management and Costing .173
14.1 Introduction 173
14.2 Maintenance Management Principles 173
14.3 Maintenance Department Organization and Functions .174
14.4 Effective Maintenance Management Elements .175
14.5 Questions for Evaluating Maintenance Program Effectiveness 177
14.6 Maintenance Costing Reasons and Maintenance Cost Influences 178
14.7 Cost Data Collection and Sources .179
14.8 Maintenance Labor Cost Estimation Models 179
14.8.1 Corrective-Maintenance Labor Cost Estimation Model 179
14.8.2 Total Maintenance Labor Cost Estimation Model .180
14.9 Maintenance Cost Estimation Models for Specific Equipment
or Facility .181
© 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC14.9.1 Model 1 .181
14.9.2 Model 2 .181
14.9.3 Model 3 .181
14.10 Problems .182
References 182
Chapter 15 Human Error in Engineering Maintenance 185
15.1 Introduction 185
15.2 Maintenance Error-Related Facts and Figures 185
15.3 Reasons for Human Error in Maintenance 186
15.4 Major Human Failures in Maintenance and Classifications
of Maintenance Errors and Their Occurrence Frequency .187
15.5 Human Error in Maintenance Prediction Models .188
15.5.1 Model 1 188
15.5.2 Model 2 190
15.6 Useful Guidelines for Reducing Maintenance Errors .193
15.6.1 Design .193
15.6.2 Tools and Equipment .194
15.6.3 Towing Aircraft 194
15.6.4 Procedures 194
15.6.5 Training 194
15.6.6 Human Error Risk Management 194
15.6.7 Maintenance Incident Feedback .194
15.6.8 Supervision .195
15.6.9 Communication 195
15.6.10 Shift Handover .195
15.7 Problems .195
References 196
Chapter 16 Software Maintenance, Robotic Maintenance,
and Medical Equipment Maintenance .197
16.1 Introduction 197
16.2 Software Maintenance Facts and Figures 197
16.3 Software Maintenance Types .198
16.4 Software Maintenance Tools and Guidelines for Reducing
Software Maintenance 198
16.4.1 Impact Analysis 198
16.4.2 Software Configuration Management 198
16.5 Software Maintenance Cost Estimation Models .199
16.5.1 Model 1 .200
16.5.2 Model 2 .200
16.6 Robot Maintenance Requirements and Types .202
16.7 Robot Parts and Tools for Maintenance and Repair .203
16.8 Robot Inspection 203
16.9 Guidelines for Safeguarding Robot Maintenance Personnel 204
© 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC16.10 Model for Maximizing Income of Robot Subject
to Repair .205
16.11 Medical Equipment Classification and Indexes
for Maintenance and Repair 207
16.11.1 Index 1 208
16.11.2 Index 2 208
16.11.3 Index 3 208
16.12 Computerized Maintenance Management System for
Medical Equipment and Its Selection 209
16.13 Models for Medical Equipment Maintenance .209
16.13.1 Model 1 210
16.13.2 Model 2 211
16.14 Problems .212
References 212

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