Machining Fundamentals – From Basic to Advanced Techniques

Machining Fundamentals – From Basic to Advanced Techniques
اسم المؤلف
John R. Walker
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24 أغسطس 2020
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Machining Fundamentals – From Basic to Advanced Techniques
by
John R. Walker
Publisher
The Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.
Tinley Park, IllinoisContents
Chapter I. An Introduction to
MachiningTechnology
1.1 The Evolution of Machine Tools
1.2 Basic Machine Tool Operation
1.3 Nontraditional Machining Processes
1.4 Automating the Machining Process
1.5 The Evolving Role of the Machinist
Chapter 2. Shop Safety
2.1 Safety in the Shop
2.2 General Machine Safety
2.3 General Tool Safety
2.4 Fire Safety
Chapter 3. Understanding Drawings
3.1 Dimensions
3.2 Information Included on Drawings ……
3.3 Types of Prints
3.4 Types of Drawings Used in the Shop
3.5 Parts List
3.6 Drawing Sizes
3.7 Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing
Chapter 4. Measurement 55
4.1 The Rule
The Micrometer Caliper 57
Vernier Measuring Tools
4.4 Gages 67
4.5 Dial Indicators 70
4.6 Other Gaging Tools
4.7 Helper Measuring Tools
Chapter 5. Layout Work 81
5.1 Making Lines on Metal
5.2 Squares
5.3 Measuring Angles
5.4 Simple Layout Steps
5.5 Layout Safety
Chapter 6. Hand Tools …
6.1 Clamping Devices
6.2 Pliers
6.3 Wrenches
6.4 Screwdrivers
6.5 Striking Tools
6.6 Chisels
6.7 Hacksaw
6.8 Files
6.9 Reamers
6.10 Hand Threading
6.11 Hand Polishing
Chapter 7. Fasteners ….
7.1 Threaded Fasteners
7.2 Xonthreaded Fastening Devices
7.3 Adhesives
7.4 Fastener Safety
Chapter 8. Jigs and Fixtures 143
8.1 Jigs 143
8.2 Fixtures 145
8.3 Jig and Fixture Construction .. . . 146
Chapter 9. Cutting Fluids
9.1 Types of Cutting Fluids
9.2 Application of Cutting Fluids
Chapter 10. Drills and Drilling Machines
10.1 Drilling Machines . . ,
10.2 Drill Press Safety ….
10.3 Drills
10.4 Drill-holding Devices
10.5 Work-holding Devices
10.6 Cutting Speeds and Feeds
10.7 Cutting Compounds
10.8 Sharpening Drills
10.9 Drilling
10.10 Countersinking
10.11 Counterboring
10.12 Spotfacing. . . ……….
10.13 Tapping
10.14 Reaming
Chapter 11. Offhand Grinding
11.1 Abrasive Belt Grinders
11.2 Bench and Pedestal Grinders
11.3 Grinding Wheels .
11.4 Abrasive Belt and Grinder Safety. .
11.5 Using a Dry-type Grinder
11.6 Using a Wet-type Grinder
11.7 Portable Hand Grinders
Table or Contents
Chapter 12. Sawing and Cutoff Machines 191
12.1 Metal-catting Saws
12.2 Reciprocating Power Hacksaw
12.3 Power Band Saw
12.4 Using Reciprocating and Band Saws
12.5 Circular Metal-cutting Saws . . .
12.6 Power Saw Safety
Chapter 13. The Lathe….
13.1 Lathe Size
13.2 Major Parts of a Lathe
13.3 Preparing Lathe for Operation .
13.4 Cleaning the Lathe
13.5 Lathe Safety
13.6 Cutting Tools and Tool Holders
13.7 Cutting Speeds and Feeds
13.8 Work-holding Attachments. . . .
13.9 Turning Work Between Centers
13.10 Using Lathe Chucks
13.11 Facing Stock Held in Chuck …
13.12 Plain Turning and Turning to a Shoulder
13.13 Parting Operations
Chapter 14. CuttingTapers and
ScrewThreads on the Lathe 241
14.1 Taper Turning 241
14.2 Calculating Tailstock Setover
14.3 Measuring Tailstock Setover.
14.4 Cutting a Taper
14.5 Measuring Tapers
14.6 Cutting Screw Threads on the Lathe
Chapter 15. Other Lathe Operations 261
15.1 Boring on a Lathe
15.2 Drilling and Reaming on a Lathe
15.3 Knurling on a Lathe
15.4 Filing and Polishing on a Lathe
15.5 Steady and Follower Rests
15.6 Mandrels
15.7 Grinding on the Lathe
15.8 Milling on a Lathe
15.9 Special Lathe Attachments
15.10 Industrial Applications of the Lathe
Chapter i6. Broaching Operations . ,
16.1 Advantages of Broaching . … …. ……..
16.2 Keyway Broaching
283a Nr.ch? nerbg Fundamentals
Chapter 17. The Milling Machine
17.1 Types of Milling Machines
17.2 Milling Safety Practices
17.3 Milling Operations
17.4 Milling Cutters
17.5 Types and Uses of Milling Cutters. . . .
17.6 Methods of Milling
17.7 Holding and Driving Cutters
17.8 Milling Cutting Speeds and Feeds. . . .
17.9 Cutting Fluids
17.10 Milling Work-holding Attachments . . .
Chapter 18. Milling Machine Operations…
18.1 Milling Operations
18.2 Vertical Milling Machine
18.3 Vertical Milling Machine Operations
18.4 Milling Machine Care
18.5 Horizontal Milling Machine Operations
18.6 Slitting
18.7 Slotting
18.8 Drilling and Boring on a Horizontal Milling Machine
18.9 Cutting a Spur Gear
18.10 Cutting a Bevel Gear
18.11 Precautions When Operating a Milling Machine . . . .
18.12 Industrial Applications
Chapter 19. Precision Grinding
19.1 Types of Surface Grinders
19.2 Work-holding Devices. . …….. . .
19.3 Grinding Wheels
19.4 Cutting Fluids (Coolants) .,
19.5 Grinding Applications
19.6 Grinding Problems
19.7 Grinding Safety
19.8 Universal Tool and Cutter Grinder .
19.9 Tool and Cutter Grinding Wheels . .
19.10 Cylindrical Grinding
19.11 Internal Grinding
19.12 Centerless Grinding
19.13 Form Grinding
19.14 Other Grinding Techniques
Chapter 20. Band Machining . .
20.1 Band Machining Advantages
20.2 Band Blade Selection
20.3 Welding Blades
20.4 Band Machine Preparation
20.5 Band Machining Operations
20.6 Band Machine Power Feed
20.7 Other Band Machining Applications
20.8 Troubleshooting Band Machines . . .
20.9 Band Machining Safety
397fable of Contents
Chapter 21. Computer Numerical Control 399
21.1 Computer-aided Machining Technology
21.2 Positioning with Numerical Control .
21.3 NC Movement Systems
21.4 Programming NC Machines
21.5 Computer Languages
21.6 Adaptive Control „
21.7 NC and the Future .
21.8 Advantages and Disadvantages of NC
Chapter 22. Automated Manufacturing…
22.1 Flexible Manufacturing System …
22.2 Robotics
22.3 Safety In Automated Manufacturing
22.4 Rapid Prototyping Techniques ..
22.5 The Future of Automated Manufacturing
Chapter 23. Quality Control
23.1 The History of Quality Control
23.2 Classifications of Quality Control
23.3 Nondestructive Testing Techniques
23.4 Other Quality Control Techniques
Chapter 24. Metal Characteristics
24.1 Classifying Metals
24.2 Ferrous Metals
24.3 Nonferrous Metals
24.4 Copper-based Alloys
24.5 High-temperature Metals , .
24.6 Rare Metals .
Chapter 25. Heat Treatment of Metals 467
25.1 Heat-treatable Metals
25.2 Types of Heat Treatment
25.3 Heat Treatment of Other Metals
25.4 Heat-treating Equipment
25.5 Hardening Carbon Steel
25.6 Tempering Carbon Steel
25.7 Case Hardening Low-carbon Steel
25.8 Hardness Testing
25.9 Heat-treating Safety
Chapter 26. Metal Finishing
26.1 Quality of Machined Surfaces. . ..
26.2 Other Metal Finishing Techniques
Chapter 27. Electromachining Processes
27.1 Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM)
27.2 Electrical Discharge Wire Cutting (EDWC)
27.3 Electrochemical Machining (ECM)
507HadiiriEng Fy ICL I ta
Chapter 28. Nontraditional
Machining Techniques 51 I
28.1 Chemical Machining
28.2 Hydrodynamic Machining (HDM)
28.3 Ultrasonic Machining
28.4 Electron Beam Machining (EBM)
28.5 Laser Beam Machining
Chapter 29. Other Processes
29.1 Machining Plastics
29.2 Chipless Machining
29.3 Powder Metallurgy
29.4 High-energv-rate Forming (HERF)
29.5 Cryogenic Applications
Chapter 30. Occupations in
MachiningTechnology 547
30.1 Machining Job Categories
30.2 Preparing to Find a Job in Machining Technology
30.3 How to Get a Job
Reference Section 557
Glossary of Technical Terms 593
Index 615
A
Abrasive,
band machining polishing, 394
hand polishing, 123
polishing on Jathes, 267
cutoff saw,
dry abrasive cutting, 197
wet abrasive cutting, 197
materials, 122
abrasive cloth, 123
aluminum oxide, 122
coated abrasives, 123
comparative gradi.ng chart, 122
crocus, 122
diamond dust polishing compound, 122
emery, 122
safety, 123
silicon carbide, 122
synthetic, 122
&~ hand polishing, 123
Abrasive belt lll<lchining, 183, J?’S-379
support, contact wheels, 379
pJab!ns, 379
ABS. See Acrylonitrile butadiene styzene
Absolute positioning, numedcalcontTol (NC), 403
AC See Adaptin control
Acme screw!Mads,
cutting on lathe, 257
Acme screw thread gage, 257
Acorn nuts, 133
Acrylics,
charac~riatics, 530
Lucite , 530
Plexiglas®, 530
Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS),
rapid prototyping techniques, 431
ADAYT (Adaptation of APT),
computer languages, 412
Adaptel’s,
holding milling cutters, 306
Adaptive control lAO,
computer numerical control (CNC), 413
numerical control (NC), 413
Addendum (a), Clllculating, 343
Adhesives, 138-140
advantages, 138
cyanoacrylate debondcr, 139
cyanoacrylate quick setting, 138-139
furms, 138
using, 139–140
Adjustable clam.pins pliers,~
Adjustable hand reamers, 112
Adjustable stops. precision grind.ing, 355
Adjustable w:renech.es, 95-97
Adjusting screws. lathe, 2.27
Age-hardening, aluminum, 472
Air gage, 71-72
applications, 71-72
manometer, 72
Air, quenching medium, 474
AISI. See American Iron and Steel Institute
AU-around machinist, 549
All-hard blades,
hacksaws, 107
reciprocating power hacksaw, 193
Allen wrenches, 99
Alloy metallic elements, 454-455
Alloy steel.B, 45.l-454
chromium, 453
properties of, 454
chromium-nickel, 454
cobalt, properties of, 455
ductility; 454
manganese, 453, 454
molybdenum, 453, 454
nickel, 453, 454
tungsten_ 453, 454
vanadium, 453, 454
Alloys, aluminum.
abrasive constituents, 459
machining characteristics, 459-460
nonabrasive nature, 459
Al~te set blade1,
hacksaws, 107
Altllllina,
indexable insert cutting tools, lathe, 216
Aluminum,
abrasive constituents, 459
alloys,
cast, 459
heal-treatable metals, 458
machining characteristics, 459-460
wrought, 459
Aluminum Association Designution System, 459
anodizing, 496-497
carbide tools, 460
ceramic tools, 460
finishes, 495
heat treatment, 472
age-harden, 472
ductile,472
high-speed cutting tools, 460
increasing strength, 459
machining, 459-460
nonabrasive nature, 459
temper designation, 459
tool geometry, 460
Alwninum Association De&i&nation System. 459
Aluminum oxide,
hand polishing, 122
American loon and Ste2llnstitute (AISI),
number code for identifying steel, 456-457
American National Standards Institute (ANSI),
<hawings,30
grinding wheel marking system, 359
surface values, 492
IndexAmerican National Thn!ad System, 114
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME),
geometric characteristic symbols, 41
Angle cutter, arbor milling cutters, 299
double..an~e, 301
single-ang.e, 301
Angle plate,
precision grinding, 366
work-ho.iding devices, 167
Angular cuts,
reciprocating power hacksaw, !93
Angular knurls,
knuriing on lathes, 265
Angular sawing,
vertical band machine, 392
Annealing,
cryogenic applications, 543
heat treatment of steel, 468~69
Anodizing, metal finishing.
aluminum oxide, 496-497
electrobrightening, 496, 497
hard coat. 496
ordL’lal’)~ 496
ANSJ. Su American 1’\ational Standards Institute
Appearance. n!asons for metal finishing, -192, -193
Apron, lathe, 206
APT. See Automatic Progra.auned Tools
APT III. See Computer languages
APT Multi-tooJ”‘M, spotfacing, 178
Arbor milling cutters,
angle cutter, 299. 3iJ1
double-angle, 301
single-angie, 301
formed mil!ing cutters, 299, 3{11
holding, 304
draw-in bar. 305-306
keyway, 3..”5
self-holding tapers, 304
spacing collars, 305
stub, 306
styles, 304-305
A, 304,305
8,304,305
C.305
metal slitting saws, 299, 301
plain. 301
side chip clearance, 301
plain milling cutter, 299- 300
heavy-duty, 300
helical, 300
light-duty, 3CO
slab cutters, 300
side milling cutter, 299, 300
half side, 300
ir.terloc:king, 300
plain,300
staggered-tooth, 300
ASME. See American Society of Mechanical Engineers
Assembly drawings,
ar subasscmblr drawings, 36-37
used in &hop. 38
Atmospheric control, heat treatment, .furnaces, ol74
Auto bodv dies,
computer numerical control {G\iC), applications, 418-421
numerical control (~C). applications, 418-421
AUTO MAP (.Automatic !\fachin1ng Program).
See Computer languages
Automated manufacturing,
fle.xible manufacturing system (F~IS). 424
future of, 433
processe5, 423
assembling, 423
inspecting. 423
making, 123
packaging, 423
testing. 423
rapid prototyping techniques, 428–432
robotics, 424-428
safety, 427
Machining Fun:iar11enta!s
Automatic Machining Program (AUTO MAPl,
computer languages. 412
Automatic Programmed Tools (API’),
APT system dictionary. 413
auxiliary function statements, 413
computer languag~, 411-413
geometry, 413
madtining statcn\ents, 413
Automatic screw machine, 2i5
Automatic tW:tet lathe, 275
Awueness barriers, safetv aids, 26
Axis inversion. –
contour or continuous path, 40i
Axis of mO’I;emcnt,
positioning with numerical control (XC, 4i)2
B
Back injuries, 2-l
Back reflection, ultrasonic inspection, +15
Backcounterbore, 178
spotia~ing, 178
Backsa\\i l(J.l
‘Backspotface, spotfacing, 178
Billl bearing (enter., 223
Ball nose end mill, 297
Ball-peen hanune.-, 101
Band machining.
advantages, 3S3
basic operation, 16
blade characteristics, 384-386
gage, 356
pitch, 386
set, 386
tooth form, 386
\oidth, 384-355
blade forms,
hook tooth. 356
skip tooth, 386
standard tooth, 386
blade selection. 384-337
blade types, 3S4
bimetal, 384
carbon steel flexible back. 384
hard edge with spring-tempered back, 384
high-speed steel (HSS), 384
shock resistant high~peed steel (HSS), 384
tUI\gsten carbide, 354
blades, wel<iing. 387-388
anneafulg, 388
flash removal, 385
making the blade weld, 387-388
preparing for, 387
ready-to-use welded bands, 357
strip-<>ut containers, 387
contputer r.umericai control (C. ,C), 396
diamond-edge band, 395
filing, 393
friable material.s, 395
hictionsa~ing,394-395
kniie-edge blade, 395
polishing, 394
band abrasive cloth, 394
?reparation, 358-390
b!ade guides, 3’58
blade tension, 390
blade tracking, 388-390
cutting fluids, 390
cutting speed, 39-:)
lubrication, 388
roller guides. 3S8
safety, 397
troubleshooting. 396
vertical, 390-392 ·
angular sawing, 392
contour sawing. 391!ndex
ft:ed, 393
internal cuts, 392
straight sawing, 390
wire band, 395
with closed circu.ilTv. 396
Base metal, 451
Basic dimension, U
Basic profile, 128
Bastard files. Ste Files
Bench drill press, 1.53
Bench grinder, 183
wheels, 184
coarse, 184
fine, 184
Bench cadial drill press, 155
Bent·tailsafety lathe dogs, 223
Bent·tail standard lathe dogs, 223
Beryllium,
copper, %1-462
heat-treatable metal:;, 468
Bevel geill’, horizontal milling machinES, 346-349
milling bevel gear, 346-347
preparing to cut, 347-349
Bilateral tolerance, 35
Bimetal blades,
band machining, 384
Binding lever,
holding and rotating work on lathe, 205
Blades,
band machining,
annealing, 388
bimetal, 384
blade tracking, 388-390
carbon steel flexible back. 384
cha.racteristics, 384-386
flash removal, 388
gage,386
guides,388
hard edge with spring-tempered back, 384
high-speed steel (!iSS), 384
hoolc: tooth, 386
pitch, 386
ready-to-use ~lded bands, 387
selection, 384-:3.87
set, 386
~hock resistnnt high-speed steel (‘f-JSS), 384
skip tooth. 386
standard tooth. 386
&trip-out containers, 387
tension, 390
tooth form, 386
tungsten carbide, 384
types, 384
welcting, 387-388
width, 384-.385
haclc:saw, 106-tiYJ
aJI hard, 107
alternate set, 107
flexible back, 107
r.tker set, 107
set, 107
undulating set, 107
ltorizontal band saw,
breaking, 196
crooked cutting, 196
hook tooth. blade, 196
installation, 196
premature tooth wear, 197
selection, 195- 196
skip tooth blade, 196
standard tooth blade, 196
teeth. strip off, 197
reciprocating power hacksaw, 193
aD·hard, 193
flexibl~back, 193
molybdenum. 193
roounting, 193-194
retensioning, 194
rule of thumb, 193
nmgsten, 193
BUndholes,
drilling, 176
taps, 117, 119
Blind rivets,
nonthreaded fa:Jtmers, 136
Block.
nwnerical control (NQ progranuning, 408
Blueprints, 37
Bolts,. removing broken, 1.31
Boring bar,
boring on lathes, 262
Boring mills,
early machine tools, 12
industrial. lathe applications, 276
Boring.
horizontal milling machines, 339-340
boring head, 339
dial indicator, 340
Jacobs chuck, 339
wiggle~340
on lathes, 261-263
vertical milling machines, 325-326
centering scope, 325
digital readout gaging system, 326
edge finder, 326
locating first hole, 325-326
measuring rod and dial indicator attachment, 32.6
wiggler, 325
Bottoming tap, 117
Box annealing, 469
Box jigs, 145
Box parallels, 84
Box wrenchea, 97
Brale penetrator,
hardness testing, 482
Brass, 461
alloy of copper and zinc, 461
heat treatment, 473
Brazed-tip single-point c:utt:il\g too]. 214-216
diamond-charged grinding wheel, 214
silicon carbide, 214
tooJ blanks, 214
Brine, quenching medium, 473
Brlnellluudncss tester, using, 479
Briquetting,
green compact, 536
powder metallurgy (P/M), 535-536
Broacl\, 281
teeth,281- 282
finishing, 281
roughing, 281
semifinishlng, 281
Broaching, 281- 2.84
advantages of, 283
broach,281
burnishing elements, 282
external, slab broach, 281
internal, 281
keyway, 283-284
machines, basic opera tion, 17
pot, 281
pull broach, 281
slab broach, 281
teeth,281-282
Bronze,461
Buffing, 499-500
Buffing lathe, 499-500
Burning,
grinding, 187
precision grinding problems, 367
Burnishing elements, broa.ching, 282
8WJhing8,
jigs, 143
slip,I45~~——————————————————————————M-~_c_ h_ln _’_’,~’-~-u_n_o_an __~_e_n_~__s
c
CAD. See Computer-aided design (drafting)
Calipers, 7S…76
dial,66
ir.side.~6
:nicro:netec, 57-08
\·ecruer, 63
Cam-lock spindle,
holding and rotati.”lg work on lathe, 20~
CA.i’\1. See Computer-aided manufacturing
Cap screws,
threaded fasteners, 129–130
Capadtor bank.
electrohvdraulic forming, 540
Capacitordischarge forming. See IDectrohydtaulic forming
Carbide cutti.ug tools,
!ncreasing cutting speed. 214
Carbide inserts. See Inserts
Carbide-tipped tools, 21-l-216
coating of titanium nitride (!L’\1 and titanium carbide me), 455
gri..,ding on wet-type gr’..nder, 188
staight turni:-tg, lathe, 216
square nose, 216
thread::ng tool, 216
Carbon steel, 432
adding lead, 453
adding sulfur, 453
carbor. content. 452
drills, 158
flexible back !:llades, band machining. 384
i.mprov;.ng machinability, 4.53
Carburlzing. See Case hardening
Carriage (]athe), 205-206
compound rest, 206
cross-slide, 2il6
feed ::nechani3m,206
f-eed change levers, 207
half-nuts, 207
index piate, 207
lead screw, 207
longi!udinal move.c:1.ent, 206
parts, apron, 206
parts, saddle, 205
quick-c~e gearbox, 206
tool post, 206
transverse tool mo\·ement, 206
Cartesian Coordi.uate System,
positioning with numerical control (..N’C}, 402-403
a.xi& of xr.overnent, 402
spindle motion, 402
Case hardening, 471-172
carburizing,472
cyaniding, 472
gas metJ~.pd, ’72
I<asenit , 478
liquid salt method, 472
low-carbon steel, 478-479
methods, 478-479
nitriding me thod., 472
Cast alloys, aluminum, 4S9
~timn&,~2
gra\’ iron, 4.”i2
malleable iron, 452
Castellated nuts, 1.33
Cathode ray tube (CRT),
ultrasonic inspection, 445
Cemented tungsten carbides, milling cutters, m
Centet al~ent, lathe,
adf..!sting scre¥>·s, 227
a.oproxi.mate, 226
checking, 2.23-227
Center findea:. drilling, 173
Center gage,
cutting 60″ screw tlueads on lathe, 2-51- 253
Center holes, drilling on laihe, 224-225
combination drill and countersink, 224
straight drill, 225
using drill press, 225
Center punch, layout, 89
Center rest, lathe, 269
Centering scope, ‘ ‘erllcal milling machines,
locating fi.”‘St hole, 325
Cetlterless grinding, 376-377
end feed grinding, 376
infeed grind” , 376
internal ceiu:fess, 3;’7
through feed, 376
Cerium, -163
Chamfer micrometer, 56-59
Chatter,
elimination, 263
precision grinding problerr.s, 367
Chem-blanki.ug. See Chemical blanking
Chem·milling. See Chemical milling
Chemical blackening, 497-498
advantages, 498
drawbacks, -l9S
Chemical blanking, 513-516
ad,·antage6, 516
basic operation, 1’i
disad vantages, 516
process, 513-514
steps. 514-515
Chemical cutting tJujds. Su Cutti.ug fluids
Chemical machining, 511-516
Chemical milling,
adYantages, 5i.2-5l3
basic operation, 17
disadyantages, 513
etchant, 511
masks, 511
steps, 5!2
cleaning, 512
etching, 512
inspection, 512
masking, 512
rinsing and !>tripping, 512
scribing and stripping, 512
Otipb~akers, ns- 219
Chiples8 madlining, 531-532
accuraC}~ 5-31
applications, 532
basic operations, 532
Intraform~, 532
metals.532
principle of operation, 531
Chisels, 102-1().1
appllcatons,102-103
co!d chisel, 102
ri\·et buster. 102-103
safetv, 1.04
Chuck.ki!V, 163
Chucking reamer, 180
Chucks,
dri!l-holding devices, 163
electromagr:etic precision gri.”tding, 3,:,7
Jacobs, horizontal milling machines, 339
lathe,
draw-in coUet, 232
facing stod< held in_ 236-237
4-ja\,. independent, 232- 234
installing chuck jaws, 232
Jacot:a, 232
.c:1.0unting, ~236
re.c:1.oving from other spindle noses, 236
removing irom threaded spindle, 236
3-jaw Wliversal, 232
using, 231-236
magnetic, milling machines, 311
precision grinding. magnetic, 356-35:’
0:\1. Set Computer-integrated manufacturing
Circular interpolation,
numerical control (NC), contour or continuous path, 406–407ltd
Cirt:ular pitch (p), calculating. 343
Circular saw, metal-<Utting,
abrasive cutoH, 197
cold circular saw, 197
friction saw, 197
friction saw, billets, 197
Circularity geometric tolerances, 45
Clamp bolt nut,
holding and rotating work on lathe, 205
CUmp4ype lathe dogs, 223
Clmlplng devic:cs, 91-92
clamps, 92
C-clamp, 92
parallel clamp, 92
precision grinding. 357
vises, 91–92
bench, 91
jaws, 92
machinist’s, 91
toolmaker’s, 91
use o£,92
Cleaning methods, metal finishing. 495
Clearance (c), calculating. 343
Cllinb milling, 304
horizontal milling machines, slitting, 338
machining laminated plastics, 531
Closed circuit Tv, band machining with, 396
ClOHd jig&, 145
Ooeed loop system.
numerical control (NC), 401
Clothing, protective, 23, 24
CMM. See Coordinate measuring m.achine
Coated abrasives, hand polishing, 123
C~s, indcxable insert cutting tools,
alumina, 216
titani\Ul”‘ carbide (‘IlC), 216
titanium nitride (TIN), 216
Cold chise).102
Cold finished steeL 453
Cold fonning. Sei! Chipless machbrlng
Cold heading. Su Chipless m.a.clrining
Color codiDg, steeL 457-458
Column and lmee milling macllines, 286-289
movCIXlcnt, 286
parts,286
plain (horizontal spindle), 288
rotary head, 289
sliding head, 289
swivel head, 289
universaL, 2.88
vertical, 2.88-289
Combination drill and countersink<
drilling center holes, lathe, 224
Combination drill and reamer, 159
Combination open-end and box wrenches, 97
Combination pliers, 92
Combination set,
<Enter head, 86
protractor head, 86
Combustible materials, 27
COMPACf D. Sa Computer ~es
Campuative checking unit,.
quality control, 448
Composites, 464-465
Compound angles,
vertical mming machines, 321
Compound rest,.
lathe, 2.06
method of turning tapers, 241-243
setting,253
Compressed air, safety, 24.
Computer J.angu.ages, numerical control (NO, 412-413
Adaptation of API (ADAP1), 412
APIIJI, 412
AutoJna.tlc Machining Program (AUTO MAP), 412
Automatic Programmed Tools (APT), 412-413
aulciliary function statements, 413
geometry, 413
machining statements, 413
system dictionary, 413
COMPACT IL 4U
syntax. 412
Computer numericu control (CNO,
adaptive control (AC), 413
applications, 418-421
automating machining processes, 19-20
band machining, 396
computer-aided machining technology, 399-401
grinding, 380-381
industrial lathe applications, 276-279
introduction of, 19
machine tools, fixtures, 146
microdrilling machine, lBO
milling machine controL 290
robotic systems, 20
Computer-aided design (CAD), 400, 415
Computer-aided machining technology,
computer numerical control (CNO, 399-401
computer-aided design and drafting (CAD), 400
direct numerical control CDNC), 400
distributed numerical control (DNC), 400
machine control unit (MCU), 400
manual machining, 399
numerical control (NC), 399-400
program, 400
6erVO motors, 400
ComputeJ>-aided manufacturing {CAM),38,415
Coolputa–lntegrated manufacturing (CJM), 38, 424
Concentricity,
examining grincfing wheels fo(, 185
Contaminant!!, cutting fluids, 150
Contour etching. See Chemical mi1.Ung
Contour o.c: contlnuou path, movement systems
circular interpolation, 406-407
inversion, 407
mirror image part, 4(17
Contmn sawing, vertical band machine, 391
Conventional inside micrometer, 58
Conventional {up) milling, 304
Coolants,
precision grinding, 362-364
reciprocating power hacksaw, 193
Coordinate measuring I~~Achine {CMM), 438
Copper, 461
alloys, 461
base metal, 461
heat t reatment, 473
heat-treatable metals, %8
Cotter pins, 136
Counterboring, 177-178
backcounterbore, 178
counterbore, 177
lndexable carbide inserts, 177-178
interchiUlgeable cutters and pilots, 177
pilot, 177
solid, 177
drilling machines, uses of, 157
drillB, 177-178
Countersinking, 176-177
oountersink.~, 176
cutting edge angles, 176-177
deburring holes, 177
indexable carbide inserts, 177
single cutting edge, 177
using. 177
drilling machines, uses of, 157
drills, 176-17’7
Creep grinding, 366
Qitical temperlltun:, steeL 469
CCOM filing. Su Straight filing
ero.-feed hmdwh.eeL
precision grinding, 354
Cro1111-slide,
lathe, 206
turTct lathe, industrial applications,’05Crossing file. Sec Files
Cryogenic applications, ~544
annealing metals, 543
heat treating metals, 543
shrink-fitting metal parts, 543
temperatures, 543
treatment of rutting tools, 543
Curved-tooth file. Su Files
Cutoff machines. See Saws
Cutters md pilots (interchangeable),
counterborir.g. 177
Cutters, sharpening, 369
Cutting compounds, drills, 168-170
applications, 168, 170
cleanup, 170
Cutting fluids,
application of, 150-151
band machining, 390
floodillg, 390
mist coolant, 390
solid lubricants, 390
carbide inserts, 1.51
ceramic tooling, 151
chemicaL 149
advantages, 150
appearance, 150
con~ts,150
emulsifiable oils, 149
advantages, 150
appearance, 150
applications, 150
soluble oi!s, 1SO
evaluation, 151
functioru, 149
gaseous fluids, 149
compressed air, 150
high-speed steel, 151
milling machines, 31C
mineral oils, 149
applications, 150
precision grinding, 362-364
applications, 362
applying, 363
cleaning system, 363-364
flooding. 363
polymers, 362
water·soluble chemical fluids, 362
water-soluble oil fJulds, 363
semichemical, 149
advantages, 150
appearance, 150
types, 149-150
Cutting speed (CS),
band machining, 390
drills, 167-168
table, 169
lathe, 220-222
calculating, 220-221
depth of cut, 221- 222
fL”1ishing cuts, 221
peripheral speed, 22()
ro-..tghing cuts, 221
milling machines, 291. 308
adjusting. 291
calculating, 308–310
Cutting tool (lathe),
carriage. 205-206
compound rest, 206
cross-slide, 206
feed mechanism, 206
holding, moving, and guiding. 205-208
lead screw, 207
longitudinal movement, 2:)6
shapes, high-speed ~ttecl, 211
tool holders, lathe, 211-219
tool post, 206
transverse tool mo\·ement, 20(:
Cyaniding, 472
Cyanoaayla.te adhesives, 138-139
Cylindrical grinding, 373-375
complete runoff, 375
cutting speed, 375
feed, 375
holding and driving the work, 375
insufii.cier.t runoff, 375
machine operation, 375
ovenun,375
plunge grinding, 373
tra,·erse grinding. 3′:”3
work resls, 375
Cylindricity geometric tolerances, -16
D
Datum, geometric dimensioning and tolerancing, .U
ieab:re, 42
identification symbol, 44
reference letters, 44
Dead ccnte~;,
lathe, tumin.g work between centers, 223
parts cf drill point, 162
Dead smooth files. See Files
Dcburring holes, counte:rsinking, 177
Deburrlng tcclmiques, metal finishing, SOD-502
Decaxbtmizlng, 469
Dedendum (b), calculating. M3
Deep grinding, 366
Delrin, machining, 527
applications, 527
replacing brass and zi1tc, 527
Demagnetizer, 3S7
Depth gage, 176
Depth stop, 176
Destructive testing. quality control, 436-437
Detail drawingll, 38
Detonation gun (D-gun®) coating process, -199
Diagonal pliers, 93
Dial calipem, 66
Dial indicators, 7()…71
balanced indicators, 70
continuous indicators, 70
digital electronic indicators, 70
hor’ .zontal milling machines, boring, 340
how to use. n
tailstock sctoYer, 246
,-ertical milling machines, aligning \i.se with. 315
Diametral pitch (}’), calculating, 3-13
Diamond cone penetrator,. 481
Diamond dust polishi.”lg compound, 122
Diamond wh.eel dresser, 271
Diamond-charged grinding wheel,
grindiug carbide-tipped tools, 214
Diamond-edge band, band machining, 393
Diamond-shapl!d ~ations,
knurling on lathes, 265
Diazo proce5s prints, 37
Dielectric fluid (EDM), 561
Diemaker, 549
D ies,
adjustable, 121
blanks, electrical discharge machining, 5C3
diestocks. 121
so:id, 120
threads, 115
two·part adjustable, 12!
Digital readout gaging system,
vertical milling machL’tes, 326
DimelUiioning dral\ings, 31-.32
Direct measuring of tapers, 249-250
Direct numerical con trol (D:!’\0,
computer-aided rnachil”J ng technology, 400
machine conrroliUlit (MC{!), 400
mainframe coJT.puter, 400
Direct Shell Production Casting (DSPC), .lll
Dist;mce between centers of mating gens (C), calculating, 343
D istributed numerical control (DXC),
c-omp-..tter-ai.ded machining technology, 400
machine control unit (~ICL”), -ID~
mainirame computer, 400Index
Divider, use of on metal, 81
Divid.inc head, milling macllines, 3U-312, 314
DNC. See Direct numerical control; Distributed nliiD.e.rkal control
Double square, 86
Double-<Ut file. tke Files
Double-cut knurl, knurling on bthe~~,
difficulties, 266
Dovetail cutter mills, 301
Dowel pins, 135-136
Down-leed handwbeel,
precision grinding, 354
Down (climb) milling, 31>’
Drag, reanti.ng, 181
Draw filing, m
Draw-in collet chucks, 232
applications, 234-235
cfeSign, 235
Drawing, heat treabnent of steel. 472
Drawings,
American National Standards Institute {At’JSD, 30
conversion charts, 32
dimensions, 31–32
dual dimensioning, 31
US Conventional system, 31
fractional dimensioning, 31
information included on. 32-37
assembly or su ba.ssembly, 36-37
bilateral tolerance, 35
drawing scale, 36
materials, 32
.name of object, 37
quantity of units, 36
~visions, 37
sur.face finishes, 32, 35
tolerances, 35-36
unilateral tolerance, 36
metric dimensioning,
SI Metric syst:em_ 32
parts list, 38
scale, 36
sizes, 38-41
SI Metric, 42
US Conventional. 41
types of prints, 37-.38
blueprints, 37
computer-generated, 37-38
diazo process, 37
lllicrofilm process, 37
xerographic (electrostatic) process, 37
types used in shop, 38
assembly, 38
detail,38
exploded pictorial, 38
subassembly, 38
worldng, 38
understanding, 29–54
Orift.t63
Drill gage, 160
Drill jig,
usi.ng a jig, 176
work-holding devices, 167
Ddl1 preu, 14-15,1.53
basic operation, 14-15
drilling center holes, lathe, 225
safety, 157-158
si7..c determination, l53
Drill rod. 75
Drill template, open jigs, 144
Drill-out power extractor, 131
Drilling madtinu,
bench drill press, 153
bench radial drill press, 155
drill press, 153
safety, 157-158
size determination, 153
electric hand drill, 153
gang, 156
in.achining center (CNC), 156
multiple spindle, 156
portable magnetic drills, 15S
radial drill pra;s, 153-154
robotic, 156
uses of, 157
counterboring, 157
countersinking, 157
reaming, 157
spotfaci~ 157
tapping, 157
Dr:illblg,
blind holes, 176
center finder, 173
center holes on lathe, 224-225
depth gage, 176
depth stop, 176
feed, 168
full hole diameter, 176
hole depth, 176
horizontal milling machines, 339-3-W
larger holes, 175
nylon,526-527
on lathes, 263-264
pfiot hole, 175
procedures, 173-174
proof d rcles, 174
pulling drill point to center, 175
round stock, 175
signs indicating pooc cutting, 174
TeflonTN, 529
titanium, 461
using a drill ‘ig, 176
using V-blo~, 175-176
wiggler, 173
Drills,
carbon steel, 158
C’OUIIterboring, 177- 178
countersinking, 17~177
cutting compounds, 168–170
applications, 168
cleanup, 170
cutting speed& and feeds, 167-168
table, 169
drilling, 173-174
gage, 160
high-iipeed steel (}:[$), 158
holding devices, 163
chuck, 163
chuckkey. 163
drift, 163
sleeve, 163
socket, 163
tapered spindle, 163
measurements, 160-161
parts of, 162-163
body clearance, 163
dead center, 162
flutes, 162
heel, 162
lip clearance, 162
lips, 162
margin. 162
point, 162
shank, 162
shank, tang, 162
web, 163
peripheral speed, 168
reaming, 180-182
removing from spindle, 164
sharpening, 170-173
checking w:ith a drill point gage, 171
coarse grinding wheel, 171
cooling point,170
grinding attachments, 173
length and angle of lips, 170
lip clearance, 170
procedures, 171-172
proper location ofdead center, 171
rake angle, 172
web thinning, 171siz.e. 160
express:ion of , 160
speed,
control mechanisms, 168
conveuitm, 168
spotfacing, 178
tapping, 176-160
twist, 158
types of, 158–160
combination drill and reamer, 159
four-flute core, 15S
bali-round straight-flute, 159
index.able-insert, 159
micro, 159
oil-hole, 15S
spade,159
step, 159
straight-flute gun, 158
taper shank twist, 15S
liuee-flule core, 158
work-holdU\g devices. 164-167
Drive screws, 135
Dry-type grinder, 187
pedestal, 185
using, 187
Dual dimemioning, drawings, 31
Duplicating unit, lathe attachments, 272-274
Dwell control, 355
E
Echo, ultn.sonic inspection, 445
EC\1. See Electrochemical machlning
Eddy-current inspection, 446–448
eddy-current absolute system, 447
eddy-Cill’Jlmt differential system, 447
theory of operation, 446–447
Edge findeo-_ vertical milling machines,
locating first hole, 326
EDM. Set Electrical di~arge machining
EDWC. See Electrical discharge “‘ire cutting
Electric hand drill, drilling machines, 153
Electrical discharge machining (EDM),
applications, 505-506
basic operation, 17
components of, 50:1
die blanks, 503
dielectric fluid, 504
electrode, 504
finishin.g cuts, 505
power supply,5{)11
principle of operation, 504-505
roughing cuts, 505
servomechanism, 504
Electrical discharge: wire cutting (EDWQ, 506-507
CXC appliG~tions, 507
prindple of operation, 506-507
Electrobrightenlllg, 496-497
Electrochemical machining (EGI),
advantages, 507-.508
basic operation, 17
electroh-te, 507
principle of operation, 507
requirements, 507
Electrode (EDM), 504
Dectrohydraulic forming,
capacitor bank, 540
high-energy-rate fonning (HERF), 540
operation. 540
Electrolytic grlndh~g,
applications. 379
operation, 379-380
Electromachining, 503-510
advantage of, 503
electrical disc..wge rr.achlning (ED~I), 5~6
electrical discharge wire cutting (ED\\’0, 506–iiQ’i
electrochemical machining (EO{), 507-008
Electro.magnetic chuck, 357
Electromagnetic forming. Ste Magnetic fonning
Electron beam machining (EBM),
applications, 51~520
basic operation, 17
control. .520
cut geometry control. 520
electron beam microcutter-welder, 519
heating and cooling of material. 520
operation, 520
use of vacuum, 519
Electronic gage, i 2
Electroplating. ~8
Emery, 122
Elnploytnent547-552
d esirable emp:oyee traits, 554
employee expectations of industry. 555
factors for rejection. 554
factors for termination, 535-556
M.\t:h n Funcamentc::s
finding, in machi.ning tec.lmology, 353-554
how to get a job. 55-\-556
obtainmg information, 553–554
Occupational Outlook Handbook. 553
preparing a resume, 553
proiessicmal workers, 551-S:–3
wgineering, 552
U\dusbial enginee~552
mechanical engineer, 352
metallurgical engineer, 553
teacher, 551-552
tool and m anufacturing engineer. 352
semiskilled workers, 547–…”48
skilled workers, 5-IS–550
apprentice programs, 348
specialized machinists, 549
all-around machitlist, 549
diemaker, 549
layou t specialist, 549
manager, 550
part programmer, 549-550
setup spccia_!ist, 549
supen:·tsor, 550
toolmaker, 349
technicians, 550-.551
EmuJsifiable oils, 149-150
advantages, 150
appearance, 15\l
applications, 150
soluble oils, 150
End feed grinding. See Centerless grinding
End mills,
grinding, 372
millirlg cutters, 296-297
vertical milling machines, mounting, 319
End of block (EOB) codes, 409
End of program code, -109
End spanner wrenches, 98
Engineering profession. 552.
EOB. Su End of block codes
Europium, 463
Exparulion mandrel, lathes, 270
Expansion rc:amcxs,
chuddng reamer, 150
dralvbacks, 180-181
hand reamers, 112
reaming, 180
Exploded pictorial dntwings, 38
Explosive forming, 537~
ap plications, 537
contact HERF, 539
disadvantages, 5.3~C’
high-eneTgy-rate forming (HERF), 537-540
placement of explosives, 539
preparing m etal for, 530
stand-off HERF, 539
vacuum,539
Extension rods, 82
External broaching, slab broach, 281
External threads,
adjustable dies, 121
close tolerance, 116Index
cutting, 115, 121
cutting, problems, 121
die stocks, 121
general-purpose. 116
ISO standards, 116
ragged threads, U1
solid dies, 120
threading t<l a shoulder, 121
two-part adjustable dies, 121
Extrude-hone, ddnlrrlng, 502
F
Face mi1J.in8,
horizontal milling machines, 333–334
millmg cutters, 298
milling machines, 293
shell end mills, 333
Facing tool., lathe,. 212
Facing work lteld between centen,
facing to length, 228
half-center, 228
right-cut facing tool, 227
Fastenen, 127-142
adhesives, 138-140
advantages, 138
cyanoacrylate debonder, 139
cyanoacrylntc quick setting, 138–139
fonns, 138
using, 139-140
drive screws, 135
liquid thread lock. 134
nonthreaded, 135-138
cotter pins, 136
dowel pins, 135-136
keys, 137- 138
gib head key, 138
keyseat, 137
keyway, 137
Pratt & Whitney key, 137
Woodruff, 138
retaining rings, 136
rivets, 136-137
blind, 136
permanent assemblies, 136
safety. 140
thread culling screws, 135
thread-forming screws, 135
threaded, 127- 135
basic profile, 128
bolts, removing broken, 131-132
cap screws, 129-130
inserts,l33
machine boll!!, 128
machine screws, 128
metric sizes, 127-128
nuts, 132- 133
setscrews, 130-131
stud bolts, 131
wedging action, 127
washers, 134
lock, 134
preassembled, 134
split-ring lock, 134
standard, 134
tooth-type locl<, 134
FDM. See Fused Disposition Modeling
Feature control frame, 44
Feed,changeleve~
drills, 168
and cutting speeds, 167- 168
table, 169
lathe, 22~222
depth of cut, 221-222
setting with micrometer dials, 221
finishing cuts, 221
roughing cuts, 221
mechanis!Y\. 206
milling machines, 291, 308
ad ~aling, · sting. 291 308-310
vertical band machine,
hand wheel, 393
power, 393
self-contained unit, 393
Ferrous metals, 451-458
alloy steels, 453–454
carbon steel, 452
ca!lt irons, 452
cold finished steel, 453
gray iron, 452
heat treatment, 468
high-carbon steel,. 453
hot rolled steel, 453
machine steel, 452
malleable iron, 452
medium-carbon steel, 453
mild steel, 452
stainless steels, 456
steel, 452–458
tool steel, 455
tungsten carbide, ~6
Files, 107- 112
applications, 107
m:rc, 107- 108
brush, lOB
file card, 108
cllaracteristfcs,
len~..,type, cut, 108
classi1iau..ons,
bastard, 107
ooarse,curved-h)oth, 107-108
dead smooth. 107
double-cut, 107-108
rasp, 107- 108
rough,
second-cut, 107
single-cut, 107
smooth, 107
0’068 filing, 111
draw filing. 111
jeweler’s, 111
machinist’s, 110
mill.ll0-111
pinning, 108
rasp, 107- 108, 111
safe edges, 110
safety, 112
selecting, 108-110
shapes,
3-square, 110
crossing, 110
flat, 110
half-round, 110
knife, 110
pillar, 110
round, 110
square, nO
straight filing, 111
specinl purpose, 111
Swiss pattern, 111
types, 110-lll
using,lll
Fili.ag,
band machining. 393
on lathes, 267
Fillet and radius gage, 75
Finger clamp, 165
FiniJJh turning, 2.30
Finishing,
cuts, lathe, 221
mebll, 48!h502
tools, lathe, 212
Fixes,
classes of, 27
dealing with, 27
em’-“1 f~achlning Fundamen,als
~—————————————
extinguishers, 27
safety, 27-28
Fishtail, :z.,,
Fixec!•bed milling machines,
c.~racteristias, 286
horizontal, 2!!6
movement, 286
planer, 356
vertical, 386
Fixturcs,l45-146
(.’:\’C machine too!.s. 146
consrruc!i.o!t, 146-147
holding devices, 146
t.:>mbstones, 147
Flake off (lcnurling), 2h7
flame hardcrung, 470
Flanged \ise, 3ll
flashpoint, 473
Flat file. See Files
flat surfaces, milling, 33o-332
Flatness, form geometric toletances,45
flexible manufactudng svstem (fMS), 42-l
Just-In-Time (JID, 424
machine tools u..<>ed in, 424
robots, 424
smart toolir.g, 424
Flexible sha:ft grinders, 188
Flexible-back blades,
hacksa\-‘S. HJ.’
reciprocating power hacksa..,.~ 193
Fluorescent penetrant inspection. 442
Flutes, drill, 162
Fly culler. 298
FM:S. 51!1! Flexible manufacturing system
Follower rest_ lathe, 268-270
Forging, powder metallurgy (PiM ), 536
Fotm cutte.rs, grinding, 372
Form geometdc tolerances, 45
Form grinding, 377-378
diamond particle wheel, 3:’8
thread grinding, 379
wheel shapes. 377
Form.ulas,
calculating addendum (a), 343
calculating C.rcular pitch (p), 343
calculating ciearar.ce (c), 343
c!Lculaling deder.dum (b). 343
calculating di.a..”!letral pitch (P), 343
cakulating distance between centers of two ma!ing gears .:cl. 343
calculating lathe cutting speeds (inch-base.:!}, 22C
cnlclliating lathe cutting speeds (metric-based:•. 221
calculating number of teeth (]:\), 343
calculating outside diameter (0 0}, 343
calculating pitch circle, 343
calculating pitch diameter (D), 343
calculating pressu.re angle (9), 343
calculating tailstock setover, 244-245
calculating tooth thicknes:; <~,>. 343
calculating whole dep-.h oi tooth <h.tl, 343
cakulal:ir.g working depth (hk), 343
determining ieee! setti.’lg for milling mac.’Une..310
determining rpm at ail)’ specified speed. 168
de1:ermining speed setting for mi.l:tng :.na~l-ir.e, 310
th.. ~ wire method of measuring threads , 256
Fow-flute core drills, 158
4-jaw independent chucks, 232-23-.l
Fractional dimensioning, 31
F.riable materials, 395
Friction sawing, 394-395
Pull hole diamelet, drilling, 176
Full-profile inserts, 255
f’umaces,
atmospheric contrOl, 474
design, 474
heat treatment, 474-475
Fused Disposition Modeling CFDMTY.), 431
G
Gaging tools,
air gage, 71- 72
d.rill rod, 7.5
electronic gage, 72
fillet and radius gage, 70
gage blocks,
Federal Accuracy Grades, 69
handling, 69-70
gage,396
gaging, 67
To-blocks, 69-70
!.aser gaging, 72
mar.ometer, 72
measuring, 6′;
o ptical comparator, ~-73
o p!ical Bats, 7~74
piug gages. 6:’-6S
ring gages, 68
s-.-rew pitch gage, 74-75
small ~oie g~ge, :’6-75
snap gages. 68-69
sta~istical quality <:ontrol. 67
surface gage, usee for iayout, 82-S3
telescopi.!lg gage. 76
thkk!less ~feeer) gage, 74
thread gages. 69
Gou:nma radiation, (.X-rav), -1.39
Gang drilling machines: 156
Gang mandrel. lathe, 270
Gang milling, 335
Gaseous fluids,
cuttir.g £1-:ids, 149
compressed air, 150
Gear box adjustment, 252
Geat cutting, 3-ID-349
be\·el gear.
milling, 346-347
preparing to cut, 347-349
spur gear,
cutting the gear, 344-345
gear cutters, 343-344
gear nomenclahue. 341-343
measuring wim \it. “\ Kuren “‘;res, 345-346
uni”·ersaidividing head, 346
Gear nomenclature, 341-343
Geometric dimensioning and toleranclr.g, .U-52
actual size, 43
appl:ica!ion of, 44-45
basic dimension, 41
datum, 41
feature, 42
identiiication S\’mbol, 44
referen::e letterS. 44
definitions, 41-43
feature, 41
realure control frame, 44
fonn geometric toier’.m ces,
drclliar!ty, 45
cyl.indricity. ~
fla:nes>. 4.5
straightness, 45
geometric characteristic symbols, 41
least material condi!ion (li\JC), 43
limits of size, 43
location geometric tolerances,
concen!ridty, 49-.50
positional tolera.”lces, 49
SVIr.metrv, 3Q
~irr.~m ~.aterial condi tion C\iMCl, 42-43
orientation geometric !oleran~es, 46-49
angularity, 46
paralieEsrn, 47-49
parallelism geometric to!era.”l::e, 47
perpendicularity, 47lnd-,
profile geometric tolerances,
pro(i]e line geometric tolerance,%
profile surface geometric tole:raru:e, 46
n!ference dimension, 41
regardless of feature size (RFS), 43
runout geometric tolerances, 50-52
circular runout, 52
full indicator movement (FIM), 52
total runout, 50
true position, “1
Gib head key, 138
Glass coating. Su Vitreous enamel
Gnph.ic apa.bilities, CAD, 412
Green compact. powder metallw:gy; 536
Grinde.rs,
plan€1′-type surface, 354
rotary-type surface, 354
surface, 353-356
universal tool and cutter, 368
Grinding,
abrasive belt grindb\g machinEs, 183
abrallive belt machining, 378-379
advantages, 379
contact wheels, 379
platens, 379
support, 379
bench grinder, 183-184
burning work. 187
carbide-tipped tools,
diamond-charged grinding wheel, 214
silicon carbide, 214
amierless, 376-377
computer numerical control (CNC), 380-381
cylindrical, 373-375
dry-type grinder, 187
ei.ect:ro1ytic,
applications, 379
opcratiOl’l, 379-380
form, 377-378
diamond particle wheel, 378
thread grinding, 378
wheel shapes, 377
high-speed cutter bits, 214
sequence, 215
internal grinding, 375-376
mach ines, basic operation,
offhand grinding, 15
preci&on grlnd.ing, 16
offhand, 184
on lathes, 270-272
dia.mond wheel dresser, 271
external, 271-272
internal, 272
preparing grinder, 271
preparing lathe, 271
protective covering, 271
tool p Oilt grinder, 270
pedestal grinders, 183-185
dry-type, 185
wet-type, 185
portable hand grinders, 188-189
flel<lble chaft grinders, 188
preciAion tnkrogrinders, 188
reciprocating hand grinder, 188
precision grinding, 353-382
rules, 186
safety, 186-187
sharpening drills, 171
attachments, 173
tools and cutter.;, 368-373
crowding the wheel, 369
grinding cutters, helical teeth, 371-3n
grind.i.ng end mills, 372
grinding form cuiie:rs, 37.Z
grinding reamers, 372-373
grinding taps, 372
plain milling cutters, 369-371
concentricity, 371
indexing disc, 371
shapes,368-369
sharpening cutters, 369
supporting bracket, 369
tooth rest, 369
ultrasonic-assist machining applications, 517- 518
wet-type grinder,
applications, 188
using, 188
wheels, 185-186
Grindin3 wheels,
abrasive particles, 358
bonding material, 358
diamond dressing tooL 359
examining for concentricity, 185
hardness, 359
high-speed, 359
load.ed and glazed, 359
manufactured abrasives, 359
marking system, 359-360
Amer1can National Standards Institute (AKSD 359
~sifications,359-360 ‘
abrasive-type, 359
bond, 360
grade, 359
grain size, 359
structure, 359
mounting, 362
automatic balancing, 362
checking for soundness, 362
sensors, 362
unbalanced wheels, 362
shapes, 360-362
standard, 361
wheel dresser, 186
Grooving operations, lathe, 230-231
Guides, band machining blades, 388
H
Hatk..wi,
baclcsaw, 104
blades, 106-107
all hard, 107
alternate set, 107
.Oexible back, 107
raker set, 107
set, 107
undulating set, 107
cutting.
IUUTOW strip Of thin metal, 107
sofl metal, 107
thin metaL 107
unusual situations, 107
dulling or breaking blade, 106
finishing a cut, 106
holding work for sawing, 104-105
making the cut, 105-106
reciprocating power, 191- 194
angular cuts, 193
blade pin holes breaking out, 196
blades, 193
mounting, 193-194
retensioning, 194
rule of thurnb, 193
coolant, 193
crooked cutting, 196
delinite pressure feed, 191
gravity feed, 191
high-speed cutting, 193
positive feed, 191
premature blade tooth wear, 197
selecHns, 193
sU’.es, 191
stop gage, using. 194
teeth strip off, 197~toot.’t rJie, 193
using. 196-19:”
safetv, ~:J7
~artfng a cut, 105
Half-nuts, 207
Half-round file. See Files
Half-r.our.d straight-flute drills, 159
Hand drill press, tapping, 178-179
l”land, milling cutters, 297
Hand-held polishing units, 500
Hand polishing, 122- 123
abrllilive doth. 123
aluminUl:”. oxide, 122
coated abrashres, 123
comparatio;:e grading chart, 122
crocus, 122
diamond dust pol:i5hing compound, 122
diamonds. 122
emery. 122
mat~rials, 122
safen.~ :23
sllic~n carbide, 122
synthetic abrash·es, 122
Hand reameB, 112-113
Hand threading, ll,l-122
safety, 121
Hard copy, numerical control (NC), 415
Hardened steel square, 85
Hardening, carbon steel,
heat treatment oi 5teel. 469–470. 4:-3–477
measurin.~ fw.~ce temperan:re. 473
process, ,., 6-4;:
pyrometer, 4:’5
Hardness number, -179
Hardness testing,
Brinell hard.-tess test, performing, 479
conversion table, 480
hardness number, 4:’9
indentior. hardness testers. 479
Ro.:kwell hardness tester, 451-455
‘:lrale penetrator, 452
cle.a.lli:tg, 455
diamond cone penetrator, 4!11
operating, -t53
oreau:ior.s. 4!i4-485
procedures, 454
Rockwe11 B readings. 482
Rockwell C readings, 482
round stoc.:<, 453
scale d esignation, 482
steel ball, 4Sl
using, 482-4!!5
weights, 48243
sderoscope hardness tester, 1!!5-486
basic ope.ra~ion, 486
performing test. 486
1\·ebster hardness tester, 485
applications, -453
oortable, 485
HD~1. See Hydrodynamic machining
Headstock,
holding and ro~tit1g work O!’l !athe. 204
Heattnatment,
aluminum. 472
age-harden, 472
ductile, 472
anneal, 468
basic operation, 46:”
brass, 473
case harden, 465
ropper, 473
cryogerric applications, 543
equipment, 473-475
ferrous metals, 465
f~ces,474-475
atmospherk co:ttroi, ~74
design, 474
hardness testing, 479–486
nonferrous metals, 46S
potassium cyanide, 486
procedure, steel. 452
q v.enching media, 47~74
air. 474
brine, 473
liquid nitrogen, 474
mineral oils, 473-474
” ·ater, 473
reactive metal9, 473
safe !:\~ 486
steel; 468–4.””2
arL~ealing,468-469
box annealing, 469
case haroening, 471–472
decarlxmizing. 469
drawing. 472
i!ame hardeni.’1g. 470
hardening.~69-47u
carbon, 475-477
Machining Fur.d:tmer:tals
measuring furnace temperati.U’e, 475
process, 4:”6-477
pyrometer. 473
induction hardening, 470
laser hardening. 47C-i’i’1
normalizing, 469
process annealing, 468
stress-relie’l’ing, 468
surface hardening. 470-471
tempering. 4.'”‘2, 477-475
titanium. 473
Heat-treatable metals,~
Helper measuring tools, 75-78
calipers, 75-76
inside calipers, 75-76
small hole gage, 76
telescoping gage, 76
HERF. See Hig..~-energy-rate fanning
Hermaphrodite caliper, 82
Hertz (Hz), 442
Hexapods, basic operation, 17
Higb.-carbon steel, 453
High-energy-rate forming (HERF),
advantages, 53;
wntact HERF, 539
ele..”trohniraulic formin~ 540
e.xploeive forming. 53;-‘5-ro
magnetic forming, 54\J
pneumatic-mechani::al forming, 541-543
springback elimination, 537
stand-off HERF, 539
High-frequency sound, ;143
High-speed cutting tools, aluminum. -160
High-speed steel (HSS),
blades. band machini. ‘1g, 384
cutt!r.g fluids used with. 151
cuttir.g tool (lathe) shapes, 211
dr’.lls, 158
xr.illin~t c.:.~ers. 294
taos, lli:
High-temperature metals,
dassi.f}ing, 45:
molybdenum. 463
nickel-base allo\’S, 463
:ar.talum, 463 –
tung.sten, 463
Holding and rotating work, lathe, 204:–205
Holes,
boring on lathes. 262-263
drilling depth, 1/6
vertical milling machi!’.cs, locating Iirst, 323-326
Holmium, !63
Hont\•comb, -164
H ook-spanner wrenches, 98
Hook tooth, band m achining blade fonns, 386
Horizontal band s;m;
advantages, 194-195
blades,
hook tooth, 196
instaUation, 196Index
!!election, 195-196
skip tooth, 196
standard tooth. 196
using, 196- 19’7
blades brealdng, 196
crooked cutting, 196
premature blade tooth wear, 197
teeth strip off, 197
Horizontal milling machines,
borinr;,
bormg head, 339
dial indicator, 340
Jacobs chuclc, 339
drilling, 339–140
face milling, 333-J34
&hell end mills, 333
gang milling. 335
gear cutting, 340-349
Locating side rotter for milling a slot,
square or rectangular work, 335-336
round stcx:k_ 336-337
milling flat surfaces, 330-332
operations,328-337
side milling, 334-335
slitting, 337-339
climb milling, 338
slitting saw, 338
slotting, 339
squaring stock, 333
stagget”ed-tooth side milling cutter, 335
straddle milling, 334-335
surfaces requiring additional machining, 332-333
Host computer (CAD), 411
Hot rolled steel. 453
Hydrodynamic DW:hining (HDMJ,
I
addition of abrasives, 516
basic operation, 17
lay-ups, 516
partirolate removal, 516
hmnenrlon-type teet!ng, 443
Impact 11U1chinlng.
industrial applications, 518
principles of operation, 518
use of ultrasonics, 518
Inch-based mi.aometer, readi.Jls, 59-fiO
Inch-based Vemier scale, reacfina, 6~5
Incremental positioning, 403
Indention hardness testers, 479
lndCJ~> cran.k. 312–.314
Index plate, 207, 312-314
Index table, 311
lndexa’ble inserta,
carbide, 177- 178
counterboring, 177-178
countersinking, 177
drills, 159
full-profile inserts, 255
partial-profile inserts, 255
lathe,
chlpbreakcrs, 218-219
coatings,
alumina. 216
titanium carbide (1iC), 216
titanium nitride (TIN), 216
lndedng head. precision grinding. 357
Induction hardening, 470
lndusb:ial machine tool applications,
lathes,
automatic !ICn!W machine, m
boring mills, ‘1:76
computer numerically controlled (CNC), 27f:r-‘1:79
limited production runs, 274
portable turning equipment, Zl6
turret lathe, 274-275
vertical boring machine, 276
milling machines, 349-351
lndustrial engineer, 552
Indutrial Revolution, 13
Weed grinding. See Centerless grinding
(afruonic 801U\d waves, 517
Inorganic coatin~,
anodizing, 496
aluminum oxide, 496-497
e.lectrobrightening, 496
hard coat, 496
ordinary, 496
chemical blackening, 497-498
advantages, 498
drawbacks, 498
glas.•, 497
metal, 498-499
applic.ations, 498
detonation gun process (D-gun<Dj, 499
electroplating, 498
metal spraying, 498
vitreous enamel or porcelain, 4’n
Inside micrometers, 58, 62
Iaepection by 1ueJ< 446
Iatemal broaching.. 281
Internal centerless grinding. See Ce:nterlen grinding
Internal cuts, verticaJ band machine, 392
Internal grinding, 375-376
Internal openings, machining, 324-J25
Intemal thre&ds,
classes of fits, 115-116
cutting, 115
cutting on lathe, ~259
ISO standards, 116
right-hand threads, 258
International Symm ol Units (SI), 55
IntrafoJm~ machining, 532
ISO standards, threads, 116
J
jacobs chuck,
applications, 234
headstock spindle, 234
horizontal milling machin.es, boring. 339
standard, 234
Jam nuts, 132
Jaw-type mside micrometer, 58
Jeweler’s file, 111
Jlp,
box_ 145
bushings, 143
closed, 145
construction, 146-147
Opel’\,
drill template, 144
plate jig, 144
slip bushings, 145
using a drill jig, 176
Jia• and fixtures, 143-148, 436
JIT. Sre Jus~In-Tune
J~blocb, 69-70
Jobber’• reamer.180
Jobe. See Employment
Just-In-Time (}In, 424
K
Kuenit””, 478
Keys,
gib head key, 138
keyseat, 137
kcyway, 137
Pratt & Whitney key, 137
Woodruff, 138
KeyJut or slot. milling, 311-324
Keyway broaching, 283-284
Knife file. See Files
Knife-edge blade, 395
Knockout ‘bar, 204.
. .
Knur!ins.
L
angular knurls, 265
difiiculties,266-267
double-cut knurl, 266
knurling tool, 263
procedure, 266
serrations (diamond-shaped), 265
straight knurls, 2.65
Laminated Object Manufacturing (lOM….,), 42.9-430
Laminated plastics, machining. 53~531
drilling, 531
milling, 331
turning, 531
lanthanum.~
Laser,
inspection by. 446
machining with, 521-523
applications, 522
basic operation, 17
contbuous :node. 523
cutting aluminum, 523
cutting stainless steel, 523
;:ut!i.’lg titarJum, .523
eliminating oxide forma!:i:m, 523
gaging, ?2
hardening,
heat treatment o: steel, 470-471
overheath’lg probiems, 523
prindple cf operation. 521-522
pulse mode, .523
Lathe,
attachmer.ts,
duplicating unit, 272-274
tracing unit, 272
boring on,
ullowa.’\ces. 261
boring bar, 262
c..’latter elim!r.ation, 263
checking diaxr.eter, 263
holes, 262-263
brazed-tip sL”!gle-po!..’lt cutting too!, 214-216
carbide-tipped Bt!aight rurr.ing tools, 216
sq.xare n~e, 216
threading tool, 216
center reat, 269
chucks,
draw-Lot collet. 232
applications, 234-23.5
design, 235
facing stO<:k held in, 236-237
round nose cutting tool, 236
rounded nubbin, 237
square-shoulder nubbin, 237
4-jaw independent, 232-234
centering, 233, 234
operation, 232- 234
i:lstal!ing ;:?tuck jaws, 232
Jacobs, 232
applications, 234
headstock spindle, 234
standard, 234
mounting, 23~236
removing from o11er spindle noses, 236
removing f:om threaded spindle, 236
3-jaw ur.iversal, 232
types of, 232-235
using, 23’1-236
cleaning, 209
C”Jtti. “lg speed (CS),
calculating. 220-221
:iepth 0: ~t, 221- 222
finishing cuts, 221
peripheral speed, 220
rougi-Jr.g cuts, 221
cutting tapers and screw threads on, 2-*1- 260
cutti.’lg too!,
holding, mo\ing. and guiding, 2C5-2QS
carriage, 2QS-2il6
shapes, higl:-speed steel, 211
too[ holde:s, 211-219
determinin~t size,
bed length, 201
.length of bed, 201
swing, 201
ways, 201
dogs,
bent-tail safety, 223
bent-tail standard, 423
damp-type, 223
drilling on, 263-264
driving,
engagi•·1g baci< gear, 203
varyL’lg sp’..ndle speed. 203
e\·olution of Ir.achine tools, 12
facing tool, 212
facing work held cetwee:1. o:!nters, 227-228
feed, 22()-222
depth of cut, 221-222
finishing cuts, 221
roughing cuts, 221
.fili..:1.g on. 26~
fin:sh twning, 2.30
fi..”‘ishlng toois, 212
follower rest, 268-2’70
grinding on,
external grinding, 271-272
internal grinding, 272
preparing grinder, 271
prepering lethe, 271
protective covering, 271
tool poet grinder, 27l!
grooving operations, 230-231
high-speed cutter bits, grinding. 214
holding and rotating work,
binding leve:, 2D5
cam-lock spindle, 204
clamp bolt nut, 205
headsl’ock,204
knockout bar, 204
long taper key S?incile, 204
mounting work-holding device, 204
spindle, 204
tailstock, 205
threaded spindle, 204
indexable insert cutting tools, 216-219
industrial applications,
automatic screw machine, 275
boring mills, 276
computer numerically controlled (CNC), 276-279
limited production runs, 274
portable turning equipment, 276
turret iathe, 274-275
vertical !:loring machine. 2?6
knurling on,
a1’\gular knurls 265
diBi~Jl~es . 26C-26~
double-cut knurl, 266
flake off, 267
knurling tool, 265
procedure, 266
serrations (diamond-shaped). 255
straight knurl~, 265
mandrels,
expa!15ion, 2.70
fun.-:~on. 270
gang, 270
installing. 2:'()
solid, 2:-o
millim<: on,
horiion.tal attachment, 2:”2
vertical attachrtent. 2?2
necking operations, 230-231
parting operations,
feed, 237lr .:
preventing seizing_ Z37
spindle speed. 237
parts of. 202
plain turning, 237
p olishing on, 267, 268
preparing for operation, 208-209
reaming on,
allowances, 265
hand reamer, 265
removing reamer;, 265
rough turning between centers, 228- 229
roughing tools,
left~ut, 212
right-cut. 212
side relief, 212
tool shape, 211
round nose tooL 212-214
machining aluminum, 212
safety, 209-211
single-point cutting tool, 211
steady rest, 268-269
!letup, 269
too!holder,
left-hand, 211
right-hand, 211
turning on a shoulder, 230
turning to a shoulder, 237
p.reventing 11pringing, 237
turning work between centers,
ball bearing center, 223
center alignment.
adjusting screws, 227
approximate, 226
checking, 225-227
dead center, 223
drilling center holes, 224-225
combination d rill and colUltersink, 224
straight drill, 225
using drill press, 225
lathe dogs, 223
locating center of rolUld stock., 224
turret holder, 211
w ork-holding attachments,
methods, 222
between centers, 222
bolted to faceplate, 222
held in chuck, 222
held in aillet 222
Lay. sw:face, 491
Layout,
center plUlcb- 89
laying out, 81
making lines on metal,
beam,82
box parallels, 84
divider, 81
extension rods, 82
hermaphrodite caliper, 82
layoul dye, 81
right angle plate, 84
scriber,81
straightedge, 85
surface gag~. 82-83
surface plate, 83-84
trammel.82
measuring angles,
plain protractor, 87
protractor depth gage, 87
universal bevel, 87
Vernier protractor, 87
prick plUlch, 89
refc:rencc line, 89
salety, 89
simple steps, 87-89
squares,~
combination set, 86
double square, 86
hardenedsteel square, 85
V-blocks, supporting work, 84
work, 81-90
Layout specialist, 549
Lead hole. See Pilot hole
Lead saew, 207
Lead, threads, 250
Least materia[ condition (LMC), 43
Left-hand screw threads, cutting on lathe, 256
Ups, drill.
clearanre, 170
length and angle of. 170
pa.m of drill point, 162
Liquid coupling. 444
Liquid nitrogen,. 474
Liquid thread lock. 134
LMC ~t Least material condition
Loodion geometric tolerances,
concentricity, 4~50
~itional tolerances, 49
S}’DImetry, 50
Lodewaslter.s, 134
LOM. Su Laminated Object Manufactwlng
Long tapet key spindle, 204
Longitudinal movement, 206
Low carbon steel, 452, 478-479
LubdcaHon, band machining. 388
Ludte®, 530
M
Madline bolts, 128
Machine control unit (MCU), 401)-.t{)4
Macl\ine reamet,.lB0-181
Machine screws, 128
Machining angular surfaces, 321-322
Machining plastic:& See Plastics
Machining proc:et!ll!es, nontraditional,
chemical blanking, 17,513-516
chemical milling, 17, 511-513
ehx:trical discharge machining (JIDM), 17, 503-506
electrical discharge wire cutting (HDWO, 506-507
electrochemical machining (ECM), 17, 507-508
electron beam machining {EBM), 17, 51~521
hexapods, 17
hydrodynamic machining {HOM), 17, 516-51~
impact machining. 518
laser machining. 17, 521-523
ultrasonic-assist machining, 517-518
ultrasonic machining, 17, 517-519
Machinist,
acquiring skills and knowledge, 21
evolving role, 20-21
skill stundurds, 21
Machinist’s file. See Files
Magnaflux, 436
Magneaium,
alloys,460
advantages, 460
extingui!;hing agents, 460
flammability, 460
radioactive qualities, 460
heat-treatable metals, 468
Magnetic chuck,
uU!Ung rnachines,311
p.rccision grinding_ 356-357
Magnetic forming, 540-541
Magnetic particle inapectio~
quality control, 441-442
theory of operation, 441-442
Magnetic pulse forming. See Magnetic forming
Mab:lftame computet,. role in DNC.. 4()0
Major diameter, threads, 250
Mallet, 101
Mandrels, lathe,
expansion, 270
functiOI”‘, 270
gang, 270
installing, 270
solid,270. ‘
Manual m.a.chining. 399
Margin, drilL 162
~wuchusetts Institu1e of Technology (MITI, 401
Maudslay, Henry, U
Maximum material condition (MMC), .U-43
MCU. Stt ~lachine control unit
Measurement, 55-80
~{easuriJl8 rod and dial indicator attachment, 326
Measuring tools,
dial indicators, 7~71
gaging tools, 67- 75
helper, 75-78
micrometer caliper,
capabilities, 58
Systeme Palme1, 57
micrometers, types of, 59-59
rule, 55
care of, 57
graduations, 56
reading SI Metric, 56-57
reading US Conventional, 56
scale, 55
steel rule, 55
Vernier 63-fl7
Medharrl£alengin~552
Mechanical finish es,
buffing, 499-500
buffing lathe, 499-500
deburring techniques, 500-502
extrude-hone, 502
powerbrushing, 500
hand-held polishing units, 500
roller burnishing, 500
roller-type burnishing tool, 500
Mcdlnm-1:arbon s teel, 453
:\Jegahextz (MHz), 4:12
:\lerry-go-round totation,
jigs, 144
work-l:olding de\ices. 164
Metal finishing.
al1.0.minum finishes, 495
anod..iLing aluminum, 496-497
cleaning met_ltod.s, 495
!r.organic cori.”lgs,
anodizLtlg,
aLumi.nwn oxide, 496-49;”
electrobr!ghter.ir.g, 496
!lard coat. 496
ordinan.·, 496
chemical blackening,
adva.:·~tages, 49!!
drawbacks, 498
glass coating, 49;”
me-.al coatings,
applicatons, 498
detonation gun coating proces.~ (D-gun1:). 499
electroplating, 4%
metal spraying, 498
‘1-i!:reous ena:nel or porcelain, 497
mechanical fin:s..ltes,
buffing, 499-5..’1()
~glathe,499-500
d eburring techniq:.tes. 500-502
extrude-hone, 502
powerbrushlng, 50(l
hand-held polishing units, 500
roHer burnishing, 500
roller-type burnishing tool, 300
organic coatings, application,
brushi!\g, 49.5
dipping, 4:16
tlo,,·coating, 496
roller coating, 496
sptaring, -t95-4%
reasons for application,
appearance, 492, 493
cost reduction, 493
iden tification, 493
prote.. ‘”lion, .;93
surface quality, 469-492
measuring, 492
profiiometer, 492
surface roughness gage, 492
sU!’!ace roughr.ess,
degrees of, 491-492
lapping, 491
sta11dards, .,189
snnbols, 490
values, ~~91
su.rface,
economie5 of machined 9Urfaces, 492
lay, 491
\’ aiues, American :’\ational Standards £nstitute (A_”\SO, 492
wa\i\’less. 491
techniques,·492-5G2
texture standards, -189
:\fetal slitting saws,
arbor mi11ing cutters, 299-301
plain. 3()1
side chip clearance, 301
:\letaUurglcal engineer, 553
Metals,
allo,· metallic eiements, 454-455
oase metal, 451
cast irons, 452
character’.stics, 4.31-466
claSS:.fy:ng, 4.51
:’e:T<r.l.S, 451, 432-458
gray iron. 452
nea’t treatment of, 467-488
high-temperature, 462-463
malleable iron, 452
nonferrous, 451,458
rare,
ce:ium.463
ct:ropiwr., 463
hobli.um,46.3
lanthanum, 463
scandium, 463
yttrium, 463
steel, -t-52-458
Metric:-based miaomet~ ~ding, 64Hil
Metric-based Vemier scale, re.a.dit~g, 65-66
Metric dimensioning, 32
:\-le1rology, 35
Microdrllling machines,
computer ::tu:nerical co:1trol (C:\C), ! 80
peckL.<g technique, 18\:
ta?ping, :so
:\licrodrills, 159
:\Ucrofilm process, 37
~1icrometer caliper. Su Micrometer
:\Iicrometer depth gage, 58
reading, 62
:\’licromete.r,.
capabilities, 58
ca..”‘C of. 62-63
chamfer micrometer, 58-,59
conve:ttionai inside m:cromereJ;, 58
inch-bcJ.Sed mic:ometer, reading. 59-flO
i.nside, 58
reading, 62
jaw-type inside micrometer, 58
measuring 60 screw threads, 255-256
metric Yemier micrometer, reading, 61
metric-based rr.icromete{, reading, 60
micrometer depth gage, 58
reading, 62
outside, 58
scre,~·-t..’uead micrometer. 55
5-tsteme P;;lmer, 57
types of, 58-59
~,;sing. 61- 62
\ ’emier mkrometer, reading, 60
Mild steel, 452
:\fill file. See FilesIndex
Mill fonn.. identifying steel, 456
Milling cuttCJ’8,
arbor, 294, 299
angle cutter, 299, 301
doubl~anglc, 301
single-angle, 301
formed, 299, 301
metal slitting saws, 299-301
plain, 301
side chip clearance, 301
plain milling cutter,
heavy-duty, 300
helical, 300
light-duty, 300
slab cutters, 300
side milling cutter,
hal£ side, 300
interlocking, 300
plain,300
staggered-tooth, 300
ball nose end mill, 297
care of, 301~
care of holding and driving devices, 307-308
dovetail cutter mills, 301
driving, 304
end m illing:, ‘196-297
face milling, 298
facing:, 294
fly cutter, 298
hand,
left-hand, 297
right-hand, ‘197
holding,
adapters, 306
i!Jbor, 304
chaw-in bar, 305-306
keyway,305
self-holding tapers, 304
spacing collars, 305
styles, .30<l-305
shell end mill holders, 306
spring collets, 306
stub arbors, 306
inserted-tooth, 294
material,
cemented tungsten carbides, 294
high~peed steels (HSS), 294
multiflute end mill, 298
shank,294
shell end mill, 298
solid,294
T-slot301
two-flute end mill, 298
types of, 294
Woodruff key set cutter, 301
Milling machine,
basic operation, 16
cutting fluids, 310
cutting speeds,
adjll8ting, 291
calculating:, 308-310
feed,
adjusting, 291
calculating, 308-310
gear nomenclature, calculating. 343
horizontal,
boring, 339-,340
cutting bevel gear, 346-349
cutting spur geax, 340-346
measuring with Van l<uren wiles, 345–346
drilling, 339-340
face milling, 333-3.’l4
gang milling. 335
locating side cutter for milling • slot,
square or rectangular work,~
round stock, 336-337
milling flat surfnccs, 330-332
operations,328-337
side milling, 334-335
slitting, 337-339
slotting, 339
squaring stock. 333
___ ___J_
staggered-tooth side milling rutiEJ:, 335
straddle milling, 33<h’335
surfaces requiring addjtional machining, 332-333
industrial applications, 349-351
methods of machine control, 289-291
milling cutters, 293-308
milling methods,
climb,304
conventional, 304
down-milling, 304
up-milling, 304
m:illing operations, 285-286, 317-352
face milling, 293
peripheral miJ1ins, 293
rapid traverse feed, 291
safety practices, 292-293, 349
table movement, 29’1
types of,
colwnn and lcnee, 286-289
fixed-bed, 286
planer, 386
v~rtical, 3116
vertical,
aligning vise with dial indicatol’; 318
aligning work. 322
boring. 325-326
<ligital readout gaging system, 326
locating first hole, 325-326
measuring rod and dial indicator attachment, 326
care of, 326-2.38
checlcing work on parallels, 318
compound angles, 321
cutters for, 317
locating end min, TOund work, 323-324
machining,
angular surlaces, 321-322
internal openings, 324—125
keyseat or slot, 322-323
multilevel surfaces, 325
mounting end mills, 319
mounting vise, 318
squaring stock, 320-321
work-holding attachments,
dividing head, 311-312,314
flanged vise, 311
index crank, 312–314
index plate,312-314
index table, 311
magnetic chuck, 311
rotary table, 311
swivel v.ise, 311
toolmaker’s universal vise, 311
vises, 310-311
Milling on lathe, 2.72
Mineral oils,
wtting fluids, 149
quenclri.ng medium, 473-474
Minor diamete~:, lhladt, 250
Minor image part. 4tY!
MMC. Su Maximum material condition
Molybdenum, 463
Mome taper spindle, 163
Movement systema, numerical conbol (NC), 401-408
Multiflute end mill. 298
Multiple spindle cldlling machines, 1.5(;
Multilevel surfaces, machining. 325
N
National Couu (NC) Thread, 114
National Fin!! (NF) Tltread, 114
National Pipe Thread (NPT), 117
National Tooling and Machining Association. skill standards, Z1
NC. See National Coarse Thread. Also see Numerical control
Necking operations, lathe, 231)-231Needle-nose pliers, 93
~F. See Xational Fine Thread
Xickel-based allo\’S, 463
~itrldmg. .tn ·
Xondestructive testing_
comparative chedci.””g unit. 448
eddy-current inspection,
absolute system, 447
diirerential system, 447
t.O,.eory of operation, 446-447
fluorescer.: pen~ar.: inspechon, 442
inspection b}’ laser, 446
!Mgnetic particle L”\Spectior~ 441-442
measuring,
coordinate measuri.’lg madtine (C~IM), 43S
optical comparator, 438
optical gaging system, 438
precision tooi calibration laboratory, 437
statistical tlro.:.’e5s control (SPC), 439
profil-.meter. 448
quality controL 436, 437-448
radiography inspection ~X-ray),
advantages, 441
gamma radiation, 439
omnid±rectional rays, 440
peripheral bspectior:, 44iJ
Spotcheck;;,;. 442
ultrasonic insoection,
back reflection, «.5
ca6ode ray tube (CRT). 445
echo.445
hertz (Hz), ~2
high-frequer.cr sound. 443
inunersion-type testing, 443
liqcid coupling. 4.44
megahertz \~1Hz). 442
piezoelectric transduc2r, 443
pulse echo techniqile, 445
through inspection technique, 445
use of sound waves, 442-446
Nonferrous metals,
aluminum, 458-460
be.;!lium copper, 461-462
brass, 461
bronze, 461
copper,461
copper-based alloys, 461
heat treatment of, 465
magnesium, 460-461
molybdenum, 463
nickel-based allovs, 46S
superal!oys,462~
tantalum, 463
titanrum, 461
tungsten, 463
~onthreaded fasteners,
cotter pins, 136
dowel pins, 135-136
keys, 137-138
retaining dngs, 136
rivets, 136-137
Nontraditional machining pxocesses, See Machining processes,
nontraditional
Normalizing, 469
KPT. See :\’ational Pipe Thread
Number of teeth (N), calculating, 343
Nunterical control (NO,
adaptive control (.AC}, 41.3
advar.tages o£, 415, 415
applications, 418-421
applications, auto body dies, 418-421
dosed loop system, 401
computer languages, 412-4i3
computer-aided design (CAD). 415
computer-aided machining technolog:; 399-400
computer-aided manufacturing (C.A.:. \ ·0, 413
development oi, 16-20
d isadvantages of, 418
for training programs, 418
future, 413-415
hard copy, 415
Laminated Object :\1anufacturing, 415
Massachusetts Instituie of Technology (1\lffi. 401
movement systems,
contour or continuous path,
axis inversion, 407
circuJar interpolation, 406-40:”
mirror i:nage part. 407
pcir.t-to-point. 404
straight-cut, 404-405
open loop system, 4e2
positioning,
Cartesian Coordinate Svstem, 402-400
methods, ‘
absolute, 403
incremental, 4.03
mac.”ine conttcl unit (~ICU), 4~3-4C4
zero point, 403
p:-ogram.:ning,
blo;:k. 408
computer languages, 412-413
computer-aided, 409-412
machining program. 408
manual, 409
software, 408
stereolithograph)~ 415
transducer, 401
:’l:uts,
acorn, 133
castellated. 133
iam,l32
regular, 132
self-locking. 133
slotted, 133
wmg. 133
1’\ylon, mach.ining,
applications, 526
cha.”llcteristics, 526
coolants, 526
d:illing, 526-52;”
mi1Ung,526
precautions, 526
reaming, 327
sawing, 52:-
threading and tapping. 527
~ing,526
0
Occupational Outlook Handbook, 553
Occupational Safety and Health .Administration (OSHA), 2.5
Occupa.tioM in machining technology, 547-555.
Also see Employment
Offhand grinding, 183-190
Offset tailstock method, 24~244
Oil-hole drills, 158
Open-end \\-renches, 97
Open jigs, H-l
Open loop syslelll, (NC), to2
Optical comparato~ 72-73
Optical fiats, 73-74
Optical gaging §ystem, 438
O~a.niccoatings, ~95-496
Orientation geometric tolerances, 46-J’J
OSHA. See Occupational Safety and Health Administration
Outside di..uneter {D0 ), calculating. 343
Outside micrometers, 58
p
P/M. See Powder metallurgy
Parallels, checking work on, 318
Part programmer, 549–550
Partial-proiile inserts, 255
Parting operations, lathe, 2.37-238
Parting tool, 231
Pedestal grinders, 183·185
Peripheral inspection, 440
Peripheral milling, 293
Peripheral speed, drills, 168Photoetching. Ste Chemical blanking
Pickled steel, 453
Piezoelectric traJ:UKiucer, 443
Pillu file. 5u File&
Pilot hole,
counterboring, 177
drilling larger holes, 175
Pin spanner wrendtes, 98
Pinning, 108
Pipe tap, 117
Pipe thread, 117
Pipe wrenches, ’17
Pitch,
band machining blade characteristics, 386
threads, 250
Pitch drcle, calculMing, 343
Pitch diameter (D),
calculating, 343
threads, 250
Plain milllng cutters, 371
rWn protnctor, 87
Pbiln taper attachments, 247
Plain turning, lathe, 237
Plulic matrix composites, 464
Plastics, machining,
acrylics, 530
Dclrin, 527
laminated plastics, 530-531
nylon, 526-527
safe ~cUing, 525
Teflon , 527-530
Plate jig.~44
Plexiglas , 530
Pliexs,
adjustable clamping, 93-94
care of, 94
combination, 92
diagonal. 93
needle-nose, 93
round-nose, 93
side-cutting, 93
slip-joint, 92-93
txmgue and groove, 93
Plu.g gage,
double-end cylindrical, 67
progressive plug gage, 67
!rtep plug gage, 67
Plug tap, U6
Pneumatic-mechanical funning, 541-543
Point, parts of drill. 162
dead center, 162
heel, 162
lip clearance, 162
lips, 162
Point·to·point.movement system. 404
Polishing..
band machining, 394
on lathes, 267-268
Portable hand grinders, 188-189
Pol’b.ble magnetic dril.l.s, 155
Positioning methods, numerical control (NO,
absolute, 403
incremental, 403
machine control unit (MCU}, 403-404
zero point, 403
Pot broaching, 281
Potusium cyanide, 486
Powder metall&UJY (P/MI,
applications, 532, 535
briquetting, 535-536
oosts,537
forging, 536
gJeen compact, 536
process, 535-536
sinterlng, 536
Power saw safety, 197-198
Power souzces, euly machine tools, 13-14
Powerbrushing. .500
Pratt & Whitney key, 137
Precision gage blocks, 249
Precision grinding.
adjustable stops, 355
angle plate, 366
applications, 364-366
basic operation, 16
control console, 355
cooJants, 362-364
creep grindil\g. 366
cro.ss-feecl handwheel, 354
cutting fluids,
applications, 362
aPPlying, 363
cleaning system. 363-364
flooding, 363
polymers, 362
wateMOluble chemical fluids, 362
water-soluble oil fluids, 363
deep grinding, 366
down-feed handwheel, 354
dwcll control, 355
grinding wheels,
abraBive particles, 358
bonding material, 358
diamond dressing tool, 359
hardness, 359
high-speed, 359
loodcd and gla2ed., 359
manufactured abrasives, 359
maTlcing system. 359-360
mounting.
automatic balancing, 362
checking for soundness, 362
sensors, 362
unb.”ll<mced wheels, 362
shapes, 36()-.362
manual operation, 354
operation, 353
problems,
bwning,367
chatter, 367
deep, irregular marks, 367
ilTegular scratches, 366
in-egular table movement, 366
no table movement, 366
vibration marks, 367
wheel glazing, 367
wheel loading, 367
work surface checking, 367
work surface wavine5s, 367
work that is not flat, 367
work that is not parallel, 367
procedure for grinding flat surface, 364-365
safety, 367-368
!KJU&re edges and parallel with face sides, 365-366
traverse handwheei. 354
types of surface grinders, 353-356
work-holding devices,
clamps,357
demagnetizer, 357
electromagnetic chuck, 357
indexing head, 357
magnetic chuck. 356–357
precision vise, 358
universal vise, 357
Precision. instrument turret lathe, 275
~iaion rnicrogrindezs, 188
P:red.alon tool alibratimtlaboratory, 437
Precision vise, 358
Pressure angle (9), calculating. 3j3
Prlck pwtch. 89
l’rocess annealing, 468
Professional worlceJS, 551-553
Pmfile geometric tolerances, 46
P!Ofilomete.;. 448, 492
ProgJamuring, numerical control (NC),
block, 4{)8
computer languages, 412-n3
Adaptation of APT (ADAYr), 412APTni,412
Automatic !.\fachining Program (Al.”TO MAP), 412
A\Otomatic Programmed Tools (APT}, .U2-413
CmCPACT U, 412
svntax. 412
computer-aided. 409-112
computer ::~umeri~ control (~Cl, 411
graphic capabilities, 412
host l’Omp\Oter. ·111
memory .:apacity. 412
u-..achini.’lg program. 409
manual, 4D9
end of block (EOB) codes, .w9
end of program code, 41..”19
part complexit\~ 409
tape punch. re8.der unit, 409
software, 408
Pmof circles, 174
Protractor depth gage, 87
Pru.sslan blu.e, 248
Pllll broach, 2.81
P11be echo technique, 445
Pyrometer, 475
Q
Quality control,
classifications of, 436-43/
destnlctiYetesting, 436-43:’
history of, 435-436
no::~destructive testing,
compareth·e checking unit, 448
eddr·currl!:\t inspection., 446-44S
fluorescent penetrant inspection, 4-U
inspection by laser, h6
magnetic particle inspecf.on, 441-442.
measuring. 43:”-439
profilometer, -!48
radiography inspection (X-ray). -!39-441
Spotche::k,442
ultrasonic inspe..”tion, H2-446
primary purpose, 435
Quenching med~
air, 4i4
‘Oril’te, -i73
flashpoi:tt, 473
liquid :Utrogen,474
mineral oils. 4:’3-474
water,473 ·
Qwck-ch;mge gearbox, 206
R
Radial drill press, 133- 15-l
Radiography inspection (X-ray),
adYantages, 441
gamma radiation, 4-19
omnidirectional ravs, 440
peripheral insf.ection, 440
quality contra, 439-441
Rake angle, 172
Rapid prototyping techniq,11es, -128-432
Direct Sr.ell Prod11ction Casting (DSPC}, 431
Fused ::A.spo5it:on ~!odeling (FD~PrJ, 431
Laminated Object ~ranufacturing (10~.1-‘”‘}, 42943\l
stereollthography, 430–t31
Rapid tiaverse feed, 291
Rare metals,
ceriwr., 463
classifying. 451
europiwn. 463
holmb.m_-063
lanth~num, 463
scar.dium, 463
yttrium, 463
Rasp files. See Files
Reactin metal, ,173
Reaming.
chucking reamer, 180
diameter, setting, 112
drag, 181
drilling machines, uses of, 15′:”
drills. 180-152
expansion chucking reamer, 180
grinding, 372-3:’3
nand reamer,
adjustabie, 112
expansion. 112
roughing. 112
safet\·, 113-114
spiral-fluted, 112
.snaighr-!luted, ~12
taper,l12
using, 112-113
jobber’s reamer, 180
machine reamer, 18C, 151
nylon, 527
on lathes, 264-26.5
reamers, i12-114
regular expansion reamer, 150
rose chucking reamer, 180
rules, 151-162
~hell reamer, 180
90lid expansion reamer, 181
l eflon1x, 529
Reciprocating hand grinder, 188
Reciprocating power haclcsaw,
angular cuts, 193
blades, 193-194
coolant, 193
cutting, 194
def1nitc pressure feed, 191
graYity ‘eed, 191
high-speed c.Jttir.g. 193
posith:e feed. 191
selecting, 193
size,, 191
stop gage. 194
three-tooth !’Ule, 193
using, 196-197
Red hardness, 455
Reference dimension, n
Reference line, 89
Regarcliess of feature size UU’S), -13
Respirator, appro\·ed-typc, 25
Reswne, preparlns, 555
Retaining dngs, 136
RFS. See Regardless of feature size
Machlni!:’Ji fum!amenta!s
RlA. See :Robotic lndustrles Association
Right angle plate, 84
Right-hand threads, 258
Ring gage, 68
Rivets,
blind, 136
buster, 102- 103
permanent assemblies, 136
removal, 102-103
Robotic drilUng machines, 156
Robotic. lndlllltries Association (RJA), 424
Robots,
app!ications, 426-428
handl!ng hca\T l!’.ateri~, 426
hazardous and harsh environr.~er.ts, 426
precision operations. 426
tedious operations, -l26
eutoll’.ated manufacturing, 424-128
definition, 414, 426
design,426
arm. 426
controller, 426
eud-of-a..”lr. tooling. 426
manipulator, 426
power supply, 426
robotic sntems, 20
robotics,’424
Rockwell h ardness tester,
brale penetrator, 482
cleaning, 485
diamond cor.e penetrator, 451lndu
— —— —– ——— —
operating, 483
p~utions,~85
procedures, 484
Roclcwell Breadings, 482
Rockwell C .reac:iings, 482
round stock, 485
scale designation_ 482
steel ball, 481
using, 482-485
weights, 482-483
Roller b•1r.nishing. 500
Roller guides, 388
Roller-type burnishing tool, 500
Rose chucking reamer, 180
Rotacy hea~ nillUng machine, 289
Rotacy table, mfilt.ng machine, 311
Rough turning between centers, 228-229
Roughing cuts. 221
Roughing hand reamers, 112
Roughing tools, lathe,
left-cut, 212
right-cut, 212
side relief, 212
tool shape, 211
Round file. See Files
Round nose cutting tool, 212-214. 236
Round stock,
drilling, 175-176
hardness testing, 485
horizontal milling machines, 336-337
lathe, locating center of, 224
vertical miUing machines, 323-324
Round-nose pliers, 93
Rounded nubbin. 237
R11Ilout geometric tolerances,
s
circular runout, 52
lull indicator movement (FlM), 52
total runout, 50
Saddle, lOS
SAE. See Sodety ot AutomotiYe Engineers
Safe edge, file, 110
Safety,
awa~ess~ers,26
back injuries, 24
band machining, 397
classes of fires, Zl
cleanliness, 23
combustible materials, 27
compressed air, 24
containers, 24
electrocution, 24
equipment, 25
fire, 27-28
hand tools, 24,
heat treatment, 486
lathe, 209-211
layout, 89
machine shields, 26
machines, 26-‘Zl
medication, 24
milling machines, 292- 293, 349
OSHA. See Occupational Safety and Health Administration
precision grinding, 367-.368
protective clothing, 23, 24
rag disposal, 24
shop, 23-28
signs, 26-27
spontaneous combustion, 24
tools, 27
ventilation, 24
Sawing,
band mach:ini:ng, friction, 394-395
circular metal-cutting saw, 191
contour, vertical band machine, 391
horizontal band saw, 194-197
metal-cutting saws, 191, 197
– – — — …… ·—– – – —-
nylon, machining, 527
power saw safety. 197-198
reciprocating power hacksaw, 191-194
angular cuts, 193
blades, 193-194
coolant, 193
cutting, 194
definite pressure feed, 191
gravityfeed, 191
high-speed cutting, 193
positive feed, 191
selecting, 193
sizes, 191
stop gage, 194
three-tooth rule, 193
using, 196-197
titanillln. 461
Teflonm, machining, 529
vertical band machine, 391–392
Saws,
abrasive cutoff, 197
c:ircular metal-cutting, 197
friction saw, 197
metal slitting, 299, 301
metal-cutting, 191
reciprocating powerhacksaw, 191-194
Scandium, 463
Scle.roscope hanloess tester, 485-486
basic operation, 486
performing test, 486
Screw pitch gage, 74-75
Screw threadt,
cutting 60″ threads on lathe,
center gage, 251, 253
fishtail, 251
gear box adjustment, 252
making the cut, 254-255
measuring threads, 255-256
thread micrometer, 255-256
three-wire method, 256
resetting tool in tJ\read, 255
setting compound rest, 253
setting up work. 252
thread cutting stop, 253
thread dial, 253-254
thread end groove, 252
tool centering, 252
with insert-typecutting tools, 255
partial-profile i.merts, 255
full-profile inserts, 255
cutting Acme threads on lathe, 257
cutting internal threads on lathe, 25S-259
cutting left-hand threads, on la·the, 256
cutting on taper surface, 259
cutting right-hand threads, on lathe, 258
cutting square threads on lathe, 256-257
external, 250
forms, 25(}..251
internal, 250
lead, 250
major diam~ 250
minor diamctec, 250
pitch, 250
pitch diameter, 250
Screw-thread miaometer,. 58
Screwdrivers,
close quarters, 100
clutrh head, 100
double-end offset, 100
electrician’s, 100
grounding tip, 100
heavy-duty, 100
hex, 100
Phillips, 99
Pozidriv®, 99-100
ratchet, 100
Robertson, 100
safety, 101stand.-.xd, :ro
straight shank, 1~
stub5Y, 100
‘lbrx~. iY.l
:.rsiog, lOll
ScribCJ;. 81
Second-<ot files. See Files
Self-locking nuts, 133
Semichcmi.cal cutting fluids, 1.19
Semiskilled workers, ~7-548
Servo motors, tee
Servomechutism., ~
Set, SoiiiW blades, 107
Se~lvs,13D-131
Setup specialist, 549
Shank, drill, 162
Shell end mills,
holding milling cutters, 306
horizontai milling :nad·.ioes, 333
milling cutters, 298
Shell reamer:,. 180
Shock resistant (HSS) blades, 38.1
Shop ~afety, 2.3-28
Shoulder types, 230
Shrink…fitti:tg metal parts, 543
51 Metric system,
drawing sizes, 42
metric d:mensioni.”lg on drawings. 32
Side milling, 334-335
Side-cutting pliers, 93
Sine bar, 249
Single cutting edge countersinks, 177
Single-cut files.. See Files
Single-point cutting tool, 211
Sintering. See Powder Metallurgy
Skill standards, ::\ationa!. Tooling and :\h.chining Association, 21
Skilled wotke:rs,
apprentke programs, 54S
specialized maC:’linists,
all-arm:nd machinist, 549
diemaker, 549
layout specialist, 549
manager, 550
part prograo:ner, 549-55\J
sctt:p specialist. 549
supen”isor, 550
toohr.aker, 549
Skip tooth blade,
horizontal band saw, 196
band machining biade fo::m, 386
Slab broach, 281
S leeve, drill-holding device, 163
Sliding head milling machine, 289
Slip bn!lhings, 145
Slip-joint plien;, 92-93
Slitting, 337- 339
Slotted nuts, 133
Slotting. 339
Sl1ln)· muhining. See lm put mach ining
Smill hole gage, 76, 78
Smart tooling, 424
Smooth files. See Files
Snap gage,
adjustable, 6B
dial indicator, 69
nonadiustable, 68
Society o.f AutomotiYe Engineers (SAE),
nu~1!:ler code for icen:L’ying stee:. 456-457
Socket wrenches, 97–98
Socket, drill-holding de\ice, 163
Soft-face hammer. lDl
Software, programming, 408
Solid counterbore, 177
Solid e:xpiU15lon reamer, 181
S olid mandrel,. 270
Soluble oils.. See Emulsifiable oils
Sound w aves, use of, U l -4!6
Spacing collars, 3D5
Spade <hills, 1S9
M chrmng Fund
Spanner wrencltes, 98
Sparlc fonning. See Electrohyduulic forming
Spuk test. identif}in.g steel, 458
SPC. See Statistical proce55 cou.trol
Spindle. See Drill pres&, Lathe, M illing machine
Spiral-fluted hand reamers, 112
Split-ring lock washers, 134
Spontaneous combustion, 2.-1
Spotcheckl’N, 442
Spotfacing,
back.counterbore, 1::-s
bauspottace, 178
dr’Jl.!r.g ~aC:Li.”1es, use5 oi., 137
drills, 1;s
large diameter openings, 178
Spring collets, 306
Spur gear,
cutter range, 343
cutting,340-346
gea:r cutters, 343-344
gear nomenclature, 341-343
measuring with Van Kurcn wires, 31:3-346
universal dividing head, 346
Square file. See Files
Square nose tool, 216,
Square threads, cutting on lathe, 256-257
Square-shoulder nubbin, 237
Squares,
combination set, 86
center :t,eacl, S6
protractor head. B6
doable sq-.:are, S6
ha..·dened steel square, 55
Squaring stock,
horizontal milling machine, 333
vertical milling machine, 320-.321
Staggered-tooth side milling cutter:,. 335
Stainless steels,
aasteo~c, 436
ferrit:.:, 456
machinii’.g precautions, 456
marteruitic, 456
Stand-off H[RF, 539
Standard tooth blade,
ho::izo:.1ta! bar.d saw, 196
ba.”ld machining blade forms, 3S6
Standud washers, 134
Sb.tistical process control (SPC), 67, 439
SteildV rest. lathe, 268-269
Steam engine, 13
S teel,
alloy steels,
chromium, 453
p:-operties of, 454
c::U:o:rium-nickel. 454
cobalt, properties of, 455
ductility, 434
manganese, 453
properties of, 454
mol\<‘bdenwr., 453
properties of, 454
nickel, 453
proper~ies oi, 454
tungsten, 453
properties of. 455
vanadium, 453
properties of, 454
carbon steel,
adding lead. 453
adding sulfur, 433
carbon content, 452
improvir.g ma’hlnability. 453
co!d .finished steel, 453
.:ritic.ll te:in’:lerature, 469
he.at lreattr~t.
a::ll’.ealing. 466~
box annea.l.ing, 469
case hardening, 471-4.72
decarbonizing, 469lnd x
drawing,472
flame hardening, 470
hardening,
carbon steel, 475–477
measuring furnace temperature, 475
process, 476-477
pyrometer, 475
induction hardening, 470
laser hardening, 470-471
noimalizing, 469
procedure, 452
process annealirlg_ 468
stress-relieving, 468
surface hardening, 470-471
tempering, 472, 477-478
heat-treatable metals, 468
high-carbon steeL 453
hot rolled steel, 453
identifying,
AlSI/SAE four number code, 456-457
color coding, 457-458
mill form, 456
spark test, 458
low-carlxm, 452
machine steel, 452
medium-carbon !lleeL 453
mild steel, 452
physical properties, 452
pickled, 453
red. hardness, 455
8tainless steels, 456
tool steel, 455
transformation range, 471
tungsten caroide,
carbide-tipped tools, 455
coating carbide tools, 455
sintering, 455
Step blocks, 166
Step drills, 159
Stueolithography, 415, 4.30-431
Straddle millln& 334-335,
Straight tlling, 111
Straight knurls, 26S
Sintight sawing. 390
Straight-cut movement system, 404-405
Straight-flute gun drills, 158
Straight-fluted hand reamers, 112
Straightedge, 85
Straightness, fmm geoml!tric tolerances, 45
Stop clamps, 165, 166
Stres•relieving, 468
Striking tools,
ball-peen halllll.’lcr, 101
mallet, 101
safety, 101
soft-/ace hammer, 101
Stub iitbors, 306
Stud bolts, 131
Subassembly drawings, 38
Superalloys, 462-463
Sudac:e gage, 82-83
SUiface plate, 83-84
SUiface quality,
American National Standards Institute (ANSI) values, 492
economics of machined surfaces, 492
finishes,
information included on drawings, 32, 35
measuring, 492
prof’tlometer, 492
surface roughness gage, 492
roughness standards,
metal finishing, 489
symbols, 490
values, 489-491
Swing, lathe, 201
Swiss pattern file. S4!e Files
Swivel head milliug machine, 289
Swivel vise, 3U
Syntlx, computez langu:tges, 412
T
T-bolts, 165
T-elot millingcutten, 301
Ta.ilstock setovet;
calculating, 244-245
measuring, 2~246
using diafindicator, 246
‘IU\talum, (63
Tip drilJ..117-118
Thp wrenches, 118,179
Tllpe punch/reader unit. 409
Taper,
cutting on lathe, 241-250
measuring, 248–250
by comparison. 248
bluing, 248
taper plug gages, 248
taper ring gages, 248
direct, 249-250
cylindrical rods, 249
precision gage blocks, 249
sine bar, 249
taper test gage, 249
plug gages,
measuring tapers by comparison, 248
surface, cutting threads on, 259
test gage, direct measuring tapers, 249
tailstock setover,
ca1culating, 244-245
measuring, 245-246
using diaf indicator, 246
taper attachments,
plain, 247
setting, 248
telescopic, 247-248
turning methods,
offset tailstock, 243-244
tailstock setover, 243-244
with compound rest, 241-243
square-nose tooL 248
Tapez &hank twist drills, 158
Taper taps, 116
Tapered spindle, 163
“lapping,
broken taps, removing, 120
care in, 120
dri.llillg ~uses of, 157
drills, 178-180
microdrilling machines, 180
pecking technique, 180
power tapper, 119
small-size holes, 180
tap disintegrator, 120
tap extractor, 120
tap wrench, 179
tapping attachment, 179
titanium, 461
using hand drill press, 178-179
Taps,
blind hole, 117, 119
bottoming, 117
grinding,372
high-speed steel (HSS), 115
pipe, 117
plug, 116
taper, 116
‘Ibcher, 551-552
Technicians, .550-551
Teflonn~, machining,
annealing, 529-530
applications, 528
characteristics, 528
drilling,529
milllng.529
reaming, 529
sawing,529
threading and tapping. 529
turning, 52&-529Tele&copic: taper attachments, 247-248
Telescoping gage, 76
Temper designation, aluminum, -159
Tempering, steel, 472, 4n-478
Tension, band machining blades, 390
Texture standards. See Surface quality
Thickncs9 (feeler) gage, 74
Thread cutting screws, 133
Thread cutting stop, 253
Thnad dial, lathe, 253-.2.5-1
Thread end ~ove, 252
Thread 81181!· 69
Thread-forming screws, 135
Threaded fasteners,
basic profile. 128
bola.·r.r~cr~~e.12S
removi..’lg broken or sheared, 131- 132
bolts, st-..;a, ! 31
inserts, 133
metr!c sizes, 12:– 12:!
nuti, 132-133
sc.:-ews, c.ap, 129-130
screw·s, machi.ne1 125
set:iCrews. 13()-131
wedgi..’lg action, 127
Th.readed spindle, 204
Threading tool, lathe, 216
Threads,
Acme screw, ‘257
American National Thread Svstem, ~14
cutting. 115 •
dies, 115
external, 120-121
adjustable dies, 121
close tolerance, 116
cutt:ng prob!erru;, 121
cutting, 121
die stocks, 121
general-purpose, 116
!50 standards, 116
ragged threads, 12.1
solid a ies, 120
threading ~o a shouldex, 121
two-part adju.Stabie dies, 121
forn-..s, 250- 251
inter.~a i, 115-116, 250
lead, 250
major diametex, 250
rnea8uring 60° SCl”e””• 23S…256
metric U11it, 115
minor diameter. 25{)
~ationa! Coarse (~C/ Thread, 114
National Fine (l\’F) Th:-ead, 114
number sizes, 115
pitch, 250
pitch diameter, 230
power tappe:, 119
si7.e, lj.S
tap drill, 117-118
tap wrer.ches,
hand tap, 118
T-ha::~dle, 118
tapping, 120
tap8, 115, 116-121
Unified System,
TJn~£ied ~alional Coarse Cill\Q, 114
U n~fled ~ational S Series, 114
Unified Xational Extra Fi..’le (l :\:EF), 114
Unified Xation.a! Fine (l.”XF), 114
Gnified Xa!ion.ai 12 Series, 114
Three-flute core drills, 158
3·jaw universal chucks, 232
3-equre file. Ste Files
Tluee-tooth rule, 193
Three-1\ift method, 256
Through feed grinding, 376
Tluough inspection technique, US
ThOJtlbsaew, 131
Titanium,
applications, 461
heat treatment, 473
heat-treatable r.r.etals, 468
machining,
conventio!’tlti tools, 461
drilling, 461
nulling, 461
53\\ing. 46;
tapping, 461
tu:nir.g, 461
“·orlcing temperature, 461
Titanium carbide (TIQ, 216
Titanium nitride G iN), 216
Tolerances,
bilateral tolerance, 35
information included on drawings, 35-36
unilateral tolerance, 36
Tombstones, 147
Tongue and groove pliers, 93
Tool an<! cutter grindmg wheels, 36S-373
Tool and manufacturing engineer. 032
Tool blanks, 214
Tool geometry, aluminum, 460
Tool post, 206
Tool p06t grinder, 270
Tool lest, grinding, 185
Tool steel,
air-hardened. 455
applications, 455
oil-hardened, 455
Toolholder. lathe, 211
Toolmaker, .>19
Toolmaker’s universal vise, 311
Tools, hand, 91-126
chisels, 102-104
files. 107-112
hacksaws, 104-l(r,
p!ier$, 92-9 ~
reamers, 112-114
s::rew~il:ers, 99-l<Jl
strikir.g. 10l
taos. i.16–121
•….-i-enches, 95-99
Tools, machine,
autotnated, 422-449
broaching, 280-284
basic operation,14-17
band machines, 16
broaching machines. 1:-
dri.il press, 14-15
gf..nding mac.\ines, 15-16
:nilling ll’.achines, 16
de\·elopment oi, 12- 13
boring mill, 12
lndustr.al Re\·olution, 13
power sources, 13-!4
steam engine. 13
dxilling, 153-182
grin81~ 1S3-!9C, 353-381
lathe.. lC0-279
milling, 263-352
nontradition.al, 31G-5-l9
sa”ing, 191-199,382-398
Tooth fo:m, band machining blade, 386
Tooth thickness <tc), c.alculaUng, 343
Tooth-type lock washers, 13,1
Torque-l!miting ‘llttenches, 95
Tncing unit, lathe, 272
lhcking, band machinJng blades, ~90
lhinlng programs, US
lhmmel,82
lhnsducer, 401
‘fransformation range, steel, 471Index
‘fransverse tool movement, 206
‘fr.-verse handwheel, 354
nu position. 41
‘I’angsten, 463
blades,
carbide, band machining, 384
reciprocating power hacksaw, 193
carbide steel, 455-456
carbide-tipped tools, 455
coating carbide tools, 455
sinte.ring, 4..’i5
Thming on a shoulder, 230
T11111ing tapers, Ul.-244
tailstock setover, 243–244
with compound rest, 241- 243
Thming to a shoulder, 237
Thming. See Lathe
1\tn’et holder, 211
1\tn’et lathe, 274-275
Twist drills, 158
Two-flute end mill, 298
u
U-strap clamp, 165
US Conventional system,
drawing sizes, 41
dual dimensi.oning, 31
Ultruonic cluning, 518
Ultruonic irulpection,
back reflection. 445
cathode ray tube (CRT), 445
echo,445
high-frequency sound, 443
immersion-type testing, 443
liquid ooupllng, 444
piezoelectric transducer. 443
pulse echo technique, 445
through Inspection technique, 445
use ofsound waves, 442-446
Ultnsonic machining,
basic operation. 17
infrasonic sound waves, 517
sound waves, 517
ulirasonic sound waves, 517
ultrasonic-assist machining, 517-518
chatterrt-duction,517
grinding applications, 517-518
improving surface finish, 517
Wle oi fluid, 517
Ult:raviolet light, 442
UNC. See Un.ifird National Couse
UNEF. See Unified National Extra Fine
UNF. See Unified National [line
UnUied System, threads, IU
Unified NationalS Series, 114
Unified National U Series, 114
Unified National Coarse (UNC), 114
Unified National Extra Fine (UNEF), 114
Unified National Fine (UNF), 114
Unilateral toleran~ 36
Uninrul bevel. 87
Univm;al dividing head, 346
UnivCISal milling machines, 288
Universal tool and cutter grinder, 368
Universal Vemier bevel protractor. 66-{;7
Universal vise. 357
Up-milling, ;30t
v
V-blocks,
drilling round stock, 175-176
supporting layout work, 84
work-holding devices, 164
Van Xuren wira, measuring with. MS-346
Vanadium,
alloy steels, 453
properties of, 454
Ventilation,24
Vernier measuring tools,
caliper, 63
care of, 67
dial calipers, 66
50-division Vernier plate, 65
inch-based Vernier scale, reading, 64-{;5
metric-based Vernier scale, reading, 6!Hi6
miaometer, reading, 60
protractor, measuring angles, 87
25-dlvislon Vernier plate, 64-65
universal Vernier bevel protractor, reading, 66-{,7
Ve:mler, Pierre, 63
Vertic.al band mKhioe,
angular sawing, 392
contour sawing, 391.
feed, 393
internal cuts, 392
straight sawing, 390
Vertical ‘boring machine, 276
Vertical milling machine,
aligning vise with dial indicator, 316
align)ng work, 322
boring, 325-326
a:ntering scope, 325
digital readout gagingsystem, 326
edge finder, 326
locating first hole, 325-326
locating first hole, wiggler, 325
measuring rod and dfa1 indicator attachment, 326
care of, 326-238
checking work on parallels, 318
column and knee, 288-289
compound angles, 321
cutters for, 317
locating end mill, round work, 323-324
machining angular surfaces, 321-322
machining internal openings, 324-325
machining multilevel surfaces, 325
milling keyseat or slot, 322-323
locating end milL 323-324
milling, 325-326
centering scope, 325
digital readout gaging system. 326
edge finder, 326
locating first hole, 325-326
measwing rod and.dial indicator attachmer.t, 326
wiggler, 325
mounting end mills, 319
motmting vise, 318
operation, 317-328
squaring stock, 320-321
Vibration marks, 3(,7
V”JSea,
angular, 164
bench,91
cross-slide, 164
flailged, 311
jaws, 92
machinist’s, 91
milling machine, 31()…311
parallels, use of, 164
precision, 358
swivel, 311
toolmaker’s universal, 311
universal, 357
use of, 92
vertical m.illing machines, mounting, 318
worlc-holding devices, 164
Vibeous enamel or porcelain, 497
w
Washers,
locl:, 134
preassembled, 134
split-ring lock, 134
standard, 134
tooth-type lock, 134Water, quenching medium, 473
Watel’-jet cutting. See Hydrodynamic machining
Watt, James, 12
Waviness,
precision grinding problems, 367
s~rface i:nish, 491
\Yeb, drill, 163
Web thinning, 171
Webster hardness tester,
applications, 483
portable, 485
Wed,glng action, threaded fasteners, 12;
Welding,
band madtining biade.s, 35:’–388
UJJe oi ultrasonics, 519
Wet-type grinder,
applications, 185
grincing carbide-tipped tools. 188
pedestal, 185
using, 195
Wheel!, grinding,
examL.’1ing for concentricity. 185
glazing, 36′:’
loading, 367
wheel dresser, use of, 186
Whitne}~ Eli, 13
Whole depth of tooth Cht), calculating, 3-13
Wiggler,
drilling, 1:’3
horizontal milling machines, boring, 34J
vertcal milling rnac..’Unes. locating fust hole, 323
Wilkinson, John, U
Wing nuts, 139
Wire band, 395
Woodruff k~; 138, 301
Work-holding attachments,
lathe,
between centers, 222
bolted to faceplate, 222
held in chuck, 222
held in co:let, 222
milling machines, 311}-314
dividing head, 311-312, 314
flanged v’.se, 311
index crank, 312-314
:.ndex plate, 312-314
!r.dex ~ble, 311
magnetic chad<. 311
rotarv table, 311
swivel …-ise, sn
toolmaker’s ur.iversal \’i5e, 311
Wotk-hold.ing denns,
drillir.g.
angle plate, 167
angular vL<e, 164
cross-slide. !64
drill jig. 167
iinger clamp, 165
parallels. 16~
s:ep blocks. 166
strap clamps, :65, 166
T-bolts, 163
U-strap clamp, :63
\ “-blocks. 164
\ises, 164
precision grinding.
darr.ps, 35~
derr.agneti.zer. 3S~
eleetromagnetic chuck, 35:”
indexing head, ~:­
lTh!gr.etic muck. 356-35:”
orecision \ise, 335
universa! vise, 357
Working depth (ht.J, calcnlat::..ng, 343
Working drawings, 38
Wrenches,
adjustable, 95-97
Allen, 99
box,97
combination open-end and box, 97
end spanner, 98
hook SpaiUlel’, 98
open~nd, 97
pin spanner, 98
pipe, 97
safety, 99
socket, 97-98
spanner,98
torque-limiting, 95
Wrought alloys, aluminum, ’59
X
Xerographic (electrostatic) process, 37
y
Yttriwn,463
z
Zero point, 40
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