Machine Tools for High Performance Machining

Machine Tools for High Performance Machining
اسم المؤلف
L N López de Lacalle, A Lamikiz
التاريخ
6 نوفمبر 2016
المشاهدات
التقييم
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Machine Tools for High Performance Machining
L N López de Lacalle • A Lamikiz
Content
Contributors xix
1 Machine Tools for Removal Processes: A General View 1
L Norberto López de Lacalle and A Lamikiz
1 1 Basic Definitions and History 1
1 1 1 Historical Remarks 2
1 2 The Functions and Requirements of a Machine Tool 8
1 2 1 User and Technological Requirements 9
1 3 The Basic Mechanism 13
1 4 The Machine Structure 16
1 4 1 Machine Foundations 18
1 4 2 Structural Components Materials 18
1 4 3 Structural Analysis 19
1 4 4 Modularity 22
1 5 Guideways 23
1 5 1 Guides with Limit Lubrication 25
1 5 2 Rolling Guides 25
1 5 3 Hydrostatic Guides 26
1 6 The Definition of the Main Motion 27
1 7 The Definition of the Drive Trains 29
1 8 The CNC Implementation 30
1 9 Machine Verification 33
1 10 Typical Machines for Several Applications and Sectors 34
1 10 1 A Machine for Big Structural Turbine Parts 34
1 10 2 A Horizontal Milling Centre
for Automotive Components 35
1 10 3 A Milling Centre for Moulds 37
1 10 4 A Milling Machine for Big Dies and Moulds 37
1 10 5 Conventional Machines for Auxiliary Operations 38
1 10 6 CNC Milling Machines for General Production 40xii Content
1 10 7 A Heavy-duty Lathe 40
1 10 8 A Mitre Band Saw 41
1 10 9 Transfer Machines 42
1 10 10 A Milling and Boring Centre 43
1 11 The Book Organisation 43
References 44
2 New Concepts for Structural Components 47
J Zulaika and F J Campa
2 1 Introduction and Definitions 47
2 2 Optimised Machine Structures 49
2 2 1 A Comparison Among Different
Machine Configurations 50
2 2 2 Structural Components in Machine Structures 53
2 2 3 Robust Rams and Columns 54
2 3 Structural Optimisation in Machines 56
2 3 1 Mechanical Requirements for Eco-efficient Machines 56
2 3 2 FEM Modelling 58
2 3 3 Topological Optimisation 60
2 4 Structural Materials 61
2 4 1 Involved Parameters 61
2 4 2 Conventional Materials for Structural Components 62
2 4 3 Innovative Materials for Structural Components 63
2 4 4 Costs of Design Materials and Structures 65
2 4 5 The Influence of Innovative Materials on Productivity 65
2 5 Active Damping Devices 66
2 5 1 The Implementation of ADDs to Machine Structures 67
2 6 The Influence of New Structural Concepts on Productivity 68
2 6 1 The Influence of New Design Concepts
for Structural Components 68
2 6 2 The Influence of ADDs on Productivity 71
2 7 Future Trends in Structural Components for Machines 72
References 72
3 Machine Tool Spindles 75
G Quintana, J de Ciurana and F J Campa
3 1 Introduction 75
3 2 Types of Spindles 78
3 2 1 Belt-driven Spindles 78
3 2 2 Gear-driven Spindles 79
3 2 3 Direct Drive Spindles 79
3 2 4 Integrated (Built-in) Drive Spindles 80
3 3 Spindle Configurations 80
3 3 1 Common Configurations:
Vertical and Horizontal Spindles 81Content xiii
3 3 2 Machines with Rotary Headstocks 81
3 3 3 A Main Spindle with an Auxiliary Spindle 82
3 3 4 Twin Spindles and Multi-spindles 83
3 3 5 Automatic Head Exchange 83
3 4 Basic Elements of the Spindle 84
3 4 1 Motors 85
3 4 2 Bearings 87
3 4 3 The Toolholder 95
3 4 4 The Drawbar 102
3 4 5 The Shaft 103
3 4 6 The Sensors 103
3 4 7 The Housing 104
3 5 Spindle Properties and Performance 105
3 5 1 Spindle Power and Torque
versus Spindle Speed Curves 105
3 5 2 The Stiffness 106
3 5 3 Dynamic Behaviour and Vibrations 108
3 5 4 The Thermal Behaviour 115
3 5 5 Spindles in Use: Other Problems 119
3 6 Spindle Selection 120
3 6 1 Conventional Machining or HSM 121
3 6 2 Tool Selection 122
3 6 3 The Workpiece Material 123
3 6 4 Power and Spindle Speed Requirements 123
3 7 Brief Conclusions 125
References 126
4 New Developments in Drives and Tables 129
A Olarra, I Ruiz de Argandoña and L Uriarte
4 1 Introduction 129
4 1 1 Precision and Dynamics 130
4 2 Linear Drives by Ball Screws 132
4 2 1 Dimensioning 132
4 2 2 The Rotary Screw 138
4 2 3 Other Configurations 138
4 3 Linear Drives by Rack and Pinion 139
4 3 1 The Elimination of the Gap 139
4 3 2 Dimensioning 141
4 3 3 Dynamic Models of the Drives 142
4 4 Linear Drives by Linear Motors 142
4 4 1 Mounting 144
4 4 2 Configurations 144
4 5 Rotary Drives 145
4 5 1 Mechanical Transmissions 145
4 5 2 Direct Rotary Drives 146xiv Content
4 6 Guidance Systems 147
4 6 1 Friction Guides 147
4 6 2 Rolling Guides 150
4 6 3 Hydrostatic Guides 152
4 6 4 Aerostatic Guides 156
4 7 The Present and the Future 157
4 7 1 Rolling Guides with Integrated Functions 157
4 7 2 The Hydrostatic Shoe on Guide Rails 157
4 7 3 Guiding and Actuation through Magnetic Levitation 158
References 158
5 Advanced Controls for New Machining Processes 159
J Ramón Alique and R Haber
5 1 Introduction and History 159
5 1 1 Computer Numerical Control
and Direct Numerical Control 160
5 1 2 Networked Control and Supervision 163
5 2 New Machining Processes 164
5 2 1 High Speed Machining 165
5 2 2 Micromechanical Machining 166
5 2 3 An Introduction to Nanomachining Processes 167
5 3 Today’s CNCs: Machine Level Control 168
5 3 1 The Interpolation Process 169
5 3 2 The Position Control Servomechanism 174
5 4 Advanced CNCs: Multi-level Hierarchical Control 179
5 4 1 The Control of the Machining Process 181
5 4 2 The Supervisory Control of the Machining Process:
Merit Variables 183
5 5 The Sensory System for Machining Processes 185
5 5 1 Correct Monitoring Conditions 188
5 5 2 Machining Characteristics and their Measurement 189
5 5 3 Two Case Studies 190
5 6 Open-Architecture CNC Systems 194
5 6 1 Networked Control and Supervision 195
5 7 Programming Support Systems: Manual Programming 202
5 7 1 Computer Assisted Programming 207
5 7 2 Graphical Simulation 209
5 8 Current CNC Architectures 210
5 8 1 Systems Based on Multi-microprocessor Architecture 211
5 8 2 The PC Front-end 211
5 8 3 The Motion Control Card with a PC 212
5 8 4 The Software-based Solution 212
5 8 5 Fully Digital Architectures:
Towards the Intelligent Machine Tool 214
References 216Content xv
6 Machine Tool Performance and Precision 219
A Lamikiz, L N Lopez de Lacalle and A Celaya
6 1 Introduction and Definitions 220
6 1 1 An Introduction to Precision Machining 220
6 1 2 Basic Definitions:
Accuracy, Repeatability and Resolution 223
6 1 3 Historical Remarks and the State of the Art 224
6 2 Basic Design Principles and an Error Budget 225
6 2 1 Sources of Errors in Machine Tools 226
6 2 2 Error Budget Estimation 227
6 2 3 Basic Principles for Precision Machine Design 231
6 2 4 Error Propagation 237
6 2 5 Thermal Errors 240
6 2 6 CNC Interpolation Errors 244
6 3 Errors Originated by the Machining Process 245
6 3 1 Errors Originated in the CNC Program Generation 245
6 3 2 Errors Originated by the Tool Wear 247
6 3 3 Tool Deflection Error 248
6 4 Verification Procedures 251
6 4 1 Standard Procedures for Machine Tool Validation 252
6 4 2 Test Parts 257
6 5 A Brief Conclusion 258
References 259
7 New Developments in Lathes and Turning Centres 261
R Lizarralde, A Azkarate and O Zelaieta
7 1 Introduction 261
7 2 Machine Configuration 262
7 2 1 High Production Lathes 262
7 2 2 Turning Centres: Multi-tasking Machines 265
7 3 The Latest Technologies Applied to Lathes
and Turning Centres 270
7 3 1 General Configuration Technologies 270
7 3 2 Complementary Technologies to Improve
Machine Performance 271
7 4 Special Machining Processes Applied
in Multi-tasking Machines 272
7 4 1 The Laser Application 272
7 4 2 Roller Burnishing and Deep Rolling 273
7 4 3 Ultrasonic Assisted Turning 275
7 4 4 Cryogenic Gas Assisted Turning 276
7 4 5 High-pressure Coolant Assisted Machining 277
References 278xvi Content
8 High Performance Grinding Machines 279
R Lizarralde, J A Marañón, A Mendikute and H Urreta
8 1 Introduction 279
8 2 The Machine Configuration 280
8 2 1 The Machine Architecture 281
8 2 2 Materials Applied in Structural Parts 286
8 2 3 Main Components 288
8 2 4 Wheel Dressing Systems 291
8 2 5 Process Lubrication and Cooling 296
8 2 6 Integrated Measuring Devices 297
8 3 Special Grinding Processes 299
8 3 1 Peel Grinding–Quick Point 299
8 3 2 Speed Stroke Grinding 300
8 3 3 Creep Feed Grinding 301
8 3 4 High Efficiency Deep Grinding 302
8 4 Machine and Process Monitoring and Control 302
8 4 1 Monitored Parameters and Applied Sensors 303
8 4 2 Control Strategies 304
References 305
9 Wire Electrical Discharge Machines 307
J A Sánchez and N Ortega
9 1 Introduction 307
9 2 The WEDM Process 310
9 2 1 Accuracy and Speed 312
9 3 WEDM Machines 315
9 3 1 Wire Transport and Wire Thread Devices 318
9 3 2 Machine Automation 319
9 3 3 Workpiece Fixturing Systems 321
9 3 4 Filtering Systems 322
9 4 Wires for WEDM 323
9 5 The Wire EDM of Advanced Materials 326
9 5 1 Aeronautical Alloys 326
9 5 2 Tungsten Carbide 327
9 5 3 Advanced Ceramics and PCD 328
9 6 Thin-wire EDM 330
References 332
10 Parallel Kinematics for Machine Tools 335
O Altuzarra, A Hernández, Y San Martín and J Larranaga
10 1 Introduction 335
10 2 Main Characteristics of the Parallel Kinematic Machines 337
10 3 A Classification of the Parallel Kinematic Machines 338
10 4 A Design Methodology for Parallel Kinematic Machines 339
10 4 1 The Motion Pattern 340Content xvii
10 4 2 The Type Synthesis 341
10 4 3 The Position Analysis 345
10 4 4 Velocity Analysis, Singularities and Dynamics 347
10 4 5 The Optimisation 349
10 5 The Kinematic Calibration of PKMs 349
10 5 1 A Mathematical Approach 351
10 5 2 Measuring on External Methods 353
10 5 3 Self-calibration Strategies 358
10 6 The Control of Parallel Kinematic Machines 358
10 6 1 Models Specific to Parallel Kinematics Machines 360
10 6 2 The Dynamic Controller 361
10 6 3 The Model-based Predictive Controller 363
10 7 Conclusions and Future Trends 365
References 366
11 Micromilling Machines 369
L Uriarte, J Eguia and F Egaña
11 1 Introduction and Definitions 369
11 2 The Micromilling Process 371
11 2 1 Micromilling Tools 372
11 2 2 Applications 374
11 3 Miniaturised Machine Tools 376
11 4 Machine Drives 377
11 4 1 Conventional Ball Screw Configuration 377
11 4 2 Friction Drives 379
11 4 3 The Linear Motor 380
11 4 4 New Tendencies: Hydrostatic Screws 382
11 5 Guideways 383
11 5 1 Special Rolling Guides Configurations 383
11 5 2 Aerostatic and Hydrostatic Guides 384
11 5 3 New Tendencies:
Magnetic and Flexure Guidance Systems 386
11 6 The High Speed Spindle and Collet 389
11 6 1 Alternatives: Hydrostatic and Magnetic Spindles 390
11 7 Measuring Systems 392
11 8 Examples 393
11 8 1 The Kern® Pyramid Nano 393
11 8 2 The Kugler® Microgantry nano 3/5X 395
References 396
12 Machines for the Aeronautical Industry 399
J Fernández and M Arizmendi
12 1 Aeronautical Business 399
12 2 Aerospace Components 400
12 2 1 Aerospace Structures 401xviii Content
12 2 2 Aerospace Engines 402
12 2 3 Accessories 403
12 3 Aerospace Materials 403
12 4 Costs, Weight and Precision in Machine Tools
for Aerospace Machining 405
12 4 1 The Drive to Reduce Aircraft Costs 406
12 4 2 The Drive to Reduce Aircraft Weight 407
12 4 3 The Drive for Aircraft Component Precision 407
12 5 Machine Tools for Aeronautical Components 408
12 5 1 Machine Tools for Machining Aeronautical Structures 409
12 5 2 Machine Tools for Machining Engine Components 413
12 5 3 Machine Tools for Machining Accessories
and Structure Fittings 417
References 419
13 Machine Tools for the Automotive Industry 421
Ciro A Rodríguez and Horacio Ahuett
13 1 World Trends in Automotive Production 421
13 1 1 The Economic Impact of the Automotive Industry 421
13 1 2 Machining Processes in Automotive Production 422
13 2 Manufacturing System Architecture:
High Volume Production Versus Flexibility 423
13 2 1 Dedicated Machines 424
13 2 2 Flexible Cells 427
13 2 3 Hybrid Systems 429
13 3 Technology Trends 433
References 435
Index
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