Lubrication and Maintenance of Industrial Machinery – Best Practices and Reliability

Lubrication and Maintenance of Industrial Machinery – Best Practices and Reliability
اسم المؤلف
Robert M. Gresham , George E. Totten
التاريخ
19 سبتمبر 2023
المشاهدات
320
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
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Lubrication and Maintenance of Industrial Machinery – Best Practices and Reliability
Edited by
Robert M. Gresham
George E. Totten
Table of Contents
1 Full Circle Reliability
Mark Castle . 1-1
2 The Degradation of Lubricants in Service Use
Malcolm F. Fox 2-1
3 Lubricant Properties and Test Methods
Larry A. Toms and Allison M. Toms . 3-1
4 Contamination Control and Failure Analysis
Jacek Stecki 4-1
5 Environmental Implications and Sustainability Concepts for Lubricants
Malcolm F. Fox 5-1
6 Lubrication Program Development and Scheduling
Mike Johnson 6-1
7 Lubricant Storage, Handling, and Dispensing
Mark Barnes 7-1
8 Conservation of Lubricants and Energy
Robert L. Johnson and James C. Fitch 8-1
9 Centralized Lubrication Systems — Theory and Practice
Paul Conley and Ayzik Grach 9-1
10 Used Oil Recycling and Environmental Considerations
Dennis W. Brinkman and Barbara J. Parry . 10-1
Index . I-1
Index
A
Abrasive wear, 4-23–26
Acidity and base reserve, 2-18–28
base number measurement, 2-18–25
sources and effects of acidity and, 2-25–26
sources of acidity-induced degradation and, 2-18–19
Acid number, 3-9–10
color indicator and, 2-26
conductimetric determination of, 2-27–28
determination, 2-26–27
sampling and analytical error determination of, 2-27
Activity sequencing, 6-25–27
Additives, 2-4
bearings and, 6-8
depletion, antiwear, 8-7
friction, 5-17
metals in unused, 3-2
production, 5-12–13
storage stability, 7-3
Adhesion of solid film lubricants, 3-28
Adhesive wear, 4-20–22
Air entrapment control, 6-21
Alkalis, 2-19–20
Aniline point, 3-2–3
Antioxidant reserve, 2-4, 2-5
Antiwear additive depletion, 8-7
Application method, lubricant, 6-15
Arrested pitting, 4-23
Ash. See also Particulates
content, 2-16–17
defined, 2-13
Asphalt, 10-6
Atomic emission spectroscopy, 3-30
B
Balance, contamination, 4-32–44
Dynamic Contamination Control (DCC), 4-38–44
OSU model, 4-35–38
Barrels, storage, 7-5–6
Base number, 3-9–10. See also Acidity and base reserve
color indicator determination of, 2-22
conductimetric determination of, 2-22–24
determination precision, 2-24–25
hydrochloric acid determination of, 2-20–22
measurement, 2-19–20, 2-25
perchloric acid determination of, 2–22
Batch process data collection, 6-3, 6-4
“Bath-tub” curve, 2-5–6
Bearings, 6-7–15
Benzene, 10-5
Best practices, 6-1
Bingham pycnometer, 3-5
Biodegradability of lubricants, 5-27
Bituminous materials, 2-29–30
Blackbox power model, 4-8
Bleed, oil, 3-25
Blotter tests, 2-6–7
Boilers, commercial, 10-5
Boundary film-strength properties, 8-6
Brookfield rotary viscometer, 3-17–18
Built-in contaminants, 4-28
Bulk
modulus, 8-6
tanks, 7-4–5, 7-9
Burners, industrial, 10-5
C
Carbon residue, 3-4
Carrying capacity, 5-1
Case studies of degraded lubricants, 2-34–38
Catalytic cracking feedstock, 10-6
Catastrophic failure, 4-12
Causes of failures, 4-13–14
Cavitation wear, 4-28
Centralized grease lubrication systems, series progressive
system, 9-5–12
Chains, 6-17
Chlorine content, 3-4
Chromatography, 2-33
Cleanliness, fluid, 3-31–32, 4-3, 7-1–2
Cloud and pour point, 3-12–13
Color
ASTM test, 3-3–4
indicator
I-1I-2 Lubrication and Maintenance of Industrial Machinery: Best Practices and Reliability
acid number by, 2-26
base number by, 2-22
Combustion efficiency losses, 8-7, 8-8
Commercial boilers, 10-5
Computerized maintenance management systems
(CMMS), 6-3
Conductimetric titration, 2-22–24, 2-27–28
Cone penetration test, 3-21
Conservation of energy, 5-14, 8-4
energy-conserving fluid properties and, 8-5–6
environmental stewardship and, 8-9
particle contamination and, 8-6–7, 8-8
role of lubrication practices in, 8-8
role of machine design in, 8-9
wear and, 8-6
Conservation of lubricants. See also Consumption
of lubricants
improved manufacturing and formulation for, 8-1–2
lubricant utilization types and, 8-3–4
through packaging and handling, 8-2–3
trends in, 8-1
Consumption of lubricants, 5-13–17, 10-3.
See also Recycling
Contamination
balance, 4-32–44
built-in, 4-28
conservation and, 8-2–3
grease, 7-7–8
ingested, 4-28
internally generated, 4-29
maintenance generated, 4-29
OSU model, 4-35–38
particle, 8-6–7, 8-8
recycling and, 10-4–5
simulation, 4-43–44
storage stability and, 7-3–4
water, 7-3, 7-14
Contamination control
definitions in, 4-1–2
failure and criticality analysis in, 4-5–6
functions of engineering system and, 4-6–11
importance of, 4-2–4
monitoring procedures, 4-44–54
relubrication programs and, 6-18–22
training, 4-53–54
tribological analysis in, 4-14–28
types of mechanical failures and, 4-11–12
Continental level sustainable development, 5-2–3
Continuous process data collection, 6-3, 6-4
Copper corrosion resistance, 3-4–5, 3-21–22
Corrosion, 2-25, 2-33
copper, 3-4–5, 3-21–22
fretting, 4-28
of solid film lubricants, 3-28
wear, 4-27–28
Costs of recycling, 5-29
Counting, particle, 3-31–32
Couplings, 6-17
Criticality
failure analysis and, 4-5–6
operating environment and, 6-2–3
Crossporting, 9-7, 9-11, 9-20
Cutting wear, 4-26, 4-26
D
Data collection
criteria, 6-5–6
strategies, 6-3–4
Dead-end lubrication systems, 9-29
“Dean and Stark” method, 2-29–30
Delamination, 4-27
Delivery, lubricant, 7-1–4
Demulsibility, 2-33, 3-5–6
Density, 2-31–32, 3-5
Design
machine, 8-9
progressive system, 9-11
single line system, 9-20
storeroom, 7-8
two-line system, 9-30
Detection procedures, 4-47, 4-49–50, 4-51
Deterioration of lubricants
acidity and base reserve, 2-18–28
“bath-tub” curve, 2-5–6, 10-11
case studies of, 2-34–38
controlled, 1-7, 2-2
effects of, 1-7–9, 2-2–4
field tests for, 2-6–8
flash point, 2-32
laboratory tests for, 2-8–31
minor methods of investigating, 2-31–34
physical causes of, 2-3
system corrosion with, 2-33
Detroit Diesel Soot Test, 2-13
Diagnosis procedures, 4-47, 4-51–52
Diesel engines
fuel sulfur content, 5-3–4
heavy-duty, 2-34–35
Direct observation of lubricant condition, 2–6
Discharge, electrical, 4-28
Dispensing lubricants, 7-8–11
Dispersancy measurements, 2-7
Dispersive qualities of fluid, 4-49
Distillation
sequential, 10-7, 10-8
water determination by, 2-29–30
Divider valves, 9-7
Downtime dependent tasks, 6-25
Dropping point of grease, 3-22–23
Dual-line lubrication systems, 9-22–27
Dynamic Contamination Control (DCC), 4-38–44
multi-path systems, 4-41–43
simulation, 4-43–44
single path model, 4-39–41
E
“Earth Summit,” 5-2
Ecosystems, 5-1Index I-3
Effects of lubricant deterioration, 1-7–9, 2-2–4
Elasto-hydrodynamic (EHD) condition, 6-9
Electrical discharge, 4-28
Electric reversing 4-way valves, 9-27
Electro-corrosive wear, 4-28
Element bearings, 6-7–15
Emulsibility, 3-5–6, 5-26
End-of-line systems, 9-28–29
Energy conservation, 5-14, 8-4
energy-conserving fluid properties and, 8-5–6
environmental stewardship and, 8-9
fluid properties and, 8-5–6
particle contamination and, 8-6–7, 8-8
role of lubrication practices in, 8-8
role of machine design in, 8-9
wear and, 8-6
Engineering system functions, 4-6–11
Engines
gas-fueled, 2-36
grease, 2-35–36
heavy-duty diesel, 2-34–35
Environment, the
benefits of lubricant and hydraulic formulations
for, 5-13–17
environmental drivers and, 5-1–9, 5-10
Environmental Management Systems (EMS)
and, 5-4–7
future of, 5-27–29
implications of lubricants and hydraulic fluids for,
5-10–13
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and, 5-4, 5-7–9, 5-10
lubricant and hydraulic fluids as wastes and, 5-18–26
pollution by used lubricants, 5-26–27
regulations and recycling, 10-10–11
stewardship of, 8-9
sustainability and sustainable development and, 5-1–4
Environmental Management Systems (EMS), 5-4–7
Erosive wear, 4-26–27
Ethylene glycol, 10-5
European Union (EU), 5-2–4, 5-18–20
Evaporation, oil, 3-25
Extended life lubricants, 8-3
External causes of lubricant degradation, 2-3
Extreme-pressure properties
of grease, 3-23
of oil(s), 3-6–7
F
Failure mode analysis (FMA), 4-5
Failure modes, effects, and criticality analysis (FMECA),
4-5
Failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA), 4-5–6
Failures
causes of, 4-13–14
and criticality analysis, 4-5–6
hydraulic and lubrication, 4-30–32
mechanical, 4-11–12, 4-29–32
phases of, 4-12
Falex device, 3-6, 3-20, 3-27
Falling ball viscometer, 7-13–14
Fatigue, surface, 4-22–23
Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), 4-10–11
Field tests for lubricant deterioration, 2-6–8
Film lubricants, solid, 3-28
Filtration
contamination control, 6-21–22
efficiency, 4-48
location of filters, 4-49
ratio, 4-40–41
systems, 4-3
Fire point. See Flash and fire points
Flash and fire points, 2-32, 3-7–8
Fluids. See Hydraulic fluids
Foaming of lubricants, 2-32, 3-8
Follower plates, 9-32–33
Formulation, lubricant, 5-11–13, 8-1–2
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), 2-25,
2-30–31, 2-33, 3-30–31
Frequency, lubricant application, 6-15
Fretting corrosion, 4-28
Friction, 1-1, 5-17
losses, 8-7
Fuels
diesel, 5-3–4
economy and particle contamination, 8-6–7, 8-8
gas, 2-36, 5-15–17
used/waste lubricants as, 5-24
Functional fluids, 8-3
Functional units, 5-8
Function Analysis System Technique (FAST), 4-9
Functions of engineering systems, 4-6–11
G
Gas chromatography, 2-33
Gas-fueled engines, 2-36, 5-15–17
Gas turbines, 2-27
Gears
fatigue wear, 4-23, 4-24, 4-25
lubricant test slates, 6-23
relubrication, 6-17
tests, 3-20
Gel permeation chromatography (GPC), 2-33
Global level sustainable development, 5-2
Gravity, 2-31–32
Grease. See also Lubricants
centralized lubrication systems, 9-5–30
-channeling properties, 8-6
conservation, 8-3
consistency, 8-6
contamination, 7-7–8
lubricated bearings, 6-13–15
pumping of viscous materials and, 9-31–36
semisolid, 3-20–28
cone penetration test, 3-21
copper corrosion resistance, 3-21–22
dropping point of, 3-22–23
extreme-pressure properties of, 3-23I-4 Lubrication and Maintenance of Industrial Machinery: Best Practices and Reliability
leakage tendencies of wheel bearing, 3-23–24
life performance of, 3-24
low-temperature torque characteristics, 3-24–25
oil evaporation and oil bleed test, 3-25
oil separation from lubricating, 3-25–26
oxidation stability, 3-26
rust prevention characteristics, 3-26–27
samples, degraded, 2-35–36
water wash out characteristics, 3-27
wear prevention/load-carrying properties, 3-27–28
solid, 3-28–29, 8-3–4
storage, 7-7–8
using the correct, 9-1–5
Green Chemistry, 5-11
Guidelines, absolute level and trend, 4-50–51
H
Halogenated compounds, 10-4–5
Hazard analysis (HA), 4-5
Heaters, space, 10-5
Heat exchangers, 6-20
Heavy-duty diesel engines, 2-34–35
High-temperature shear stability, 8-5
Hydraulic and lubrication failures, 4-30–32
Hydraulic fluids, 2-15–16, 2-37, 3-20
addition, 4-49
change intervals, 4-49
cleanliness, 3-31–32, 4-3, 7-1–2
consumption of, 5-13–17
contamination control and, 4-2–4
debris, 4-28
dispersive qualities of, 4-49
energy-conserving properties, 8-5–6
environmental benefits of formulations for, 5-13–17
environmental implications, 5-10–13
locations of slow moving, 4-49
production, 5-11–13
synthetic, 8-3
as waste, 5-18–26, 5-27–28
working lifetimes of, 5-14–17
Hydraulic piston seal points, 6-19
Hydraulic reversing 4-way valves, 9-25–27
Hydraulic systems, relubrication of, 6-17–18
Hydrocarbons, 2-4, 2-7
Hydrochloric acid titration, 2-20–22
Hydrolytic stability, 3-8
I
Incineration of wastes, 5-24–25
Incipient failure, 4-12
Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) systems, 2-10–12
Industrial burners, 10-5
Infrared (IR) spectroscopy, 3-30–31
Infrared measurements, 2-14
Ingested contamination, 4-28
Injectors, quick venting single line, 9-16–19
Input-output relations, 4-8, 5-8–9, 5-10
Insolubles, pentane, 3-11–12
Instrumental analytical techniques, 2-33–34
Insuring product integrity, 7-11–14
Integrity, insuring product, 7-11–14
Interfacial tension, 2-33, 3-9
Intergenerational equity, 5-1
Internally generated contamination, 4-29
Internals causes of lubricant degradation, 2-3
Intragenerational equity, 5-1
Inventory control, 7-2–4
J
Johannesburg Summit, 5-2
Journal bearings, 6-7–15
K
Karl Fischer titration, 2-30, 3-31, 3-33
Key Process Indicator (KPI), 1-3
L
Laboratory tests for lubricant deterioration, 2-8–31
acidity and base reserve, 2-18–28
particulates and ash, 2-12–17
trace metals, 2-10–12
viscosity, 2-9–10
Landfill disposal of waste, 5-25–26
Lead, 10-5
Leakage tendencies of wheel bearing grease, 3-23–24
Lean manufacturing, 1-1–2
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), 5-4, 5-7–9, 5-10, 5-11,
10-11
Life performance of grease products, 3-24
Lincoln Ventmeter, 9-4
Load-carrying properties, 3-19–20, 3-27–28, 3-29
Loop systems, 9-29
Low-pressure volatility of lubricants, 3-9
Low-temperature torque characteristics of grease,
3-24–25
Lubricants. See also Grease; Oil(s)
acidity and base reserve, 2-18–28
antioxidant reserve, 2-4, 2-5
case studies of degraded, 2-34–38
consumption of, 5-13–17, 10-3
corrosion with degraded, 2-25, 2-33
demulsibility and interfacial tension of degraded, 2-33
direct observation of, 2-6
dispensing, 7-8–11
disposal of used, 5-25–26
energy conservation and, 5-14
environmental benefits of formulations for, 5-13–17
environmental implications, 5-10–13
extended life, 8-3
flash point of degraded, 2-32
foaming, 2-32, 3-8
friction minimization by, 1-1Index I-5
integrity, insuring, 7-11–14
laboratory tests of, 2-8–31
manufacturing and delivery, 7-1–2
monitoring, 1-7, 2-2
packaging, 7-2, 8-2–3
polluting effects of, 5-26–27
production formulations, 5-11–13
reclamation, 5-22, 10-1–2
recycling of, 5-9, 5-10, 5-21–24, 5-28–29
standards tests for, 3-1–2
storage, 7-4–8
stability and inventory control, 7-2–4
synthetic, 8-3
trace metals in, 2-3, 2-10–12
utilization and conservation, 8-3–4
viscosity, 2-6, 2-9–10
as waste, 5-18–26, 5-27–28
water content, 2-8, 2-28–29
working lifetimes of, 5-14–17
Lubrication systems. See also Relubrication programs
centralized grease, 9-5–30
design considerations, 9-11, 9-20, 9-30
dual-line, 9-22–27
metering valves, 9-23–25
modular, 9-7–11
monitoring, 9-11, 9-20–21
philosophy of, 9-1
pumping of grease and viscous materials,9-31–36
reversing 4-way valves, 9-25–27
single line parallel, 9-12–22
strengths and weaknesses, 9-12, 9-21–22, 9-30
two-line, 9-27–30
using the correct grease in, 9-1–5
M
Machines, industrial
activity sequencing, 6-25–27
bearings, 6-7–15
best practices and relubrication programs for, 6-1
contamination control in, 4-2–4
criticality and operating environment, 6-2–3
data collection
criteria, 6-5–6
strategies, 6-3–4
design role in conservation, 8-9
Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) and, 5-8–9, 5-10
proactive maintenance of, 1-1–5, 4-45, 4-46, 4-49–50
Maintenance generated contamination, 4-29
Manufacturing
conservation of lubricants through improved, 8-1–2
and delivery, lubricant, 7-1–2
lean, 1-1–2
Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF), 1-3
Mean Time to Repair (MTTR), 1-3
Mechanical failures, 4-11–12, 4-29–32
Mesh oscuration particles, 2-15–16
Metals
additive, 3-2
materials and lubricant degradation, 2-3
toxic, 10-5
trace, 2-10–12
in unused oils, 3-2
Metering valves, 9-23–25
Misuse failure, 4-12
Modeling, 4-7–8
Modular lubrication systems, 9-7–11
Modular valves, 9-7–11
Modulus, bulk, 8-6
Moisture control, 6-20
Monitoring, system, 9-11
single line parallel, 9-20–21
Monitoring procedures, contamination control, 4-44–54
detection, 4-49–50
diagnosis, 4-51–52
guidelines in, 4-50–51
postmortem, 4-53
prognosis, 4-52–53
results of detection, 4-51
sampling, 4-48–49
symptoms, 4-50
Multi-path systems, Dynamic Contamination Control,
4-41–43
N
National level sustainable development, 5-3
Neutralization number. See Acid number; Base number
Non-Newtonian properties, 8-5
O
Octane rating decrease (ORD), 2-17
Oil(s). See also Lubricants
additive metals in unused, 3-2
analysis requirements, 6-22–25
aniline point, 3-2–3
carbon residue, 3-4
chlorine content, 3-4
cleanliness, 3-31–32
as common contaminants, 10-4–5
condition tests, 3-30–33
copper corrosion resistance, 3-4–5
density and specific gravity, 3-5
emulsibility and demulsibility, 3-5–6
evaporation and oil bleed, 3-25
extreme-pressure properties of, 3-6–7
flash and fire points, 3-7–8
foaming, 3-8
hydrolytic stability, 3-8
interfacial tension, 3-9
low-pressure volatility of, 3-9
pentane insolubles of, 3-11–12
pour and cloud points, 3-12–13
recycling of, 5-9, 5-10, 5-23, 5-28–29, 10-1–13
refractive index, 3-14
re-refining of, 10-7, 10-9
separation from lubricating grease, 3-25–26I-6 Lubrication and Maintenance of Industrial Machinery: Best Practices and Reliability
storage stability, 7-3–4
sulfur content, 3-15–16
tests, 3-2–20
uses for used, 10-5–6
using the correct, 9-2–3
viscosity, 3-17–19
wear prevention/load-carrying properties, 3-19–20
Oklahoma State University (OSU) model of
contamination, 4-35–38
One-shot containers, 7-6–7
Operating environment, machine, 6-2–3
Optical particulate measurements, 2-13–14
Organic acids, 2-18–19
Original Equipment Effectiveness (OEE), 1-3
Oxidation, 2-3–4, 8-9
stability, 3-10–11, 3-26
P
Packaging, lubricant, 7-2, 8-2–3
Particles
balance, 4-34–38
counting, 3-31–32
cycle rate, 4-49
size distribution, 2-15
Particulates. See also Ash
analyses, 2-13–17
defined, 2-13
in hydraulic fluids, 2-15–16
infrared measurements, 2-14
loss, 4-49
in lubricants, 2-6, 2-7–8, 2-12
optical measurements, 2-13–14
sampling, 4-46
Passive shields, 6-19
Pentane insolubles of lubricating oils, 3-11–12
Perchloric acid titration, 2-22
Performance Availability (PA), 1-3
Performance Efficiency (PE), 1-3
Phases of failures, 4-12
Philosophy of lubrication, 9-1
Pitting, 4-23
Plain bearings, 6-7–15
Planned availability data collection, 6-4
Planning and scheduling management, relubrication
programs, 6-28
Polishing wear, 4-28
Pollution
effects of used lubricant, 5-26–27
prevention/lifecycle assessment, 10-11
Polychlorinated biphenyl compounds (PCBs), 10-4
Positive head pressure, 9-32–33
Postmortem, 4-47, 4-53
Pour and cloud point, 3-12–13
Practice type scheduling, 6-27
Precipitation number, 3-13–14
Precision of base number determinations, 2-24–25
Predictive Maintenance (PdM), 1-3–4, 4-44, 4-46
Pressure
positive head, 9-32–33
pressurized reservoir and, 9-33
primer, 9-33–36
-viscosity (PV) coefficient, 8-5
Preventive Maintenance (PM), 1-2–3
Primer, pressure, 9-33–36
Proactive maintenance of industrial machinery, 1-1–5,
4-45, 4-46, 4-49–50
Production
demand flow, 6-4
formulations lubricant and hydraulic fluid, 5-11–13
Prognosis, 4-47, 4-52–53
Progressive pitting, 4-23
Pumping of grease and viscous materials, 9-31–36
Q
Quality control (QC), 7-12–14
Quality Rate (QR), 1-3
Quick venting single line injectors, 9-16–19
R
Random failures, 4-12
Reaction rates, 2-4
Reclamation, 5-22, 10-1–2. See also Recycling
Recovery, waste, 5-21–24
Recycling, 5-9, 5-10, 5-21–24, 5-28–29, 10-11–13
common contaminants, 10-4–5
environmental regulation and, 10-10–11
pollution prevention/lifecycle assessment and, 10-11
quantifying resource in, 10-3
technologies, 10-6–9
terminology, 10-2–3
typical uses in, 10-5–6
Reduction, waste, 5-20–21
Refractive index, 3-14
Regulations, environmental, 10-10–11
Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM), 1-2
Relubrication programs. See also Lubrication systems
activity sequencing, 6-25–27
best practices, 6-1
contamination control requirements, 6-18–22
data collection
criteria, 6-5–6
strategies, 6-3–4
lubricant type, quantity, frequency, application
method, and time stamp decisions in, 6-6–18
machine criticality and operating environment in,
6-2–3
oil analysis requirements, 6-22–25
planning and scheduling management, 6-28
Re-refining of oil, 10-6, 10-9
Residues from recycling, 5-23–24
Responsible care, 5-4–6
Reversing 4-way valves, 9-25–27
Road oiling, 10-6
Rotating pressure vessel oxidation test (RPVOT), 3-11
Runtime dependent tasks, 6-25
Rust prevention characteristics, 3-14–15, 3-26–27Index I-7
S
Sampling procedures, 4-46, 4-48–49
Saponification (Sap) number, 3-15
Scheduling
activity, 6-25–27
and planning management, relubrication, 6-28
Sealing methods for pumping viscous materials, 9-31–32
Semisolid grease
cone penetration test, 3-21
copper corrosion resistance, 3-21–22
dropping point of, 3-22–23
extreme-pressure properties of, 3-23
leakage tendencies of wheel bearing, 3-23–24
life performance of, 3-24
low-temperature torque characteristics, 3-24–25
oil evaporation and oil bleed test, 3-25
oil separation from lubricating, 3-25–26
oxidation stability, 3-26
rust prevention characteristics, 3-26–27
samples, degraded, 2-35–36
water wash out characteristics, 3-27
wear prevention/load-carrying properties, 3-27–28
Separation of oil from lubricating grease, 3-25–26
Sequencing, activity, 6-25–27
Series progressive system, 9-5–12
Shaft seal points, 6-19
Shear stability, high-temperature, 8-5
Simulation, contamination, 4-43–44
Single line parallel systems, 9-12–22
design considerations in, 9-20
quick venting single line injectors, 9-16–19
strengths and weaknesses, 9-21–22
system monitoring, 9-20–21
Single path model, Dynamic Contamination Control,
4-39–41
Sizes, particle, 2-15
Sludges, 2-3
Solid grease, 3-28–29, 8-3–4
Space heaters, 10-5
Specific gravity, 2-31–32, 3-5
Spectroscopy
atomic emission, 3-30
Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), 2-25, 2-30–31,
2-33, 3-30–31
infrared (IR), 3-30–31
spectroscopic oil analysis programs (SOAP), 2-10
x-ray fluorescence (XRF), 3-32
Stability
high-temperature shear, 8-5
hydrolytic, 3-8
lubricant storage, 7-2–4
oxidation, 3-10–11, 3-26
thermal, 3-16–17
Stewardship, environmental, 8-9
Stiction losses, 8-7
Storage, lubricant
barrels, 7-5–6
bulk tank, 7-4–5, 7-8, 7-9
grease, 7-7–8
insuring product integrity and, 7-11–14
one-shot containers, 7-6–7
stability, 7-2–4
storeroom design, 7-8
top-off containers, 7-10–11
totes, 7-5, 7-6
Storeroom design, 7-8
Sulfated ash, 2-16–17
Sulfur content, 3-15–16, 5-3–4
Sumps, 6-21–22
Surface fatigue, 4-22–23
Sustainability and sustainable development
concepts of, 5-1
Environmental Management Systems (EMS)
and, 5-4–7
at global, continental, and national levels, 5-1–4
Synthetic lubricants, 8-3
System boundaries, 5-8–9, 5-10
T
Tanks, bulk, 7-4–5, 7-8, 7-9
Tests
grease, 3-28–29
lubricating oil, 2-20
additive metals, 3-2
aniline point, 3-2–3
carbon residue, 3-4
cone penetration, 3-21
copper corrosion resistance, 3-4–5
density, 2-31–32, 3-5
emulsibility and demulsibility, 3-5–6
extreme-pressure properties, 3-6–7
flash and fire points, 3-7–8
foaming, 3-8
hydrolytic stability, 3-8
interfacial tension, 3-9
low-pressure volatility, 3-9
lubricant performance, 2-31
neutralization number, 3-9–10
oxidation stability, 3-10–11
pentane insolubles, 3-11–12
pour and cloud point, 3-12–13
precipitation number, 3-13–14
refractive index, 3-14
rust prevention, 3-14–15
saponification number, 3-15
specific gravity, 2-31–32, 3-5
standard, 3-1–2
sulfur content, 3-15–16
thermal stability, 3-16–17
viscosity, 2-6, 2-9–10, 3-17–19
wear prevention/load-carrying properties, 3-19–20
oil condition, 3-30–33, 6-22–25
atomic emission spectroscopy, 3-30
infrared (IR) spectroscopy, 3-30–31
particle counting, 3-31–32
quality control, 7-12–14
semisolid grease, 3-20–28
copper corrosion resistance, 3-21–22
dropping point of, 3-22–23I-8 Lubrication and Maintenance of Industrial Machinery: Best Practices and Reliability
leakage tendencies of wheel bearing, 3-23–24
life performance, 3-24
low-temperature torque characteristics of, 3-24–25
oil evaporation and oil bleed, 3-25
oil separation from, 3-25–26
oxidation stability, 3-26
viscosity, 3-20–21
wear prevention/load-carrying properties,
3-27–28
solid grease, 3-28–29
Textile materials and lubricant degradation, 2-3
Thermal shock sensitivity of solid film lubricants, 3-29
Thermal stability, 3-16–17
Thermodynamics, 5-8–9, 5-16–17
Thermography, 1-4
Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), 2-13
Thin layer chromatography (TLC), 2-6–7
Time stamp, 6-15–18
Titration
conductimetric, 2-22–24, 2-27–28
hydrochloric acid, 2-20–22
Karl Fischer, 2-30, 3-31, 3-33
perchloric acid, 2-22
Toluene insolubles, 3-11–12
Top-off containers, 7-10–11
Total Productive Maintenance (TPM), 1-3
Totes, 7-5, 7-6
Toxic metals, 10-5
Trace metals, 2-10–12
Training, contamination control, 4-53–54
Tribological analysis, 4-14–20, 5-14
Two-line lubrication systems, 9-27–30
U
Ultrasonic testing, 1-4
United Kingdo, 5-3, 5-18–20, 5-27
United Nations Conference on the Human Environment
(UNCHE), 5-2
V
Valdez Principles, 5-6–7
Valves
design considerations for, 9-11
divider, 9-7
metering, 9-23–25
modular, 9-7–11
reversing 4-way, 9-25–27
Vehicles, 5-15–17
Vent ports, 6-19
Vibration analysis, 1-3–4
Viscosity and viscosity index, 2-6, 2-9–10, 3-17–19,
7-13–14
for bearings, 6-9, 6-10–13
churning losses, 8-7
energy-conserving fluid properties, 8-5
of greases, 3-20–21
W
Wash out characteristics, water, 3-27
Wastes, lubricant and hydraulic fluids as, 5-18–26,
5-27–28
Water
contamination, 7-3, 7-14
content
by FTIR spectrophotometry, 2-30–31
in lubricants, 2-8, 2-28–29
determination by Karl Fischer distillation, 2-30,
3-31, 3-33
in petroleum products and bituminous materials by
distillation, 2-29–30
wash out characteristics, 3-27
Wear
abrasive, 4-23–26
adhesive, 4-20–22
cavitation, 4-28
combustion efficiency losses, 8-7, 8-8
conservation and, 8-6
and conservation of machines by lubricants, 5-14
corrosive, 4-27–28
cutting, 4-26, 4-26
delamination, 4-27
electro-corrosive, 4-28
erosive, 4-26–27
and load-carrying capacity of solid lubricants, 3-29
normal, 2-5–6, 10-11
polishing, 4-28
prevention/load-carrying properties, 3-19–20,
3-27–28
progression of, 4-16, 4-18
sources of, 4-16, 4-18
surface fatigue, 4-22–23
terminology, 4-19–20
tribological analysis of, 4-14–20
Wear-in failures, 4-12
Wear-out failures, 4-12
Wheel bearing grease, leakage tendencies of, 3-23–24
Whole machine scheduling, 6-26
Working lifetimes and lubricants and hydraulic fluids,
5-14–17
World Commission on Environment and Development,
5-2
World Summit on Sustainable Development, 5-2
X
X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS), 2-34
X-ray diffraction (XRD/XRF), 2-33, 2-34
X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy, 3-32

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