Jigs and Fixtures – Design Manual

Jigs and Fixtures – Design Manual
اسم المؤلف
P. H. Joshi
التاريخ
28 مارس 2022
المشاهدات
331
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
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Jigs and Fixtures – Design Manual
P. H. Joshi
Consultant
Production Engineering Services
Pune
Foreword and Edited by:
Robert 0. Parmley, P.E.
0 0
Contents
Foreword to the Reprint of the Second Edition
Preface to the Second Edition
Preface to the First Edition
ix
XI
Xlil

  1. Introduction —
    Production Devices 1
    Inspection Devices 3
    Materials Used in Jigs and Fixtures 7
    Presentation of Workpieces 9
    1
  2. Location —
    Principles 11
    Locating Methods 16
    Summary 39
    11
  3. Clamping 42
    Principles of Clamping 42
    Types of Clamps 46
    Compensating Differential Clamps 76
    Summary 77
  4. Indexing Devices
    Linear Indexing 79
    79
  5. Drilling Jigs 87
    Drill Bushings 87
    Press Fit Bushings 88
    Various types of Jigs 94
    Summary 110
  6. Milling Fixtures
    Types of Milling Machines 112
    Types of Cutter 113
    Direction of Feed 113
    112Essentials of Milling Fixtures 113
    Special Vice Jaws 116
    Facing Fixtures 117
    Slotting Fixtures 122
    Summary 125
  7. Turning Fixtures 127
    Standard Chucks 129
    Face Plate 133
    Spring Collets 133
    Cylindrical Liners 138
    Mandrels 138
    Turning Fixtures 142
    Summary 144
  8. Grinding Fixtures
    Grinding 145
    Cylindrical Grinding 147
  9. Broaching Fixtures —
    Key-way Broaching 150
    External Surface Broaching 151
  10. Welding and Assembly Fixtures
    Pressing Fixtures 157
    145
    149
    153
  11. inspection Devices
    Gauges 161
    Special Gauges 163
    Receiver Gauges 165
    Workpiece Marking and Setting Gauges 168
    Materials and Wear Allowance 170
    161
  12. Shop Setups 172
  13. Estimating 179
    Material Costs 179
    Machining costs 181
    Pleat treatment Expenses 182
    Assembling and Try-out Costs 182
  14. Reference Tables 184
  15. Exercises 203
    Process Planning 203
    Workpieces for Practices 205
    Bibliography
    Index
    230
    231
    viii0 0
    Index
    A renewable 89, 194
    slip 90-91, 194
    special 93-94
    spring clamped 92
    threaded 91-92
    Accuracy of location 12
    Adhesive clamping 75
    Adjustable locators 18, 175, 177, 178
    Adjustable support 15-17-19
    Adjustable vee locator 37-38
    Advantages of jigs & fixtures 2
    Allowances for fits 4
    Angle plate jig 97
    Assembly fixtures 157
    Axially clamped mandrels 139-140
    c C‘’
    Washers 60-61
    Cams 61-63, 156, 186
    Carbon steels 7, 195
    Case hardening steels 8, 195
    Castings
    ferrous 8, 195-196
    non-ferrous 197
    Channel jig 95-96
    Chucks, lathe 129-133
    Clamping 42-78
    adhesive 75
    distortion 42
    double 46, 67
    electrostatic 75
    fusion 75
    magnetic 73-74
    milling fixtures on m/c 114-115
    multiple 46, 67-68
    operator fatigue, elimination 43
    power 68-74
    B
    Back plate for turning fixtures
    127-128
    Balancing turning fixtures 142
    Ball, indexing 84
    Bayonet clamp 63-65
    Bibliography 230
    Box jig 100-101
    Broaching fixtures 149-152
    keyway 150-151
    surface 151-152
    Burr clearance in location 21
    Bushings collared 88, 193
    collarless 89232 JigsandFixturesDesign Manual
    productivity 43
    spherical washer 45, 49, 188
    stacking workpieces 68
    summary of the chapter 77
    turning fixtures to m/c 127-144
    vacuum 73
    workpiece variation compensation
    44, 46, 49
    Clamps, ‘C’ washers 60-61
    cams 61-63, 156, 186
    chucks (for lathes) 129-133
    collets (see also Collets) 133-137
    differential 76
    dogs, locking 200
    double ( 2 in 1) 67
    Clamps edge 51-53, 55, 63, 117
    equalizer clamps 46, 67
    support (rectangular workpiece) 20
    eyebolts 38, 46, 187
    floating pads 48, 197-199
    hand-operated 44
    heel pins 45, 49-51, 191
    hinged 55-56
    hook bolts, swinging 58, 173, 189
    latches 59, 60
    pivoted 54-55
    plate 49
    position 42
    quarter turn screw 65-67, 187
    screw 47-48
    slotted 49, 190
    special 51-52, 54
    spherical floating pad 48
    spherical washers 45, 49, 188
    strap (plate) 49, 50, 190, 192
    strength 43
    swinging 50-51, 192
    toggle 66
    two-way 56-57
    types 46
    ‘U’ 50
    welding 154
    Collets, 133-137
    dead length 137
    liners 138
    pull-in 136
    push-out 135
    Concentricity checking fixture 168
    Conical locators 34-35
    Cost reduction through jigs
    & fixtures 2
    Cylinder mounting styles 71
    D
    Diamond pins 29-34
    Differential clamp 76
    Distortion of workpiece due to
    redundant locator 15
    Distortion of workpiece due to
    clamping 42
    Dividing fixture (std) 86
    Double clamping 46, 67
    Dowels usage 29
    Down milling 113
    Drill bushings 87-94, 193-194
    collared 88, 193
    collarless 89
    renewable 88, 194
    slip 90-91, 194
    special 93-94
    spring clamped 92
    threaded 91-92
    Drill jigs 87-112
    adjustable 106-109
    angle plate 97
    box 100Index 233
    channel 96-97
    indexing 80, 82, 83
    leaf (latch ) 99
    multispindle m/cs 105-106
    plate 95
    pot 95-96
    pump 104
    requirements 87
    sandwich 103
    summary of chapter 110
    trunnion 101-102
    turnover (table) 97-98
    types 94
    broaching 149-152
    definition 1
    face plate, lathe 134
    facing on lathe 142, 143
    grinding (also see Grinding
    Fixtures) 145-148
    inspection 168
    milling (also see Milling Fixtures)
    112-126
    pressing, hush 157-160
    turning (also see Turning Fixtures)
    127-144
    welding (also see Welding Fixtures)
    153-159
    Floating pads 48, 197-199
    Flush pin gauges 163-164
    Foolproofing against wrong loading
    15-16
    Force fit 4
    Fusion clamping 75
    E
    Eccentric locator 23
    Electro-static clamping 75
    Elements of jigs & fixtures 1-2
    Epoxy usage for nesting 147
    Equalizer support for rectangular
    workpieces 20
    Equalizer clamps 46, 67
    Expanding mandrel 140-141
    Eye bolts 38, 46, 187
    Estimating of jig/fixture cost 179
    assembling costs 182
    constituents of cost 179
    example 183
    heat treatment 182
    machining cost 181
    thumb rules 182
    Exercises, workpieces 207-229
    G
    Gang milling 119
    Gauges 161-171
    caliper 162
    center distance 165
    concentricity 168-169
    flush surface 163-164
    keyway 163
    length 162
    marking 168
    materials, heat treatment 170
    plug 161
    receiver 165-166
    setting 168-170
    snap 162
    special 167-168
    standard 161
    tapered holes 163-164
    F
    Face plates for lathes 133-134
    Feed direction in milling 113
    Fibre usage 9
    Fits 3-4
    Fixtures, assembly 157234 Jigs andFixtures Design Manual
    wear allowance 170-171
    Grinding fixtures 145
    surface 145-147
    cylindrical 147
    K
    Keyway broaching fixtures 150-151
    gauges 163
    milling fixtures 124
    H L
    Lead on locators 26-28
    Leaf, latch jigs 99
    Limits and fits 3-6, 184-185
    Linear indexing 79-80
    Liners for collets 138
    Location 11-41
    accuracy 12
    burr clearance 21
    constraints 12
    cylinders 25-39
    dowels usage 29
    fool-proofing 15
    large fixtures 21
    methods 16
    motion economy 13
    nesting 24-25, 147
    pins 23
    plane surface 16
    pot 28, 95-96
    principles 11
    profiles 22, 23
    six degrees of freedom 13
    six point location 21-22
    summary of chapter 39
    two holes 30
    of turning fixtures on m/c 127-128
    vee 34-39
    workpiece variation effect 23,
    29-34, 36-39
    Locators, adjustable 18, 175, 177, 178
    axial pull due to clamping 26-27
    conical 34-35
    diamond pin 30
    Hand operated clamps 44
    Heel pins 45, 49-51
    adjustable (std.) 191
    High speed steels 7, 195
    High tensile steels 8, 195
    Hook bolts, swinging 58, 173, 189
    Hydraulic clamping 68-71
    Independent 4-jaw chuck 129-130
    Indexing Devices 79-86
    ball 84
    linear 79-80
    plate 81-83
    plungers 84
    rotary 81-83
    tables 83-86
    Index milling 120-121
    Inspection devices 2, 161, 168
    fixtures 168
    Interchangeability of workpieces 2
    J
    Jamming of locators 26-27
    Jaws, soft (lathes) 131
    special (lathes) 131-133
    special (vices) 116
    Jigs, drilling ( see Drill jigs) 87-112Index 235
    eccentric 29-34
    fixed height 16-17
    jamming 26-27
    redundant 14
    vee (also see Vee blocks) 34-39
    Locking dogs std. 200
    essentials 113
    indexing 81, 120
    keyway 124
    motion economy 115
    pendulum ( reciprocal) 121
    setting 114, 119
    slotting 122
    strength 113
    string 122, 124
    summary of chapter 125-126
    swarf disposal 115
    tenons 114-115
    thrust direction 11 3
    summary of chapter 125
    M
    Magnetic clamping 73-74
    Mandrels 138-142
    axially clamped 139-140
    expanding 140-141
    tapered 139
    threaded 141
    Marking gauge 168-170
    Materials 7-9, 195-197
    carbon steels 7, 195
    case hardening steels 8, 195
    cast-ferrous 195-196
    cast-non-ferrous 197
    collets, spring 7, 195
    die steels 7, 195
    fibre 9
    gauges 170
    high speed steels 7, 195
    mild steel 8, 195
    nylon 9
    oil hardening, non-shrinking steels
    8, 195
    phospher bronze 9, 197
    Milling 112-126
    cutters 113
    feed direction 113
    gang 119
    machines 112
    rotary 121
    straddle 118-119
    Milling fixtures 112-126
    clamping to m/c 114-115
    N
    Nesting 24-25, 147
    Non-conventional clamping 75-76
    P
    Pendulum milling 121
    Phospher Bronze 9, 197
    Plate clamps 49
    Plate jig 95
    Plug gauges 161
    Pneumatic clamping 71-72
    Pot jig 95-96
    Power clamping 68-75
    Presentation of workpiece
    in jigs/fixtures 9-10
    Press fit 3
    Press fit bushings 88-89, 193
    Pressing fixture, bushing 157-159
    Process planning 203-204
    Principle of clamping 42
    Principle of location 11236 Jigs andFixtures Design Manual
    Profile location 22-23
    Pump jig 104
    Push fit 3
    Shoulder screws 59, 191
    Sighting plate location 22-23
    Six degrees of freedom
    (workpiece) 13
    Six point location of cube 21-22
    Skill reduction through jigs
    & fixtures 2
    Slip bushings 90, 91, 194
    Slotting fixtures (milling) 122
    Snap gauges 162
    Softjaws (lathe) 131
    Special bushings 93-94
    jaws (lathes) 131-133
    (vices) 116
    Spherical floating pad 48
    Spherical washers 45, 49, 189
    Spring clamping of bushings 92
    Stacking for multiple clamping 68
    Steels for jigs, fixtures, tools 7, 8, 195
    Straddle milling 118-119
    Strap clamps 49
    String milling 122-124
    Standardized parts for jigs &. fixtures
    186-202
    Summary: clamping 77
    drill jigs 110
    location 39
    milling fixtures 125-126
    turning fixtures 144
    Q
    Quarter turn screw 65-67, 187
    Quick action clamps 38, 46, 61,
    65, 68
    R
    Receiver gauge 165-166
    Reciprocal milling 121
    Reference tables 184-202
    Renewable bushes 89, 194
    Running fit 3
    s
    Sandwich jig 103
    Self-centering chuck (lathe) 129
    Second operation fixtures (turning)
    143
    Setting milling cutler 114, 119
    Setting gauge (cast workpieces)
    168-170
    Shop set-ups 172-178
    Shop set-up elements
    Adjustable locators 177
    for lathe 175
    milling 178
    Slotted plates 176
    ‘T’ nuts 172-173
    ‘T’ slot mounted edge clamps 174
    hook bolts 173
    vee blocks 176, 202
    T
    Tapered holes gauges 163-164
    mandrel 139
    Tenons for milling fixtures 114-115
    Threaded bushings 91-92
    mandrel 141
    Thrust, feed (milling) 113
    Toggle clamps 66
    Tolerances for shafts and holes
    184-185Index 237
    Turning fixtures 127-144
    alignment with m/c 127-128
    back plate 127-128
    balancing 142
    location & clamping 127-128
    summary of chapter 144
    Turning (m/c ) chucks 129-133
    combination 130
    independent, 4 jaw 129-130
    power operated 130-131
    Jaws, soft 131
    special 131-133
    standard 132
    Turning (m/c) collets 133-137
    dead length 137
    liners (split) 138
    pull-in 136
    push-out 135
    Faceplates 133-134
    Turnover (Table) jig 97-98
    V (Vee ) blocks
    adjustable 37—38
    fixed 35
    inclined 36
    location 34
    positioning correctly 36, 38, 39
    quick action (long withdrawal) 38
    standard for long cylinder 201
    short 202
    w
    Washer, spherical 45, 49, 188
    Welding clamps 154
    Welding fixtures 153-159
    considerations 153
    for fly nut 155
    angles 156, 159
    pipes 157
    spatter grooves 155, 156
    Workpieces for exercises 207-229
    Workpiece presentation in
    jigs/fixtures 9-10
    Workpiece variation, accommodation
    in location 23, 29-34, 36-39
    accommodation in clamping 44, 49
    u
    Up milling 113
    V
    Vacuum clamping 73
    Variation in workpiece: accommodation in location and clamping

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