Introduction to Synthetic Aperture Radar Using Python and MATLAB

Introduction to Synthetic Aperture Radar Using Python and MATLAB
اسم المؤلف
Andy Harrison
التاريخ
12 مارس 2023
المشاهدات
795
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
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Introduction to Synthetic Aperture Radar Using Python and MATLAB
Andy Harrison
Contents
Preface xiii
1 Introduction 1
1.1 History 3
1.2 Fundamentals . 6
1.2.1 Operating Frequency . 6
1.2.2 Sensor Polarization 7
1.3 Applications 10
1.3.1 Remote Sensing . 11
1.3.2 Space Debris Monitoring . 15
1.3.3 Through-Wall Sensing 18
1.3.4 Military Applications . 19
1.3.5 Alternative Navigation 20
1.4 Software 21
1.4.1 Python 22
1.4.2 MATLAB . 24
Problems 27
References 28
2 Imaging Modes 33
2.1 Basic Principles 33
2.2 Stripmap 34
2.2.1 Resolution 37
2.2.2 Pulse Repetition Frequency . 41
vvi Contents
2.2.3 Signal-to-Noise Ratio 45
2.2.4 Noise Equivalent Sigma Zero 47
2.2.5 Squint Angle . 47
2.3 Spotlight 48
2.3.1 Resolution 49
2.3.2 Pulse Repetition Frequency . 53
2.3.3 SNR 54
2.3.4 Squint Angle . 56
2.4 Scanning Synthetic Aperture Radar 57
2.5 Terrain Observation by Progressive Scan . 57
2.6 SweepSAR 58
2.7 InSAR . 60
2.8 Polarimetric SAR . 61
2.9 Bistatic and Multistatic SAR . 65
2.10 ISAR . 65
2.11 Digital Beamforming . 67
2.12 Examples . 71
2.12.1 Stripmap SAR Range Resolution 71
2.12.2 Stripmap SAR Support Band . 73
2.12.3 Stripmap SAR Point Spread Function 74
2.12.4 Stripmap SAR Doppler Bandwidth . 74
2.12.5 Stripmap SAR Pulse Repetition Frequency . 74
2.12.6 Stripmap SAR SNR . 76
2.12.7 Stripmap SAR CNR . 77
2.12.8 NESZ . 78
2.12.9 Spotlight SAR Cross-Range Resolution . 79
2.12.10 Spotlight SAR Point Spread Function 79
2.12.11 Spotlight SAR Doppler Bandwidth . 80
2.12.12 Spotlight SAR PRF 81
2.12.13 Spotlight SAR SNR . 82
Problems 83
References 87Contents vii
3 Image Formation 91
3.1 Signal Model . 91
3.2 One-Dimensional Range Profiles . 96
3.2.1 Matched Filter 96
3.2.2 Stretch Processor . 99
3.3 Two-Dimensional Imaging 104
3.3.1 Range Doppler Algorithm 105
3.3.2 Polar Format Algorithm . 107
3.3.3 Backprojection Algorithm 110
3.3.4 Algebraic Methods 117
3.3.5 Nontraditional Methods . 122
3.4 Examples . 122
3.4.1 Range Profile — Point Targets 123
3.4.2 Range Profile — Backhoe 123
3.4.3 Range Doppler Algorithm — Point Targets . 124
3.4.4 Range Doppler Algorithm — Backhoe 125
3.4.5 Polar Format Algorithm — Point Targets 126
3.4.6 Polar Format Algorithm — Learjet 128
3.4.7 Backprojection Algorithm — Point Targets . 129
3.4.8 Backprojection Algorithm — Toyota Avalon 131
Problems 143
References 144
4 Three-Dimensional Imaging 149
4.1 Development . 149
4.1.1 Airborne and Spaceborne Systems 150
4.1.2 Through-Wall Systems 151
4.1.3 ISAR . 153
4.2 Point Spread Function . 153
4.3 Polar Format Imaging . 156
4.4 Backprojection Imaging 160
4.4.1 Linear Trace Theorem 161
4.4.2 Filtered Backprojection 164viii Contents
4.5 Examples . 165
4.5.1 Polar Format Algorithm — Point Targets 165
4.5.2 Backprojection Algorithm — Learjet 170
4.5.3 Backprojection Algorithm — Backhoe . 170
Problems 176
References 177
5 Autofocus 183
5.1 Background 184
5.2 Error Model 185
5.3 Model-Based Methods 189
5.3.1 Map Drift . 191
5.4 Nonparametric Methods . 196
5.4.1 Inverse Filtering . 196
5.4.2 Phase Gradient 200
5.4.3 Minimum Entropy 203
5.5 Advanced Autofocus Techniques . 207
5.6 Examples . 210
5.6.1 Map Drift . 210
5.6.2 Inverse Filtering . 213
5.6.3 Phase Gradient 213
5.6.4 Minimum Entropy 216
Problems 216
References 222
6 Image Registration 227
6.1 Methods 228
6.2 Phase Correlation . 229
6.2.1 Translation 229
6.2.2 Rotation 230
6.2.3 Scale Change . 233
6.3 Harris Corner . 234
6.3.1 Corner Detection . 236Contents ix
6.3.2 Corner Matching . 241
6.4 Scale Invariant Feature Transform 242
6.4.1 Gaussian Scale-Space Construction . 243
6.4.2 Keypoint Selection 244
6.4.3 Orientation Assignment . 244
6.4.4 Keypoint Descriptor Creation 248
6.4.5 Descriptor Matching . 250
6.5 Speeded-Up Robust Features . 251
6.5.1 Interest Point Selection 252
6.5.2 Orientation Assignment . 255
6.5.3 Interest Point Descriptors . 256
6.5.4 Descriptor Matching . 258
6.6 Oriented FAST and Rotated BRIEF . 258
6.6.1 FAST . 259
6.6.2 BRIEF 260
6.7 Warp Function Extraction . 262
6.7.1 Formulation 262
6.7.2 RANSAC . 263
6.7.3 Fast-LTS . 264
6.7.4 EF-LTS 268
6.8 Examples . 273
6.8.1 Harris Corner . 273
6.8.2 Phase Correlation . 273
6.8.3 SIFT . 276
6.8.4 ORB . 277
Problems 280
References 280
7 Performance Considerations 287
7.1 Spatial Resolution . 288
7.2 SNR 291
7.2.1 Antenna System . 292
7.2.2 Transmitter 296
7.2.3 Receiver . 301x Contents
7.3 Losses . 306
7.3.1 Hardware Loss 306
7.3.2 Propagation Loss . 306
7.3.3 Signal Processing Loss 308
7.3.4 Antenna Scan Loss 310
7.4 Unambiguous Range . 312
7.5 Data Handling . 316
7.6 Examples . 318
7.6.1 Spatial Resolution 318
7.6.2 Windowing Functions 319
7.6.3 NESZ . 320
7.6.4 Rain Attenuation . 321
7.6.5 Unambiguous Range . 322
7.6.6 RGIQE 323
7.6.7 RNIIRS 325
Problems 327
References 329
8 Future Directions 333
8.1 Applications 334
8.1.1 Spaceborne SAR . 334
8.1.2 Airborne SAR 337
8.1.3 Ground Based SAR 338
8.2 Technology Trends 339
8.2.1 Satellites . 340
8.2.2 Rockets 340
8.2.3 Downlinks 341
8.2.4 Signal and Image Processing . 342
8.3 Workflow and Processes . 342
8.4 Market Demand 343
References 344
A Polarization 351
A.1 Coordinate Convention 353Contents xi
A.2 Jones Vector 353
A.3 Scattering Matrix . 356
A.4 Coherent and Noncoherent Scattering 358
A.4.1 Covariance 358
A.4.2 Coherency 359
A.5 Decompositions 360
A.5.1 Coherent . 360
A.5.2 Noncoherent . 361
References 361
About the Author 36

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