Introduction to Safety Science – With 234 Illustrations

Introduction to Safety Science – With 234 Illustrations
اسم المؤلف
A. Kuhlmann
التاريخ
8 نوفمبر 2023
المشاهدات
172
التقييم
(لا توجد تقييمات)
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Introduction to Safety Science
With 234 Illustrations
A. Kuhlmann
Contents

  1. Functions and Goals of Safety Science 1
  2. Special Definitions 5
  3. 1. Damage 5
    2.2. Danger, Endangerment , and Safety 6
    2.3. Accident·like Occurrences Involving Damage 7
    2.4. Source of Danger, Danger Field, Danger Potential. and Potential of
    Endangerment 7
    2.5. Risk 8
  4. Cybernetics and the Science of Safety 12
  5. 1. The Basics of Cybernetics 12
  6. 2. Cybernetic Approach of the Science of Safety 22
    3.3. Systems Engineering as a Tool ( orthe Evaluation of a Technical Plant as a
    Cybernetic Instrument 28
    3.4. Mathematical Simulation 35
  7. Safely Analysis 42
  8. 1. Tasks and Aims 42
    4.2. Safety Analysis Work Methods 45
    4.3. Qualitative Safety Analysis 78
    4.4. Quantitative Safety Analysis 99
  9. The Machine as a Safety Factor 109
  10. 1. The Machine Under Operational Stress I iO
    5.2. The Operalional Behavior of Ihe Machine 126
  11. Man as a Safely Faclor and as an Objecl of Proleclion 153
  12. 1. Medical Aspecis 156
    6.2. Psychological Aspecls 210viii Contents
    6.3. Ergonomics 224
    6.4. Education and Training 247
  13. The Environment as a Safely Faclor and an Asset Worthy of
    Protection 261
  14. 1. Natural and Civilizatory Factors 262
    7.2. Environmental Strain Through Accidents in Technical Installations 292
    7.3. Environmental Factors Influencing a Technical Installation 318
  15. Safety Legislation 352
  16. 1. The Concept of Safety Legislation 354
    8.2. The Goals of Safety Legislation 361
    8.3. The Prevention ofDamage Through Governmental Protection
    Measures 367
    8.4. Safety Legislation and Technical Standards 379
    8.5. Correlations Between the Purpose and the Effect of Safety Rules 389
    8.6. . The Limits of Safety Standardization 393
    8.7. Extralegal Limits 398
    8.8. Trends in the Development of Safety Legislation 399
  17. Social Aspects of Safety Science 402
    9.1. Technology Assessment 403
    9.2. Risk Acceptance 416
    References 435
    Index 453
    Index
    absolute (strict) liability, 363
    accident, 7, 24, 292
    analyses. 230
    frequency. 198
    injury, 429
    prevention. 2[8. 3[6
    proneness. 217
    statistics. 25. 32
    accommodation. 170
    actual behavior. 14
    actual crack characteristic, 131
    administrative orders. 38 1-382
    administrative regulations. 382-383, 385.
    387
    admissible risk. 426-428
    age. 184
    agricultural mechanization, 404
    air conditioning, 204, 245
    air temperature, 28 1
    airplane crash, 319, 342
    alcoholism.2[S
    analysis after planning completion. 80
    anatomical data, 156
    anatomy. 224
    anthropometric data, 225
    anthropometric parameters. 187
    anthropometry, 186
    aptitude lest. 207
    aptitude-related characteristics. 222
    area of risk, 25
    artificial light. 197
    automobile, 404
    autopilot. 17
    autoreflex. 183
    aviation. 404
    background level. 264
    ban involving a proviso for later
    dispensation. 372
    ban requiring notification. 37 1
    ban with the reservation to grant a
    permit . 371
    basic freedom priority. 397
    basic risk. 425
    Bathtub curve. 60
    behavioral patterns. 212. 220. 223. 248.
    250 . 252
    biochemical oxygen requirement. 307
    biological fatigue. 185
    biological oxygen requirement . 268
    blood circulation. 181
    boredom. 214
    carbon cycle. 262
    carbon dioxide content in the atmosphere.
    267
    catastrophes. 286
    catastrophic stonns. 282
    cause-unrelated liability. 355
    centile. 187454
    ccnainty o f[he law. 395
    checklists. 227
    chemical substances, 205
    city and regional planning. 25
    civil aviation aircraft . 342
    climate. 204. 240. 279-280
    city. 280
    social, 2 19
    climatic change. 280
    color vision, 169, 172
    combined pressure and temperature loads.
    120
    common mode case. 4 1
    communication theory. 17
    compatibility. 236
    composition of air. 264
    concentration limits for toxic effects, 296
    concepl analysis of the technical plant
    after planning. 9 J
    conflagrations, ]16
    constitution, 369, 392
    consumer prOiection. 355, 36 1
    contingent liability. 364
    control loop, 13
    control system, 15
    controlling activities. 207
    controls. 12. 234. 235
    corrosion. 33 1
    cosmic radiation. 268
    cost·effectiveness analyses, 410
    CO, production. 267
    crack characteristic . 132
    crack magnitude. 132
    creep stress. 117
    cybernetic system . 13.2 1. 36
    cybernetics. 12
    damage. 5. 24
    damage statistics. 25
    danger. 6
    daylight vision. 169
    death rJ.te . 429
    decision table technique. 73
    defects. human. 222
    physical. 223
    delay time. J3
    delays in time. 16
    density of the population. 288
    deposition into soil. 3 11
    dermal receptors. 177
    Index
    designing and engineering of safety. 25
    deterministic models. 37
    discharge of substances. 308
    “disjunctive” normal form. 76
    dispersion. 300. 303
    equations. 307
    model, 302
    parameters. 300
    of toxic substances. 3 11
    in water, 307
    display systems. 2 13
    displays. 232, 235
    distribution functions. 53
    disturbances. 7, 2 1, 37
    factors, 15
    variable. 13
    disturbing innucnces. 28
    dose. 299
    driving jobs. 206
    driving simulators. 254
    dynamic models. 36
    dynamic pressure stresses. III
    dynamic system. 22
    ear. 168. 173, 199.212
    earthquakes. 284. 286, 287. 3 19. 334
    economic and social mobility, 404
    education. 247. 259 . 406
    EEC. 356, 361, 366
    emission limits. 293. 295
    empirical syStem analysis. 3 1
    employee risk profile. 425
    endangennent. 6
    energy consumption. 166,230
    fault. 363-364. 380. 386
    fault tree analysis, 60
    faulty readings, 231
    fcasibility studies. 410
    feedback. 13, 15.22.28
    fire. 325
    detection. 329
    protection, 329
    firefighting . 326. 328. 329
    fires. 342Index
    finn reference. 383
    fission products. 405
    filness. 184
    flash evaporation, 303. 304
    flex.ible reference, 383
    flood control systems, 348
    floods. 282. 319. 347
    food chain, 274
    frequency range of sound. 200
    gas dedusting plan!. 141
    general clause. 384, 395, 400
    general system theory. 28
    global risk. 10
    government standardization. 420. 424
    hazard, 8
    hazard and operability study (HAZOP),
    93
    hazard potential. 318. 370
    hazardous technology. 417
    health impairment. 166
    heat effect. 281
    heat emission. 282
    heavy gases, 307
    heavy metals, 272
    high water. 283
    human body. 189
    human error. 217, 230, 238
    human risk reaction. 416
    human self-control. 219
    hydrological cycle. 262
    hypothermia. 167
    ignition, 327
    imperilmenl, 7
    imposed risks. 417
    impressed individual risk. 432
    incentive fatigue. 135
    incident. 7, 24, 304. 316
    incident progression analysis, 60
    incident-related release. 297, 305
    individual risk. 9, 426. 431
    instabilities. 16
    instrument layout, 238
    integrator, 18
    inte1Jigent controller. 17
    interdisciplinary. 13.22
    interviews, 227
    inversions, 202
    involuntary reflex.es. \67
    job rotation. 239
    landings, 342
    learning, 247
    learning aids. 249
    learning programs. 253
    lethal dose. 298
    liability. 380, 391, 393
    risk, 362
    licensing procedures. 25
    lighting. 241
    intensity. 198
    link analysis. 228
    locomotor system. 157
    logarithmic Gauss distribution. 56
    logical model. 30
    London smog. 282
    Los Angeles smog, 28 1
    loss of hearing, 202
    loss statistics. 32
    lower ignition threshold. 305
    machine, 22
    maintenance, 102
    MAK standards, 205
    malfunction under static load. 129
    man, 22
    man-machine–environment- system
    (MMES), 3. 22
    manufacture of detergents. 404
    manufacturer liability. 386
    mathematical model. 30. 35, 39
    mathematical simulation. 35
    maximum concentrations. 265
    455
    maximum emission concentration (M IK).
  18. 295
    mean crack characteristic. 131
    measuring technologies, 27
    mechanical stimulation. 177
    medical aspects. 153, 156456
    medical checkups. 166
    medical suitability, 206
    mental capacity, IS4
    fatigue. 215
    strain, 214
    stress. 221
    metabolism. 163
    methodology. 407
    MIK standards, 205
    military aircraft. 342, 345
    mineral substances in meal. 273
    MMES. 3. 22
    mockUp, 231, 245
    model, 31
    monitoring device, 15
    monotony. 215, 239
    Monle Carlo method, 38
    motivation. 220
    motor vehicle, 19
    motorization, 407
    muscle power. 161
    muscle training, 161
    muscular strength. 192
    myography. 179
    natural catastrophes. 288
    natural forms. 337
    natural frequency. 336. 347
    natural phenomena. 318
    natural threats. 421
    negligence. 363-]64
    nervous system. 178
    autonomic, 183
    neuron. 179
    night vision. 169
    nitrogen cycle. 262
    nitrogen oxide emissions, 265
    noise. 198,24 1
    noise chart. 314
    noise level. 274. 276. 277
    noise pollution map, 314
    nondimensional crack characteristic.
    129
    normal distribution. 56
    nO)lious material. 3 19
    nO)lious substances. 330
    nuelear technology. 405
    observation. 228
    occupational medicine, 156
    occupational safety. 218
    operational behavior. 126
    of electronic boards. -137
    of installations. 140
    of pipes. 128
    operational load collective. 114
    operational stress, 110
    outer continental shelf. 414
    o)lygen dcficit. 310
    pain recepton, 178
    paths of sound, 315
    pay-as-you-pollllle regUlation, 360
    physical activities. 222
    physical models, 32
    physical strength, 189
    physical work environment. 239
    physiological factors. 185
    physiological functions, 156
    physiology. 224
    plants. 273
    political pressure, 413
    population density, 288
    population risk. 427
    positional forces, 196
    lndc)I
    precaution against possible risks. 374
    preliminary hazard analysis , 81
    pressure waves. 319, 326
    probabilistic models. 37
    probability calculus, 13
    communication. 13
    statistics. 17
    theory. 17
    problem-induced TA. 406
    product liability. 365
    production technology. 406
    prognoses, 26
    prognostic methods. 30
    project-induced TA . 406
    protection from danger. 374
    psychological aspects. 153.210
    tests. 210
    psychology. 224
    psychometric models. 418
    psychomotoric systcm. 204Index
    pulse frequency. 163
    punishment. 249
    qualitative safety analysis. 78
    quality of life. 418
    quality standards for water. 270
    quantitative safety analysis. 99
    questionnaires. 227
    radiation exposure. 268
    radioactive isotopes. 405
    random process. 15.22.27
    ranges of movement. 189
    raw materials. 406
    recovery time. 165
    repetitive jobs. 2 14
    Research Parliament. 40 I
    reservation of the law. 394
    residual risk. 375
    response spectra. 338. 347
    revealed reference model. 418
    revocable license or permit. 370
    reward. 249
    Richter scale. 284
    risk. 8. 25
    acceptance. 4 16
    base values. 430
    boundary values. 422
    compensation theory . 220
    fields. 10
    inventory . 431
    quantification. 424
    survey. 25
    role of safety legislation. 353
    Royal Commission. 401
    rules of technology . 37 1. 379. 380. 385.
  19. 389
    sabotage. 3 19. 349
    safety analysis . 26. 35.42
    safety campaigns. 249
    safety in the place of work. 355
    saturation concentrJtion . 310
    Science COllrt. 401
    sed imentation rate. 309
    sensory organs. 167.212
    short-term values. 301
    simulation. 30. 231
    model. 307
    simulators. 32
    smog . 282
    social aspects. 402
    social protection. 421
    soi l. 27 1
    sound. 199
    absorption . 3 13
    intensity. 312
    levels. 200
    level. 274. 277
    paths. 3 15
    propagation. 312. 3 17
    model. 3 12. 316
    sources for carbon dioxide. 266
    speech interferance. 242
    stability. 13. 16
    457
    standards for endangerment measures. 27
    standby diesel power plants. 146
    standby power plant. 145
    state of science . 385. 386
    state of the art. 385
    in technology. 24
    static models. 36
    static s tress level. 129
    statistics. 32
    steps of safety analysis. 46
    stereoscopic vision. 17 1
    stochastic processes. 13
    storms. 282
    street sweeping vehiele. 244
    street traffic. 404
    stress cycle resistance. 135
    strict (direct) liability. 362
    subsoil water. 3 11
    sudden release. 306
    summer smog. 282
    supervisory activities. 207
    sweating. 167
    switching crrors. 243
    system analysis. 29
    system descript ion . 3 0
    systcm functions. 50
    system management. 29
    system of standards. 25458
    system structure analysis. 80
    systematic failures. \48
    systems. 12.28
    syslcms engineering. 28
    lakeoffs. 342
    technical safety legal code. 393
    {echnical supervisory associations. 369
    Tcchnische Oberwachungsvcreinc. 369
    tcchnology . 24
    technology assessment , 35, 402, 403.
    415
    technology·induced TA, 406
    temperature. 28 1
    loads. 117
    sensations. 177
    temporary disability. 429
    the machine as a safclY faclOr. 109
    theoretical systems analysis, 34
    time delays. 16
    time histories, 335
    TNT equivalent method. 322
    toxic effect. 296. 297
    traffic. 406
    density. 29 1. 292
    psychology. 210
    training. 193. 247. 252. 259
    stimulus. 185
    transportation. 406
    Iriat·and·error method . 252
    trinitrotoluene (TNT). 322
    turbulent diffusion. 302
    upper ignilion threshold. 305
    utilitarian school. 416, 419
    variance analysis, 33
    venture, 8
    verbal communication. 242
    vibration. 202, 278
    resonance. 203
    thresholds, 177
    vigilance, 197, 215, 239
    vision, 184
    field of. 227
    visual perception, 212
    voice communicability, 275
    water, 268
    water characteristic (model), 309
    water level control. 348
    water pollution, 27 1
    water quality, 270
    weather. 279
    Weibull distribution, 56
    Winter smog, 282
    Woehler tests (S-N tests). 114
    work fatigue. 185
    yearly mean values, 301
    Yerkes-Dodson law. 214

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