Introduction to Health and Safety in Construction – Fifth Edition

Introduction to Health and Safety in Construction – Fifth Edition
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Phil Hughes
التاريخ
11 فبراير 2024
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69
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Introduction to Health and Safety in Construction – Fifth Edition
For the NEBOSH National Certificate in Construction Health and Safety
Phil Hughes MBE, MSc, CFIOSH
Chairman NEBOSH 1995–2001. President of IOSH 1990–1991
Ed Ferrett PhD, BSc (Hons Eng), CEng, MIMechE, MIET, CMIOSH
Vice Chairman NEBOSH 1999–2008
Contents
2.5 Practice revision questions .60
Appendix 2.1 Health and Safety Policy checklist .61

  1. Health and safety management systems –
    Organising – DO 1 63
    3.1 Organisational health and safety roles and
    responsibilities of employers, directors,
    managers and supervisors .64
    3.2 Concept of health and safety culture and its
    significance in the management of health and
    safety in an organisation 69
    3.3 Human factors which influence
    behaviour at work 71
    3.4 How health and safety behaviour at work can
    be improved .78
    3.5 Further information 89
    3.6 Practice revision questions .90
    Appendix 3.1 Leadership actions for directors and
    board members 92
    Appendix 3.2 Detailed health and safety
    responsibilities 94
    Appendix 3.3 Safety culture questionnaire 96
    Appendix 3.4 List of typical legislation requiring
    health and safety training 97
  2. Health and safety management systems –
    Risk assessment and controls – DO 2 .99
    4.1 Principles and practice of risk assessment .100
    4.2 General principles of prevention in relation to
    risk reduction measures .115
    4.3 Sources of health and safety information .116
    4.4 Factors that should be considered when
    developing and implementing a safe system
    of work for general work activities .117
    4.5 Role and function of a permit-to-work system .121
    4.6 Emergency procedures and arrangements for
    contacting the emergency services .125
    4.7 Requirements for, and effective provision
    of, first-aid in the workplace .127
    4.8 Further information 130
    4.9 Practice revision questions .131
    Appendix 4.1 Hazard checklist .133
    Appendix 4.2 Risk assessment example:
    office cleaning 134
    Appendix 4.3 Asbestos examples of safe systems
    of work .136
    List of illustrations ix
    Preface �����������������������������������������������������������������������xviii
    Acknowledgements������������������������������������������������������ xx
    About the authors�������������������������������������������������������� xxi
    How to use this book and what it covers��������������������xxii
    List of principal abbreviations ������������������������������������xxvii
    Safety signs xxx
  3. Foundations in health and safety 1
    1.1 The scope and nature of occupational health
    and safety 2
    1.2 Moral, legal and financial reasons for
    promoting good standards of health and safety . 4
    1.3 The legal framework for the regulation of
    health and safety including sources and types
    of law .7
    1.4 The scope, duties and offences of
    employers, managers, employees and others
    under the Health and Safety at Work etc.
    Act 1974 .15
    1.5 The scope, duties and offences of
    employers, managers, employees and others
    under the Management of Health and Safety
    at Work Regulations .29
    1.6 The legal and organisational health and safety
    roles and responsibilities of clients and their
    contractors .30
    1.7 The principles of assessing and managing
    contractors .34
    1.8 Further information 37
    1.9 Practice revision questions 38
    Appendix 1.1 Checklist for supply chain health and
    safety management .40
    Appendix 1.2 Pre-construction information .41
    Appendix 1.3 Construction phase plan .42
    Appendix 1.4 The health and safety file .43
  4. Health and safety management
    systems – PLAN .45
    2.1 Key elements of a health and safety
    management system .46
    2.2 Purpose and importance of setting a policy
    for health and safety 53
    2.3 Key features and appropriate content of an
    effective health and safety policy 53
    2.4 Further information 59Contents
    vi
    Appendix 9.1 Safety at street works and
    road works 250
  5. Musculoskeletal hazards and risk
    control 251
    10.1 Musculoskeletal disorders and work-related
    upper limb disorders 252
    10.2 Manual handling hazards and control
    measures .256
    10.3 Lifting and moving equipment .262
    10.4 Further information 276
    10.5 Practice revision questions 276
    Appendix 10.1 A typical risk assessment for the
    use of lifting equipment .279
    Appendix 10.2 A typical risk assessment for an
    excavator to be used for lifting 280
    Appendix 10.3 Examples of manually operated
    load handling equipment 281
    Appendix 10.4 Safe use of fork-lift trucks (based
    on an HSE document) 282
  6. Work equipment hazards and risk control 283
    11.1 General requirements for work equipment 284
    11.2 Hazards and controls for hand-held tools .293
    11.3 Mechanical and non-mechanical hazards of
    machinery .304
    11.4 Control measures for reducing risks from
    machinery hazards 309
    11.5 Further information 323
    11.6 Practice revision questions .323
  7. Electrical safety .327
    12.1 Hazards and risks associated with the
    use of electricity in the workplace .328
    12.2 Control measures .336
    12.3 Control measures for working near
    overhead power lines .344
    12.4 Further information 346
    12.5 Practice revision questions 347
  8. Fire safety .349
    13.1 Principles of fire initiation, classification,
    spread and fire risks caused by construction
    activities and legal requirements .350
    13.2 Fire risk assessment 361
    13.3 Fire prevention and prevention
    of fire spread 366
    13.4 Fire detection, fire alarm systems and
    fire-fighting equipment for construction
    activities .378
    13.5 Requirements for an adequate and properly
    maintained means of escape in the
    construction workplace .383
    13.6 Evacuation of a construction workplace in
    the event of a fire .385
    13.7 Further information 387
  9. Health and safety management systems –
    Monitoring, investigation and
    recording – CHECK 139
    5.1 Active and reactive monitoring 140
    5.2 Investigating incidents .149
    5.3 Recording and reporting incidents .156
    5.4 Further information 163
    5.5 Practice revision questions .163
    Appendix 5.1 Workplace inspection exercises 165
    Appendix 5.2 Information for insurance/
    compensation claims .167
    Appendix 5.3 Checklist of items to be
    covered in a construction site inspection .168
  10. Health and safety management systems –
    Audit and review – ACT .173
    6.1 Health and safety auditing .174
    6.2 Review of health and safety performance .177
    6.3 Further information 180
    6.4 Practice revision questions .180
  11. Construction law and management .181
    7.1 The scope, definition and particular issues
    relating to construction activities .182
    7.2 The legal, moral and financial consequences
    of failing to manage health and safety within
    the construction industry .184
    7.3 Scope and application of the Construction
    (Design and Management) Regulations 2015 188
    7.4 Sources of external construction health and
    safety information 195
    7.5 Further information 196
    7.6 Practice revision questions 197
  12. Construction site issues – hazards
    and risk control 199
    8.1 Initial site assessment .200
    8.2 Appropriate general site control measures .204
    8.3 Health, welfare and work environment
    requirements 211
    8.4 Violence at work 215
    8.5 Substance misuse at work .218
    8.6 Safe movement of people on
    construction sites .220
    8.7 Further information 227
    8.8 Practice revision questions 228
    Appendix 8.1 A typical set of site safety rules .230
    Appendix 8.2 Smoke-free workplaces .231
  13. Vehicle and plant movement – hazards
    and risk control 233
    9.1 Safe movement of vehicles and plant within
    a construction environment .234
    9.2 Driving at work .243
    9.3 Further information 248
    9.4 Practice revision questions 248vii
    Contents
    Appendix 16.6 Examples of safe systems of
    work used in roof work 496
  14. Excavation work and confined spaces –
    hazards and risk control 497
    17.1 Excavation work hazards and risk assessment 498
    17.2 Control measures for excavation work 505
    17.3 Confined space working hazards and risks 510
    17.4 Control measures for confined
    space working 511
    17.5 Further information 513
    17.6 Practice revision questions 514
    Appendix 17.1 An example of safe digging practice 516
    Appendix 17.2 Typical excavation work risk
    assessment 517
    Appendix 17.3 Typical confined spaces risk
    assessment 518
  15. Demolition and deconstruction – hazards
    and risk control 519
    18.1 Demolition and deconstruction
    hazards and risks 520
    18.2 Control measures .521
    18.3 Purposes and scope of pre-demolition,
    deconstruction or refurbishment survey 525
    18.4 Control measures that a method statement
    should include 527
    18.5 Further information 529
    18.6 Practice revision questions 529
    Appendix 18.1 Checklist for a safe system of work 530
  16. Summary of the main legal requirements 531
    19.1 Introduction 532
    19.2 The legal framework 533
    19.3 List of Acts, orders and regulations
    summarised .536
    19.4 HSW Act 1974 as amended in 2013 538
    19.5 Environmental Protection Act 1990 .542
    19.6 New Roads and Street Works Act 1991 552
    19.7 Control of Artificial Optical Radiation at
    Work Regulations 2010 554
    19.8 Control of Asbestos Regulations (CAR) 2012 556
    19.9 Classification, Labelling and Packaging
    of Substances and Mixtures Regulation
    (European) adopting into EU UN Globally
    Harmonised System of Classification and
    Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) .565
    19.10 Confined Spaces Regulations 1997 .568
    19.11 Construction (Design and Management)
    Regulations 2015 (CDM 2015) .570
    19.12 Health and Safety (Consultation with
    Employees) Regulations 1996 .579
    19.13 Control of Substances Hazardous to Health
    Regulations (COSHH) 2002 and 2004
    Amendment .581
    19.14 Dangerous Substances and Explosive
    Atmospheres Regulations (DSEAR) 2002 585
    13.8 Practice revision questions .388
    Appendix 13.1 Fire risk assessment checklist
    as recommended in Fire Safety Guides
    published by the Department for
    Communities and Local Government
    in 2006 390
    Appendix 13.2 Typical fire notice .391
  17. Chemical and biological health hazards
    and risk control 393
    14.1 Forms and classification of, and the health
    risks from exposure to, hazardous
    substances .394
    14.2 Assessment of health risks 398
    14.3 Workplace exposure limits .407
    14.4 Control measures .408
    14.5 Specific agents .419
    14.6 Safe handling and storage of waste .430
    14.7 Further information 432
    14.8 Practice revision questions .433
    Appendix 14.1 GHS hazard (H) statements
    (Health only) .436
    Appendix 14.2 Health questionnaire for ongoing
    surveillance of persons working with
    respiratory sensitisers 437
    Appendix 14.3 Hazardous properties of waste as
    listed in the Hazardous Waste (England and
    Wales) Regulations 2005 .438
    Appendix 14.4 Different types of protective
    gloves .439
  18. Physical and psychological health hazards
    and risk control .441
    15.1 Noise 442
    15.2 Vibration .448
    15.3 Radiation 453
    15.4 Stress .459
    15.5 Further information 461
    15.6 Practice revision questions 462
  19. Working at height – hazards and risk
    control 465
    16.1 Working at height hazards and control .466
    16.2 Safe working practices for access
    equipment and roof work .474
    16.3 Protection of others .489
    16.4 Working over or near water .489
    16.5 Further information 490
    16.6 Practice revision questions 491
    Appendix 16.1 Inspection timing and
    frequency chart 493
    Appendix 16.2 Checklist of typical scaffolding faults 494
    Appendix 16.3 Checklist for a safety inspection of
    a scaffold 494
    Appendix 16.4 Scaffold design, inspection,
    competence and supervision checklist .494
    Appendix 16.5 Scaffold structures that need to
    be designed .495Contents
    viii
  20. International, environmental and other
    aspects of health and safety 653
    20.1 Introduction 654
    20.2 International issues 654
    20.3 Environmental considerations 661
    20.4 Health and safety in the home .667
    20.5 Safe cycling 670
    20.6 Further information 671
    Appendix 20.1 Scaffolds and ladders .672
    Appendix 20.2 International travel tips 672
  21. Study skills .675
    21.1 Introduction 676
    21.2 Find a place to study 676
    21.3 Time management .676
    21.4 Blocked thinking .677
    21.5 Taking notes .677
    21.6 Reading for study .677
    21.7 Free learning resources from the
    Open University .677
    21.8 Organising for revision .678
    21.9 Organising information .678
    21.10 Being aware of your learning style 680
    21.11 How does memory work? .680
    21.12 How to deal with exams 681
    21.13 The examiners’ reports 682
    21.14 Conclusion .683
    21.15 Further information 683
  22. Specimen answers to practice questions 685
    22.1 Introduction 686
    22.2 The written examinations 686
    22.3 Unit NCC2 – Construction Health and Safety
    Practical Application .691
    Appendix 22.1 The practical application report 696
    Appendix 22.2 The practical application
    observation sheets .699
  23. International sources of information and
    guidance .705
    23.1 Introduction 706
    23.2 How to search the internet effectively 706
    23.3 Some useful websites .708
    23.4 Health and safety forms 710
    Index 747
    19.15 Health and Safety (Display Screen
    Equipment) Regulations 1992 as amended
    in 2002 .587
    19.16 Electricity at Work Regulations 1989 .589
    19.17 Employers’ Liability (Compulsory Insurance)
    Act 1969 and Regulations 1998 amended in
    2002, 2004 and 2008 .592
    19.18 Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005 .593
    19.19 Health and Safety (First-Aid) Regulations
    1981 as amended 601
    19.20 Health and Safety (Information for
    Employees) Regulations 1989 .602
    19.21 Hazardous Waste (England and Wales)
    Regulations 2005 .603
    19.22 Ionising Radiations Regulations 1999 603
    19.23 Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment
    Regulations (LOLER) 1998 as amended
    in 2002 .606
    19.24 Management of Health and Safety at Work
    Regulations 1999 as amended in
    2003 and 2006 .609
    19.25 Manual Handling Operations Regulations
    (MHO) 1992 as amended in 2002 612
    19.26 Control of Noise at Work
    Regulations 2005 .614
    19.27 Personal Protective Equipment at Work
    Regulations 1992 as amended in
    2002 and 2013 .618
    19.28 Provision and Use of Work Equipment
    Regulations 1998 (except Part IV) as
    amended in 2002 and 2013 .620
    19.29 The Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and
    Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 2013 .624
    19.30 Safety Representatives and Safety
    Committees Regulations 1977 629
    19.31 Health and Safety (Safety Signs and Signals)
    Regulations 1996 .630
    19.32 The Supply of Machinery (Safety)
    Regulations 2008 as amended .633
    19.33 Control of Vibration at Work
    Regulations 2005 .634
    19.34 Workplace (Health, Safety and Welfare)
    Regulations 1992 as amended in
    2002 and 2013 .636
    19.35 Work at Height Regulations 2005 as
    amended in 2007 .638
    19.36 The Waste (England and Wales)
    Regulations 2011 .642
    19.37 Other relevant legislation in brief .643ix
    2.8 The policy might be good but is it put
    into practice – unsafe use of a ladder (©
    Mikeledray – Shutterstock) .58
    2.9 Emergency procedures (© Henry Ho –
    Shutterstock) 62
    2.10 Ladders and scaffold maintained in good
    condition and frequently inspected .62
    2.11 Vacuum-operated paving stone placer .62
    3.1 DO part of the management cycle involves
    Risk Profiling (Chapter 4), Organising and
    Implementing plans .64
    3.2 Everyone from senior manager down has
    health and safety responsibilities .65
    3.3 Safety practitioner at the front line
    (© Shutterstock/John Gomez) 68
    3.4 Safety investment 69
    3.5 Heinrich’s accidents/incidents ratios .71
    3.6 Well-designed workstation for sitting or
    standing .73
    3.7 Most construction rubbish can burn. Make
    sure that it is swept up and removed
    from the site as soon as possible (©
    Michaelstockfoto – Shutterstock) .74
    3.8 Motivation and activity .75
    3.9 Visual perceptions: (a) Are the lines of the
    same length? (b) Faces or vase? (c) Faces
    or saxophone player? .75
    3.10 Types of human failure 76
    3.11 Health and Safety Law poster – must be
    displayed or brochure given to
    employees .81
    3.12 The law on consulting employees about
    health and safety in your workplace.
    References to the Regulations are colourcoded to help find the parts that are
    most relevant to a particular organisation:
    for workplaces where the Safety
    Representatives and Safety Committees
    Regulations 1977 apply; for workplaces
    where the Health and Safety (Consultation
    with Employees) Regulations 1996 apply
    (Source: HSE INDG232(rev1)) .82
    3.13 Health and safety training needs and
    opportunities 85
    3.14 Internal influences on safety culture 87
    1.1 At work in Southampton 2015 – site
    operated well into the night (© Phil Hughes) . 3
    1.2 Insured and uninsured costs (© Beci Phipps) .6
    1.3 The court system in England and Wales for
    health and safety showing the principle
    courts .9
    1.4 Sub-divisions and sources of law .12
    1.5 Diagrammatic view of ‘reasonably practicable’ 14
    1.6 HSW Act (© Phil Hughes) .16
    1.7 Employees at work taking reasonable care
    of themselves (© Phil Hughes) .18
    1.8 The inspector inspects .19
    1.9 NEBOSH is in control here 24
    1.10 Typical supply chain .25
    1.11 Inadequate chair – it should have five feet
    and an adjustable backrest – take care
    when buying second-hand .26
    1.12 Diagram showing the main external
    agencies that impact on the workplace .28
    1.13 Good standards prevent harm and save
    money 28
    1.14 Domestic client: CDM applies but not
    notifiable (© Phil Hughes) .33
    1.15 Large-scale contract: CDM applies and it is
    notifiable (© Phil Hughes) .34
    1.16 Contractors at work unloading steel beams
    (© Phil Hughes) .35
    1.17 Site safety rules (© Phil Hughes) 36
    1.18 Rules at site entrance with viewing panel
    to see inside the site (© Phil Hughes) 36
    2.1 The Plan, Do, Check, Act cycle (© Beci
    Phipps) 47
    2.2 PLAN part of the management cycle
    involves Policy and Planning (© Beci Phipps) .49
    2.3 Well-presented policy documents (© Beci
    Phipps) 53
    2.4 (a) and (b) Part of a policy commitment
    (© Beci Phipps) .54
    2.5 SMART performance standards or
    objectives (© Beci Phipps) 55
    2.6 (a) and (b) Good information, training and
    working with employees is essential (©
    Beci Phipps) 57
    2.7 Providing guidance and training is essential
    (© Beci Phipps) .58
    List of illustrationsList of illustrations
    x
    4.29 Flow chart showing courses to be
    completed over a 3-year certification
    period for EFAW and FAW. The dotted
    line indicates the route to be taken in
    subsequent years after completion of the
    relevant course at year 3 (© HSE) 130
    5.1 CHECK involves measuring performance
    and investigating incidents (© Beci Phipps) 141
    5.2 Effective risk control (Source: HSE) (© Beci
    Phipps) 142
    5.3 Poor conditions: (a) inspection needed;
    (b) inspection in progress (© Smikeymikey
    Shutterstock; © Lisa F. Young Shutterstock) .144
    5.4 The use of a checklist (© Beci Phipps) .146
    5.5 Dangerous occurrence: aftermath of a fire
    (© Jason Salmon Shutterstock) 149
    5.6 Accident at work – reconstruction of
    a ladder accident showing where the
    deceased person was found under the
    ladder which had toppled over while he
    was attempting to adjust the height of the
    extending ladder (© Phil Hughes) .150
    5.7 (a) Accident; (b) near miss (includes
    dangerous occurrence) damage only; (c)
    undesired circumstances (© HSE) 151
    5.8 F. E. Bird’s well-known accident triangle
    (© Beci Phipps) .151
    5.9 Appropriate levels of investigation (© HSE) 152
    5.10 Questions to be asked in an investigation
    (© Beci Phipps) .154
    5.11 (a) The Accident Book BI 510 (Second
    Edition) ISBN 97807176640580 (© HSE);
    (b) Record form from BI 510 (© HSE) .157–8
    5.12 Construction site (© Phil Hughes) 165
    5.13 Road repair (© Phil Hughes) .165
    5.14 Workshop (© Phil Hughes) .166
    5.15 Roof repair and unloading flammable
    liquids (© Phil Hughes) .166
    6.1 ACT part of the health and safety
    management system (© Beci Phipps) 174
    6.2 The Audit Process (© Beci Phipps) .175
    6.3 Using the audit questions for interviews
    and collecting information (© Beci Phipps) .176
    6.4 The audit report should be reviewed by
    senior managers with an action plan and
    follow-up (© Beci Phipps) .177
    6.5 Review of performance (© Beci Phipps) 178
    6.6 Continual improvement part of the health
    and safety management process (© Beci
    Phipps) 179
    7.1 Building site entrance (© Phil Hughes) .182
    7.2 Demolition and ground clearance (© Phil
    Hughes) 183
    7.3 Recent migrant workers, whose standards
    may not match those in Europe, are
    employed in the UK and the EU in general.
    In this instance, language was a problem,
    hard hats and gloves would have helped,
    3.15 External influences on safety culture .88
    4.1 Risk assessment or profiling is covered by
    the DO part of the management cycle
    (© Beci Phipps) .100
    4.2 Reducing the risk – finding an alternative
    safer method when fitting a wall-mounted
    boiler 101
    4.3 Accident at work 102
    4.4 Bird’s well-known accident triangle (© Beci
    Phipps) 102
    4.5 Five steps to risk assessment (© Beci
    Phipps) 104
    4.6 Proper control of gases and vapours in a
    laboratory (© emin kuliyev Shutterstock) 107
    4.7 Colour categories and shapes of signs 107
    4.8 Examples of warning, mandatory and
    prohibition signs .107
    4.9 Falling object and construction site
    entrance signs .107
    4.10 Wet floor signs 108
    4.11 Examples of chemical warning signs .108
    4.12 Examples of fire safety signs .108
    4.13 Examples of fire action signs .108
    4.14 Examples of first-aid signs .108
    4.15 LPG sign 109
    4.16 Smoke-free – no smoking sign (© HM
    Government) .109
    4.17 Fragile roof signs .109
    4.18 Welfare washing facilities: washbasin
    should be large enough for people to wash
    their forearms (© Phil Hughes) .111
    4.19 Good dust control for a chasing operation.
    A dust mask is still required for complete
    protection .112
    4.20 Respiratory protection and disposable
    overalls are needed when working in high
    levels of asbestos dust 112
    4.21 A lone worker – special arrangements
    required. Sand or shot blasting inside a
    tank with an air-fed helmet and vest
    (© Shutterstock) .115
    4.22 When controls break down (© Lakeview
    Images Shutterstock) 115
    4.23 Checking the label for health risks (© Phil
    Hughes) 117
    4.24 Multi-padlocked hasp for locking off an
    isolation valve – each worker puts on their
    own padlock (© Phil Hughes) .118
    4.25 A hot work permit is usually essential for
    welding, cutting and burning except in
    designated areas like a welding shop 123
    4.26 Entering a confined space with breathing
    apparatus, rescue tripod and rescue
    watcher 124
    4.27 Emergency services at work
    (© Shutterstock) .125
    4.28 (a) First-aid and stretcher sign; (b) first-aid
    sign 128xi
    List of illustrations
    8.14 Falling from a height – tower scaffold with
    inadequate handrail (too low) and no middle
    rail. Access ladder should be internal and it
    should never be moved with people on the
    scaffold 221
    8.15 Good stairs with handrail leading from site
    accommodation (© Phil Hughes) 222
    8.16 Typical pedestrian/vehicle crossing area
    (© HSE) .224
    8.17 A designated waste collection area (© HSE) 224
    8.18 Pedestrians separated from the work and
    traffic (© HSE) .227
    9.1 Telescopic materials handler (© Phil
    Hughes) 235
    9.2 Various construction plant with driver
    protection (© Phil Hughes) .235
    9.3 Site entrance to large construction site
    (© HSE) .238
    9.4 Dumper truck with rollover protection
    (ROP) (© Phil Hughes) 238
    9.5 (a) Road Works Ahead; (b) Road Narrows
    (© HM Government) .240
    9.6 Signs for Keep Right and Keep Left (© HM
    Government) .241
    9.7 Cone and road danger lamp (© HM
    Government) .241
    9.8 Red and white barrier rail (© HM
    Government) .241
    9.9 Road works sign for footpath closure.
    Could be improved with walkway for
    pedestrians beside track. But this is only
    minor road, and pedestrians can cross
    to a good pavement opposite (© HM
    Government) .242
    9.10 Typical information sign (© HM
    Government) .242
    9.11 Road works End sign (© HM
    Government) .242
    9.12 Occupational road risk increases when
    construction work is undertaken – cranes
    like this have to be driven to their operating
    location and operated when on site (© Phil
    Hughes) 244
    9.13 Concrete delivery by road (© Phil Hughes) .245
    9.14 Must have a valid licence for each type of
    vehicle (© Shutterstock) .246
    9.15 Fork-lift truck loading timber trusses onto a
    trailer. Loading vehicle correctly and evenly
    is most important for road stability en route
    (© William Milner Shutterstock) .246
    9.16 Traffic control by portable traffic signals
    (© Phil Hughes) .250
    9.17 Works on footway with temporary footway
    in carriage (© Phil Hughes) .250
    10.1 Loading pipes onto a barge using a
    teleporter lift truck 252
    10.2 A tilted worktable. The distance between
    the operator and the work can be reduced
    boots were good protection but not steeltoed. Concrete delivery equipment was
    very up to date (© Phil Hughes) 184
    7.4 A serious accident waiting to happen on
    a small building site: no top guard on the
    circular saw – a very common safety fault
    (© Phil Hughes) .185
    7.5 Design and management of construction
    work (© Shutterstock) 188
    7.6 (a) Domestic client: CDM applies but only
    a short duration contract, no notification
    required – would be notifiable if a large
    project; (b) Large site (over 30 days, more
    than 20 workers simultaneously or exceeds
    500 person days): CDM applies and client
    must notify the relevant enforcing authority
    (© Phil Hughes) .190
    7.7 Protection of the public in main shopping
    area (© Phil Hughes) .191
    7.8 Contractors at work (© Phil Hughes) 192
    7.9 Barriers to prevent unauthorised entry
    also advertising involvement with the
    Considerate Constructors Scheme 193
    8.1 Concrete being pumped to upper floors on
    a large construction site (© Shutterstock) 200
    8.2 Keeping corridors clear during
    refurbishment (© HSE) .201
    8.3 Secure site access gate with added
    protection to prevent vehicles entering at
    night or on Sundays (© Phil Hughes) 201
    8.4 Prevention of drowning. Rescue and safety
    equipment must always be easily available
    and in good condition .202
    8.5 Well organised site with internal storage
    compounds and site accommodation
    behind with means of escape staircase
    in case of fire (also from the UK in
    background on Southampton water) .207
    8.6 Working in or close to occupied premises .211
    8.7 A wide range of portable welfare facilities
    like these are available. It may be possible
    when refurbishing buildings to use the
    facilities already on site 213
    8.8 A large building site well lit at night (©
    Pavel L Photo and Video Shutterstock) .213
    8.9 The heat equation 214
    8.10 Security access and surveillance CCTV
    camera (Source: © HSE) 216
    8.11 It takes a healthy liver about one hour
    to break down and remove one unit of
    alcohol. A unit is equivalent to 8 mg or 10
    ml (1 cl) of pure alcohol 219
    8.12 Tripping hazards on untidy site (© Phil
    Hughes) 220
    8.13 Cleaning must be done carefully to prevent
    slipping or falling using bosun’s chair and
    rope support with trained worker (© Anna
    Baburkina Shutterstock) 221List of illustrations
    xii
    11.8 (a) broken and dangerous wood chisel
    handle; (b) range of non-powered hand
    tools 293
    11.9 Range of hand-held portable power tools
    (© DeWalt) .295
    11.10 Pneumatic hammer/chisel (© J5M
    Shutterstock) 297
    11.11 Electric drill with percussion hammer
    action to drill holes in masonry 297
    11.12 Disc-cutter/cut-off saw (© Dmitry
    Kalinovsky Shutterstock) .298
    11.13 Rotary drum floor sander .299
    11.14 Orbital finishing sander .299
    11.15 Disc sander 299
    11.16 Cartridge-powered nail gun 300
    11.17 Pneumatic-powered nail gun .300
    11.18 Typical chainsaw with rearguard. 1 – hand
    guard with integral chain brake; 2 – exhaust
    outlet directed to the right-hand side away
    from the operator; 3 – chain breakage
    guard at bottom of rear handle; 4 – chain
    designed to have low-kickback tendency;
    5 – rubber anti-vibration mountings; 6 –
    lockout for the throttle trigger; 7 – guide
    bar (should be protected when transporting
    chainsaw); 8 – bottom chain catcher; 9 –
    PPE hand/eye/ear defender signs; 10 – on/
    off switch. 302
    11.19 Kevlar gloves, overtrousers and overshoes
    providing protection against chainsaw cuts.
    Helmet and face shield protect the head.
    Apprentice under training – first felling 303
    11.20 Range of mechanical hazards 306
    11.21 Range of fixed guards 310
    11.22 Adjustable guard for a rotating drill bit on a
    pedestal drill .311
    11.23 Self-adjusting guard on a circular wood saw 311
    11.24 Typical sliding and hinged interlocking
    guards 311
    11.25 Schematic diagram of a telescopic trip
    device fitted to a radial drill 312
    11.26 Two-handed control device 312
    11.27 Typical multifunction printer/photocopier 314
    11.28 Typical office shredder .315
    11.29 Typical bench-mounted grinder .315
    11.30 Typical pedestal drill .315
    11.31 Typical bench-mounted circular saw 316
    11.32 Hand-fed planing machine safeguards .317
    11.33 Spindle moulding machine with various
    forms of safeguard 317
    11.34 (a) Typical small cement mixer with a
    petrol engine or electric motor; (b) dieselpowered concrete mixer fitted with a
    hydraulic loading hopper .319
    11.35 Plate compactor .319
    11.36 (a) Ground consolidating rider-mounted
    vibrating roller; (b) Ground consolidating
    roller using remote control which
    by putting the table at a more vertical
    angle. The table is adjustable in height and
    angle to suit the particular job (Source:
    © HSE) .253
    10.3 Pump liquid from a bulk container to a
    dispenser to save awkward handling
    (Source: © HSE) .253
    10.4 Workstation design 254
    10.5 Manual handling: there are many potential
    hazards .256
    10.6 Main injury sites caused by manual
    handling accidents .257
    10.7 HSE guidance for manual lifting –
    recommended weights (Source: © HSE) 258
    10.8 Moving bricks or paving blocks using a
    specially designed barrow (© HSE) 259
    10.9 The main elements of a good lifting
    technique (© HSE) 261
    10.10 Use of a hand-operated pallet truck to raise
    and move goods (© HSE) .263
    10.11 Conveyor systems: (a) belt conveyors;
    (b) a method of safely moving roofing
    sheets along a roof valley; (c) a suggested
    method for manually lifting trusses to
    eaves level (© HSE) 265
    10.12 A brick elevator (Source: © HSE) .267
    10.13 Rough terrain counterbalanced lift truck
    (© HSE) .267
    10.14 (a) Attaching a quick hitch fly jib to a
    telescopic mobile crane (hard hat missing);
    (b) crane in use installing a yacht’s mast;
    (c) two excavators with quick hitch bucket
    couplings (© Phil Hughes) 269
    10.15 Lifting roof trusses (© TFoxFoto
    Shutterstock) 271
    10.16 (a) Typical luffing jib tower cranes
    operating on a large construction site
    (© Shutterstock); (b) Typical saddle jib
    (horizontal) tower crane (© Phil Hughes) 272
    10.17 Mobile self-erecting tower crane (© Phil
    Hughes) 274
    10.18 Specially designed safety hooks (Source:
    © HSE) .274
    11.1 (a) This is the CE marking; (b) Division of
    responsibility for the safety of machinery
    (© Beci Phipps) .285
    11.2 Typical Certificate of Conformity .286
    11.3 Using a bench-mounted abrasive wheel
    (© Draper 298
    11.4 British Standard system for specifying
    abrasive wheels from BS EN 12413:1999
    and BS ISO 525:1999 (© HSE) .298
    11.5 (a) Typical diesel-powered compressor with
    air receiver and pneumatic chisel; (b) typical
    electrically powered compressor with air
    receiver (© Speedy) 290
    11.6 Equipment controls – design features .291
    11.7 Emergency stop button .292xiii
    List of illustrations
    13.11 Avoid lighting bonfires unless essential. If
    essential, do make sure points (a)–(e) are
    followed (© HSE) 362
    13.12 Fire evacuation diagram suitable for
    refurbishment or when the main structure
    has been formed 366
    13.13 Controlling waste on site – waste chute
    and covered skip (© HSE) .368
    13.14 Electrical cabling can often get damaged
    and overloaded during a construction
    project. Other poor features here include:
    lack of head protection; confined space
    entry; edge protection and trench supports
    (© serato Shutterstock) 370
    13.15 (a) Storage arrangements for highly
    flammable liquids; (b) LPG outside storage
    compound (© HSE) .372
    13.16 Multiple temporary accommodation units
    (TAUs) with external staircase (© Phil
    Hughes) 373
    13.17 Steel structures can collapse in the heat of
    a fire (© Phil Hughes) 375
    13.18 Insulated core panels .375
    13.19 Plasterboard partitions such as this can form
    effective compartmentation. It is important
    that all gaps are filled in. In this case, there
    are holes in the top of the partition and
    service ducts in the side rooms that need to
    be sealed (Source: © HSE) 376
    13.20 Safe dispensing of flammable liquids
    (© Phil Hughes) .377
    13.21 Simple electrical fire alarm system
    components (© Phil Hughes) 379
    13.22 A temporary wired-in fire alarm during
    major renovation of a large and multi-storey
    complex building (© HSE) .379
    13.23 Fire point on large construction site
    (© Phil Hughes) .380
    13.24 Types of fire extinguishers and labels
    (Note: main colour of all extinguishers is
    red with 5% for label) 381
    13.25 Various sprinkler heads designed to fit into
    a high-level water pipe system and spray
    water at different angles onto a fire below 382
    13.26 Fire escape route clearly signed and free
    from obstructions (© HSE) .384
    13.27 External access/fire escape in a large
    scaffold during building construction
    (© Phil Hughes) .384
    13.28 Fire exit sign 385
    14.1 (a) Use of the GHS symbols on site;
    (b) how the European packaging symbols
    relate to the new GHS labels
    (© Phil Hughes) . 397
    14.2 Paint spraying – risk of sensitising
    particularly if isocyanate based paint used
    and inadequate local exhaust ventilation
    (© Phil Hughes) .399
    eliminates the whole-body vibration
    exposure of the operator (© Wacker
    nueson) .320
    11.37 Highway line-marking lorry-mounted
    equipment (© yakub88 Shutterstock) .320
    11.38 Walk-behind line-marking equipment 321
    11.39 Typical portable petrol engine, electric
    generator .321
    11.40 Larger transportable diesel-powered
    electric generator in an enclosure 322
    12.1 Beware of electricity – typical sign 328
    12.2 Typical electric shock poster (Courtesy of
    © Stocksigns) .331
    12.3 Keep 18 m clear of high-voltage lines 332
    12.4 Electrical faults through overloading or
    damaged cables cause a large number of
    fires on construction sites (see Chapter 13)
    (© trainman111 Shutterstock) 333
    12.5 (a) Typical transformer; (b) typical RCD
    device 333
    12.6 Prevention of static discharge; container
    connected to earthed drum (© Phil
    Hughes) 334
    12.7 Portable hand-held electric power tools
    (Courtesy of © DeWalt) .335
    12.8 Typical 240 volt fuses and mini circuit
    breaker (© Shutterstock) 339
    12.9 Double insulation sign 340
    12.10 Checking for underground cables with a
    cable detector (© Phil Hughes) .341
    12.11 UK standard 3-pin plug wiring (© Phil
    Hughes) 342
    12.12 Precautions for overhead lines: (a)
    ‘goalpost’ crossing points beneath lines to
    avoid contact by plant; (b) diagram showing
    normal dimensions for ‘goalpost’ crossing
    points and barriers (Reproduced from
    HSG185 Health and Safety in Excavations)
    (© HSE) .346
    13.1 Fire is still a significant risk in many
    workplaces: (a) multi-storey building on fire
    during refurbishment; (b) single-storey farm
    building on fire in the UK (© DK.samco/
    Shutterstock.com) 350
    13.2 Fire triangle 354
    13.3 (a) Transport flammable solid sign;
    (b) GHS – packaging sign .355
    13.4 (a) Transport flammable liquid sign;
    (b) GHS – packaging sign .356
    13.5 (a) Transport flammable gas sign;
    (b) GHS – packaging sign .356
    13.6 (a) Transport oxidising agent sign;
    (b) GHS – packaging sign .356
    13.7 Principles of heat transmission 357
    13.8 Smoke spread in buildings .358
    13.9 Causes of fire in recent years 359
    13.10 Accidental fires – sources of ignition in
    recent years .360List of illustrations
    xiv
    15.5 Injuries which can be caused by hand–arm
    vibration (Source: © HSE) .449
    15.6 (a) and (b) Powered chisels or breakers
    mounted on different sizes of excavators to
    avoid HA vibration (© Phil Hughes) .451
    15.7 (a) Vibrating roller with risk of whole-body
    vibration (© Phil Hughes); (b) remote
    control vibrating plate weighing 1.2 tons
    with compaction in excess of a 7 ton roller
    which eliminates the risk of whole-body
    vibration. The operator is protected from
    vibrations, noise and dust. The machine
    can only be operated if line of sight is
    intact. In case of a loss of control the
    proximity recognition sensor keeps the
    operator safe (© Wacker Nueson) 453
    15.8 Typical ionising sign .454
    15.9 X-ray generating unit used for weld testing
    on site in Russia. The tape states: ‘beware
    of radiation’ (shows the value of pictorial
    signs) (© shinobi / Shutterstock.com) .455
    15.10 Radon monitoring equipment 455
    15.11 Metal furnace – source of infrared heat .457
    15.12 Low level laser beams extensively used
    for levelling and setting out in construction
    work (© Wojciech Dziadosz Shutterstock) .458
    15.13 Welding shields used to protect against
    intense ultraviolet radiation which can
    cause ‘arc eye’ (© Praphan Jampala
    Shutterstock) 458
    15.14 Breakdown of mental ill-health cases by
    type of event which precipitated stress
    between 2010 and 2012 (Source: Stress
    and Psychological Disorders Great Britain
    2013, © HSE) .459
    16.1 Working at height – mast climbing work
    platforms (© Phil Hughes) 467
    16.2 Working platform, pre-fabricated tower
    scaffolds and bridging unit (© Speedy) .468
    16.3 Industrial roof work with safety nets to
    arrest falls (© HSE) .469
    16.4 Proper precautions should always be taken
    when working on or near fragile roofs –
    access system for short-term work (© HSE) .469
    16.5 Typical sloping roof edge protection:
    barriers shown in (a) can be useful where
    space is limited, but they are not capable of
    sustaining loads so large as (b) and (c) which
    also provide a working platform (© HSE) 470
    16.6 Flat roof edge protection supported
    at ground level. This type of support
    allows work up to the roof edge without
    obstruction (© HSE) 472
    16.7 Ladder showing correct 1 in 4 angle
    (means of securing omitted for clarity)
    (© HSE) .475–6
    16.8 (a) Ladder tied at top stiles (correct for
    working on, but not for access); (b) Tying
    14.3 Route map for adequate control for SMEs
    non-experts (Source: © HSE) .399
    14.4 Hazardous substances – principal routes of
    entry into the human body .400
    14.5 The upper and lower respiratory system .401
    14.6 The nervous system 401
    14.7 The cardiovascular system 402
    14.8 Parts of the urinary system 402
    14.9 The skin – main structures of the dermis 403
    14.10 (a) Typical symbols and (b) product label on
    containers 406
    14.11 Hand pump and stain detector tubes
    (Courtesy of © Draeger) .407
    14.12 (a) Common elements of a simple LEV
    system; (b) welding with an adjustable LEV
    system to remove dust and fumes 411
    14.13 Natural ventilation in a building (Source:
    © HSE) .412
    14.14 Personal protective equipment (© Corepics
    VOFShutterstock) .413
    14.15 Types of respiratory protective equipment:
    (a) filtering half-mask; (b) half-mask –
    re-usable with filters; (c) compressed
    air-line breathing apparatus with full
    face fitted with demand valve
    (Source: © HSE) .415
    14.16 Variety of eye protection goggles (Courtesy
    of © Draper) .416
    14.17 Damaged asbestos lagging on pipework
    (© HSE) .422
    14.18 Asbestos removal enclosure (© HSE) 423
    14.19 Dermatitis from wet cement or concrete
    (© VrisPhuket) .427
    14.20 Removing waste from a roadside
    excavation by lorry-mounted loading grab
    (© Phil Hughes) .430
    14.21 A designated waste collection area with
    two types of skip commonly used for
    waste collection. Heavy materials would
    be transported in the smaller skip. Sizes of
    skip range from about 4 cu metres (small
    skip shown) to about 35 cu metres (large
    skip shown) (© HSE) .431
    14.22 Electronic waste under WEEE .432
    15.1 Better to control noise at source than wear
    ear protection (© Phil Hughes) .442
    15.2 Passage of sound waves: (a) The ear
    with cochlea uncoiled; (b) summary of
    transmission 443
    15.3 Typical ear protection zone sign 446
    15.4 Noise paths found in a workplace: (a) the
    quiet area is subjected to reflected noise
    from a machine elsewhere in the building;
    (b) the correct use of roof absorption will
    reduce the reflected noise reaching the
    quiet area; (c) segregation of the noisy
    operation will benefit the whole workplace
    (© HSE) .446xv
    List of illustrations
    17.9 (a) Timbered excavation with ladder access
    and supported services (guard removed
    on one side for clarity) (© HSE); (b) A long
    timbered trench in soft ground (© pryzmat
    Shutterstock) 507
    17.10 Trench box in use (© serato Shutterstock) .508
    17.11 Using a cable detector (© Phil Hughes) 509
    17.12 Entering a confined space with full
    breathing apparatus and watcher outside
    (© Shutterstock) .511
    17.13 Training for confined space entry 512
    17.14 Escape breathing apparatus .513
    18.1 Demolition of old mill in progress 521
    18.2 High hazard vacuum cleaner to clear up
    asbestos material (© HSE) .521
    18.3 Long-reach hydraulic arm for piecemeal
    demolition (© Jozef Sowa Shutterstock) 521
    18.4 Remote-controlled hydraulic arm for
    pushing, nibbling or hammering (© Dmitry
    Kalinovsky Shutterstock) .522
    18.5 Controlled collapse (© Linda Macpherson
    Shutterstock) 522
    18.6 Demolition site should be well planned and
    properly signed and controlled throughout
    the project (© Phil Hughes) 524
    18.7 Clearing up asbestos-containing materials
    (hazardous waste) after demolition has
    started is very difficult and expensive
    (© HSE) .528
    18.8 Type and size of the building is particularly
    important for unusual demolitions
    (© Konstantin Romanov Shutterstock) .528
    19.1 New GHS pictograms with examples of
    Hazard statements and Precautionary
    statements (© Phil Hughes) .566
    19.2 (a) CDM 2015 Schedule 1; (b) CDM 2015
    Schedule 3 (© HSE) 574
    19.3 Content of inspection reports (© HSE) .576
    19.4 Principles of good practice – COSHH
    (© HSE) .583
    19.5 Warning sign for places where explosive
    atmospheres may occur (© Stocksigns) .587
    19.6 Fire safety order – matters to be
    considered in risk assessment in respect
    of: (a) dangerous substances; (b) young
    persons (© HM Government) .595
    19.7 Measures to be taken in respect of
    dangerous substances (© HM Government) 596
    19.8 A completed Hazardous Waste
    Consignment Note .604
    19.9 Manual Handling Operations Regulations –
    flow chart (© HSE) 613
    19.10 What needs to be done under the Control
    of Noise at Work Regulations 2005 (© HSE) 616
    19.11 (a) and (b) Prohibition signs (© Stocksigns) 631
    19.12 (a) and (b) Fire action signs (© Stocksigns) .631
    19.13 (a) and (b) Warning signs (© Stocksigns) 631
    19.14 (a) and (b) Mandatory signs (© Stocksigns) 631
    part way down; (c) Tying near the base;
    (d) Securing at the base 475
    16.9 Attach paint cans and the like to the ladder .477
    16.10 Access ladders should be tied, and extend
    to at least 1 m above the landing point to
    provide a secure handhold .478
    16.11 Working with stepladders (© HSE) .478
    16.12 Typical independent tied scaffold (© HSE)
    (© Beci Phipps) .479
    16.13 Fan scaffold to protect people and passing
    traffic (© Phil Hughes) 480
    16.14 Hoist with interlocked gates (© Phil
    Hughes) 482
    16.15 Typical pre-fabricated tower scaffold
    (© HSE) .483
    16.16 Mobile elevating work platform (MEWP) –
    scissor lift (© Phil Hughes) .483
    16.17 Mobile elevating work platform (MEWP)
    – cherry picker with harness and lanyard
    attached to cradle (© Phil Hughes) .484
    16.18 Airbags to give a safe soft landing (© HSE) .486
    16.19 Fall arrest harness and device .487
    16.20 (a) Roof ladder. The ridge iron should be
    large enough to be clear of the ridge tile;
    (b) permanent protection installed at valley
    gutter (the protection should be supported
    by at least three rafters beneath the roof
    sheets) .488
    16.21 Working over or near water – large scaffold
    with protection screens and a small boat
    moored under the bridge in case rescue is
    needed .490
    17.1 A very hazardous situation for the worker
    with a deep trench, a heavy machine very
    close to the edge and no trench supports
    (© serato Shutterstock) 498
    17.2 Undermining of boundary wall (© HSE) 499
    17.3 Barriers around excavation by footpath
    (© HSE) .501
    17.4 (a) Cofferdam for building a below-ground
    shaft and concrete tank – cofferdam
    removed and backfilled after construction;
    (b) Cofferdam built for repairing bridge piers
    in a river to be removed after construction
    completed (© Phil Hughes) 502
    17.5 (a) Massive Second World War concrete
    caissons known as mulberry harbour
    units – hundreds were constructed in the
    UK and then towed to Normandy and sunk
    in position to form a harbour wall (© Cory
    Stevens Shutterstock); (b) Steel caisson
    being used in construction work 503
    17.6 Stop blocks for dumpers (© HSE) .506
    17.7 Vehicle protection at the top of an
    excavation (© HSE) .506
    17.8 Trench sheets with timber walings, screw
    props, puncheons and sole plates
    (© HSE) .507List of illustrations
    xvi
    19.15 (a) and (b) Safety signs (© Stocksigns) .632
    19.16 Work at height – flowchart (© HSE) .639
    20.1 World Cup stadium under construction,
    Cape Town, 2009 (© sima Shutterstock) 655
    20.2 ILO’s Strategic Approach to strengthening
    National OSH Systems (Source: ILO
    Introductory report: Decent Work, Safe
    Work) .657
    20.3 Excavator at work in France (© Phil Hughes) .657
    20.4 Have to consider different solutions in
    different countries: (a) safe delivery of
    furniture in Certaldo, Italy; (b) dangerous
    access to install overhead low-voltage data
    lines in Morocco (© Phil Hughes) .659
    20.5 Occupational road risk: (a) unusual and
    slow-moving large animals mixed with
    traffic in India; (b) overloaded truck in
    Morocco (© Phil Hughes) .660
    20.6 Example of heavy industrial pollution
    (© Jaroslav Moravcik Shutterstock) 662
    20.7 Water pollution from: (a) an oil spillage;
    (b) plastic and other solid waste 664
    20.8 Electronic waste under WEEE 666
    20.9 Environmental protection commitment .666
    20.10 Gas explosion during the night in
    Southampton 2015 – two people escaped
    unhurt (© Phil Hughes) .668
    20.11 It is very important to be clearly visible
    to the driver of large vehicles particularly
    when they are turning left at junctions
    (© Michaelpuche Shutterstock) 670
    20.12 (a) and (b) New motorist awareness
    posters in Southampton (© Phil Hughes) .671
    21.1 Revision notes .678
    21.2 Mind map report writing 679
    22.1 Select a competent and experienced
    person to carry out a risk assessment .686
    22.2 High level of fumes from welding .688
    22.3 Motivating staff (© NEBOSH) 688
    22.4 Large cement silo on a construction site .689
    22.5 Flat roof repair with: (a) edge protection;
    (b) harness and fall arrest device (© Draper) .690
    22.6 Scaffold collapse, Milton Keynes .691
    M1 General health & safety risk assessment
    example 1 711
    M2 Risk assessment report form example 2 712
    M3 Contractors’ risk assessment example for
    confined spaces 713
    M4 Contractors’ risk assessment example for
    work on fragile roofs .714
    M5 Workplace inspection report form 715
    M6 Workplace inspection checklist 716
    M7 Job safety analysis 718
    M8 Essential elements – permit to work 719
    M9 Witness statement form .720
    M10 Accident/incident report 721
    M11 First aid treatment and accident record 723
    S1 Machinery risk assessment 725
    S2a Permit time extension/transfer (front) 726
    S2b Permit time extension/transfer (back) .727
    H1a COSHH assessment example 728
    H1 COSHH assessment (blank) .729
    H2 COSHH assessment: details of substances
    used or stored .730
    H3 Example of a workstation self assessment
    checklist 732
    H4 Example of a noise assessment record form .734
    H5 Manual handling of loads: assessment
    checklist 735
    H6 Manual handling risk assessment:
    employee checklist .736
    F1 Fire safety maintenance checklist 737
    F2 Fire risk assessment record – significant
    findings .739
    C1 Construction inspection report .740
    C2 Example risk assessment for contract
    bricklayers .741
    C3 Example risk assessment for woodwork 744
    Tables
    1.1 Annual accidents for different groups of
    people .4
    1.2 Approximate proportions (%) of cases of
    work-related ill-health reported by General
    Practitioners in any year 5
    1.3 Typical recent annual health and safety
    enforcement activity in Great Britain 5
    1.4 Causes of working days lost in the UK .6
    1.5 Premises inspected by HSE and Local
    Authorities 19
    2.1 Location and contents of the key elements
    of a health and safety management system
    in chapters 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 .48
    3.1 A comparison of the functions of health
    and safety representatives .84
    4.1 Typical contents of first-aid box – low
    risk 128
    4.2 Number of first-aid personnel .129
    7.1 Types of fatal injury in construction 185
    7.2 Causes of major injuries in construction .185
    7.3 Accidents to all people in various
    employment sectors over a three-year
    period 185
    7.4 Proportion (%) of fatalities in various
    construction activities .186
    7.5 Annual cases and incidence rates for workrelated ill-health seen by the Health and
    Occupational Reporting Network Disease
    Specialists over a three-year period 186
    8.1 Typical workplace lighting levels .214xvii
    List of illustrations
    8.2 Trend in physical assaults and threats at
    work, 1999–2009 (based on working adults
    of working age) .215
    10.1 Safe driving of lift trucks .268
    12.1 Standard wiring colours 336
    12.2 Suggested intervals for portable appliance
    inspection and testing .343
    13.1 Enforcement in respect of fire on
    construction sites .354
    13.2 Maintenance and testing of fire
    equipment .382
    13.3 Maximum travel distances 384
    14.1 Examples of the new hazard warning (H)
    and precautionary statements (P) .398
    14.2 Examples of workplace exposure limits
    (WELs) 408
    14.3 Typical airflow rates for various
    woodworking machines 411
    14.4 The hazards and types of PPE for various
    parts of the body .414
    14.5 The health effects of hydrogen sulphide 425
    15.1 Some typical sound pressure levels (SPL)
    (dB(A) values) 444
    15.2 Some typical sound pressure levels (dB(A))
    for construction processes .444
    15.3 Simple observations to determine the need
    for a noise risk assessment 445
    15.4 Typical noise levels at woodworking
    machines 448
    15.5 Examples of vibration exposure values
    measured by HSE on work equipment .449
    15.6 Machines which could produce significant
    whole-body vibration .450
    15.7 The change in exposure times as vibration
    increases .451
    15.8 Typical radiation dose limits 454
    19.1 Summary of maximum penalties under
    Health and Safety (Offences) Act 2008 for
    offences committed on or after 16 January
    2009 540
    19.2 The waste hierarchy .551
    19.3 The employers’ duties 582
    19.4 Classification zones 587
    19.5 Provision of information under DSE
    Regulation 7 589
    19.6 Schedule 1 to the Manual Handling
    Operations Regulations 614
    20.1 Numbers of global work-related adverse
    events .654
    21.1 Terminology used in NEBOSH exams 682
    Boxes
    2.1 Example of objectives .56
    5.1 Key data for medium level of investigation .156
    5.2 The following categories of immediate
    causes of accident are used in F2508: .161
    19.1 Pollution prevention and control regimes .542
    19.2 Best available techniques (BAT) .542
    19.3 ‘Operator’ 545
    19.4 Definition of controlled waste .549
    19.5 Who has authority to take waste? 550
    19.6 Filling in paperwork .550xviii
    to health and safety in construction activities. Many
    larger construction organisations choose the NEBOSH
    National Construction Certificate as a key part of their
    supervisors’ or management development programme.
    By ensuring that line managers have a sound
    understanding of the principles of risk management
    they build an effective safety culture in the company.
    Smaller construction organisations often choose the
    NEBOSH National Construction Certificate as the
    appropriate qualification for the manager taking the lead
    on health and safety issues.
    The course is divided into three distinct units, each
    of which is assessed separately. The three units are:
    NGC1 – Management of health and safety, NCC1 –
    Managing and controlling hazards in construction
    activities and NCC2 – Construction health and safety
    practical application. This development offers the
    opportunity for additional and more flexible course
    formats and students may now study parallel courses
    (in, say, general health and safety and fire) without
    repeating the management unit. Students who decide
    to take individual units will, on passing, receive a Unit
    Certificate. However, it has necessitated the need for
    an additional chapter (Chapter 7) on construction law
    and management to deal with those construction topics
    that were in the original management syllabus.
    This fifth edition has been produced to include all the
    recent syllabus changes and to update the health and
    safety legislation contained within it, with particular
    regard to the following changes in legislation:
    XX The Enterprise and Regulatory Reform Act 2013
    (Section 69)
    XX The Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974 (Civil
    Liability) (Exceptions) Regulations 2013
    XX The Report of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous
    Occurrences Regulations 2013 (RIDDOR)
    XX The Control of Asbestos Regulations 2012
    XX Classification, Labelling and Packaging of Substances
    and Mixtures Regulation (European) adopting into
    EU UN Globally Harmonised System of Classification
    and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS);
    XX Construction (Design and Management) (CDM)
    Regulations 2015
    XX The revocation of The Notification of Conventional
    Tower Cranes Regulations 2010
    The Introduction to Health and Safety in Construction
    has quickly established itself as the standard text for
    students taking the NEBOSH National Certificate in
    Construction Health and Safety, and for those taking
    other courses in building or construction. It is also
    of great value to those working in the construction
    industry at all levels – particularly construction site
    managers and foremen. As it has become a significant
    work of reference for managers with health and safety
    responsibilities, it is a matter of prime importance that
    it should be kept up to date, as far as is possible, with
    new legislation and recent developments.
    There has been concern over a number of years at the
    poor record of health and safety in the construction
    industry. The legal health and safety requirements for
    all places of work are numerous and complex; it is the
    intention of the authors to offer an introduction to the
    subject for all those who have the maintenance of good
    health and safety standards as part of their employment
    duties or those who are considering the possibility of a
    career as a health and safety professional. Health and
    safety is well recognised as an important component of
    the activities of any organisation, not only because of
    the importance of protecting people from harm but also
    because of the growth in the direct and indirect costs
    of accidents. These costs have increased higher than
    the rate of retail price inflation by a considerable amount
    in the last few years as the number of civil claims
    and awards have risen each year. It is very important
    that basic health and safety legal requirements are
    clearly understood by all organisations, whether public
    or private, large or small. A good health and safety
    performance is normally only achieved when health and
    safety is effectively managed so that significant risks
    are identified and reduced by adopting appropriate high
    quality control measures.
    The NEBOSH National Certificate in Construction
    Health and Safety is established as a leading health
    and safety qualification for the construction industry,
    with over 15,000 successful candidates. It is
    designed for supervisors and managers within the
    construction industry and to provide a sound breadth
    of underpinning knowledge that enables them to
    discharge more effectively their duties with respect
    Contents
    vi
    Appendix 9.1 Safety at street works and
    road works 250
  24. Musculoskeletal hazards and risk
    control 251
    10.1 Musculoskeletal disorders and work-related
    upper limb disorders 252
    10.2 Manual handling hazards and control
    measures .256
    10.3 Lifting and moving equipment .262
    10.4 Further information 276
    10.5 Practice revision questions 276
    Appendix 10.1 A typical risk assessment for the
    use of lifting equipment .279
    Appendix 10.2 A typical risk assessment for an
    excavator to be used for lifting 280
    Appendix 10.3 Examples of manually operated
    load handling equipment 281
    Appendix 10.4 Safe use of fork-lift trucks (based
    on an HSE document) 282
  25. Work equipment hazards and risk control 283
    11.1 General requirements for work equipment 284
    11.2 Hazards and controls for hand-held tools .293
    11.3 Mechanical and non-mechanical hazards of
    machinery .304
    11.4 Control measures for reducing risks from
    machinery hazards 309
    11.5 Further information 323
    11.6 Practice revision questions .323
  26. Electrical safety .327
    12.1 Hazards and risks associated with the
    use of electricity in the workplace .328
    12.2 Control measures .336
    12.3 Control measures for working near
    overhead power lines .344
    12.4 Further information 346
    12.5 Practice revision questions 347
  27. Fire safety .349
    13.1 Principles of fire initiation, classification,
    spread and fire risks caused by construction
    activities and legal requirements .350
    13.2 Fire risk assessment 361
    13.3 Fire prevention and prevention
    of fire spread 366
    13.4 Fire detection, fire alarm systems and
    fire-fighting equipment for construction
    activities .378
    13.5 Requirements for an adequate and properly
    maintained means of escape in the
    construction workplace .383
    13.6 Evacuation of a construction workplace in
    the event of a fire .385
    13.7 Further information 387
  28. Health and safety management systems –
    Monitoring, investigation and
    recording – CHECK 139
    5.1 Active and reactive monitoring 140
    5.2 Investigating incidents .149
    5.3 Recording and reporting incidents .156
    5.4 Further information 163
    5.5 Practice revision questions .163
    Appendix 5.1 Workplace inspection exercises 165
    Appendix 5.2 Information for insurance/
    compensation claims .167
    Appendix 5.3 Checklist of items to be
    covered in a construction site inspection .168
  29. Health and safety management systems –
    Audit and review – ACT .173
    6.1 Health and safety auditing .174
    6.2 Review of health and safety performance .177
    6.3 Further information 180
    6.4 Practice revision questions .180
  30. Construction law and management .181
    7.1 The scope, definition and particular issues
    relating to construction activities .182
    7.2 The legal, moral and financial consequences
    of failing to manage health and safety within
    the construction industry .184
    7.3 Scope and application of the Construction
    (Design and Management) Regulations 2015 188
    7.4 Sources of external construction health and
    safety information 195
    7.5 Further information 196
    7.6 Practice revision questions 197
  31. Construction site issues – hazards
    and risk control 199
    8.1 Initial site assessment .200
    8.2 Appropriate general site control measures .204
    8.3 Health, welfare and work environment
    requirements 211
    8.4 Violence at work 215
    8.5 Substance misuse at work .218
    8.6 Safe movement of people on
    construction sites .220
    8.7 Further information 227
    8.8 Practice revision questions 228
    Appendix 8.1 A typical set of site safety rules .230
    Appendix 8.2 Smoke-free workplaces .231
  32. Vehicle and plant movement – hazards
    and risk control 233
    9.1 Safe movement of vehicles and plant within
    a construction environment .234
    9.2 Driving at work .243
    9.3 Further information 248
    9.4 Practice revision questions 248vii
    Contents
    Appendix 16.6 Examples of safe systems of
    work used in roof work 496
  33. Excavation work and confined spaces –
    hazards and risk control 497
    17.1 Excavation work hazards and risk assessment 498
    17.2 Control measures for excavation work 505
    17.3 Confined space working hazards and risks 510
    17.4 Control measures for confined
    space working 511
    17.5 Further information 513
    17.6 Practice revision questions 514
    Appendix 17.1 An example of safe digging practice 516
    Appendix 17.2 Typical excavation work risk
    assessment 517
    Appendix 17.3 Typical confined spaces risk
    assessment 518
  34. Demolition and deconstruction – hazards
    and risk control 519
    18.1 Demolition and deconstruction
    hazards and risks 520
    18.2 Control measures .521
    18.3 Purposes and scope of pre-demolition,
    deconstruction or refurbishment survey 525
    18.4 Control measures that a method statement
    should include 527
    18.5 Further information 529
    18.6 Practice revision questions 529
    Appendix 18.1 Checklist for a safe system of work 530
  35. Summary of the main legal requirements 531
    19.1 Introduction 532
    19.2 The legal framework 533
    19.3 List of Acts, orders and regulations
    summarised .536
    19.4 HSW Act 1974 as amended in 2013 538
    19.5 Environmental Protection Act 1990 .542
    19.6 New Roads and Street Works Act 1991 552
    19.7 Control of Artificial Optical Radiation at
    Work Regulations 2010 554
    19.8 Control of Asbestos Regulations (CAR) 2012 556
    19.9 Classification, Labelling and Packaging
    of Substances and Mixtures Regulation
    (European) adopting into EU UN Globally
    Harmonised System of Classification and
    Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) .565
    19.10 Confined Spaces Regulations 1997 .568
    19.11 Construction (Design and Management)
    Regulations 2015 (CDM 2015) .570
    19.12 Health and Safety (Consultation with
    Employees) Regulations 1996 .579
    19.13 Control of Substances Hazardous to Health
    Regulations (COSHH) 2002 and 2004
    Amendment .581
    19.14 Dangerous Substances and Explosive
    Atmospheres Regulations (DSEAR) 2002 585
    13.8 Practice revision questions .388
    Appendix 13.1 Fire risk assessment checklist
    as recommended in Fire Safety Guides
    published by the Department for
    Communities and Local Government
    in 2006 390
    Appendix 13.2 Typical fire notice .391
  36. Chemical and biological health hazards
    and risk control 393
    14.1 Forms and classification of, and the health
    risks from exposure to, hazardous
    substances .394
    14.2 Assessment of health risks 398
    14.3 Workplace exposure limits .407
    14.4 Control measures .408
    14.5 Specific agents .419
    14.6 Safe handling and storage of waste .430
    14.7 Further information 432
    14.8 Practice revision questions .433
    Appendix 14.1 GHS hazard (H) statements
    (Health only) .436
    Appendix 14.2 Health questionnaire for ongoing
    surveillance of persons working with
    respiratory sensitisers 437
    Appendix 14.3 Hazardous properties of waste as
    listed in the Hazardous Waste (England and
    Wales) Regulations 2005 .438
    Appendix 14.4 Different types of protective
    gloves .439
  37. Physical and psychological health hazards
    and risk control .441
    15.1 Noise 442
    15.2 Vibration .448
    15.3 Radiation 453
    15.4 Stress .459
    15.5 Further information 461
    15.6 Practice revision questions 462
  38. Working at height – hazards and risk
    control 465
    16.1 Working at height hazards and control .466
    16.2 Safe working practices for access
    equipment and roof work .474
    16.3 Protection of others .489
    16.4 Working over or near water .489
    16.5 Further information 490
    16.6 Practice revision questions 491
    Appendix 16.1 Inspection timing and
    frequency chart 493
    Appendix 16.2 Checklist of typical scaffolding faults 494
    Appendix 16.3 Checklist for a safety inspection of
    a scaffold 494
    Appendix 16.4 Scaffold design, inspection,
    competence and supervision checklist .494
    Appendix 16.5 Scaffold structures that need to
    be designed .495Contents
    viii
  39. International, environmental and other
    aspects of health and safety 653
    20.1 Introduction 654
    20.2 International issues 654
    20.3 Environmental considerations 661
    20.4 Health and safety in the home .667
    20.5 Safe cycling 670
    20.6 Further information 671
    Appendix 20.1 Scaffolds and ladders .672
    Appendix 20.2 International travel tips 672
  40. Study skills .675
    21.1 Introduction 676
    21.2 Find a place to study 676
    21.3 Time management .676
    21.4 Blocked thinking .677
    21.5 Taking notes .677
    21.6 Reading for study .677
    21.7 Free learning resources from the
    Open University .677
    21.8 Organising for revision .678
    21.9 Organising information .678
    21.10 Being aware of your learning style 680
    21.11 How does memory work? .680
    21.12 How to deal with exams 681
    21.13 The examiners’ reports 682
    21.14 Conclusion .683
    21.15 Further information 683
  41. Specimen answers to practice questions 685
    22.1 Introduction 686
    22.2 The written examinations 686
    22.3 Unit NCC2 – Construction Health and Safety
    Practical Application .691
    Appendix 22.1 The practical application report 696
    Appendix 22.2 The practical application
    observation sheets .699
  42. International sources of information and
    guidance .705
    23.1 Introduction 706
    23.2 How to search the internet effectively 706
    23.3 Some useful websites .708
    23.4 Health and safety forms 710
    Index 747
    19.15 Health and Safety (Display Screen
    Equipment) Regulations 1992 as amended
    in 2002 .587
    19.16 Electricity at Work Regulations 1989 .589
    19.17 Employers’ Liability (Compulsory Insurance)
    Act 1969 and Regulations 1998 amended in
    2002, 2004 and 2008 .592
    19.18 Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005 .593
    19.19 Health and Safety (First-Aid) Regulations
    1981 as amended 601
    19.20 Health and Safety (Information for
    Employees) Regulations 1989 .602
    19.21 Hazardous Waste (England and Wales)
    Regulations 2005 .603
    19.22 Ionising Radiations Regulations 1999 603
    19.23 Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment
    Regulations (LOLER) 1998 as amended
    in 2002 .606
    19.24 Management of Health and Safety at Work
    Regulations 1999 as amended in
    2003 and 2006 .609
    19.25 Manual Handling Operations Regulations
    (MHO) 1992 as amended in 2002 612
    19.26 Control of Noise at Work
    Regulations 2005 .614
    19.27 Personal Protective Equipment at Work
    Regulations 1992 as amended in
    2002 and 2013 .618
    19.28 Provision and Use of Work Equipment
    Regulations 1998 (except Part IV) as
    amended in 2002 and 2013 .620
    19.29 The Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and
    Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 2013 .624
    19.30 Safety Representatives and Safety
    Committees Regulations 1977 629
    19.31 Health and Safety (Safety Signs and Signals)
    Regulations 1996 .630
    19.32 The Supply of Machinery (Safety)
    Regulations 2008 as amended .633
    19.33 Control of Vibration at Work
    Regulations 2005 .634
    19.34 Workplace (Health, Safety and Welfare)
    Regulations 1992 as amended in
    2002 and 2013 .636
    19.35 Work at Height Regulations 2005 as
    amended in 2007 .638
    19.36 The Waste (England and Wales)
    Regulations 2011 .642
    19.37 Other relevant legislation in brief .643ix
    2.8 The policy might be good but is it put
    into practice – unsafe use of a ladder (©
    Mikeledray – Shutterstock) .58
    2.9 Emergency procedures (© Henry Ho –
    Shutterstock) 62
    2.10 Ladders and scaffold maintained in good
    condition and frequently inspected .62
    2.11 Vacuum-operated paving stone placer .62
    3.1 DO part of the management cycle involves
    Risk Profiling (Chapter 4), Organising and
    Implementing plans .64
    3.2 Everyone from senior manager down has
    health and safety responsibilities .65
    3.3 Safety practitioner at the front line
    (© Shutterstock/John Gomez) 68
    3.4 Safety investment 69
    3.5 Heinrich’s accidents/incidents ratios .71
    3.6 Well-designed workstation for sitting or
    standing .73
    3.7 Most construction rubbish can burn. Make
    sure that it is swept up and removed
    from the site as soon as possible (©
    Michaelstockfoto – Shutterstock) .74
    3.8 Motivation and activity .75
    3.9 Visual perceptions: (a) Are the lines of the
    same length? (b) Faces or vase? (c) Faces
    or saxophone player? .75
    3.10 Types of human failure 76
    3.11 Health and Safety Law poster – must be
    displayed or brochure given to
    employees .81
    3.12 The law on consulting employees about
    health and safety in your workplace.
    References to the Regulations are colourcoded to help find the parts that are
    most relevant to a particular organisation:
    for workplaces where the Safety
    Representatives and Safety Committees
    Regulations 1977 apply; for workplaces
    where the Health and Safety (Consultation
    with Employees) Regulations 1996 apply
    (Source: HSE INDG232(rev1)) .82
    3.13 Health and safety training needs and
    opportunities 85
    3.14 Internal influences on safety culture 87
    1.1 At work in Southampton 2015 – site
    operated well into the night (© Phil Hughes) . 3
    1.2 Insured and uninsured costs (© Beci Phipps) .6
    1.3 The court system in England and Wales for
    health and safety showing the principle
    courts .9
    1.4 Sub-divisions and sources of law .12
    1.5 Diagrammatic view of ‘reasonably practicable’ 14
    1.6 HSW Act (© Phil Hughes) .16
    1.7 Employees at work taking reasonable care
    of themselves (© Phil Hughes) .18
    1.8 The inspector inspects .19
    1.9 NEBOSH is in control here 24
    1.10 Typical supply chain .25
    1.11 Inadequate chair – it should have five feet
    and an adjustable backrest – take care
    when buying second-hand .26
    1.12 Diagram showing the main external
    agencies that impact on the workplace .28
    1.13 Good standards prevent harm and save
    money 28
    1.14 Domestic client: CDM applies but not
    notifiable (© Phil Hughes) .33
    1.15 Large-scale contract: CDM applies and it is
    notifiable (© Phil Hughes) .34
    1.16 Contractors at work unloading steel beams
    (© Phil Hughes) .35
    1.17 Site safety rules (© Phil Hughes) 36
    1.18 Rules at site entrance with viewing panel
    to see inside the site (© Phil Hughes) 36
    2.1 The Plan, Do, Check, Act cycle (© Beci
    Phipps) 47
    2.2 PLAN part of the management cycle
    involves Policy and Planning (© Beci Phipps) .49
    2.3 Well-presented policy documents (© Beci
    Phipps) 53
    2.4 (a) and (b) Part of a policy commitment
    (© Beci Phipps) .54
    2.5 SMART performance standards or
    objectives (© Beci Phipps) 55
    2.6 (a) and (b) Good information, training and
    working with employees is essential (©
    Beci Phipps) 57
    2.7 Providing guidance and training is essential
    (© Beci Phipps) .58
    List of illustrationsList of illustrations
    x
    4.29 Flow chart showing courses to be
    completed over a 3-year certification
    period for EFAW and FAW. The dotted
    line indicates the route to be taken in
    subsequent years after completion of the
    relevant course at year 3 (© HSE) 130
    5.1 CHECK involves measuring performance
    and investigating incidents (© Beci Phipps) 141
    5.2 Effective risk control (Source: HSE) (© Beci
    Phipps) 142
    5.3 Poor conditions: (a) inspection needed;
    (b) inspection in progress (© Smikeymikey
    Shutterstock; © Lisa F. Young Shutterstock) .144
    5.4 The use of a checklist (© Beci Phipps) .146
    5.5 Dangerous occurrence: aftermath of a fire
    (© Jason Salmon Shutterstock) 149
    5.6 Accident at work – reconstruction of
    a ladder accident showing where the
    deceased person was found under the
    ladder which had toppled over while he
    was attempting to adjust the height of the
    extending ladder (© Phil Hughes) .150
    5.7 (a) Accident; (b) near miss (includes
    dangerous occurrence) damage only; (c)
    undesired circumstances (© HSE) 151
    5.8 F. E. Bird’s well-known accident triangle
    (© Beci Phipps) .151
    5.9 Appropriate levels of investigation (© HSE) 152
    5.10 Questions to be asked in an investigation
    (© Beci Phipps) .154
    5.11 (a) The Accident Book BI 510 (Second
    Edition) ISBN 97807176640580 (© HSE);
    (b) Record form from BI 510 (© HSE) .157–8
    5.12 Construction site (© Phil Hughes) 165
    5.13 Road repair (© Phil Hughes) .165
    5.14 Workshop (© Phil Hughes) .166
    5.15 Roof repair and unloading flammable
    liquids (© Phil Hughes) .166
    6.1 ACT part of the health and safety
    management system (© Beci Phipps) 174
    6.2 The Audit Process (© Beci Phipps) .175
    6.3 Using the audit questions for interviews
    and collecting information (© Beci Phipps) .176
    6.4 The audit report should be reviewed by
    senior managers with an action plan and
    follow-up (© Beci Phipps) .177
    6.5 Review of performance (© Beci Phipps) 178
    6.6 Continual improvement part of the health
    and safety management process (© Beci
    Phipps) 179
    7.1 Building site entrance (© Phil Hughes) .182
    7.2 Demolition and ground clearance (© Phil
    Hughes) 183
    7.3 Recent migrant workers, whose standards
    may not match those in Europe, are
    employed in the UK and the EU in general.
    In this instance, language was a problem,
    hard hats and gloves would have helped,
    3.15 External influences on safety culture .88
    4.1 Risk assessment or profiling is covered by
    the DO part of the management cycle
    (© Beci Phipps) .100
    4.2 Reducing the risk – finding an alternative
    safer method when fitting a wall-mounted
    boiler 101
    4.3 Accident at work 102
    4.4 Bird’s well-known accident triangle (© Beci
    Phipps) 102
    4.5 Five steps to risk assessment (© Beci
    Phipps) 104
    4.6 Proper control of gases and vapours in a
    laboratory (© emin kuliyev Shutterstock) 107
    4.7 Colour categories and shapes of signs 107
    4.8 Examples of warning, mandatory and
    prohibition signs .107
    4.9 Falling object and construction site
    entrance signs .107
    4.10 Wet floor signs 108
    4.11 Examples of chemical warning signs .108
    4.12 Examples of fire safety signs .108
    4.13 Examples of fire action signs .108
    4.14 Examples of first-aid signs .108
    4.15 LPG sign 109
    4.16 Smoke-free – no smoking sign (© HM
    Government) .109
    4.17 Fragile roof signs .109
    4.18 Welfare washing facilities: washbasin
    should be large enough for people to wash
    their forearms (© Phil Hughes) .111
    4.19 Good dust control for a chasing operation.
    A dust mask is still required for complete
    protection .112
    4.20 Respiratory protection and disposable
    overalls are needed when working in high
    levels of asbestos dust 112
    4.21 A lone worker – special arrangements
    required. Sand or shot blasting inside a
    tank with an air-fed helmet and vest
    (© Shutterstock) .115
    4.22 When controls break down (© Lakeview
    Images Shutterstock) 115
    4.23 Checking the label for health risks (© Phil
    Hughes) 117
    4.24 Multi-padlocked hasp for locking off an
    isolation valve – each worker puts on their
    own padlock (© Phil Hughes) .118
    4.25 A hot work permit is usually essential for
    welding, cutting and burning except in
    designated areas like a welding shop 123
    4.26 Entering a confined space with breathing
    apparatus, rescue tripod and rescue
    watcher 124
    4.27 Emergency services at work
    (© Shutterstock) .125
    4.28 (a) First-aid and stretcher sign; (b) first-aid
    sign 128xi
    List of illustrations
    8.14 Falling from a height – tower scaffold with
    inadequate handrail (too low) and no middle
    rail. Access ladder should be internal and it
    should never be moved with people on the
    scaffold 221
    8.15 Good stairs with handrail leading from site
    accommodation (© Phil Hughes) 222
    8.16 Typical pedestrian/vehicle crossing area
    (© HSE) .224
    8.17 A designated waste collection area (© HSE) 224
    8.18 Pedestrians separated from the work and
    traffic (© HSE) .227
    9.1 Telescopic materials handler (© Phil
    Hughes) 235
    9.2 Various construction plant with driver
    protection (© Phil Hughes) .235
    9.3 Site entrance to large construction site
    (© HSE) .238
    9.4 Dumper truck with rollover protection
    (ROP) (© Phil Hughes) 238
    9.5 (a) Road Works Ahead; (b) Road Narrows
    (© HM Government) .240
    9.6 Signs for Keep Right and Keep Left (© HM
    Government) .241
    9.7 Cone and road danger lamp (© HM
    Government) .241
    9.8 Red and white barrier rail (© HM
    Government) .241
    9.9 Road works sign for footpath closure.
    Could be improved with walkway for
    pedestrians beside track. But this is only
    minor road, and pedestrians can cross
    to a good pavement opposite (© HM
    Government) .242
    9.10 Typical information sign (© HM
    Government) .242
    9.11 Road works End sign (© HM
    Government) .242
    9.12 Occupational road risk increases when
    construction work is undertaken – cranes
    like this have to be driven to their operating
    location and operated when on site (© Phil
    Hughes) 244
    9.13 Concrete delivery by road (© Phil Hughes) .245
    9.14 Must have a valid licence for each type of
    vehicle (© Shutterstock) .246
    9.15 Fork-lift truck loading timber trusses onto a
    trailer. Loading vehicle correctly and evenly
    is most important for road stability en route
    (© William Milner Shutterstock) .246
    9.16 Traffic control by portable traffic signals
    (© Phil Hughes) .250
    9.17 Works on footway with temporary footway
    in carriage (© Phil Hughes) .250
    10.1 Loading pipes onto a barge using a
    teleporter lift truck 252
    10.2 A tilted worktable. The distance between
    the operator and the work can be reduced
    boots were good protection but not steeltoed. Concrete delivery equipment was
    very up to date (© Phil Hughes) 184
    7.4 A serious accident waiting to happen on
    a small building site: no top guard on the
    circular saw – a very common safety fault
    (© Phil Hughes) .185
    7.5 Design and management of construction
    work (© Shutterstock) 188
    7.6 (a) Domestic client: CDM applies but only
    a short duration contract, no notification
    required – would be notifiable if a large
    project; (b) Large site (over 30 days, more
    than 20 workers simultaneously or exceeds
    500 person days): CDM applies and client
    must notify the relevant enforcing authority
    (© Phil Hughes) .190
    7.7 Protection of the public in main shopping
    area (© Phil Hughes) .191
    7.8 Contractors at work (© Phil Hughes) 192
    7.9 Barriers to prevent unauthorised entry
    also advertising involvement with the
    Considerate Constructors Scheme 193
    8.1 Concrete being pumped to upper floors on
    a large construction site (© Shutterstock) 200
    8.2 Keeping corridors clear during
    refurbishment (© HSE) .201
    8.3 Secure site access gate with added
    protection to prevent vehicles entering at
    night or on Sundays (© Phil Hughes) 201
    8.4 Prevention of drowning. Rescue and safety
    equipment must always be easily available
    and in good condition .202
    8.5 Well organised site with internal storage
    compounds and site accommodation
    behind with means of escape staircase
    in case of fire (also from the UK in
    background on Southampton water) .207
    8.6 Working in or close to occupied premises .211
    8.7 A wide range of portable welfare facilities
    like these are available. It may be possible
    when refurbishing buildings to use the
    facilities already on site 213
    8.8 A large building site well lit at night (©
    Pavel L Photo and Video Shutterstock) .213
    8.9 The heat equation 214
    8.10 Security access and surveillance CCTV
    camera (Source: © HSE) 216
    8.11 It takes a healthy liver about one hour
    to break down and remove one unit of
    alcohol. A unit is equivalent to 8 mg or 10
    ml (1 cl) of pure alcohol 219
    8.12 Tripping hazards on untidy site (© Phil
    Hughes) 220
    8.13 Cleaning must be done carefully to prevent
    slipping or falling using bosun’s chair and
    rope support with trained worker (© Anna
    Baburkina Shutterstock) 221List of illustrations
    xii
    11.8 (a) broken and dangerous wood chisel
    handle; (b) range of non-powered hand
    tools 293
    11.9 Range of hand-held portable power tools
    (© DeWalt) .295
    11.10 Pneumatic hammer/chisel (© J5M
    Shutterstock) 297
    11.11 Electric drill with percussion hammer
    action to drill holes in masonry 297
    11.12 Disc-cutter/cut-off saw (© Dmitry
    Kalinovsky Shutterstock) .298
    11.13 Rotary drum floor sander .299
    11.14 Orbital finishing sander .299
    11.15 Disc sander 299
    11.16 Cartridge-powered nail gun 300
    11.17 Pneumatic-powered nail gun .300
    11.18 Typical chainsaw with rearguard. 1 – hand
    guard with integral chain brake; 2 – exhaust
    outlet directed to the right-hand side away
    from the operator; 3 – chain breakage
    guard at bottom of rear handle; 4 – chain
    designed to have low-kickback tendency;
    5 – rubber anti-vibration mountings; 6 –
    lockout for the throttle trigger; 7 – guide
    bar (should be protected when transporting
    chainsaw); 8 – bottom chain catcher; 9 –
    PPE hand/eye/ear defender signs; 10 – on/
    off switch. 302
    11.19 Kevlar gloves, overtrousers and overshoes
    providing protection against chainsaw cuts.
    Helmet and face shield protect the head.
    Apprentice under training – first felling 303
    11.20 Range of mechanical hazards 306
    11.21 Range of fixed guards 310
    11.22 Adjustable guard for a rotating drill bit on a
    pedestal drill .311
    11.23 Self-adjusting guard on a circular wood saw 311
    11.24 Typical sliding and hinged interlocking
    guards 311
    11.25 Schematic diagram of a telescopic trip
    device fitted to a radial drill 312
    11.26 Two-handed control device 312
    11.27 Typical multifunction printer/photocopier 314
    11.28 Typical office shredder .315
    11.29 Typical bench-mounted grinder .315
    11.30 Typical pedestal drill .315
    11.31 Typical bench-mounted circular saw 316
    11.32 Hand-fed planing machine safeguards .317
    11.33 Spindle moulding machine with various
    forms of safeguard 317
    11.34 (a) Typical small cement mixer with a
    petrol engine or electric motor; (b) dieselpowered concrete mixer fitted with a
    hydraulic loading hopper .319
    11.35 Plate compactor .319
    11.36 (a) Ground consolidating rider-mounted
    vibrating roller; (b) Ground consolidating
    roller using remote control which
    by putting the table at a more vertical
    angle. The table is adjustable in height and
    angle to suit the particular job (Source:
    © HSE) .253
    10.3 Pump liquid from a bulk container to a
    dispenser to save awkward handling
    (Source: © HSE) .253
    10.4 Workstation design 254
    10.5 Manual handling: there are many potential
    hazards .256
    10.6 Main injury sites caused by manual
    handling accidents .257
    10.7 HSE guidance for manual lifting –
    recommended weights (Source: © HSE) 258
    10.8 Moving bricks or paving blocks using a
    specially designed barrow (© HSE) 259
    10.9 The main elements of a good lifting
    technique (© HSE) 261
    10.10 Use of a hand-operated pallet truck to raise
    and move goods (© HSE) .263
    10.11 Conveyor systems: (a) belt conveyors;
    (b) a method of safely moving roofing
    sheets along a roof valley; (c) a suggested
    method for manually lifting trusses to
    eaves level (© HSE) 265
    10.12 A brick elevator (Source: © HSE) .267
    10.13 Rough terrain counterbalanced lift truck
    (© HSE) .267
    10.14 (a) Attaching a quick hitch fly jib to a
    telescopic mobile crane (hard hat missing);
    (b) crane in use installing a yacht’s mast;
    (c) two excavators with quick hitch bucket
    couplings (© Phil Hughes) 269
    10.15 Lifting roof trusses (© TFoxFoto
    Shutterstock) 271
    10.16 (a) Typical luffing jib tower cranes
    operating on a large construction site
    (© Shutterstock); (b) Typical saddle jib
    (horizontal) tower crane (© Phil Hughes) 272
    10.17 Mobile self-erecting tower crane (© Phil
    Hughes) 274
    10.18 Specially designed safety hooks (Source:
    © HSE) .274
    11.1 (a) This is the CE marking; (b) Division of
    responsibility for the safety of machinery
    (© Beci Phipps) .285
    11.2 Typical Certificate of Conformity .286
    11.3 Using a bench-mounted abrasive wheel
    (© Draper 298
    11.4 British Standard system for specifying
    abrasive wheels from BS EN 12413:1999
    and BS ISO 525:1999 (© HSE) .298
    11.5 (a) Typical diesel-powered compressor with
    air receiver and pneumatic chisel; (b) typical
    electrically powered compressor with air
    receiver (© Speedy) 290
    11.6 Equipment controls – design features .291
    11.7 Emergency stop button .292xiii
    List of illustrations
    13.11 Avoid lighting bonfires unless essential. If
    essential, do make sure points (a)–(e) are
    followed (© HSE) 362
    13.12 Fire evacuation diagram suitable for
    refurbishment or when the main structure
    has been formed 366
    13.13 Controlling waste on site – waste chute
    and covered skip (© HSE) .368
    13.14 Electrical cabling can often get damaged
    and overloaded during a construction
    project. Other poor features here include:
    lack of head protection; confined space
    entry; edge protection and trench supports
    (© serato Shutterstock) 370
    13.15 (a) Storage arrangements for highly
    flammable liquids; (b) LPG outside storage
    compound (© HSE) .372
    13.16 Multiple temporary accommodation units
    (TAUs) with external staircase (© Phil
    Hughes) 373
    13.17 Steel structures can collapse in the heat of
    a fire (© Phil Hughes) 375
    13.18 Insulated core panels .375
    13.19 Plasterboard partitions such as this can form
    effective compartmentation. It is important
    that all gaps are filled in. In this case, there
    are holes in the top of the partition and
    service ducts in the side rooms that need to
    be sealed (Source: © HSE) 376
    13.20 Safe dispensing of flammable liquids
    (© Phil Hughes) .377
    13.21 Simple electrical fire alarm system
    components (© Phil Hughes) 379
    13.22 A temporary wired-in fire alarm during
    major renovation of a large and multi-storey
    complex building (© HSE) .379
    13.23 Fire point on large construction site
    (© Phil Hughes) .380
    13.24 Types of fire extinguishers and labels
    (Note: main colour of all extinguishers is
    red with 5% for label) 381
    13.25 Various sprinkler heads designed to fit into
    a high-level water pipe system and spray
    water at different angles onto a fire below 382
    13.26 Fire escape route clearly signed and free
    from obstructions (© HSE) .384
    13.27 External access/fire escape in a large
    scaffold during building construction
    (© Phil Hughes) .384
    13.28 Fire exit sign 385
    14.1 (a) Use of the GHS symbols on site;
    (b) how the European packaging symbols
    relate to the new GHS labels
    (© Phil Hughes) . 397
    14.2 Paint spraying – risk of sensitising
    particularly if isocyanate based paint used
    and inadequate local exhaust ventilation
    (© Phil Hughes) .399
    eliminates the whole-body vibration
    exposure of the operator (© Wacker
    nueson) .320
    11.37 Highway line-marking lorry-mounted
    equipment (© yakub88 Shutterstock) .320
    11.38 Walk-behind line-marking equipment 321
    11.39 Typical portable petrol engine, electric
    generator .321
    11.40 Larger transportable diesel-powered
    electric generator in an enclosure 322
    12.1 Beware of electricity – typical sign 328
    12.2 Typical electric shock poster (Courtesy of
    © Stocksigns) .331
    12.3 Keep 18 m clear of high-voltage lines 332
    12.4 Electrical faults through overloading or
    damaged cables cause a large number of
    fires on construction sites (see Chapter 13)
    (© trainman111 Shutterstock) 333
    12.5 (a) Typical transformer; (b) typical RCD
    device 333
    12.6 Prevention of static discharge; container
    connected to earthed drum (© Phil
    Hughes) 334
    12.7 Portable hand-held electric power tools
    (Courtesy of © DeWalt) .335
    12.8 Typical 240 volt fuses and mini circuit
    breaker (© Shutterstock) 339
    12.9 Double insulation sign 340
    12.10 Checking for underground cables with a
    cable detector (© Phil Hughes) .341
    12.11 UK standard 3-pin plug wiring (© Phil
    Hughes) 342
    12.12 Precautions for overhead lines: (a)
    ‘goalpost’ crossing points beneath lines to
    avoid contact by plant; (b) diagram showing
    normal dimensions for ‘goalpost’ crossing
    points and barriers (Reproduced from
    HSG185 Health and Safety in Excavations)
    (© HSE) .346
    13.1 Fire is still a significant risk in many
    workplaces: (a) multi-storey building on fire
    during refurbishment; (b) single-storey farm
    building on fire in the UK (© DK.samco/
    Shutterstock.com) 350
    13.2 Fire triangle 354
    13.3 (a) Transport flammable solid sign;
    (b) GHS – packaging sign .355
    13.4 (a) Transport flammable liquid sign;
    (b) GHS – packaging sign .356
    13.5 (a) Transport flammable gas sign;
    (b) GHS – packaging sign .356
    13.6 (a) Transport oxidising agent sign;
    (b) GHS – packaging sign .356
    13.7 Principles of heat transmission 357
    13.8 Smoke spread in buildings .358
    13.9 Causes of fire in recent years 359
    13.10 Accidental fires – sources of ignition in
    recent years .360List of illustrations
    xiv
    15.5 Injuries which can be caused by hand–arm
    vibration (Source: © HSE) .449
    15.6 (a) and (b) Powered chisels or breakers
    mounted on different sizes of excavators to
    avoid HA vibration (© Phil Hughes) .451
    15.7 (a) Vibrating roller with risk of whole-body
    vibration (© Phil Hughes); (b) remote
    control vibrating plate weighing 1.2 tons
    with compaction in excess of a 7 ton roller
    which eliminates the risk of whole-body
    vibration. The operator is protected from
    vibrations, noise and dust. The machine
    can only be operated if line of sight is
    intact. In case of a loss of control the
    proximity recognition sensor keeps the
    operator safe (© Wacker Nueson) 453
    15.8 Typical ionising sign .454
    15.9 X-ray generating unit used for weld testing
    on site in Russia. The tape states: ‘beware
    of radiation’ (shows the value of pictorial
    signs) (© shinobi / Shutterstock.com) .455
    15.10 Radon monitoring equipment 455
    15.11 Metal furnace – source of infrared heat .457
    15.12 Low level laser beams extensively used
    for levelling and setting out in construction
    work (© Wojciech Dziadosz Shutterstock) .458
    15.13 Welding shields used to protect against
    intense ultraviolet radiation which can
    cause ‘arc eye’ (© Praphan Jampala
    Shutterstock) 458
    15.14 Breakdown of mental ill-health cases by
    type of event which precipitated stress
    between 2010 and 2012 (Source: Stress
    and Psychological Disorders Great Britain
    2013, © HSE) .459
    16.1 Working at height – mast climbing work
    platforms (© Phil Hughes) 467
    16.2 Working platform, pre-fabricated tower
    scaffolds and bridging unit (© Speedy) .468
    16.3 Industrial roof work with safety nets to
    arrest falls (© HSE) .469
    16.4 Proper precautions should always be taken
    when working on or near fragile roofs –
    access system for short-term work (© HSE) .469
    16.5 Typical sloping roof edge protection:
    barriers shown in (a) can be useful where
    space is limited, but they are not capable of
    sustaining loads so large as (b) and (c) which
    also provide a working platform (© HSE) 470
    16.6 Flat roof edge protection supported
    at ground level. This type of support
    allows work up to the roof edge without
    obstruction (© HSE) 472
    16.7 Ladder showing correct 1 in 4 angle
    (means of securing omitted for clarity)
    (© HSE) .475–6
    16.8 (a) Ladder tied at top stiles (correct for
    working on, but not for access); (b) Tying
    14.3 Route map for adequate control for SMEs
    non-experts (Source: © HSE) .399
    14.4 Hazardous substances – principal routes of
    entry into the human body .400
    14.5 The upper and lower respiratory system .401
    14.6 The nervous system 401
    14.7 The cardiovascular system 402
    14.8 Parts of the urinary system 402
    14.9 The skin – main structures of the dermis 403
    14.10 (a) Typical symbols and (b) product label on
    containers 406
    14.11 Hand pump and stain detector tubes
    (Courtesy of © Draeger) .407
    14.12 (a) Common elements of a simple LEV
    system; (b) welding with an adjustable LEV
    system to remove dust and fumes 411
    14.13 Natural ventilation in a building (Source:
    © HSE) .412
    14.14 Personal protective equipment (© Corepics
    VOFShutterstock) .413
    14.15 Types of respiratory protective equipment:
    (a) filtering half-mask; (b) half-mask –
    re-usable with filters; (c) compressed
    air-line breathing apparatus with full
    face fitted with demand valve
    (Source: © HSE) .415
    14.16 Variety of eye protection goggles (Courtesy
    of © Draper) .416
    14.17 Damaged asbestos lagging on pipework
    (© HSE) .422
    14.18 Asbestos removal enclosure (© HSE) 423
    14.19 Dermatitis from wet cement or concrete
    (© VrisPhuket) .427
    14.20 Removing waste from a roadside
    excavation by lorry-mounted loading grab
    (© Phil Hughes) .430
    14.21 A designated waste collection area with
    two types of skip commonly used for
    waste collection. Heavy materials would
    be transported in the smaller skip. Sizes of
    skip range from about 4 cu metres (small
    skip shown) to about 35 cu metres (large
    skip shown) (© HSE) .431
    14.22 Electronic waste under WEEE .432
    15.1 Better to control noise at source than wear
    ear protection (© Phil Hughes) .442
    15.2 Passage of sound waves: (a) The ear
    with cochlea uncoiled; (b) summary of
    transmission 443
    15.3 Typical ear protection zone sign 446
    15.4 Noise paths found in a workplace: (a) the
    quiet area is subjected to reflected noise
    from a machine elsewhere in the building;
    (b) the correct use of roof absorption will
    reduce the reflected noise reaching the
    quiet area; (c) segregation of the noisy
    operation will benefit the whole workplace
    (© HSE) .446xv
    List of illustrations
    17.9 (a) Timbered excavation with ladder access
    and supported services (guard removed
    on one side for clarity) (© HSE); (b) A long
    timbered trench in soft ground (© pryzmat
    Shutterstock) 507
    17.10 Trench box in use (© serato Shutterstock) .508
    17.11 Using a cable detector (© Phil Hughes) 509
    17.12 Entering a confined space with full
    breathing apparatus and watcher outside
    (© Shutterstock) .511
    17.13 Training for confined space entry 512
    17.14 Escape breathing apparatus .513
    18.1 Demolition of old mill in progress 521
    18.2 High hazard vacuum cleaner to clear up
    asbestos material (© HSE) .521
    18.3 Long-reach hydraulic arm for piecemeal
    demolition (© Jozef Sowa Shutterstock) 521
    18.4 Remote-controlled hydraulic arm for
    pushing, nibbling or hammering (© Dmitry
    Kalinovsky Shutterstock) .522
    18.5 Controlled collapse (© Linda Macpherson
    Shutterstock) 522
    18.6 Demolition site should be well planned and
    properly signed and controlled throughout
    the project (© Phil Hughes) 524
    18.7 Clearing up asbestos-containing materials
    (hazardous waste) after demolition has
    started is very difficult and expensive
    (© HSE) .528
    18.8 Type and size of the building is particularly
    important for unusual demolitions
    (© Konstantin Romanov Shutterstock) .528
    19.1 New GHS pictograms with examples of
    Hazard statements and Precautionary
    statements (© Phil Hughes) .566
    19.2 (a) CDM 2015 Schedule 1; (b) CDM 2015
    Schedule 3 (© HSE) 574
    19.3 Content of inspection reports (© HSE) .576
    19.4 Principles of good practice – COSHH
    (© HSE) .583
    19.5 Warning sign for places where explosive
    atmospheres may occur (© Stocksigns) .587
    19.6 Fire safety order – matters to be
    considered in risk assessment in respect
    of: (a) dangerous substances; (b) young
    persons (© HM Government) .595
    19.7 Measures to be taken in respect of
    dangerous substances (© HM Government) 596
    19.8 A completed Hazardous Waste
    Consignment Note .604
    19.9 Manual Handling Operations Regulations –
    flow chart (© HSE) 613
    19.10 What needs to be done under the Control
    of Noise at Work Regulations 2005 (© HSE) 616
    19.11 (a) and (b) Prohibition signs (© Stocksigns) 631
    19.12 (a) and (b) Fire action signs (© Stocksigns) .631
    19.13 (a) and (b) Warning signs (© Stocksigns) 631
    19.14 (a) and (b) Mandatory signs (© Stocksigns) 631
    part way down; (c) Tying near the base;
    (d) Securing at the base 475
    16.9 Attach paint cans and the like to the ladder .477
    16.10 Access ladders should be tied, and extend
    to at least 1 m above the landing point to
    provide a secure handhold .478
    16.11 Working with stepladders (© HSE) .478
    16.12 Typical independent tied scaffold (© HSE)
    (© Beci Phipps) .479
    16.13 Fan scaffold to protect people and passing
    traffic (© Phil Hughes) 480
    16.14 Hoist with interlocked gates (© Phil
    Hughes) 482
    16.15 Typical pre-fabricated tower scaffold
    (© HSE) .483
    16.16 Mobile elevating work platform (MEWP) –
    scissor lift (© Phil Hughes) .483
    16.17 Mobile elevating work platform (MEWP)
    – cherry picker with harness and lanyard
    attached to cradle (© Phil Hughes) .484
    16.18 Airbags to give a safe soft landing (© HSE) .486
    16.19 Fall arrest harness and device .487
    16.20 (a) Roof ladder. The ridge iron should be
    large enough to be clear of the ridge tile;
    (b) permanent protection installed at valley
    gutter (the protection should be supported
    by at least three rafters beneath the roof
    sheets) .488
    16.21 Working over or near water – large scaffold
    with protection screens and a small boat
    moored under the bridge in case rescue is
    needed .490
    17.1 A very hazardous situation for the worker
    with a deep trench, a heavy machine very
    close to the edge and no trench supports
    (© serato Shutterstock) 498
    17.2 Undermining of boundary wall (© HSE) 499
    17.3 Barriers around excavation by footpath
    (© HSE) .501
    17.4 (a) Cofferdam for building a below-ground
    shaft and concrete tank – cofferdam
    removed and backfilled after construction;
    (b) Cofferdam built for repairing bridge piers
    in a river to be removed after construction
    completed (© Phil Hughes) 502
    17.5 (a) Massive Second World War concrete
    caissons known as mulberry harbour
    units – hundreds were constructed in the
    UK and then towed to Normandy and sunk
    in position to form a harbour wall (© Cory
    Stevens Shutterstock); (b) Steel caisson
    being used in construction work 503
    17.6 Stop blocks for dumpers (© HSE) .506
    17.7 Vehicle protection at the top of an
    excavation (© HSE) .506
    17.8 Trench sheets with timber walings, screw
    props, puncheons and sole plates
    (© HSE) .507List of illustrations
    xvi
    19.15 (a) and (b) Safety signs (© Stocksigns) .632
    19.16 Work at height – flowchart (© HSE) .639
    20.1 World Cup stadium under construction,
    Cape Town, 2009 (© sima Shutterstock) 655
    20.2 ILO’s Strategic Approach to strengthening
    National OSH Systems (Source: ILO
    Introductory report: Decent Work, Safe
    Work) .657
    20.3 Excavator at work in France (© Phil Hughes) .657
    20.4 Have to consider different solutions in
    different countries: (a) safe delivery of
    furniture in Certaldo, Italy; (b) dangerous
    access to install overhead low-voltage data
    lines in Morocco (© Phil Hughes) .659
    20.5 Occupational road risk: (a) unusual and
    slow-moving large animals mixed with
    traffic in India; (b) overloaded truck in
    Morocco (© Phil Hughes) .660
    20.6 Example of heavy industrial pollution
    (© Jaroslav Moravcik Shutterstock) 662
    20.7 Water pollution from: (a) an oil spillage;
    (b) plastic and other solid waste 664
    20.8 Electronic waste under WEEE 666
    20.9 Environmental protection commitment .666
    20.10 Gas explosion during the night in
    Southampton 2015 – two people escaped
    unhurt (© Phil Hughes) .668
    20.11 It is very important to be clearly visible
    to the driver of large vehicles particularly
    when they are turning left at junctions
    (© Michaelpuche Shutterstock) 670
    20.12 (a) and (b) New motorist awareness
    posters in Southampton (© Phil Hughes) .671
    21.1 Revision notes .678
    21.2 Mind map report writing 679
    22.1 Select a competent and experienced
    person to carry out a risk assessment .686
    22.2 High level of fumes from welding .688
    22.3 Motivating staff (© NEBOSH) 688
    22.4 Large cement silo on a construction site .689
    22.5 Flat roof repair with: (a) edge protection;
    (b) harness and fall arrest device (© Draper) .690
    22.6 Scaffold collapse, Milton Keynes .691
    M1 General health & safety risk assessment
    example 1 711
    M2 Risk assessment report form example 2 712
    M3 Contractors’ risk assessment example for
    confined spaces 713
    M4 Contractors’ risk assessment example for
    work on fragile roofs .714
    M5 Workplace inspection report form 715
    M6 Workplace inspection checklist 716
    M7 Job safety analysis 718
    M8 Essential elements – permit to work 719
    M9 Witness statement form .720
    M10 Accident/incident report 721
    M11 First aid treatment and accident record 723
    S1 Machinery risk assessment 725
    S2a Permit time extension/transfer (front) 726
    S2b Permit time extension/transfer (back) .727
    H1a COSHH assessment example 728
    H1 COSHH assessment (blank) .729
    H2 COSHH assessment: details of substances
    used or stored .730
    H3 Example of a workstation self assessment
    checklist 732
    H4 Example of a noise assessment record form .734
    H5 Manual handling of loads: assessment
    checklist 735
    H6 Manual handling risk assessment:
    employee checklist .736
    F1 Fire safety maintenance checklist 737
    F2 Fire risk assessment record – significant
    findings .739
    C1 Construction inspection report .740
    C2 Example risk assessment for contract
    bricklayers .741
    C3 Example risk assessment for woodwork 744
    Tables
    1.1 Annual accidents for different groups of
    people .4
    1.2 Approximate proportions (%) of cases of
    work-related ill-health reported by General
    Practitioners in any year 5
    1.3 Typical recent annual health and safety
    enforcement activity in Great Britain 5
    1.4 Causes of working days lost in the UK .6
    1.5 Premises inspected by HSE and Local
    Authorities 19
    2.1 Location and contents of the key elements
    of a health and safety management system
    in chapters 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 .48
    3.1 A comparison of the functions of health
    and safety representatives .84
    4.1 Typical contents of first-aid box – low
    risk 128
    4.2 Number of first-aid personnel .129
    7.1 Types of fatal injury in construction 185
    7.2 Causes of major injuries in construction .185
    7.3 Accidents to all people in various
    employment sectors over a three-year
    period 185
    7.4 Proportion (%) of fatalities in various
    construction activities .186
    7.5 Annual cases and incidence rates for workrelated ill-health seen by the Health and
    Occupational Reporting Network Disease
    Specialists over a three-year period 186
    8.1 Typical workplace lighting levels .214xvii
    List of illustrations
    8.2 Trend in physical assaults and threats at
    work, 1999–2009 (based on working adults
    of working age) .215
    10.1 Safe driving of lift trucks .268
    12.1 Standard wiring colours 336
    12.2 Suggested intervals for portable appliance
    inspection and testing .343
    13.1 Enforcement in respect of fire on
    construction sites .354
    13.2 Maintenance and testing of fire
    equipment .382
    13.3 Maximum travel distances 384
    14.1 Examples of the new hazard warning (H)
    and precautionary statements (P) .398
    14.2 Examples of workplace exposure limits
    (WELs) 408
    14.3 Typical airflow rates for various
    woodworking machines 411
    14.4 The hazards and types of PPE for various
    parts of the body .414
    14.5 The health effects of hydrogen sulphide 425
    15.1 Some typical sound pressure levels (SPL)
    (dB(A) values) 444
    15.2 Some typical sound pressure levels (dB(A))
    for construction processes .444
    15.3 Simple observations to determine the need
    for a noise risk assessment 445
    15.4 Typical noise levels at woodworking
    machines 448
    15.5 Examples of vibration exposure values
    measured by HSE on work equipment .449
    15.6 Machines which could produce significant
    whole-body vibration .450
    15.7 The change in exposure times as vibration
    increases .451
    15.8 Typical radiation dose limits 454
    19.1 Summary of maximum penalties under
    Health and Safety (Offences) Act 2008 for
    offences committed on or after 16 January
    2009 540
    19.2 The waste hierarchy .551
    19.3 The employers’ duties 582
    19.4 Classification zones 587
    19.5 Provision of information under DSE
    Regulation 7 589
    19.6 Schedule 1 to the Manual Handling
    Operations Regulations 614
    20.1 Numbers of global work-related adverse
    events .654
    21.1 Terminology used in NEBOSH exams 682
    Boxes
    2.1 Example of objectives .56
    5.1 Key data for medium level of investigation .156
    5.2 The following categories of immediate
    causes of accident are used in F2508: .161
    19.1 Pollution prevention and control regimes .542
    19.2 Best available techniques (BAT) .542
    19.3 ‘Operator’ 545
    19.4 Definition of controlled waste .549
    19.5 Who has authority to take waste? 550
    19.6 Filling in paperwork .550
    747
    Index
    awareness training 423
    control measures 422–3, 423f
    and demolition work 521f, 526, 528, 528f
    fatalities 420
    health risks and controls 419–20
    identification of 421
    licences 559
    managing in buildings 420–4
    medical surveillance 423
    removal 422
    risk register 421–2
    safe system of work 136–8
    surveys 209, 421
    waste 423
    see also Control of Asbestos Regulations (CAR) 2012
    asbestos containing material (ACM) 419, 420
    assembly points for fire escapes 126, 386
    asthma, occupational 5, 424
    auditory learning style 680
    audits 48, 174–7
    actions after audit 177
    definitions 174
    external v. internal audits 176–7
    health and safety management system 50, 52
    pre-audit preparations 174–5, 175f
    purpose 175
    scope 174–5
    authorised persons, work permit responsibilities 125
    B
    bacteria 395
    balance trucks 262
    banksmen 271
    barriers, road works 241
    battered sides 507
    battery (cordless) operated hand tools 339
    behaviour at work
    human factors influencing 71–6
    improvement strategies 78–88
    individual factors 74–6
    job 73–4
    negative factors 74
    organisation 72–3
    bench-mounted circular saws 307, 316, 316f
    bench-top grinders 307, 314–15, 315f
    benchmarking 56
    best available techniques (BAT) 542, 543b
    beta particles 454
    biological agents 395
    blocked thinking 677
    A
    Abrasive Wheel Regulations 1970 15
    absolute duty 14, 115
    absorption, skin 400
    access equipment for working above ground see working
    above ground, access equipment
    accident
    categories 103
    costs 6, 6t
    definitions 3, 150
    direct costs 7, 103, 187
    frequency rate 70, 161
    and ill-health investigations 83
    rates 4, 4t, 184–6, 200, 654, 654t
    record form 158f, 723–4
    reduction through supply chain management 25
    report form 721–2
    triangles and limitations 151–2, 151f
    accident books 157, 158f
    accidents to older people in the home 669–70
    ACM (asbestos containing material) 419, 420
    ACoP (Approved Code of Practice) 14, 17, 212, 403, 427
    Act of God 13
    ACT, performance improvement phase 48, 52, 174f
    auditing, health and safety 174–7
    review of health and safety performance 177–80
    active assessment 48
    active monitoring 140, 142–3
    acute acoustic trauma 443
    acute effects 103, 397, 443
    acute toxicity 396
    adjustable guards 309–10, 311f
    air bags 486, 486f
    air monitoring for asbestos 563
    air pollution 662–4
    air receivers 290–1, 290f
    alcohol abuse 218–20, 246
    allergic 396
    allergic contact dermatitis 402
    alpha particles 454
    alterations notices, RRFSO 353
    alternating current (ac) 328
    ammonia 424
    amps (A) 328
    appointments and required competence 189–90
    Approved Code of Practice (ACoP) 14, 17, 212, 403, 427
    AQP (Academically Qualified Person) card 195–6
    asbestos 419
    accidental exposure 424
    assessments 422Index
    748
    Classification, Labelling and Packaging of Substances and
    Mixtures Regulation (EC) (known as CLP) 2015 see CLP
    (Classification, Labelling and Packaging of Substances
    and Mixtures Regulation (EC)) 2015
    clients 31
    domestic 34, 194, 572
    duties under CDM 2015 572
    close sheeting 506, 507
    closed circuit television (CCTV) 218
    clothing facilities 212
    clothing, protective 416–17, 439
    for work with asbestos 561
    CLP (Classification, Labelling and Packaging of Substances and
    Mixtures Regulation (EC)) 2015 396, 398
    regulation 565–6
    requirements 566, 566f
    cofferdams 502–3, 502f, 504–5, 509–10
    cold store workers 215
    collisions with moving vehicles 221
    control strategies 223
    combined testing and inspection 342
    combustible materials 361
    control of 366
    surface spread of fire and 374–5
    command words 681, 682
    commercial properties, refurbishment 226
    common law 11
    torts and duties 11–14
    Common Sense Common Safety, Lord Young’s Report 2010
    533
    communication 47, 88
    and cooperation for managing temporary works 209–10
    safe systems of work 120
    types of 80–1
    graphic 80–1
    verbal 80
    written 80
    compact dumper trucks 270
    Compensation Act 2006 13–14, 645
    compensation claims 5, 161–2, 167–8, 541
    competence 79, 88
    appointments and required, under CDM 2015 189–90
    in health and safety responsibilities 67–8
    role in work permits 125
    in safe systems of work 118
    in safe use of electricity 336
    compressors 308, 318
    conduction 357–8
    conductors 328, 329
    confined spaces
    control measures 511–12
    definition 510
    emergency arrangements 513
    hazards 510–11
    monitoring arrangements 512–13, 513f
    permit to work in 123–4, 124f
    risk assessment 511, 518, 713
    safe systems of work in 120–1
    training 512, 512f, 570
    Confined Spaces Regulations 1997 568–70
    emergency arrangements 570
    employers’ duties 569
    risk assessment 569
    safe system of work 569–70
    training 570
    work in confined space 569
    blood-borne viruses 429
    board members, health and safety planning and actions 92–3
    boilers 290–1, 290f
    bonfires 362, 362f
    box caissons 503
    breach of statutory duty 13–14
    breathing apparatus 414
    British Standards Institution (BSI) 195
    BS EN 7010:2012 632
    Building Regulations 2010 Approved Documents B and M
    643–5
    Building Regulations 2010 Access to and use of buildings –
    Approved Document M 644
    Building Regulations 2010 Fire Safety – Approved Document
    B Volumes 1 and 2 643–4
    buying problems 26
    C
    caissons 503–5, 503f, 509–10
    cancer, work-related 5, 394, 424
    carbon dioxide 424–5
    extinguishers 380
    carbon monoxide 425
    carcinogenic substances 396
    cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) 127
    cardiovascular system 401, 402f
    carpal tunnel syndrome 253
    CE marking 285–7, 285f
    cement
    dust 427
    wet 427
    cement/concrete mixers 308, 318–19, 319f
    CEN 195
    chainsaws 301–3, 302f
    changing rooms 578–9
    CHECK, performance assessment phase 48, 50, 141f
    investigating incidents 149–56
    monitoring, active and reactive 140–9
    recording and reporting incidents 156–64
    checklists
    construction site inspection 168–72
    fire risk assessment 390–1
    fire safety maintenance 737–9
    hazards 133
    health and safety policy 61–2
    inspection 144–5
    manual handling 735, 736
    road works 243
    scaffolding 494–5
    supply chain health and safety management 40
    work station, self-assessment 732–3
    workplace inspection 716–17
    chemical agents 394–5
    chemical storage safety signs 108
    Chemicals (Hazard Information and Packaging for Supply) 2009
    Regulation (CHIP 4), classifications 396, 398
    children, hazards to 206, 226
    CHIP 4 (Chemicals (Hazard Information and Packaging for
    Supply) 2009 Regulation), classifications 396, 398
    chlorine 424
    chronic effects 103, 397, 443
    circuit breakers 338, 339f
    circuits 329
    Civil Engineering Contractors Association (CECA) 196
    civil law 8
    in England and Wales 9–10Index
    749
    contributory negligence 8, 13
    control measures 115
    Control of Artificial Optical Radiation at Work Regulations 2010
    457, 554–5
    duties 554
    hazardous light sources 555
    safe light sources 554–5
    Control of Asbestos Regulations (CAR) 2012 556–65
    accidents incidents and emergencies 561
    air monitoring 563
    air testing standards 563
    application and general note 557–8
    asbestos licences 559
    assessment of work 558–9
    cleanliness of premises and plant 562
    control measures 560
    designated areas 562–3
    disposal 564–5
    duty to manage asbestos 558
    duty to prevent or reduce spread of asbestos 561–2
    health records 563
    identification of presence of asbestos 558
    information, instruction and training 560
    labelling of raw and waste asbestos 564
    licensed contractors 556, 559
    licensing of work 559
    main changes to 2006 regulations 556–7
    maintenance of control measures 561
    medical surveillance 556, 563–4
    notifiable non-licensed work 556
    notification of work 556, 559–60
    plan of work 559
    prevention or reduction of exposure 560
    prohibitions 565
    provision and cleaning of protective clothing 561
    site clearance certification and analysis 563
    storage 564
    washing and changing facilities 564
    work with asbestos 558
    Control of Lead at Work Regulations 2002 426, 648
    Control of Noise at Work Regulations 2005 442, 614–18
    elimination or control of exposure 616–17
    exposure limit values and action levels 615, 616f
    health surveillance 617–18
    hearing protection 617
    information, instruction and training 618
    maintenance and use of equipment 617
    risk assessment 615–16
    Control of Pesticides Regulations 1986 as amended 649
    Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations
    (COSHH) regulations
    1988 403
    2002 and 2005 amendments
    accidents and emergencies 584
    control measures 583–4
    defence 584
    definition of substance hazardous to health 581–2
    duties under 582
    general requirements 582
    health surveillance 584
    information, instruction and training 584
    monitoring exposure 584
    and prevention from exposure to hazardous substances
    408–19
    prevention or control of exposure 583
    risk assessment 582–3
    Constructing Better Health (CBH) 195
    Construction (Design and Management) Regulations 2015
    (CDM 2015) 30–1, 570–9
    appointments, making 189–90, 572
    background 570
    client duties 31, 194, 572
    appointment of principal designer and contractor 572
    domestic 34, 194, 572
    managing projects 572
    notification 572
    construction phase plan 32–3, 42–3, 191–2, 573–4
    consultation with workforce 193
    contractors 32, 574–5
    definition
    of client 572
    of construction work 571–2
    designers 32, 573
    fire enforcement 354, 579
    general requirements for all construction sites 575–8
    health and safety duties and roles
    construction phase plan 573–4
    contractors 574–5
    designers 573
    general duties 573
    health and safety file 574
    principal contractor at construction phase 574
    principal contractor to consult and engage with workers
    574
    principal designers at pre-construction phase 573
    health and safety files 33, 43, 193–4, 574
    health, safety and welfare requirements 194–5, 578–9
    information and instruction 192–3
    level of supervision 192
    main changes to 2007 regulations 570–1
    notification of projects 190, 572
    pre-construction information preparation 33, 41–2, 190–1
    principal contractors 32, 574
    principal designer 31–2, 188–9, 573
    regulator, role of 187–8
    site inductions 193
    terms used and duties 31–4
    welfare facilities 194–5, 578–9
    Construction (Head Protection) Regulations 1989 202,
    472–3
    construction industry
    issues relating to 182–3
    migrant workers 183–4
    scope 182
    supply chains 26–7
    Construction Industry Research and Information Association
    (CIRIA) 196
    construction phase plan 33, 42–3, 191–2, 573–4
    construction sites see sites
    Construction Skills Certification Scheme (CSCS) 183, 195
    construction work, definition 571–2
    continual improvement 48, 52
    continuous equivalent noise level (Leq) 444
    contractors 32–3
    authorisation 36
    duties 574–5
    management 35–6
    safety rules 36–7
    scale of use 34
    selection 34–5
    work permit responsibilities 125
    see also principal contractorsIndex
    750
    Declaration of Conformity 286, 286f
    deconstruction, definition 520
    decontamination units 206
    defendants 8
    demolition and deconstruction
    competence 524
    construction phase health and safety plan 528–9
    control measures 521–8
    definitions 520
    deliberate controlled collapse 520
    dust 523
    and environment 524
    explosives 520–1
    falls at site of 522
    fire and explosion risk 362–3, 523
    hazards 202, 209, 521
    initial assessment process 203–4
    investigation and survey before 525–7
    management 524–5
    method statement 527–8
    methods 520
    noise 522–3
    piecemeal 520
    pre-tender information 528–9
    premature collapse 522
    training for 524
    use of machinery in 523
    dermatitis 402, 427, 427f
    designers 32, 573
    see also principal designers
    diesel engine exhaust emissions 424, 425
    dilution (or general) ventilation 412, 412f
    direct burning 358
    direct costs 7, 103, 187
    direct current (dc) 328
    direct reading instruments 407
    directors 51
    personal liability 18
    responsibilities for health and safety 65–6, 92–3
    review of health and safety performance 178–9
    disability, workers with a 114
    disc-cutters/cut-off saws 298, 298f
    disease, work-related 5, 159, 627, 645
    costs 6, 6t
    rates 5, 5t, 186, 186t
    display screen equipment 254–6
    and musculoskeletal problems 255
    psychological problems 255–6
    visual problems 255
    see also Health and Safety (Display Screen Equipment)
    Regulations 1992 as amended in 2002
    DO, performance phase 47–8, 64f
    developing and implementing a safe system of work 117–21
    emergency procedures 125–7
    first aid in the workplace 127–30
    health and safety culture 69–71
    human factors influencing behaviour at work 71–8
    improving health and safety behaviour 78–89
    information sources 116–17
    organisational roles and responsibilities 64–9
    permit-to-work system 121–5
    prevention in relation to risk reduction measures 115–16
    principles and practice of risk assessment 100–15
    document shredders 307, 314, 315f
    doors for fire escape 383
    double-barrelled action 13
    assessment 404–5
    assessment example 728
    assessment record forms 729–31
    principles of good practice 408–9, 583b
    requirements of regulations 403–4
    role of 403
    Control of Vibration at Work Regulations 2005 634–6
    application 634
    elimination or control of exposure to vibration 635
    exposure limit values and action values 634
    hand-arm vibration 450–2, 451f, 451t
    health surveillance 453, 635
    information, instruction and training 635–6
    interpretation 634
    risk assessment 634
    whole-body vibration 452–3
    controlled waste 430, 549b
    controlled waters 664
    controls, work equipment 291–2, 295
    emergency stop controls 291–2, 292f
    start controls 291
    stop controls 291
    convection 357
    conveyors 265, 265–6f
    Corporate Manslaughter and Corporate Homicide Act 2007
    20–1, 645–6
    corporate responsibility 2–3
    corrosive substances 396
    cost-benefit analysis 113
    County Courts 9
    court system 8–10, 9f
    cranes 271–4
    crash decks 486
    criminal law 7–8
    in England and Wales 8–9
    cross poling 506
    Crown Courts 8–9, 20
    Crown Prosecution Service (CPS) 9
    customer information 25–6
    customers 52
    cycling, safe 670–1
    D
    daily personal exposure level, noise measurement 444, 445
    damage only 151
    dangerous occurrences
    definition 3–4
    reportable 159
    dangerous substances 370–3
    control measures 371
    flammable gases 372–3
    mitigation measures 371–2
    risk assessment 370–1
    storage 372, 372f
    substitution 371
    Dangerous Substances and Explosive Atmospheres
    Regulations (DSEAR) 2002 370, 585–7
    accidents, incidents and emergencies 586–7
    application 586
    classifications of workplaces 586, 586t
    contents of containers and pipes 587
    elimination or reduction of risks 586
    information, instruction and training 587
    risk assessment 586
    scope of regulations 585
    deaths, work-related 20, 157–8Index
    751
    insulation, protection and placing of conductors 590
    precautions 590–1
    strength and capability of equipment 590
    systems, work activities and protective equipment 590
    work on equipment made dead 591
    work on or near live conductors 591
    working space access and lighting 591
    electronic waste 432, 432f
    elevators 265, 267, 267f
    emergency arrangements, confined spaces 570
    emergency plans, fire 365–6, 366f, 385–6
    emergency procedures 125–7, 203
    assembly and roll-call 126
    electrical incident 344
    points to include 126
    supervisory duties 126
    testing and training for 127
    for working at height 486–7
    emergency services, contacting 126–7
    emergency stop controls 291–2, 292f
    EMF Directive 458
    employees’ duties
    fire safety 353, 598
    under HSW Act 18, 23–4, 539
    under Management of Health and Safety at Work
    Regulations 29, 611
    manual handling 614
    and role under safe systems at work 118
    employers’ duties
    first-aid 602
    under HSW Act 17, 21–3, 538–9
    under Management of Health and Safety at Work
    Regulations 29
    manual handling 612–13
    Employers’ Liability (Compulsory Insurance) Act 1969 and
    Regulations 1998 amended in 2002, 2004 and 2008 7,
    592–3
    application 592
    coverage 592–3
    display of certificate 593
    penalties 593
    retention of certificates 593
    Employment Tribunals 10
    Enabling Act 16
    End of Life Vehicle (ELV) Directive 432
    enforcement
    of Environmental Protection Act 548–51
    of HSW Act 1974 18–20
    notices 5, 5t, 19
    of RRFSO 353
    engineered measures 115
    engineering controls, as risk control measure 106
    Enterprise and Regulatory Reform Act 2013 541
    environment
    and demolition 524
    hazards and controls 207–8
    issues 430–2
    protection of 3
    Environment Agency 27–8
    environmental considerations 207–8, 661–7
    air pollution 662–4
    environmental impact assessments 667
    landfill disposal 665
    waste disposal 665–7
    waste management, environmental permits 664
    water pollution 664
    double insulation 340, 340f
    drag boxes 507
    drink driving 246
    drinking water 212, 578, 638
    driving at work 243–8
    benefits of managing work-related road safety 244
    evaluating risks 245–7
    health and safety rules 247
    managing occupational road risks 244
    Driving CPC (Certificate of Professional Competence) 245
    drowning, prevention of 202
    drug abuse 218–20
    dust 394
    cement 427
    control measures 112f
    during demolition 523
    silica 426–7
    wood 411, 427–8
    dust observation lamp 407
    duties under HSW Act
    of clients 572
    of employees and others 18, 23–4, 539
    of employers 17, 21–3, 538–9
    of managers and supervisors 23
    of manufacturers and suppliers 18, 24–7, 539
    of owner/occupiers 539
    duty of care 13, 549–51
    E
    ear defenders (earmuffs) 447
    ear protection zone sign 446f
    earplugs 447
    earthing 329
    electric arcing 332, 332f, 334
    electric burns 330–1
    treatment 331–2
    electric current 328
    electric drills 297–8, 297f
    electric generators 309, 321, 321f, 323f
    electric shock poster 331f
    electric shocks 330–1
    treatment 331–2
    electrical equipment
    inspections 329–30, 341
    maintenance 329, 341–2
    overloading 332–3
    in potentially flammable atmospheres 333, 377
    selection and suitability 337–8
    Electrical Equipment (Safety) Regulations 1994 646
    electrical fires and explosions 332–4, 357
    electrical safety 369–70
    electrically powered gates 224–5
    electricity
    basic principles 328–30
    hazard control measures 336–47
    hazards, risks and danger 203, 330–6
    high risks associated with 336
    site distribution system 338
    Electricity at Work Regulations 1989 336, 341, 589–91
    adverse or hazardous environments 590
    competence 337, 591
    connections 591
    cutting off supply and isolation 591
    definitions 590
    duties 590
    excess current protection 591Index
    752
    exhaust ducts 410
    exhaust gases 509
    exit signs for fire 385
    explosives for demolition 520–1
    external agencies, role and function 27–9
    external stakeholders 51
    eye protection 416
    F
    fall arrest equipment 485–6
    air bags 486, 486f
    safety harnesses 485, 487f
    safety nets 469f, 485–6
    falling objects
    being struck by 221
    control strategies 223, 471–2
    protection against 202, 470–1, 522
    falls
    protection against 201, 223, 468–9, 522
    on same level 220–1
    from working at height 221, 467–8
    fault injury compensation 658
    Fee for Intervention (FFI) 18, 541–2
    fibres 394–5
    filtering face piece (FFP3) 415
    financial arguments for health and safety 6, 187
    fire
    action plan 364
    action signs 108
    additional risks in construction 360–1
    casualties 359
    causes 359–60, 359f, 360f
    classification 356–7
    compartmentation 376
    consequences 360
    detection and alarm systems 378–82, 379f
    and disabled people 387
    drills 387
    emergency plans 203, 365–6, 366f, 385–6
    enforcement on construction sites 354t
    escape routes in construction workplace 358–9, 383–4
    exit signs 385
    extinguishers 378–80, 381f
    heat transmission and spread 357–9
    loading 374
    notices 386–7
    prevention 366–77
    principles 354–6
    protection in buildings 374–6
    resistance of structural elements 375
    risk assessment 361–6
    checklist 390–1
    record form 740
    RRFSO 351–3, 354t
    safety maintenance checklist 737–9
    and smoke spread 358–9, 358f
    surface spread 374–5
    triangle 354, 354f
    Fire and Rescue Authority 27
    Fire and Rescue Services (Northern Ireland) to fire prevention
    601
    fire-fighting equipment
    areas of special risks 380, 381f
    fixed 380–2
    maintenance and testing 382, 382f
    portable 380
    environmental impact assessments 667
    Environmental Management System (EMS) 661
    environmental permitting 543–4, 664–5
    applications 545–6
    exempt facilities 545
    facilities requiring 544–5
    Environmental Protection Act 1990 542–52
    application procedures 547
    best available techniques (BAT) 542, 543b
    duty of care 549–51
    enforcement 548–9
    environmental permitting 543–4
    applications 545–6
    exempt facilities 545
    facilities requiring 544–5
    exempt facilities 545
    hazardous waste 551
    IPCC, scope of 549
    legal framework 543
    management systems 548
    operator competence 548
    operators 546
    permit conditions 547
    Pollution Prevention and Control Act 1999 542
    IPPC 542–3
    LAPPC 542, 543, 545
    regulators 545
    regulatory process overview 543
    standard permits 547–8
    standard rules 547
    transitional arrangements 546–7
    waste hierarchy 551, 551t
    waste management 550b
    licence for 550, 551
    Equality Act 2010 and (Disability) Regulations 2010 646–7
    equipment, Restrictions of the use of certain Hazardous
    Substances 432
    equipotential bonding 329
    ergonomics
    ill-health effects of poor 253
    principles and scope 252–3
    escape routes 358–9, 383–4
    escape times during fire 385
    European Courts 10, 11
    European Union, influence on health and safety 15
    evacuation of a construction workplace 385–7
    examination, electrical equipment 330
    examinations see specimen answers to practice questions;
    study
    excavations 202
    access to 509
    caissons 503–5, 503f, 509–10
    cofferdams 502–3, 502f, 504–5, 509–10
    control measures 505–10
    flooding risk 509–10
    fumes and exhaust gases 509
    hazards 498–9, 498f
    inspections 510
    planning 499–500
    risk assessment 500–1, 517
    support systems 507–8, 507f, 508f
    underground services and 508–9
    excavator quick hitches 269–70
    excavators 268–9
    risk assessment 280
    exclusion zones 520–1Index
    753
    genetic effects 454
    GHS (Globally Harmonised System) 566f
    classifications 396, 397f, 398
    hazard statements 436
    goggles 416
    ‘good practice’ 14
    grab sampling 406
    grinders, bench-top 307, 314–15, 315f
    ground consolidation equipment 308, 319–20, 320f
    guards 309–11
    adjustable 309–10, 311f
    basic requirements 321–3
    fixed 309, 310f
    hand-held tools 295
    interlocking 310–11, 311f
    guidance 17
    H
    half-mask respirator 414
    hand-arm vibration 450–2, 451f, 451t
    hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) 448–9, 449f
    hand-fed power planers 307–8, 316–18, 317f
    hand-held tools
    hazards and controls for 293–303
    hazards of non-powered 293
    portable power 294–303
    safety considerations for non-powered 294
    safety controls and instructions, portable power 295–6
    hand protection 416, 439
    harmful substances 396
    HAVS (hand-arm vibration syndrome) 448–9, 449f
    hazard identification and risk assessment 47
    hazard statements 398, 436f, 566f
    hazard warning (H), labels 398, 398t
    hazardous substances
    classification and health risks 394–8
    control measures 408–19
    emergency 418
    engineering 410–12
    hierarchy of 409
    preventative 409–10
    supervisory or people 412–13
    COSHH assessment 404
    entry into human body 400–3, 400f
    transport by road 418
    waste 430, 551
    workplace exposure limits 407–8
    hazardous waste and spillage 430
    Hazardous Waste (England and Wales) Regulations 2005 423,
    430, 603
    consignment note 604f
    hazardous properties of waste 438
    summary 603
    hazards
    checklist 133
    confined spaces 510–11
    and controls 201–3
    environmental 207–8
    initial site assessment 203–4
    sites 204–11
    definition 4
    demolition 521–4
    electrical 330–6
    excavation 498–9, 498f
    fire 361–3
    hand-held power tools 294–5
    fire marshals 386
    Fire Precautions Act 1971 350–1
    Fire Precautions (Workplace) Regulations 1999 351
    Fire Safety Advisory Board 351
    Fire Safety (Employees’ Capabilities) (England) Regulations
    2010 353
    Fire Scotland Act 2005 599–601
    duties 599
    main rights and responsibilities 599–601
    first aid 127–30
    appointed persons 128, 129t
    considerations 127–8
    contents of first-aid box 128, 128t
    first-aider 128–9
    Health and Safety (First-Aid) Regulations 1981 as amended
    601–2
    informing employees of arrangements 129
    and significant risks 128
    signs 108
    training and approval 129–30
    treatment and accident record 723–4
    fixed guards 309, 310f
    fixed objects, striking against 222
    control strategies 223
    fixed scaffolds 478–81, 495–6
    flammable gases 372–3
    flammable liquids
    safe dispensing of 377
    storage 372
    flooding risk in excavations 509–10
    foam extinguishers 379
    footwear, safety 416–17
    fork-lift trucks 267–8, 267f, 282
    safe driving of 268t
    formal caution 19
    formal visual inspections 342
    forms, health and safety see health and safety forms
    forums, construction health and safety 196
    fragile roofs 201
    risk assessment example 714
    and surfaces 469–70, 469f
    warning signs 109f
    fragile surfaces 641
    frequency, audio 443
    frequency rates, injury 161
    frozen shoulder 253
    fuel, sources of 355, 363
    full-mask respirator 414
    fume 395
    fumes and exhaust gases 509
    fungi 395
    fuses 338–9, 339f
    G
    gamma rays 454
    Gas Appliances (Safety) Regulations 1995 647
    gas incidents, reportable 159
    Gas Safe Register 425
    Gas Safe Registered 425
    Gas Safe Scheme 425
    Gas Safety (Installation and Use) Regulations 1998 647
    gases 355, 356f, 395
    gates, electrically powered 224–5
    general permits 123
    general purpose trucks 262
    ‘generic’ risk assessment 101–2Index
    754
    health and safety files 33, 43, 193–4, 574
    Health and Safety (First-Aid) Regulations 1981 as amended
    601–2
    duty of employer 602
    employees information 602
    self-employed 602
    health and safety forms 710–46
    construction
    bricklayer risk assessment example 742–4
    inspection report form 741
    woodwork risk assessment example 745–6
    fire
    risk assessment record form 740
    safety maintenance checklist 737–9
    health
    COSHH assessment example 728
    COSHH assessment record forms 729–31
    manual handling of loads assessment record 735
    manual handling risk assessment 736
    noise assessment record form 734
    workstation self assessment checklist example 732–3
    management
    first aid treatment and accident record 723–4
    job safety analysis 718
    permit to work 719
    risk assessment 711–14
    witness statement 720
    workplace inspection checklist 716–17
    workplace inspection report 715
    safety
    permit to work 726–7
    risk assessment 725
    health and safety in the home 667–70
    accidents to older people 669–70
    facts and figures 668
    preventative measures 668–9
    Health and Safety (Information for Employees) Regulations
    1989 602–3
    health and safety management system
    aspects 50
    audits 50, 52, 174–7
    behaviour at work
    human factors influencing 71–6
    improvement strategies 78–88
    benefits 52
    characteristics of a successful 50–2
    commercial stakeholders 89
    commitment of management 78, 87
    communication 87
    types 80–1
    competent persons 67–8, 79, 88
    consultation with workforce 81–4
    Health and Safety (Consultation with Employees)
    Regulations 83–4, 579–81
    Safety Representatives and Safety Committees
    Regulations 82–3, 629–30
    continual improvement 48, 52
    drivers, safety rules for 247
    economics 89
    emergency procedures 125–7
    assembly and roll-call 126
    points to include 126
    supervisory duties 126
    testing and training for 127
    employee representation 88
    failure, measurement of 148–9
    hand-held tools 293–303
    health 203, 394–7
    identification and risk assessment 47
    identifying 104–5
    machinery
    control measures 309–23
    hazard examples 307–9
    mechanical 304–5, 306f
    non-mechanical 304, 305–7
    manual handling 256–62
    manually operated load handling equipment 263–4
    mobile work equipment 235
    pedestrians 225–7
    transport operations, workplace 234–9
    vehicles on construction sites 239–43
    workplace 220–5
    head protection 202, 472–3
    Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 15–21, 533
    background 15–16
    employees and others’ duties 18, 23–4
    employers’ duties 17, 21–3
    enforcement 18–20
    general duties and key sections 17–18
    managers and supervisors’ duties 23
    manufacturers and suppliers’ duties 18, 24–7
    offences 18
    overview 16–17
    personal liability of directors 18
    persons in control of premises 17, 24
    Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 as amended in 2013
    538–42
    civil liability 541
    employees’ duties 539
    employers’ duties 538–9
    Fees for Intervention (FFI) 541–2
    manufacturers/suppliers’ duties 539
    merged HSE 541
    offences and penalties 540–1, 540b, 540t
    other duties 539
    owners/occupiers’ duties 539
    powers of inspectors 539–40
    Health and Safety (Consultation with Employees) Regulations
    1996 83–4, 579–81
    application 579–80
    civil liability and complaints 580
    duty to provide information 580
    elections 581
    employers’ duty to consult 580
    persons to be consulted 580
    ROES 580
    Health and Safety (Display Screen Equipment) Regulations
    1992 as amended in 2002 254, 587–9
    daily work routine of users 588
    definitions 588
    exemptions 588
    eyes and eyesight 588–9
    information 589, 589t
    risk assessment 588
    training 589
    workstations 588
    Health and Safety Executive (HSE) 2–3, 16
    Concordat between Scottish Executive and 534–6b
    investigation of work-related deaths 20
    merged 541
    relationship with industry 533
    Health and Safety Executive of Northern Ireland (HSENI) 16–17Index
    755
    definitions 630
    functions of colours, shapes and symbols 631–2, 631f,
    632f
    information, instruction and training 631
    provision and maintenance of safety signs 630
    Health and Safety (Sharp Instruments in Healthcare)
    Regulations 2013 651
    health, definition 3
    health hazards 203, 394–7
    health risks 103
    assessment of 398–407
    sources of information 405–6
    survey techniques 406–7
    types of 398–9
    health surveillance 405, 417–18, 437f, 446, 453, 459
    asbestos 423, 556
    healthcare premises 211, 226
    hearing loss, noise-induced 443
    heat equation 214f
    heat transmission 357–9
    heating and temperature, work environment 213
    heights see working at heights
    hepatitis 429
    High Court 10
    high-level investigations 152
    high voltage 329
    high-voltage permits 123, 337
    hoists/lifts 274, 481–2, 482f
    hold-to-run controls 312–13
    holders 313
    home health and safety see health and safety in the home
    hot work permits 123, 123f
    house building 226
    housekeeping 111, 144, 367, 687
    HSG65 46–7
    human body, entry of hazardous substances to 400–3, 400f
    human ear 442–3
    human errors
    mistakes 76–7
    reducing 77
    slips and lapses 76
    hydraulic waling frames 507
    hydrogen sulphide 425, 425t
    I
    ignition, sources of 355, 361–3
    control of 367–8
    ILO see International Labour Organisation (ILO)
    immediate causes of incidents 150, 154, 161
    improvement notices 19, 539
    incidence rates 70, 161
    Incident Contact Centre (ICC) 159
    incident, definitions 102, 150
    incidents, investigating see investigating incidents
    indictable offences 20
    indirect costs 7, 103, 187
    individual factors and behaviour at work 74–6
    induction training 85–6, 208
    young workers 113
    information boards, road works 241–2
    information, sources of health and safety 116–17, 195–6
    infrared radiation 456
    ingestion 400
    inhalable dust 394
    inhalation 400
    injection 400
    files, health and safety 33, 43, 193–4
    first aid 127–30
    forums 196
    health and safety culture 48, 78
    definition 69
    external influences on 88–9, 88f
    factors affecting 71
    indicators of 70–1
    internal influences on 78, 87–8, 87f
    positive 51, 69–70
    questionnaire 96–7
    safety performance and 69–70
    health and safety posters 81, 81f
    health and safety practitioner
    relationships outside organisation 68–9
    relationships within organisation 68
    health and safety training 84–7, 97
    induction training 85–6
    job-specific training 86
    specialist training 86–7
    supervisory and management training 86
    HSG65 46–7
    ILO-OSH 2001 48–9
    information sources 116–17, 195–6
    insurance companies 88–9
    investigating incidents 149–56
    involvement of stakeholders 51–2
    key elements 46–53
    legal framework 7–15
    legislation and enforcement 88
    management commitment 78, 87
    monitoring, active and reactive 140–9
    organisation of health and safety 57–8
    control of 64–5
    directors’ responsibilities 65–6, 92–3
    employers’ responsibilities 65
    managers’ responsibilities 66–7, 94–5
    managing directors/chief executives’ responsibilities 66–7,
    94
    supervisors’ responsibilities 67, 95–6
    performance assessment phase – CHECK 48
    performance improvement phase – ACT 48
    performance phase – DO 47–8
    performance review 177–80
    Plan, Do, Check, Act model 46–8, 48t
    planning phase – PLAN 49–50
    policies
    arrangements for 58
    checklist 61–2
    legal duties 53
    policy statement of intent 53–5
    purpose and importance of 53
    review 58–9
    problems 52–3
    production/service demands 87
    recording and reporting incidents 156–64
    review 48
    setting objectives 55–7, 55f
    societal expectations 88
    standards, promotion of 78–9
    status given to health and safety 68, 78
    trade unions 89
    Health and Safety (Offences) Act 2008 540, 648
    health and safety professionals 51
    Health and Safety (Safety Signs and Signals) Regulations 1996
    630–3Index
    756
    protection strategies 457
    sources of 454–5
    Ionising Radiations Regulations 1999 455, 459, 603–6
    duties of self-employed people 605
    general requirements 605
    prior risk assessment 605–6
    radiation employers 605
    working with ionising radiation 605
    ionising sign 454f
    IPCC see Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPCC)
    Irish Health and Safety Authority 188
    irritant contact dermatitis 402
    irritants 396
    isocyantantes 426
    isolation of electricity 339
    isolation of equipment 292, 330
    J
    jib tower cranes 271, 272f
    jigs 313
    job
    and behaviour at work 73–4
    design 218
    safety analysis 119
    form 718
    joint occupation of premises 29–30
    journey, evaluating risks 246–7
    K
    kerb stones, handling 260–1
    Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) 56
    kinaesthetic learning style 680
    L
    ladders 474–6, 475f, 476f
    lamps, dust observation 407
    landfill disposal 431–2, 665
    lane rental under NRSWA 553–4
    LAPC (Local Air Pollution Control) 542, 543
    LAPPC (Local Air Pollution Prevention and Control) 542, 543,
    545
    lasers 456
    lead 426
    demolition work 526
    Legal Aid, Sentencing and Punishment of Offenders Act 2012
    540
    legal framework 7–15
    common law torts and duties 11–14
    in England and Wales 8–10, 9f
    European Courts 11
    in Scotland 10–11
    sources of law 11, 12f
    sub-divisions of law 7–8, 12f
    legal requirements 186–7
    customer information 26
    guidance 17
    health and safety policy 53
    keeping up to date with 79–80
    for risk assessment 100–1
    safe systems of work 118
    in supply chain management 25–6
    legionella 428–9
    leptospirosis 428
    LEV (local exhaust ventilation) 410–12, 411f
    licences
    asbestos 559
    injuries
    electric shock and 330–1
    manual handling 256–7
    reducing risk of 259–60
    inspection 48
    checklists 168–72, 494–5, 716–17
    electrical equipment 329–30, 341–3
    equipment for work at height 473, 494–5
    excavations 510
    exercises 165–6f
    formal visual inspection and tests 342
    hand-held tools 294
    lifting equipment 275
    report forms 715, 741
    reports 146
    safety programmes 143–6
    timing and frequency 343, 493
    of work equipment under PUWER 290
    inspectors, power of 18–19, 19t, 539–40
    installation
    electrical systems on site 338
    of lifting equipment 264, 607
    insulating materials 375–6
    insulation 339
    double 380
    insulators 329
    insurance
    companies 28–9, 51, 88–9
    reporting accidents to 160
    information for claims 167–8
    Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPCC) 542–3
    regulatory process 543
    wider scope of 549
    interlocking guards 310–11, 311f
    internal stakeholders 51
    International Labour Organisation (ILO)
    code of practice 656, 672
    compensation and insurance issues 657–8
    conventions 655–7
    fault and no-fault injury compensation 658
    ILO-OSH 2001 48–9
    recommendations 655–7
    road transport drivers, recommendations 660–1
    role and function 655
    international organisations 52
    internet searches 195, 706–8
    investigating incidents 149–56
    accident triangles and limitations 151–2, 151f
    benefits of 149–50
    causes and analysis 154–5
    comparison with relevant standards 155
    consequences 150–1
    determinants for 152, 152f
    five whys 155
    function 149–50
    immediate causes 150, 154, 161
    levels of investigation 152, 152f, 156
    procedures 153–4
    remedial actions 155–6
    root causes 150, 154–5
    simple root cause analysis 155
    types of incident or adverse event 150–1
    underlying causes for incidents 150, 154–5
    investors 51
    ionising radiation 453–5
    harmful effects 454Index
    757
    hazards 304–9, 306f
    prevention of access to 287
    risk assessment 287, 725
    machinery maintenance permits 124
    Magistrates Courts 8, 20
    mains voltage 329
    maintenance
    of electrical equipment 329, 341–2
    of equipment for working at height 473–4
    of equipment used for controlling hazardous substances
    418
    of fire-fighting equipment 382, 382f
    related accidents 225
    of work equipment 288, 289–90
    of work equipment with specific risks 287–8
    major injury due to accident 157
    Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999
    29–30
    as amended in 2003 and 2006 609–12
    capabilities and training 611
    civil liability 611–12
    competent assistance 610
    cooperation and coordination 610–11
    employee duties 611
    health and safety arrangements 609–10
    health surveillance 610
    information for employees 610
    new or expectant mothers 611
    principles of prevention 609
    procedures for serious and imminent danger 610
    provisions as to liability 611
    risk assessment 100–1, 609
    young persons 611
    management supervision 115
    management survey, asbestos 421
    management system
    for electrical hazards 337
    see also health and safety management system
    managers
    duties under HSW Act 23
    health and safety management responsibilities 66–7, 94–5
    performance measurement 143
    performance review, role in 178–9
    permit responsibilities 124–5
    senior 125
    site 124
    manhole shores 507
    manual handling
    assessment loads checklist 735
    assessments 257–9
    hazards and controls 256–62
    and injuries 256–7
    of kerb stones 260–1
    lifting technique, good 261f, 262
    operations, hierarchy of measures 257
    reducing risk of injury 259–60
    risk assessment form 736
    training 261–2
    Manual Handling Assessment Chart (MAC) tool 260
    Manual Handling Operations Regulations (MHO) 1992 as
    amended in 2002 257, 612–14
    duties of employees 614
    duties of employers
    additional information on load 613
    avoidance of manual handling 612
    reducing risk of injury 612
    waste management 550, 551
    lift plans 270–1
    lifting equipment 12f
    manually operated 263–4
    examples 281
    hazards associated with 263
    precautions 263–4
    mechanically operated 265–75
    employee training 265
    load preparation 265
    workplace design and 265
    safety in use of 264–5
    sample risk assessment 279
    statutory examination 275–6
    lifting hooks 262
    Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations (LOLER)
    1998 as amended in 2002 274, 275, 605–6
    application 606–7
    definition 606
    examination and inspection 608
    lifting equipment for lifting persons 607
    marking of lifting equipment 607
    organisation of lifting operations 607–8
    positioning and installation 607
    reports – schedule 1 609
    reports and defects 608
    strength and stability 607
    lifting tackle, items of 274, 274f
    lifting technique, good 261f, 262
    lifts/hoists 274, 481–2, 482f
    lifts, passenger 274–5
    light sources
    hazardous 555
    safe 554–5
    lighting
    escape routes 384–5
    site planning 204
    work environment 213–14, 214t
    lightning strikes 335
    liquids 355, 356f, 395
    load handling equipment see lifting equipment
    load, manual handling 258, 260
    loading platforms, design 481
    Local Air Pollution Control (LAPC) 542, 543
    Local Air Pollution Prevention and Control (LAPPC) 542, 543,
    545
    local authorities 5, 8, 16, 20, 187
    inspections 18, 19t
    see also external agencies, role and function
    local exhaust ventilation (LEV) 410–12, 411f
    Löfstedt’s report 2011 202, 273, 533, 541
    log tongs 262
    LOLER see Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment
    Regulations (LOLER) 1998 as amended in 2002
    lone workers
    risk assessment 114–15
    safe systems of work 121
    low-level investigations 152
    low voltage 329
    electric shock 331–2
    LPG safety signs 109
    M
    machinery
    fire safety 368–9
    hazard control measures 309–23Index
    758
    negligence 11–12
    neighbours 52
    nervous system 401, 401f
    neurotoxins 401
    New Road and Street Works Act (NRSWA) 1991 501,
    552–4
    Code of Practice 553
    general requirements 552–3
    lane rental 553–4
    prolonged occupation 553
    in Scotland 552
    night working 22
    nitrogen 425
    no fault injury compensation 658
    no smoking signs 109, 109f
    noise 203, 207, 442–8
    action levels 444–6
    80 dB(A) 445
    85 dB(A) 445
    87 dB(A) 445
    135 dB(C) 445
    137 dB(C) 445
    140dB(C) 445
    acute acoustic trauma 443
    acute hearing effects 443
    assessments 443–6, 445t
    record form 734
    attenuation of levels 447
    chronic hearing effects 443
    control techniques 446–7
    demolition 522–3
    health effects 443
    and human ear 442–3
    measurement 443–4
    noise-induced hearing loss 443
    permanent threshold shift 443
    reduction at source 446, 446f
    temporary threshold shift 443
    tinnitus 443
    in woodworking machines 448, 448t
    noise-induced hearing loss 443
    non-domestic premises, control of 24
    non-ionising radiation 455–7
    protection from 457–8
    non-mechanical machinery, hazards 304, 305–7
    Northern Ireland, health and safety 536
    notice boards 80
    notifiable work 33–4, 190, 556, 572
    Notification of Conventional Tower Cranes Regulations in 2010
    (revoked) 273
    NRSWA (New Road and Street Works Act) 1991 see New Road
    and Street Works Act (NRSWA) 1991
    O
    objectives, setting 55–7, 55f
    observation of performance 145–6
    occupational asthma 5, 424
    occupational diseases, reportable 159, 186, 186t, 627–8
    occupational ill-health 3, 5, 5t, 6, 102, 186
    occupational road risks 244–7, 660–1, 660f
    Occupational Safety Consultations Register 533
    occupied premises 226
    working in 208–11, 489
    Occupiers Liability Acts 1957 and 1984 – Civil Law 648–9
    offences
    due to fault of another person 18
    reviewing assessment 613
    risk assessment 612, 614t
    flow chart 613f
    individual capability 614
    Manufacture and Storage of Explosives Regulations 2005 648
    markings on equipment 292
    material breach of health and safety law 18
    material safety data sheets 405–6
    meals, facilities for eating 212
    mechanical assistance in manual handling 259, 263
    mechanical handling and lifting equipment 262–75
    mechanical machinery
    control of hazards 309–23
    hazards 304–5, 306f
    medical surveillance for asbestos 423, 563–4
    medium-density fibreboard (MDF) 427
    medium-level investigations 152, 156
    mesothelioma 419, 420, 645
    method statements 33
    demolition 527–8
    during site planning 204
    microwaves 456–7
    migrant workers 183–4
    mind maps 670f, 679
    minimal-level investigations 152
    minor injury 150
    minor works 242–3
    mistakes 76–7
    mists 395
    mobile elevating work platforms (MEWPs) 483–4, 483f
    mobile jib cranes 272
    mobile operations 242–3
    mobile scaffold towers 482–3, 483f
    mobile work equipment
    hazards 235
    legislation 236–7
    safe driving 237–8
    monitoring health and safety, active and reactive 140–9
    active monitoring 140, 142–3
    checklists, advantages and disadvantages 146
    construction site inspection checklist 168–72
    inspection exercises 165–6f
    observation 145–6
    purpose 141–2
    reactive monitoring 148–9
    report structure 147–8
    report writing 146–8
    reports from inspections 146
    risk control 142
    safety inspection programmes 143–6, 168–72
    traditional approach 140–1
    moral arguments 4–5, 184–6
    mothers, expectant and nursing 611
    motivation 75
    moulds 395
    moving vehicles, collisions with 221, 223
    mud reduction 207–8
    musculoskeletal disorders 5, 252–6
    caused by manual handling 256–7
    mutagenic substances 397
    N
    nail guns 299–301, 300f
    nail guns, cartridge and pneumatic 299–301, 300f
    near miss 71, 102, 150, 151
    definition 3Index
    759
    purpose and importance of setting a health and safety policy
    53
    plant and machinery, fire safety 368–9
    plate compactors 308, 319, 319f
    platform trucks 262
    plug wiring, standard UK 3-pin 342f
    pneumatic caissons 503–4
    pneumatic drills/chisels 296–7, 297f
    pole ladder 475
    policy statements 47
    of intent 53–5
    poling boards 506
    Pollution Prevention and Control Act 1999 542
    IPPC 542–3
    regulatory process 543
    wider scope of 549
    LAPPC 542, 543, 545
    portable appliance testing (PAT) 344
    portable conveyors 262–3
    portable electrical appliances 335–6, 335f
    testing 342–4, 343t
    post-accident risk assessment 112–13
    posters
    electric shock 331f
    health and safety 81, 81f
    powder extinguishers 379
    powered respirator 414
    practicable duty 14
    practice questions, specimen answers to see specimen
    answers to practice questions
    pre-construction information 33, 41–2, 190–1
    pre-demolition survey 525–7
    pre-syncope 486
    precautionary statements 398, 398t, 566f
    precautionary statements (P), labels 398
    pregnant women and nursing mothers, risk assessment
    113–14
    premature collapse 522
    premises checklist 144
    presbycusis 443
    Pressure Systems Safety Regulations 2000 (PSSR) 290, 649
    prevention principles for risk control 115–16
    see also risk control measures
    principal contractors 32, 574
    principal designers 31–2
    appointment 572
    preparation of health and safety file 193–4
    role in construction phase plan 191–2, 574
    role in pre-construction phase 188–9, 573
    printer/photocopiers 307, 314, 314f
    prion 395
    process-related fire precautions 351–2
    Procurator Fiscal 10–11
    product labels 405, 406f
    prohibition notices 19, 539
    prohibition notices, RRFSO 353
    prolonged occupation under NRWSA 553
    props 506
    prosecutions 5, 5t
    protective clothing 416–17, 439
    for work with asbestos 561
    Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1998
    (except Part IV) as amended in 2002 and 2013 620–4
    conformity with community requirements 621
    controls 622
    dangerous parts of machinery 621
    and penalties under HSW Act 540–1, 540b, 540t
    RRFSO 353
    Office of Rail Regulation (ORR) 19
    ohms 328
    OHSAS 18001:2007 49, 50
    open caissons 503, 504
    open sheeting 506, 507
    operating environment, design of 217–18
    operational measures 115
    organic solvents 424
    organisation and behaviour at work 72–3
    organisational structure 47
    over 3 day injury/ill-health 252, 628
    over 7 day injury/ill-health 150, 158, 628
    overhead gantry travelling cranes 271
    overhead power lines 206, 509
    control measures for working near 344–6, 347f
    oxygen 355, 356f
    sources of 363
    P
    pallet trucks 262, 263f
    passenger lifts 274–5
    passive sampling 406
    PAT (portable appliance testing) 344
    PCBs 526
    peak sound pressure 444
    pedestal drills 307, 315–16, 315f
    pedestrian
    barriers 241
    hazards and controls 208, 224, 225–7
    penalties 19, 540b, 540t
    people checklist 145
    perception 75–6
    performance review 177–80
    continual improvement 179–80, 179f
    directors and senior managers, role off 178–9
    items to consider 178
    people involved 178
    planned intervals 178
    purpose 177–8
    performance targets, health and safety 54–5, 56
    permanent threshold shift 443
    permit-to-work system 121–5
    example forms 719, 726–7
    principles 122
    procedures 122
    responsibilities 124–5
    work requiring a permit 122–4
    personal ear protection 447–8
    personal hygiene 417–18
    Personal Protective Equipment at Work Regulations 1992 as
    amended in 2002 and 2013 417, 618–20, 649
    accommodation 619
    assessment 619
    compatibility 618
    information, instruction and training 619
    maintenance 619
    provision of 618
    use and reporting of defects 619
    personal protective equipment (PPE) 111, 314, 413–17, 414t
    Plan, Do, Check, Act model 46–8, 48t
    PLAN, planning phase 47, 49–50, 49f
    key elements 46–53
    key features and content for a health and safety policy
    53–9Index
    760
    regulations 16–17
    alphabetical list of 536–7
    chronological list of 537–8
    regulator 51, 187–8
    Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005 (RRFSO) 593–601
    additional emergency measures 597
    alterations notices 353, 598–9
    capabilities and training 598
    cooperation and coordination 598
    duty to take general fire precautions 594
    emergency routes and exits 596
    enforcement 598
    enforcement notices 353, 354t, 599
    fire-fighting and fire detection 595–6
    general duties of employees at work 598
    information to employees 597
    interpretation 593–4
    maintenance 597
    offences 353
    offences and appeals 599
    principles of prevention 595
    procedures for serious and imminent danger 596
    prohibition notices 353, 599
    requirements 351–3
    risk assessment and fire safety arrangements 594–5, 595t
    risk reduction/elimination 595, 596t
    safety assistance 597
    repetitive strain injury (RSI) 253
    report writing 146–8
    Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences
    Regulations (RIDDOR) 2013 157–9, 624–9
    dangerous occurences 625–7
    definitions 624–5
    gas incidents 628
    non-fatal injuries to non-workers 625
    non-fatal injuries to workers 625
    recording and record-keeping 628
    reporting and recording procedures 628–9
    reporting cases of disease and occupational exposure 627–8
    responsible person 625
    restrictions on reporting 628
    work-related fatalities 625
    representatives of employee safety (ROES) 82, 84, 580, 581
    reproductive toxins 397
    rescue procedures 486–7
    residual current devices (RCDs) 339–40
    residual risk 4, 105
    respirable dust 394, 400
    respiratory protective equipment 112f, 414–16, 415t
    respiratory system 400–1, 401f
    rest and eating facilities 212
    Restrictions of the use of certain Hazardous Substances in
    electrical and electronic equipment (RoHS) 432
    reversing vehicles 238, 239
    review, performance improvement phase 48
    RIDDOR see Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous
    Occurrences Regulations (RIDDOR) 2013
    risk
    assessment. see risk assessment
    control measures. see risk control measures
    definition 4
    risk assessment
    confined spaces 511, 518, 713
    cost-benefit analysis 113
    dangerous substances 370–1
    definitions 100–2
    definitions 620
    drive shafts 624
    duty-holders 620
    employees carried on mobile work equipment 623
    high or very low temperature 622
    information, instruction and training 621
    inspection 620–1
    isolation from sources of energy 622
    lighting 623
    maintenance 620
    operations 623
    markings and warnings 623
    mobile work equipment 623
    overturning of fork-lift trucks 623
    power presses 624
    protection against specified hazards 622
    rolling over of mobile work equipment 623
    self-propelled work equipment 623–4
    remote-controlled 624
    specific risks 621
    stability 622–3
    suitability of work equipment 620
    warning devices 623
    psychological problems 255–6
    Public Prosecution Service for Northern Ireland (PPSNI) 9
    public, protection from working above ground 489
    puncheons 506
    push sticks 313
    Q
    qualitative monitoring 407
    qualitative risk assessment 101, 105
    quantitative risk assessment 101, 105
    R
    radiation 358, 453–9
    infrared 456
    ionising 453–5
    monitoring and health surveillance 459
    non-ionising 455–7
    protection strategies 457–8
    ultraviolet 455–6
    welding operations 458–9, 458f
    Radiation Protection Adviser 457
    Radiation Protection Supervisor 457
    REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and restriction
    of Chemicals) Regulations 409–10, 567–8
    reaction time 385
    reactive assessment 48
    reactive monitoring 140, 148–9
    reasonably practicable duty 14
    ‘Reclaiming Health and Safety for All,’ Löfstedt’s report 2011
    202, 273, 533, 541
    recording and reporting incidents 156–64
    compensation and insurance issues 161–2, 167–8
    data collection and analysis 160–1
    lessons learned 162–3
    statutory requirements 157–60
    where incapacitated for more than three consecutive days,
    reporting 159
    records of accidents 159
    reduced low-voltage systems 339
    refurbishment
    hazards and associated controls 226
    initial assessment process 203–4
    refurbishment and demolition survey 421Index
    761
    roofs, fragile 201
    risk assessment example 714
    and surfaces 469–70, 469f
    warning signs 109f
    root causes 150, 154–5
    RSI (repetitive strain injury) 253
    runner 506
    S
    sack trucks 262
    safe digging practice 516
    safe place of work 201
    safe systems of work 48, 117–18
    asbestos example 136–8
    assessment 118
    communication and training 120
    confined spaces 120–1, 569–70
    development 118–19
    documentation 119
    for electrical equipment 337
    and fire prevention 373
    legal requirements 118
    lone working, example of 121
    monitoring 120
    preparation 119
    roof work 496
    safe working load (SWL) 271
    safeguards, application of 314–21
    basic requirements 321–3
    safety committees 47, 83
    safety, definition 3
    safety harnesses 485, 487f
    safety hooks 274f
    safety inspection 142
    programmes 143–6, 168–72
    reports 146
    Safety Management System (SMS) Audit 142, 174
    safety nets 469f, 485–6
    Safety Representatives and Safety Committees Regulations
    1977 82–3, 629–30
    appointment 629
    complaints 630
    employers’ duties 629
    functions 629
    information 630
    inspections 629–30
    safety committees 630
    safety sampling 143
    safety signs 106–9
    safety surveys 142
    safety tour 142–3
    sampling 174
    passive 406
    pumps and heads 406–7
    sanders 298–9, 299f
    sanitary facilities 212, 578, 637
    school projects 211
    hazards and associated controls 226
    Scotland, health and safety in 533–6
    Scottish Environment Protection Agency 27–8
    secondary hazards 335–6
    security equipment 218
    self-adjusting guards 310, 311f
    self-employed 23–4, 602, 605
    sensitised 396
    serious health hazard 396
    evaluation method 105–6
    examples
    bricklaying 742–4
    confined spaces 713
    excavators 280
    fragile roofs 714
    office cleaning 134–5
    woodwork 745–6
    excavations 500–1, 517
    fire 361–6, 390–1
    forms of 101–2
    hazard checklist 133
    health and safety form, example 711
    health risks 103
    legal aspects 100–1
    lifting equipment 279
    machinery 287
    example form 725
    management of 103–4
    manual handling 257–9
    employee checklist 736
    migrant workers 184
    monitoring and review 112–13
    noise 445, 445t
    objectives 103
    practice of 104–15, 133
    record of findings 112
    example 740
    report form, example 712
    road safety, work-related 244
    special cases 113–15
    special circumstances 113
    a system of ranking risk 105
    temporary works 210
    working abroad 660
    risk assessors 104
    risk control measures
    elimination or substitution 106
    engineering design 106
    evaluation 105–6
    general principles of prevention 115–16
    hierarchies of 106–13
    information 110
    isolation/segregation 110
    monitoring and supervision 111
    prioritisation of 112
    reduced time exposure 109–10
    safe systems of work 110
    safety signs 106–9
    training 110
    welfare facilities 111
    road marking equipment 308–9, 320–1, 320f, 321f
    road safety
    benefits of managing work-related 244
    occupational 244–7
    Road Traffic Acts 1988 and 1991 649–51
    road works signs and controls 240–3, 250f
    checklist 243
    Keep Right/Keep Left 240, 241f
    Road Narrows Ahead 240, 240f
    Road Works Ahead 240, 240f
    ROES (representatives of employee safety) 82, 84, 580, 581
    roll calls 126, 386
    roller tracks and chutes 262
    roof ladders 470, 488, 488f
    roof work 487–9, 496Index
    762
    spot sampling 406
    sprinklers 380–2
    stability of equipment 292
    staging 476–7
    stain tube detectors 406
    stairways 223, 383
    start controls 291
    static electricity 334–5, 334f, 355, 377
    statute law 11
    statutory duty
    breach of 13–14
    levels of 14
    steel sheet piles 506
    stepladders 476–7, 478f
    stop controls 291
    emergency 291–2, 292f
    storage 206
    of dangerous substances 372, 372f
    Storage Equipment Manufacturers’ Association (SEMA) 471
    storage racking 223, 471
    street works 226–7, 250f
    stress 459–61, 459f
    causes 460
    control measures 460–1
    symptoms 460
    work-related 5, 459, 460, 462
    structural defects 203–4
    struts 506
    study
    blocked thinking 677
    dealing with examinations 681–2
    examiners’ reports 682–3
    learning style 680
    marks for practice revision questions 683
    memory 680–1
    Open University free resources 677–8
    organising for revision 678
    organising information 678–80, 678f, 679f
    place to 676
    plan 676
    reading for 677
    taking notes 677
    time management 676–7
    see also specimen answers to practice questions
    substance misuse at work 218–20
    substances of very high concern (SVHs) 409, 568
    summary offences 20
    supplementary bonding 329
    supply chains 18, 24–7, 25f, 539
    checklist for health and safety management 40
    in construction 26–7
    influencing change 27
    supply law 285
    Supply of Machinery (Safety) Regulations 2008 as amended
    633
    support systems for excavation 507–8, 507f, 508f
    Supreme Court 9, 10, 12
    surcharging 499, 506
    surface spread of fire 374–5
    surveys 174
    systems of work 373
    T
    tapping rails 241
    task, manual handling 257–8, 259–60
    telescopic materials handler 235f
    sheeting
    close 506, 507
    open 506, 507
    Sheriff Court 10
    short circuits 329
    signal words 398
    signallers 271, 273
    silica 426, 527
    simple tools 262
    Single European Act 1986 15
    site inductions 193, 208
    site managers, work permit responsibilities 124
    sites
    access 204
    control measures 204–11
    arrangements with client and/or occupier 208
    environmental considerations 207–8
    occupied premises 208–11
    safe movement of people 220–7
    site induction arrangements 208
    site planning 204–6
    site preparation 206, 230
    site security 206–7
    temporary works 208–11
    electricity distribution system 338
    entrance 238f
    initial assessment 200–4
    nature of surroundings 204
    previous and current use of 203
    site rules 206, 230
    survey of topography 204
    vehicle access 239
    vehicles, hazards and controls of vehicles 239–43
    skin 402–3, 403f
    absorption 400
    cancer 456, 472, 654
    protection 416, 439
    skips 205–6, 430–1, 431f
    slips 220–1, 222
    SMART performance standards 55, 55f, 177
    smoke-free
    legislation 651
    no smoking signs 109f
    workplaces 231
    smoke tubes 407
    smoking 369
    rules 362
    so far as is reasonably practicable/so far as is practicable 14,
    115
    societal expectations 6–7
    soft strip 527
    solids 355, 355f
    somatic effects 454
    specialists, work permit responsibilities 125
    specified serious injury/ill-health 150
    recording and reporting 157–8, 159
    specimen answers to practice questions 686–95
    NCC1, managing and controlling hazards in construction
    activities 689–91
    NCC2, practical application 691–5
    specimen observation sheets 699–703
    specimen report 696–8
    NGC1, management of health and safety 686–9
    outline, guidance on 686
    written examinations 686
    spindle moulding machines 308, 317–18, 317fIndex
    763
    vehicle and plant movement 234–43
    control measures for safe workplace transport operations
    235–9
    hazards and controls on construction sites 239–43
    management of 238–9
    mobile work equipment, hazards 235
    workplace transport operation hazards 234–5
    vehicles
    collisions with moving 221, 223
    evaluating risks 246
    and traffic routes 202
    ventilation 213, 410–12
    very toxic substances 396
    vibration 448–53, 449t
    Control of Vibration at Work Regulations 450–3
    health surveillance 453
    ill health due to 448–50
    preventative and precautionary measures 450
    vibration white finger (VWF) 448
    vicarious liability 8, 13
    violations 77–8
    exceptional 77–8
    routine 77
    situational 77
    violence at work 215–18
    actions 217, 218
    job design 218
    operating environment and impact on 217–18
    quality of service and impact on 217
    reporting and recording incidents 217
    security equipment 218
    Violence at Work: Findings from the British Crime Survey
    215
    viruses 395
    visitors to sites 22, 207
    visual learning style 680
    visual problems 255
    voltage
    high 329
    low 329
    mains 329
    volts (V) 328
    W
    walings 506
    washing facilities 212, 578, 637
    waste
    controlled 430, 549b
    duty of care 549–51
    hazardous 430, 438, 642
    reduction 25
    safe handling and storage 430–2, 438
    skips 205–6, 430–1, 431f
    waste disposal 205, 367, 368f, 665–7
    asbestos 423
    demolition waste 527–8
    incineration 666–7
    landfill 431–2, 665
    WEEE Regulations 432, 665–6
    Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) Regulations
    432, 665–6
    Waste (England and Wales) Regulations 2011 642–3
    businesses covered 642
    Waste (England and Wales) (Amendment) Regulations 2012
    642–3
    waste management hierarchy 642
    temperature
    extremes 214–15
    heat equation 214f
    work environment 17, 213
    temporary accommodation units (TAUs) 373–4
    temporary threshold shift 443
    Temporary Workers Directive 22–3
    Temporary Works Coordinator 210
    temporary works in occupied premises 208–11
    tenosynovitis 253, 255
    testing
    electrical equipment 329
    of fire-fighting equipment 382, 382f
    tetanus 428
    thorough examinations 275
    of lifting equipment 275–6
    360° wheeled excavator 269
    tinnitus 443
    topography, survey of 204
    torts 11–13
    tours 174
    tower cranes 272–4, 272f, 274f
    toxic substances 396
    traffic
    accidents 243–4
    barriers 241
    routes 202
    training
    asbestos awareness 423, 560
    confined spaces 512, 512f, 570
    demolition 524
    driver 234, 239, 245
    electrical safety 337
    emergency 127
    health and safety 83, 84–7, 85f, 97
    induction 85–6, 113, 208
    manual handling 261–2
    migrant workers 184
    PPE use 619
    safe systems 120
    vibration control 635–6
    work equipment 288–9, 294, 313–14
    transient sites 212
    trench boxes 507, 508f
    trench sheets 506, 507f
    trestles 476–7
    trip devices 311, 312f
    trips 220–1, 222
    trolleys 262
    trucks 262
    trustees 51
    two-handed control devices 311–12, 312f
    U
    UK Contractors Group (UKGC) 196
    ultraviolet (UV) radiation 455–6
    underground services 340, 508–9
    underlying causes 150, 154
    uninsured costs 6, 6f, 89, 187
    urinary system 402, 402f
    user-adjusted guards 309–10
    user law 285
    V
    vane anemometers 407
    vapours 395Index
    764
    work-related disease 5, 159, 627, 645
    costs 6, 6t
    rates 5, 5t, 186, 186t
    work-related ill-health 3, 4, 5t, 6, 102, 186
    work-related stress 5, 459, 460, 462
    work-related upper limb disorders (WRULDs) 253–4, 255, 450
    worker representatives 47, 51
    working above ground
    access equipment 474–86
    access cradles 484–5
    boatswain’s chairs 485
    fixed scaffolds 478–81, 494–5
    ladders 474–6, 475f, 476f
    loading platforms, design 481
    man-riding skips 484
    mobile elevating work platforms (MEWPs) 483–4, 483f
    mobile scaffold towers 482–3, 483f
    rope access techniques 485
    scaffold erectors 481
    scaffold hoists 481–2, 482f
    stepladders, trestles and staging 476–7, 478f
    emergency and rescue procedures 486–7
    fall arrest equipment 485–6
    hazards and controls 474
    inspection and maintenance 473–4
    public protection 489
    roof work 478–9, 496
    working abroad 659–60
    health matters 660
    risk assessment 660
    risks 660
    safety advice 659–60b
    travel advice 660
    travel tips 672–3
    working at heights
    deteriorating materials and 472–3
    equipment inspection and maintenance 473–4, 494–5
    falls from 467–8
    protection against 468–9
    head protection requirements 472–3
    methods of avoiding 472
    over or near water 489–90, 490f
    protection of public 489
    safe place of work 467
    weather and 472
    Working Time Directive 113
    Working Time Regulations 1998 as amended 22, 651–2
    workplace exposure limits (WEL) 407–8, 408t
    Workplace (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1992 as
    amended in 2002 and 2013 636–8
    health: the working environment 636–7
    safety: accident prevention 637
    welfare: provision of facilities 637–8
    workstations
    design 73f, 253, 254f
    display screen equipment 254–6
    seating 214, 254f
    self assessment checklist example 732–3
    X
    X-rays 454
    Y
    young persons, risk assessment 113
    Waste Framework Directive 551, 642
    waste management 431
    environmental permits 545–6, 664–5
    hierarchy 551, 551t, 642
    licences 543–4
    water extinguishers 379
    water pollution 664
    water, working over or near 489–90, 490f
    WBV see whole-body vibration (WBV)
    weather and working at heights 472
    websites, useful 708–10
    weekly personal exposure level, noise 445
    Weil’s disease 428
    welding operations 458–9, 458f
    welfare
    definition 3
    facilities 111, 211–12, 637–8
    well point 506
    well point system 506
    wet cement 427
    wet chemical extinguishers 380
    wet floor safety signs 108
    wheelbarrows 262
    whole-body vibration (WBV) 449–50
    regulation of exposure 452–3, 453f
    wiring colours, standard 336, 336t
    witness statement form 720
    wood dust 411, 427–8
    woodworking machines, noise in 448, 448t
    work at height permits 124
    Work at Height Regulations 2005 as amended in 2007 466–7,
    474, 638–42
    avoidance of risk 639
    definitions 638
    duties of persons at work 642
    falling objects and danger areas 641
    fragile surfaces 641
    inspection of places of work at height 641
    inspection of work equipment 473, 641
    organisation, planning and competence 639
    protection against falls 468–9
    requirements for particular work equipment 640–1
    selection of work equipment 640
    work environment 212–15
    extremes of temperature 214–15
    heating and temperature 213
    lighting 213–14, 214t
    ventilation 213
    workstations and seating 214
    work equipment
    CE marking 285–7, 285f
    checking to see it is safe 285, 286
    division of responsibilities for safety 285, 285f
    general requirements 284–93
    hazard control measures 309–23
    hazards 304–9
    information, instruction and training 288–9, 313–14
    maintenance and inspection 289–91
    operation and working environment 291–2
    with specific risks 287–9
    suitability 285–7
    user responsibilities 292–3
    work permits see permit-to-work system
    work-related deaths 20, 157–8

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