Introduction to Fluoropolymers – Materials, Technology and Applications

Introduction to Fluoropolymers – Materials, Technology and Applications
اسم المؤلف
Sina Ebnesajjad
التاريخ
30 أغسطس 2023
المشاهدات
309
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(لا توجد تقييمات)
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Introduction to Fluoropolymers – Materials, Technology and Applications (2013)
Sina Ebnesajjad
Table of contents

  1. Fluorine, Fluorocarbons, and Fluoropolymers in Human Life — A Day with the Smiths.
  2. From Fundamentals to Applications
  3. Fluoropolymers — Discovery, History, Evolution, and Consumption
  4. History of Expanded Polytetrafluoroethylene and W.L. Gore & Associates
  5. Introduction to Thermoplastic Fluoropolymers
  6. Manufacturing and Properties of Polytetrafluoroethylene
  7. Processing and Fabrication of Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene
  8. Fabrication and Processing of Fine Powder Polytetrafluoroethylene
  9. Fabrication and Processing of Polytetrafluoroethylene Dispersions
  10. Manufacturing Melt-Processible Copolymers of Tetrafluoroethylene
  11. Introduction to Vinylidene Fluoride Polymers
  12. Processing and Fabrication of Parts from Melt-Processible Fluoropolymers
  13. Manufacturing and Properties of Polychlorotrifluoroethylene
  14. Processing and Fabrication of Polychlorotrifluoroethylene
  15. Applications of Fluoropolymers16. Fluoroelastomers
  16. Fluoropolymer and Fluorinated Additives
  17. Polyvinyl Fluoride: The First Durable Replacement for Paint
  18. Fluorinated Coatings; Technology, History, and Applications
  19. Fluorinated Ionomers: History, Properties, and Applications
  20. Functional Fluoropolymers
    311
    A
    Abrasion transfer granulation steps,
    108, 109f
    AC-617, 175
    Acid acceptor systems, 172
    Additives, 239–240
    ADONA. See Ammonium 4,8-dioxa-
    3H-perfluorononanoate
    Advanced Polymer Architecture
    (APA), 216
    AF. See Amorphous polymers
    AFLAS, 152, 165–166
    AGC Chemicals, 152t
    Agglomeration
    abrasion transfer, 108, 109f
    coalescence, 108, 109f
    crushing, 108, 109f
    dry, 107
    layering, 108, 109f
    nucleation, 108, 109f
    snowballing, 108, 109f
    wet, 107–108
    American Durafilm, 254
    American Society for Testing
    Materials (ASTM)
    commercial fluoropolymers, 64
    PTFE characterization
    dispersions, 118–121, 121t–122t
    fine powder resins, 117–118,
    119t–120t
    granular resins, 113–117,
    115t–117t
    PVDF characterization, 138,
    139t–140t
    Ammonium 4,8-dioxa-3Hperfluorononanoate (ADONA),
    99, 100f
    Ammonium perfluorooctanoate
    (APFO), 85, 98–100, 109–110
    Amorphous polymers (AF), 29
    Anhui Lite Environment
    ePTFE production, 51
    APA. See Advanced Polymer
    Architecture
    APFO. See Ammonium
    perfluorooctanoate
    Applications of fluoropolymers, 83,
    84t
    ASTM. See American Society for
    Testing Materials
    Austin Black, 172t
    Autoclave, 109–110
    Automotive air conditioner pistons,
    268
    Automotive fuel(s)
    resistance to, 190–191
    seals, 180t
    Automotive industry, 267–270
    B
    Bakeware, 263–265
    Baking/curing, 251–252
    Barwell Precision Preformer, 183
    Benzyltriphenylphosphonium
    chloride (BTPPC), 168–169
    BHA Corporation
    ePTFE production, 50
    BHA Group Holdings
    ePTFE production, 50
    Bis (β-carboxypropionyl) peroxide, 101
    Bisphenol cure systems, 168–169
    Bisphenols, 168–169, 173
    Blanc Fixe, 172t
    Blow molding, exhaust scheme for,
    299f
    Note: Page numbers with “f” denote figures; “t” tables.
    Index312 Index
    Boron nitride, 105–106
    Branched fluoropolymers, 24, 26
    Bromination, 67, 91–92
    BTPPC. See
    Benzyltriphenylphosphonium
    chloride
    Building Products Venture, 58
    C
    C8. See Ammonium
    perfluorooctanoate
    Calendering, 182–183
    Capture velocity, 298
    Carnauba wax, 175
    Cefral Soft, 209
    Celite 350, 172t
    Cellophane®, 56–57
    Central Glass Co., 209
    CFCs. See Chlorofluorocarbons
    Chain transfer agents, 155
    CHClF2 See Chlorodifluoromethane
    Chemical processing industry (CPI),
    270–273
    chemical reactors, 271–272
    ducts for corrosive fumes and fire
    resistance, 272–273
    Chlorine trifluoride (ClF3), 78
    1-Chloro-1,1-difluoroethane, 135
    Chlorodifluoromethane (CHClF2)
    preparation of, 92
    tetrafluoroethylene preparation, 92,
    94, 94t
    Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), 8
    Chloroform, 67
    preparation of, 92
    2-Chloro-1,1,1,2,3,3-
    hexafluoropropane, 93
    1-Chloro-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane,
    93
    Chlorotrifluoroethylene (CTFE),
    152–154, 153t
    polychlorotrifluoroethylene. See
    Polychlorotrifluoroethylene
    polymerization of, 71
    properties of, 71
    synthesis of, 68–69. See also
    Trifluoroethylene
    ClF3. See Chlorine trifluoride
    Closed-cell sponge, compound for, 178t
    Clysar, 56–57
    Coagulated dispersion products
    tetrafluoroethylene emulsion
    polymerization, 97, 112–113
    Coalescence granulation steps, 108,
    109f
    Coatings
    FKMs’ applications in, 198–199
    fluoropolymers used in, 232–237
    ethylene chlorotrifluoroethylene
    copolymer, 236–237
    ethylene tetrafluoroethylene
    copolymers, 235–236
    fluorinated ethylene propylene
    copolymer, 234
    perfluoroalkoxy polymers, 234
    polytetrafluoroethylene, 233
    polyvinylidene fluoride, 236
    for food contact, 261–262. See also
    fluorocoating entries
    Coefficient of friction (COF)
    of perfluoropolyether additives, 128
    of polyvinyl fluoride, 57t
    COF. See Coefficient of friction
    Cold feed extruders, 183
    Commercial dryer drums, 273
    Commercial fluorocoating producers,
    252–253
    Commercial/industrial bakeware,
    264–265
    Compression molded seals,
    compounds for, 176t–177t
    Compression molding, 183, 187
    Compression set resistance, 190
    Condensation reactions, 203
    Continuous emulsion polymerization,
    157–159
    Cookware, 253, 263–264
    Corbonyl fluoride, health hazards of,
    296t–297tIndex 313
    Corona charging in powder spray
    gun, 251f
    Corona-charging system, 250
    Corrosive fumes, 272–273
    CPI. See Chemical processing
    industry
    C. R. Bard Corporation
    ePTFE production, 50–51
    Critical shear rate, 199
    Crushing granulation steps, 108, 109f
    Cryolite. See Cryolith
    Cryolith, 7
    CSM. See Cure-site monomer
    CTFE. See Chlorotrifluoroethylene
    Curatives, 173–174
    Cure-site monomer (CSM), 170
    Curing, 186–187, 251–252
    D
    DAI-EL, 209, 211t
    Daikin Industries Co., LTD., 152t,
    253
    ePTFE production, 51
    Dehalocarboxylation, 278–279
    Desflurane, 3–4
    DAST. See Diethylaminosulphur
    trifluoride
    Developmental history, of
    fluoropolymers, 27–29
    DeWal Industries
    ePTFE production, 50
    Diamine cure system, 168
    Diethylaminosulphur trifluoride
    (DAST), 8
    Dispersions
    coating, 302
    polymerization, 108–113
    polytetrafluoroethylene
    characterization, 118–121,
    121t–122t
    products
    tetrafluoroethylene emulsion
    polymerization, 111–112
    of PTFE, 79–80
    Disposal methods, 308
    Disuccinic acid peroxide. See Bis
    (β-carboxypropionyl) peroxide
    Di-tertiary-butyl peroxide (DTBP),
    136–137
    Donaldson Corporation
    ePTFE production, 50
    Dry agglomeration process, 107
    DTBP. See Di-tertiary-butyl peroxide
    DuPont Company, 17, 19–24, 27,
    54–55, 152t, 253
    Spectrographic® fry pan, 260f
    Teflon II Classic white fry pan,
    258f
    Dyneon LLC, 152t, 253
    ADONA™, 99, 100f
    E
    Economy of fluoropolymers, 85–86
    ECTFE. See Ethylene
    chlorotrifluoroethylene
    copolymer
    Electron beam irradiation, 218
    Electrostatic coating, 249
    Emission during processing, 295–296
    Emulsion polymerization, 157–164
    continuous, 157–159
    of polytetrafluoroethylene, 72, 98
    semi-batch, 159–160
    of tetrafluoroethylene, 97, 108–113
    dispersion products, 111–112
    fine powder products, 112–113
    of vinylidene fluoride, 136–137.
    See also Polymerization
    End-of-life disposal of products, 215
    Enflurane®, 3–4, 13
    Environmental protection and
    disposal methods, 308
    ePTFE. See Extended
    polytetrafluoroethylene
    Equilibrium reaction, 93
    Equipment cleaning and maintenance,
    303
    ESG. See Extended specific gravity
    ETFE. See Ethylene-cotetrafluoroethylene polymers314 Index
    Ethylene chlorotrifluoroethylene
    copolymer (ECTFE) (Aclar®),
    26, 236–237
    consumption of, 33f
    finishing of, 74–75
    polymerization of, 74–75
    properties of, 31t, 81
    structure of, 235f. See also
    Chlorotrifluoroethylene,
    Trifluoroethylene
    Ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene
    polymers (ETFE), 235–236
    finishing of, 74
    polymerization of, 74
    properties of, 80–81
    structure of, 235f. See also
    Tetrafluoroethylene
    Exhaust, typical setup for, 299f
    Extended polytetrafluoroethylene
    (ePTFE), 1, 3
    discovery of, 40–43
    history of, 37–52
    patent of, 47f
    structure of, 45f
    who invented, 43–49. See also
    Polytetrafluoroethylene
    Extended specific gravity (ESG)
    of fine powder PTFE resins,
    119t–120t
    of granular PTFE resins, 115–116,
    115t
    Extruded gods, compounds for, 176t
    Extrusion, 183
    of fine powder PTFE resins, 118
    F
    Fabrication techniques, of
    fluoropolymers, 82–83
    FDA. See U.S. Food and Drug
    Administration
    Federal District Court, 44, 47
    FEP. See Fluorinated ethylene
    propylene
    Fillers, 171
    pigments and, 238–239
    Fine-cut powders
    tetrafluoroethylene suspension
    polymerization, 104–105
    Fine powder (coagulated dispersion)
    products
    tetrafluoroethylene emulsion
    polymerization, 112–113
    Fine powder PTFE
    characterization of, 117–118,
    119t–120t
    tetrafluoroethylene suspension
    polymerization of, 72
    Finishing
    of ethylene chlorotrifluoroethylene,
    74–75
    of ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene, 74
    of fluorinated ethylene propylene, 74
    of fluoroelastomers, 214
    of granular PTFE, 104–108
    of perfluoroalkoxy polymer, 73
    of polychlorotrifluoroethylene, 75
    of polytetrafluoroethylene, 72–73
    of polyvinyl fluoride, 75–76
    of polyvinylidene fluoride, 75
    Fire hazard, 304
    Fire resistance, 272–273
    Fischer–Tropsch process, 129
    “Fluff”, 238
    Fluorinated additives, 125–132
    fluorinated graphite, 130
    perfluoropolyether additives,
    128–129
    polymeric, 126–128
    fluoroelastomer additives,
    127–128
    polytetrafluoroethylene
    homopolymer additives,
    126–127
    vinylidene fluoride polymer
    additives, 128
    PTFE modified waxes, 129–130
    Fluorinated ethylene propylene
    (FEP), 24, 234
    consumption of, 33fIndex 315
    finishing of, 74
    polymerization of, 74
    properties of, 31t, 79–80
    structure of, 234f
    thermal degradation of, 77, 77f
    Fluorinated graphite, 130
    Fluorinated ionomers, 277–292
    composition, 277–279
    history, 277
    properties, 280–291
    Fluorinated thermoplastic elastomers
    (FTPEs), 209, 209–213
    in chemical and semiconductor
    industries, 211
    in electrical and wire and cable, 213
    Fluorination, 8, 130–131
    of polyolefin film surface, 6
    Fluorine, 1–4
    basic facts about, 8t
    characteristics of, 7–14
    fluorination, 8
    inorganic chemistry, 11
    nature and, 13–14
    organic chemistry, 11–13
    preparation, 9–10
    reactivity, 9
    uniqueness of, 5–7
    Fluoroadditives
    polytetrafluoroethylene, 73
    Fluoroapatite, 7
    Fluorocarbon elastomers, 1–4, 12–13,
    151–201
    applications of, 192–197
    aerospace and military
    applications, 193–195
    automotive applications, 193
    chemical and petrochemical
    applications, 195–196
    industrial applications, 196–197
    compounds from, mixing and
    processing of, 181–185
    calendering, 182–183
    compression molding, 183
    extrusion, 183
    injection molding, 184–185
    transfer molding, 184
    cross-linking chemistry, 167–171
    by free-radical mechanism,
    169–170
    by ionic mechanism, 168–169
    by ionizing radiation, 170–171
    cured fluorocarbon elastomers,
    physical and mechanical
    properties of, 188–192
    curing, 186–187
    formulation of compounds from,
    171–181
    acid acceptor systems, 172
    curatives, 173–174
    examples, 176–181
    fillers, 171
    plasticizers and processing aids,
    175
    manufacturing process, 155–164
    continuous emulsion
    polymerization, 157–159
    emulsion polymerization,
    157–164
    semi-batch emulsion
    polymerization, 159–160
    suspension polymerization,
    160–164
    as polymeric processing additives,
    199–201
    properties related to polymer
    structure, 164–167
    solution and latex coating, 185–186
    Fluorocoating compositions, 237–245
    additives, 239–240
    fluoropolymer, 238
    liquid coatings, 243–244
    nonfluoropolymer binders, 240–243
    polyamide-imide, 241
    poly ether sulfone, 241–242
    polyphenylene sulfide, 242–243
    pigments and fillers, 238–239
    powder coatings, 243, 245
    solvents, 239316 Index
    Fluorocoating producers, 252–253
    Fluorocoatings, application of, 245–252
    baking/curing, 251–252
    liquid coating, 247–249
    powder coating, 249–251
    substrate, 245–247
    Fluorocoatings, commercial
    applications of, 263–275
    automotive, 267–270
    chemical processing industry,
    270–273
    chemical reactors, 271–272
    ducts for corrosive fumes and
    fire resistance, 272–273
    commercial dryer drums, 273
    commercial/industrial bakeware,
    264–265
    fuser rolls, 265–266
    housewares: cookware, bakeware,
    small electrical appliances,
    263–264
    industrial rollers, 273
    light bulbs, 267
    medical devices, 274–275
    Fluoroelastomers, 149
    additives, 127–128
    fluorinated thermoplastic
    elastomers, 209–213
    fluorocarbon elastomers. See
    Fluorocarbon elastomers
    fluorosilicone elastomers, 201–208
    applications of, 206–208
    cured fluorosilicones, properties
    of, 204–206
    polymerization, 201–202
    processing, 202–204
    new developments and current
    trends, 215–218
    chemistry and processing,
    215–216
    new products, 216–217
    phosphazenes, 213–214
    safety, hygiene, and disposal,
    214–215
    compounding, mixing, and
    processing, 214–215
    disposal of used products, 215
    hazardous conditions during use,
    215
    polymerization and finishing, 214
    Fluoroplastics, 232
    Fluoropolymer(s), 1–4, 232, 238
    applications of, 83, 84t
    branched, 24, 26
    classification of, 65–66
    coatings, 264–265
    commercialization timeline of, 30t
    consumption of, 32–34
    developmental history of, 27–29,
    28f–29f, 65–66, 65f
    discover of, 17–36
    economy of, 85–86
    fabrication techniques of, 82–83
    finish technology, historical
    chronology of, 253–261
    fundamental properties of, 26–27,
    27t
    partially fluorinated, 26
    polytetrafluoroethylene,
    commercialization of, 23–24
    products, 66
    properties of, 31t
    Roy Plunkett’s story of, 21–23
    safety of, 84–85
    use of, 32–34
    examples of, 34
    FluoroXprene, 216–217
    Fluorspar, 7, 9, 67, 92
    Food contact
    coatings for, 261–262
    and medical applications, 305
    Free flow powders
    tetrafluoroethylene suspension
    polymerization, 105
    Fremy’s Salt technique, 9–10, 12
    Freon®, 21
    FTPEs. See Fluorinated thermoplastic
    elastomersIndex 317
    Fully fluorinated copolymers,
    166–167
    Fuser rolls, 265–266
    FZ Elastomer, 213–214
    G
    General Electric
    ePTFE production, 50
    General Plastics, 254
    GlaxoSmithKline, 275
    Gore-Tex®. See Extended PTFE
    Granular PTFE
    characterization of, 113–117,
    115t–117t
    fibrillation of, 110
    finishing technologies of,
    104–108
    low flow, 104–105, 106f
    reground, 114
    reprocessed, 114
    tetrafluoroethylene suspension
    polymerization of, 72,
    100–108, 102f. See also
    Polytetrafluoroethylene
    Granular reactor, 103–104, 103f
    Granulation, 108
    abrasion transfer, 108, 109f
    coalescence, 108, 109f
    crushing, 108, 109f
    layering, 108, 109f
    nucleation, 108
    snowballing, 108, 109f
    Graphite, fluorinated, 130
    Graphite Powder, 172t
    Grit blasting, 246
    H
    Halar®, 236–237
    Halex reaction, 12
    Halogen, 5
    Halothane, 3–4
    HCFC-22. See
    Chlorodifluoromethane
    HDPE. See High-density
    polyethylene
    Heat resistance
    of fluorosilicone elastomers,
    205–206
    fluorocarbon elastomers, 188
    Henkel North America, 252
    Hexafluoropropylene (HFP), 67, 73,
    93, 152–154, 153t, 209–210, 234
    polymerization of, 157
    properties of, 70
    synthesis of, 68
    Hexafluoropropylene epoxide
    (HFPO), 278–279
    Hexamethylene carbamate, 173
    HF. See Hydrogen fluoride
    HFC. See Hydrofluorocarbon
    HFP. See Hexafluoropropylene
    HFPO, 200–201. See
    Hexafluoropropylene epoxide
    High-density polyethylene
    (HDPE)
    High-volume, low-pressure (HVLP)
    atomization, 248
    Historical chronology of
    fluoropolymer finish
    technology, 253–261
    Housewares, 263–264
    HPFP. See
    Hydropentafluoropropylene
    HVLP. See High-volume, lowpressure atomization
    Hydrofluoric acid, 67
    Hydrofluorocarbon (HFC), 2
    Hydrogen fluoride (HF), 7, 9–10, 92
    health hazards of, 296t–297t
    preparation of, 92
    Hydropentafluoropropylene (HPFP),
    166–167
    Hydroquinone, 173
    I
    IBM, 259
    IMPRA. See International Medical
    Prosthesis Research Associates,
    Inc.318 Index
    Impreglon Canada, 271
    Industrial bakeware, 264–265
    Industrial rollers, 273
    Injection molding, 184–185, 187
    Inorganic chemistry
    fluorine characteristics, 11
    International Medical Prosthesis
    Research Associates, Inc.
    (IMPRA), 46
    Iodine transfer polymerization,
    209–210
    Ionomer products, manufacture of,
    279f
    Isoflurane®, 3–4, 13
    Isoparaffin, 118
    J
    Japan Gore-Tex Inc. (JGI)
    ePTFE production, 49
    Jet Mills, 105
    JGI. See Japan Gore-Tex Inc.
    K
    KALREZ, 151, 166–167, 192, 197
    Kapton®, 56–57
    Kel-F, 152–154
    Kirovo-Chepetsk Chemical Plant,
    152t
    Kynar Flex® PVDF PPA, 128, 147,
    236
    L
    Latex coating, 185–186
    Lattice culture, 43
    Layering granulation steps, 108, 109f
    Le Chatelier’s Principle, 93
    Leetex Technologies Co., LTD.
    ePTFE production, 51
    Light bulbs, 267
    Limiting oxygen index (LOI), 82
    d-Limonene, 67, 94
    Linear fluoropolymer, 233
    Linear low-density polyethylene
    (LLDPE), 200–201
    Liquid coatings, 243–244, 247–249
    LLDPE. See Linear low-density
    polyethylene
    LOI. See Limiting oxygen index
    M
    Manhattan Project, 22–23
    Manufacturers of fluorinated
    coatings, 252
    Material incompatibility, 304–305
    MDF. See Mitsui-DuPont
    Fluorocarbon Co.
    MDI. See Metered-dose inhaler
    MEA. See Membrane-electrode
    assembly
    Medical applications of
    fluoropolymers, 305
    Medical devices, fluorinated coatings
    as, 274–275
    Melt creep viscosity, of
    polytetrafluoroethylene, 98
    Melt flow index (MFI), 79
    Melt flow rate (MFR), 79–80
    Melt processing, 302–303
    Membrane-electrode assembly
    (MEA), 287
    Metered-dose inhaler (MDI), 274,
    275f
    Methoxyflurane, 3–4
    Methylvinyl silicone rubber (MVQ),
    201–202
    MFI. See Melt flow index
    MFR. See Melt flow rate
    Micropowders. See Fluorinated
    additives
    Mitsui-DuPont Fluorocarbon Co.
    (MDF), 253
    Moissan’s reactions, 9–10
    Molding processes
    compression molding, 183
    injection molding, 184–185
    transfer molding, 184
    MT Black, 172t
    Multimodal fluoropolymers, 200Index 319
    Mupor, LTD.
    ePTFE production, 51
    MVQ. See Methylvinyl silicone
    rubber
    Mylar®, 56–57
    N
    Nafion sulfonic polymer, 289
    Nitto Denko/Ambic/Kyowa
    ePTFE production, 51
    Nonfluoropolymer binders, 240–243
    polyamide-imide, 241
    poly ether sulfone, 241–242
    polyphenylene sulfide, 242–243
    Nonstick coated fry pans, 263
    Novel fluorine thermoplastic
    vulcanizates, 216–217
    Nucleation granulation steps, 108
    Nucleophilic curing system, 173
    Nyad 400, 172t
    O
    Octafluoro-2-butene, 70
    Octafluoroisobutylene, 70, 93
    OF2. See Oxygen difluoride
    Open-mill mixing, 181–182
    Organic chemistry
    fluorine characteristics, 11–13
    Oxygen difluoride (OF2), 78
    P
    PAI. See Polyamide-imide
    Paint atomization, 247–248
    Paper dust, 266
    Partially fluorinated fluoropolymers, 26
    Paste extrusion, 301–302
    PAVE. See Perfluoroalkyl vinyl ethers
    PCTFE. See
    Polychlorotrifluoroethylene
    PDMS. See Polydimethyl siloxane
    PE. See Polyethylene
    PEM. See Polymer electrolyte
    membrane fuel cells
    Perfluorinated ethylene propylene
    copolymer. See Fluorinated
    ethylene propylene polymer
    Perfluorinated ionomers, 285–286
    Perfluoroalkoxy polymer (PFA), 26,
    66, 234
    -coated light bulbs, 267f
    consumption of, 33f
    finishing of, 73
    polymerization of, 73
    properties of, 31t, 79
    structure of, 235f
    Perfluoroalkyl vinyl ethers
    (PAVE)
    properties of, 71
    synthesis of, 68, 68f
    Perfluorocyclobutane, 93
    Perfluoroelastomers, 151, 165,
    170–171
    applications of, 197–198
    Perfluoroisobutylene, 67
    health hazards of, 296t–297t
    Perfluoromethyl vinyl ether (PMVE),
    153t, 165, 234
    Perfluoropolyether (PFPE) additives,
    128–129
    Perfluoropolymers, 232
    Perfluoropropyl vinyl ether (PPVE),
    73
    properties of, 71
    Perlast ICE, 151, 216
    Peroxide cross-linking, 202–203
    Peroxide-cured seals, compound for,
    177t–178t
    Peroxidic cure systems, 173–174
    Personal hygiene, 304
    Persulfate initiation, 100, 101t
    PES. See Poly ether sulfone
    PFA. See Perfluoroalkoxy
    polymer
    PFF. See Polymer fume fever
    PFPE. See Perfluoropolyether
    additives
    Pharmaceutical properties, fluorineenhanced compounds, 2
    Phillips Scientific
    ePTFE production, 51320 Index
    Phosphazenes, 213–214
    Pigments and fillers, 238–239
    α-Pinene, 67, 94
    Plasticizers, 175
    Plastisol, 56
    Plunkett, Roy
    story, of fluoropolymers, 21–23
    PMTFPS. See
    Polymethyltrifluoropropyl
    siloxane
    PMVE. See Perfluoromethyl vinyl ether
    Polyamide-imide (PAI), 241
    Poly(aryloxyphosphazene) elastomer,
    213
    Polychlorotrifluoroethylene (PCTFE),
    26
    consumption of, 33f
    Polychlorotrifluoroethylene (PCTFE)
    finishing of, 75
    polymerization of, 75
    properties of, 80. See also
    Chlorotrifluoroethylene,
    Trifluoroethylene
    Poly(dichlorophosphazene), 213–214
    Polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS), 201
    Poly ether sulfone (PES), 241–242
    Polyethylene (PE)
    chemical structure of, 54f
    structure property relationship, 76–77
    Poly(fluoroalkoxyphosphazene)
    elastomer, 213
    Polymer
    fluorine content of, effect of
    increase in, 6t
    history, milestones in, 20t
    science, age of, 19–21
    Polymer electrolyte membrane
    (PEM) fuel cells, 285–286
    Polymer fume fever (PFF), 295–296
    Polymeric fluorinated additives,
    126–128
    fluoroelastomer additives, 127–128
    polytetrafluoroethylene
    homopolymer additives, 126–127
    vinylidene fluoride polymer
    additives, 128
    Polymeric processing additives,
    199–201
    Polymeric processing aids, 199–200
    Polymerization, 72–76
    of chlorotrifluoroethylene, 71
    of ethylene-cochlorotrifluoroethylene
    polymers, 74–75
    of ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene
    polymers, 74
    of fluorinated ethylene propylene
    polymer, 74
    of perfluoroalkoxy polymer, 73
    of polychlorotrifluoroethylene, 75
    of polytetrafluoroethylene, 72–73
    of polyvinyl fluoride, 75–76
    of polyvinylidene fluoride, 75
    temperature, 102–103
    of tetrafluoroethylene, 67, 70, 97
    mechanism of, 100, 101t
    suspension, 97, 100–108, 102f
    of vinylidene fluoride, 71
    emulsion polymerization,
    136–137
    solution polymerization, 138
    suspension polymerization,
    137–138. See also Emulsion
    polymerization; Solution
    polymerization; Suspension
    polymerization
    Polymer processing additives (PPAs),
    128
    Polymethyltrifluoropropyl siloxane
    (PMTFPS), 201
    Polyolefin film surface, fluorination
    of, 6
    Polyphenylene sulfide (PPS),
    242–243
    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)
    (Teflon®), 1–2, 5–6, 12–13,
    22–23, 141, 233, 295, 304,
    306–308Index 321
    applications of, 83
    attributes of, 28t
    characterization of, 113–121, 114t
    dispersions, 118–121, 121t–122t
    fine powder resins, 117–118,
    119t–120t
    granular resins, 113–117,
    115t–117t
    commercialization of, 23–24
    consumption and use of, 32–34
    development, milestones in, 25t
    developmental history of, 27–29,
    28f–29f
    discovery of, 55–56
    dispersion of, 72–73, 108–113
    economy of, 85–86
    extended. See Extended PTFE
    fabrication of, 83
    fine powder, 72
    finishing of, 72–73
    fire hazard, 304
    fluoroadditives, 73
    fundamental properties of, 26–27,
    27t
    granular. See Granular PTFE
    homopolymer additives, 126–127
    manufacturing, 91–124
    melt creep viscosity of, 98
    modified waxes, 129–130
    polymerization of, 72–73
    properties of, 31t, 77–79
    repro PTFE, 307f, 308
    scrap PTFE, 305–306, 307t
    structure of, 233f
    structure property relationship,
    76–77
    thermal degradation of, 77, 77f
    virgin PTFE, 306–308, 307f, 307t.
    See also Tetrafluoroethylene
    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), 56
    Polyvinyl fluoride (PVF), 2–3, 53–62,
    294
    attributes of, 54t
    chemical structure of, 54f
    coefficient of friction of, 57t
    consumption of, 33f
    development of, 56–60
    fabrication of, 83
    films, properties of, 54t
    finishing of, 75–76
    history of, 55–56
    polymerization of, 75–76
    properties of, 31t, 82
    surface energy of, 57t. See also
    Vinyl fluoride
    Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), 3,
    26, 133f, 236
    applications of, 146–147
    characterization of, 138–140
    consumption of, 33f
    emulsion polymerization of,
    136–137
    finishing of, 75
    polymerization of, 75
    processing of, 145
    properties of, 81–82, 139t,
    141–145, 142t–144t
    conformations and transitions,
    141–145
    solution polymerization of, 138
    structure of, 235f
    suspension polymerization of,
    137–138. See also Vinylidene
    fluoride
    Potassium gold cyanide, 287
    Potassium permanganate, 101
    Powder coatings, 243, 245,
    249–251
    application equipment, 250f
    Powder spray gun, Corona charging
    in, 251f
    PPAs. See Polymeric processing
    additives
    PPS. See Polyphenylene sulfide
    PPVE. See Perfluoropropyl vinyl
    ether
    Precision Polymer Engineering Ltd.,
    152t, 216322 Index
    Preforming
    granular PTFE characterization,
    114, 116–117
    Processing aids, 175
    Properties of fluoropolymers, 232
    Propylene, 165–166
    Protective clothing, 304
    PTFE. See Polytetrafluoroethylene
    PVC. See Polyvinyl chloride
    PVDF. See Polyvinylidene fluoride
    PVF. See Polyvinyl fluoride
    Pyrolysis
    tetrafluoroethylene preparation, 92
    R
    Radiation promoters, 170
    Ram extruders, 183
    Rayon®, 56–57
    Reactivity, of fluorine, 9
    Red Iron Oxide, 172t
    Reduction ratio
    of fine powder PTFE resins, 118
    Redux initiators, 101
    Repro PTFE, 306
    Resins
    granular PTFE. See Granular PTFE
    fine powder PTFE, 117–118,
    119t–120t
    Rheometer, 118
    Rotary seal for aircraft, 181t
    Rotolining, PVDF applications in,
    147
    Rotomolding, PVDF applications in,
    147
    S
    SEAs. See Small electrical appliances
    Safety measures, 297–305
    equipment cleaning and
    maintenance, 303
    fire hazard, 304
    material incompatibility, 304–305
    personal hygiene, 304
    processing and fabrication,
    298–303
    dispersion coating, 302
    machining, 302–303
    melt processing, 302
    paste extrusion, 301–302
    sintering, 300–301
    soldering and melt stripping, 303
    welding and flame-cutting
    fluoropolymer-lined metals, 303
    welding fluoropolymer, 303
    protective clothing, 304
    spillage cleanup, 303
    ventilation, 298
    Safety of fluoropolymers, 84–85
    Scrap and recycling, 305–308
    Sealants, FKMs’ applications in,
    198–199
    Seat belt D-rings, 268
    Semi-batch emulsion polymerization,
    159–160
    Sevoflurane®, 3–4, 13
    Shanghai Bag Filtration Equipment
    Co., Ltd.
    ePTFE production, 50
    Shanghai Da Gong New Materials
    Company, LTD.
    ePTFE production, 51
    Shanghai Linflon Film Technology
    ePTFE production, 51
    Shanghai Lingqiao Environmental
    Protecting Works
    ePTFE production, 51
    SilverStone® coatings, 259–260
    SilverStone SUPRA®, 260
    Sintering, 300–301
    granular PTFE characterization,
    114
    Size reduction technique, 103
    Skiving
    granular PTFE characterization, 114
    Small electrical appliances (SEAs),
    263–264
    “Snake oils”, 239
    Snowballing granulation steps, 108,
    109fIndex 323
    Solution polymerization
    of vinylidene fluoride, 138. See
    also Polymerization
    Solvay Solexis S.A., 152t
    Solvents, 239
    Spectragraphics®, 259
    Spillage cleanup, 303
    Spray guns, 248
    SRF Black, 172t
    SSG. See Standard specific gravity.
    Standard specific gravity (SSG)
    dispersions of PTFE, 118, 121t
    of fine powder PTFE resins, 117,
    119t–120t
    of granular PTFE resins, 113–116,
    115t
    of polytetrafluoroethylene, 77–78
    Steam resistance, 192
    Steam-resistant formulations,
    179t–180t
    Strained specific gravity, of
    fine powder PTFE resins,
    119t–120t
    Stratification, 240
    Stretch void index (SVI)
    of fine powder PTFE resins,
    119t–120t
    Structure property relationship
    polyethylene, 76–77
    polytetrafluoroethylene, 76–77
    Stud, 270
    Substrate, 245–247
    Sulfones, 175
    Sumitomo Electric Industries
    ePTFE production, 51
    Supercritical carbon dioxide,
    215–216
    Suspension polymerization, 160–164
    of polytetrafluoroethylene, 72
    of tetrafluoroethylene, 97,
    100–108, 102f
    of vinylidene fluoride, 137–138.
    See also Polymerization
    SVI. See Stretch void index
    T
    TCTFE. See 1,1,2-Trichloro-1,2,2-
    trifluoroethane
    TECHNOFLON, 190
    TECNOFLON SL, 166–167
    TECNOFLON T, 166–167
    Tedlar®, 56–60, 255
    -clad aluminum fascia hanger, 58
    -finish sidings, 58
    SP film, 60
    surfacing, 60
    Tefal® process, 255
    Teflon®, 23, 254
    TEFLON Powder, 172t
    Teflon-P® PFA Powder Coating
    532-5010, 259
    Teflon-S®, 240
    Terpene B, 67, 94
    Teslar®, 56–57
    Tetrafluoroethylene (TFE), 5–6,
    21–23, 26, 64, 153t, 165,
    209–210, 214, 277–278, 295
    -based fluoroelastomers, 152–154
    chlorotrifluoroethylene. See
    Chlorotrifluoroethylene
    consumption of, 33f
    ethylene-co-chlorotrifluoroethylene
    polymers. See ethyleneco-chlorotrifluoroethylene
    polymers
    ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene
    polymers. See Ethylene-cotetrafluoroethylene polymers
    health hazards of, 296t–297t
    polymerization of, 67, 70, 97, 157
    emulsion, 108–113
    mechanism of, 100, 101t
    suspension, 97, 100–108, 102f
    polymers, 97–100
    polytetrafluoroethylene. See
    Polytetrafluoroethylene
    preparation of, 91–94, 94t
    properties of, 31t, 70, 95–97, 96t
    synthesis of, 67, 67f324 Index
    TFE. See Tetrafluoroethylene
    TFE/P elastomer based compounds,
    178t–179t
    Thermal instability index (TII)
    of fine powder PTFE resins,
    119t–120t
    of granular PTFE resins, 115t
    Thermal properties of
    fluoropolymers, 294–295
    Thermoplastic coatings, 237
    TII. See Thermal instability index
    Ti-Pure R-960, 172t
    Toxicology of fluoropolymers, 294
    TPT, 60
    Transfer molding, 184
    Tribocharging, 250–251
    Triboelectric-charging powder spray
    gun, 252f
    1,1,2-Trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane
    (TCTFE), 68–69
    1,1,1-Trifluoroethane, 69
    conversion of, 134–135
    Trifluoromethyltrimethylsilane, 8
    Two-step graft copolymerization,
    209–210
    Types of fluoropolymers, 233
    U
    Uhde cell stack, 284, 285f
    Uniqueness of fluorine, 5–7
    United States Department of
    Agriculture (USDA), 262
    Unstrained specific gravity, of fine
    powder PTFE resins, 119t–120t
    USDA. See United States Department
    of Agriculture
    U.S. Department of Transportation
    on vinyl fluoride, 71
    U.S. Environmental Protection
    Agency, 85, 99–100
    U.S. Food and Drug Administration
    (FDA), 83
    V
    VDF. See Vinylidene fluoride
    Ventilation, 298
    VF. See Vinyl fluoride
    Vinyl fluoride (VF)
    polyvinyl fluoride. See Polyvinyl
    fluoride
    properties of, 71
    synthesis of, 69–70
    Vinylidene fluoride (VDF), 64,
    151–154, 153t, 166–167,
    209–210
    -based fluoroelastomers,
    152–154
    polymer additives, 128
    polymerization of, 71, 157
    polymers, 133–148
    polyvinylidene fluoride. See
    Polyvinylidene fluoride
    preparation of, 135–138
    emulsion polymerization,
    136–137
    solution polymerization, 138
    suspension polymerization,
    137–138
    properties of, 71
    synthesis of, 69, 134–135
    commercial process, 135
    1,1,1-Trifluoroethane, conversion
    of, 134–135, 134t
    yield, contact time and temperature
    effect on, 134t
    Viton, 152–154, 166–167, 190
    Vortex® Mill, 105–106
    Vulcanization, 210
    W
    W.L. Gore and Associates, 37–52
    early history of, 38–39
    expanded PTFE, discovery of,
    40–43
    W.L. Gore v. C.R. Bard, 49
    Wear-resistant material 75 FKM 260
    466, 216
    Weilburger Coatings, 253
    Weld-nut, 270
    Wet agglomeration process, 107–108
    Whitford Corporation, 252–253Index 325
    X
    Xylan® 1010, 257–258
    Y
    Yeu Ming Tai Chemical Ind. Co. LTD.
    ePTFE production, 51
    Z
    Zeus Industrial Products
    ePTFE production, 50
    Zirconia nitride, 105–106

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